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Coordinates: 46°31′5″N 6°35′49″E / 46.51806°N 6.59694°E / 46.51806; 6.59694

International Olympic Committee Comité International Olympique

Motto Citius, Altius, Fortius (Latin: Faster, higher, stronger)

Formation 23 June 1894; 123 years ago (1894-06-23)

Type Sports federation

Headquarters Lausanne, Switzerland

Membership

105 active members, 32 honorary members, 2 honour members (Senegal and United States)

Official language

French (reference language), English

Honorary President

Jacques Rogge[1]

President

Thomas Bach
Thomas Bach
[1]

Vice Presidents

Yu Zaiqing J.A. Samaranch Uğur Erdener Anita DeFrantz[1]

Website www.olympic.org

The International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority[according to whom?] responsible for the modern Olympic Games.[2]

Contents

1 History 2 Mission and roles 3 IOC
IOC
Executive Board 4 IOC
IOC
Commissions 5 Organization

5.1 IOC
IOC
Session

6 Honours 7 IOC
IOC
members

7.1 Cessation of membership 7.2 International federations recognised by IOC

8 Olympic marketing

8.1 Revenue 8.2 Revenue distribution 8.3 Organising Committees for the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
(OCOGs) 8.4 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) 8.5 International Olympic Sports Federations (IFs) 8.6 Other organisations

9 Environmental concerns

9.1 International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
approaches 9.2 Venue construction effects on air

9.2.1 Methods to measure particulates in the air 9.2.2 Measures undertaken to improve the air quality

9.3 Venue construction effects on soil 9.4 Venue construction effects on water

10 Controversies

10.1 Amateurism and professionalism 10.2 1976 Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
(Denver, Colorado) 10.3 Salt Lake bid scandal 10.4 Other controversies: 2006–2013 10.5 Russian doping scandal

11 See also 12 References

12.1 Notes

13 Further reading 14 External links

History[edit] The IOC
IOC
was created by Pierre de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas
Demetrios Vikelas
as its first president. As of June 2017, its membership consists of 95 active members, 41 honorary members, an honorary president (Jacques Rogge) and one honour member (Henry Kissinger).[3] The IOC
IOC
is the supreme authority of the worldwide modern Olympic movement. The IOC
IOC
organises the modern Olympic Games
Olympic Games
and Youth Olympic Games, held in summer and winter, every four years. The first Summer Olympics organised by the IOC
IOC
was held in Athens, Greece, in 1896; the first Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
was in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Until 1992, both Summer and Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
were held in the same year. After that year, however, the IOC
IOC
shifted the Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
to the even years between Summer Games, to help space the planning of the two events from one another, and improve the financial balance of the IOC, which receives greater income on Olympic years. The first Summer Youth Olympics were in Singapore
Singapore
in 2010 and the first Winter Youth Olympics were held in Innsbruck
Innsbruck
in 2012. In 2009, the UN General Assembly
UN General Assembly
granted the IOC
IOC
Permanent Observer status. This decision enables the IOC
IOC
to be directly involved in the UN Agenda and to attend UN General Assembly
UN General Assembly
meetings where it can take the floor. This has provided the possibility to promote sport at a new level. In addition, in 1993, the UN General Assembly
UN General Assembly
approved a Resolution that further solidified IOC–UN cooperation with the decision to revive the Olympic Truce, by adopting a Resolution entitled “Building a peaceful and better world through sport and the Olympic ideal,” which calls upon Member States to observe the Olympic Truce before every iteration of the games, and to cooperate with the IOC
IOC
and the International Paralympic Committee
International Paralympic Committee
in their efforts to use sport as a tool to promote peace, dialogue and reconciliation in areas of conflict during and beyond the period of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.[4] During each proclamation at the Olympics, announcers speak in different languages, French is always spoken first followed by an English translation and the dominant language of the host nation. Mission and roles[edit] Further information: Olympic Charter The stated mission of the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC) is to promote Olympic throughout the world and to lead the Olympic Movement.[5]

To encourage and support the organisation, development and coordination of sport and sports competitions; To ensure the regular celebration of the Olympic Games; To cooperate with the competent public or private organisations and authorities in the endeavour to place sport at the service of humanity and thereby to promote peace; To act against any form of discrimination affecting the Olympic Movement; To encourage and support the promotion of women in sport at all levels and in all structures with a view to implementing the principle of equality of men and women;

IOC
IOC
Executive Board[edit]

Designation Name Country

Honorary President Jacques Rogge  Belgium

President Thomas Bach  Germany

Co-Presidents Yu Zaiqing  China

Juan Antonio Samaranch, Jr.  Spain

Uğur Erdener  Turkey

Anita DeFrantz  United States

Executive Members Mrs. Gunilla Lindberg  Sweden

Wu Ching-kuo  Chinese Taipei

Gian-Franco Kasper   Switzerland

Angela Ruggiero  United States

Sergey Bubka  Ukraine

Ng Ser Miang  Singapore

Willi Kaltschmitt Luján  Guatemala

Robin E. Mitchell  Fiji

Nicole Hoevertsz  Aruba

Denis Oswald   Switzerland

Director General Christophe De Kepper  Belgium

IOC
IOC
Commissions[edit]

Commission Chairperson Country

IOC
IOC
Athletes' Commission Angela Ruggiero  United States

IOC
IOC
Athletes' Entourage Commission Sergey Bubka  Ukraine

IOC
IOC
Audit Committee Pierre-Olivier Beckers-Vieujant  Belgium

IOC
IOC
Communication Commission Camiel Eurlings  Netherlands

IOC
IOC
Coordination Commission Beijing 2022 Juan Antonio Samaranch, Jr.  Spain

IOC
IOC
Coordination Commission Pyeongchang 2018 Gunilla Lindberg  Sweden

IOC
IOC
Coordination Commission Tokyo 2020 John Coates  Australia

IOC
IOC
Coordination Commission Buenos Aires 2018 (YOG) Li Lingwei*  China

IOC
IOC
Coordination Commission Lausanne
Lausanne
2020 (YOG) Danka Barteková  Slovakia

IOC
IOC
Culture and Olympic Heritage Commission Wu Ching-kuo  Chinese Taipei

IOC
IOC
Digital and Technology Commission Gerardo Werthein  Argentina

IOC
IOC
Ethics Commission Ban Ki-moon  South Korea

IOC
IOC
Evaluation Commission Paris 2024/LA 2028 Patrick Baumann   Switzerland

IOC
IOC
Finance Commission Ng Ser Miang  Singapore

IOC
IOC
Members Election Commission HRH Anne, Princess Royal  United Kingdom

IOC
IOC
Legal Affairs Commission John Coates  Australia

IOC
IOC
Marketing Commission Tsunekazu Takeda  Japan

IOC
IOC
Medical and Scientific Commission Uğur Erdener  Turkey

IOC
IOC
Olympic Channel
Olympic Channel
Commission Larry Probst  United States

IOC
IOC
Olympic Education Commission Barry Maister  New Zealand

IOC
IOC
Olympic Programme Commission Franco Carraro  Italy

IOC
IOC
Olympic Solidarity Commission HE Sheikh Ahmed Al-Fahad Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah  Kuwait

IOC
IOC
Commission for Public Affairs and Social Development Through Sport Mario Pescante  Italy

IOC
IOC
Sport and Active Society Commission Sam Ramsamy  South Africa

IOC
IOC
Sustainability and Legacy Commission HSH Albert II, Prince of Monaco  Monaco

IOC
IOC
Women in Sport Commission Lydia Nsekera  Burundi

IOC
IOC
Communications Direccion Mark Adams[disambiguation needed]  United Kingdom

(*) Interim Chairperson Organization[edit] See also: Presidents of the International Olympic Committee
Presidents of the International Olympic Committee
and Olympic Congress IOC
IOC
Session[edit] The IOC Session
IOC Session
is the general meeting of the members of the IOC, held once a year in which each member has one vote. It is the IOC’s supreme organ and its decisions are final. Extraordinary Sessions may be convened by the President or upon the written request of at least one third of the members. Among others, the powers of the Session are:

To adopt or amend the Olympic Charter. To elect the members of the IOC, the Honorary President and the honorary members. To elect the President, the Vice-Presidents and all other members of the IOC
IOC
Executive Board. To elect the host city of the Olympic Games.

Honours[edit] In addition to the Olympic medals for competitors, the IOC
IOC
awards a number of other honours:

the IOC
IOC
President's Trophy is the highest sports award given to athletes who have excelled in their sport and had an extraordinary career and created a lasting impact on their sport. the Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Coubertin
medal is awarded to athletes who demonstrate a special spirit of sportsmanship in Olympic events the Olympic Cup
Olympic Cup
is awarded to institutions or associations with a record of merit and integrity in actively developing the Olympic Movement the Olympic Order
Olympic Order
is awarded to individuals for particularly distinguished contributions to the Olympic Movement, and superseded the Olympic Certificate. the Olympic Laurel
Olympic Laurel
is awarded to individuals for promoting education, culture, development, and peace through sport.[6] the Olympic town status has been given to some towns which have been important for the Olympic movement.

IOC
IOC
members[edit] Further information: List of members of the International Olympic Committee

The first IOC, at the 1896 Athens
Athens
Games

For most of its existence, the IOC
IOC
was controlled by members who were selected by other members. Countries that had hosted the Games were allowed two members. When named, they did not become the representatives of their respective countries to the IOC, but rather the opposite, IOC
IOC
members in their respective countries. Cessation of membership[edit] The membership of IOC
IOC
members ceases in the following circumstances:[7]

Resignation: any IOC
IOC
member may cease their membership at any time by delivering a written resignation to the President. Non re-election: any IOC
IOC
member ceases to be a member without further formality if they are not re-elected. Age limit: any IOC
IOC
member ceases to be a member at the end of the calendar year during which they reach the age of 80. Failure to attend Sessions or take active part in IOC
IOC
work for two consecutive years. Transfer of domicile or of main center of interests to a country other than the country which was theirs at the time of their election. Members elected as active athletes cease to be a member upon ceasing to be a member of the IOC
IOC
Athletes' Commission. Presidents and individuals holding an executive or senior leadership position within NOCs, world or continental associations of NOCs, IFs or associations of IFs, or other organisations recognised by the IOC cease to be a member upon ceasing to exercise the function they were exercising at the time of their election. Expulsion: an IOC
IOC
member may be expelled by decision of the Session if such member has betrayed their oath or if the Session considers that such member has neglected or knowingly jeopardised the interests of the IOC
IOC
or acted in a way which is unworthy of the IOC.

International federations recognised by IOC[edit] There are currently 73 sport federations recognised by IOC.[8] These are:

The 29 members of Association of Summer Olympic International Federations (ASOIF)[9] The 7 members of Association of International Olympic Winter Sports Federations (AIOWF)[10] The 35 members of Association of IOC
IOC
Recognised International Sports Federations (ARISF)[11] And 2 of the members of SportAccord
SportAccord
(Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and International Softball Federation)[12][better source needed]

Olympic marketing[edit]

1985 German Democratic Republic stamp

During the first half of the 20th century the IOC
IOC
ran on a small budget.[13][14] As president of the IOC
IOC
from 1952 to 1972, Avery Brundage rejected all attempts to link the Olympics with commercial interest.[15] Brundage believed the lobby of corporate interests would unduly impact the IOC's decision-making.[15] Brundage's resistance to this revenue stream meant the IOC
IOC
left organising committees to negotiate their own sponsorship contracts and use the Olympic symbols.[15] When Brundage retired the IOC
IOC
had US$2 million in assets; eight years later the IOC
IOC
coffers had swelled to US$45 million.[15] This was primarily due to a shift in ideology toward expansion of the Games through corporate sponsorship and the sale of television rights.[15] When Juan Antonio Samaranch was elected IOC
IOC
president in 1980 his desire was to make the IOC
IOC
financially independent.[14] Samaranch appointed Canadian IOC
IOC
member Richard Pound to lead the initiative as Chairman of the "New Sources of Finance Commission". In 1982 the IOC
IOC
drafted ISL Marketing a Swiss sports marketing company, to develop a global marketing programme for the Olympic Movement. ISL successfully developed the programme but was replaced by Meridian Management, a company partly owned by the IOC
IOC
in the early 1990s. In 1989, one of the staff members at ISL Marketing, Michael Payne, moved to the IOC
IOC
and became the organisation's first marketing director. However ISL and subsequently Meridian, continued in the established role as the IOC's sales and marketing agents until 2002.[16][17] In 2002 the IOC
IOC
terminated the relationship with Meridian and took its marketing programme in-house under the Direction of Timo Lumme, the IOC's managing director of IOC
IOC
Television and Marketing Services.[16] During his 17 years with the IOC,[16] in collaboration with ISL Marketing and subsequently Meridian Management, Payne made major contributions to the creation of a multibillion-dollar sponsorship marketing programme for the organisation which, along with improvements in TV marketing and improved financial management, helped to restore the IOC's financial viability.[18][19][20] Revenue[edit] The Olympic Movement generates revenue through five major programmes. The International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC) manages broadcast partnerships and The Olympic Partner (TOP) worldwide sponsorship programme. The Organising Committees for the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
(OCOGs) manage domestic sponsorship, ticketing and licensing programmes within the host country under the direction of the IOC. The Olympic Movement generated a total of more than US$4 billion, €2.5 billion in revenue during the Olympic quadrennium from 2001 to 2004. Revenue distribution[edit] The IOC
IOC
distributes some of Olympic marketing revenue to organisations throughout the Olympic Movement to support the staging of the Olympic Games and to promote the worldwide development of sport. The IOC retains approximately 10% of Olympic marketing revenue for the operational and administrative costs of governing the Olympic Movement.[21] Organising Committees for the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
(OCOGs)[edit] The IOC
IOC
provides The Olympic Partner (TOP) programme contributions and Olympic broadcast revenue to the OCOGs to support the staging of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
and Olympic Winter Games:

TOP programme revenue to OCOGs; the two OCOGs of each Olympic quadrennium generally share approximately 50% of TOP programme revenue and value-in-kind contributions, with approximately 30% provided to the summer OCOG and 20% provided to the winter OCOG. Broadcast revenue to OCOGs; the IOC
IOC
contributes 49% of the Olympic broadcast revenue for each Games to the OCOG. During the 2001–2004 Olympic quadrennium, the Salt Lake 2002 Organizing Committee received US$443 million, €395 million in broadcast revenue from the IOC, and the Athens
Athens
2004 Organizing Committee received US$732 million, €690 million. Domestic programme revenue to OCOGs; the OCOGs generate substantial revenue from the domestic marketing programmes that they manage within the host country, including domestic sponsorship, ticketing and licensing.

National Olympic Committees (NOCs)[edit] Further information: National Olympic Committee The NOCs receive financial support for the training and development of Olympic teams, Olympic athletes and Olympic hopefuls. The IOC distributes TOP programme revenue to each of the NOCs throughout the world. The IOC
IOC
also contributes Olympic broadcast revenue to Olympic Solidarity, an IOC
IOC
organisation that provides financial support to NOCs with the greatest need. The continued success of the TOP programme and Olympic broadcast agreements has enabled the IOC
IOC
to provide increased support for the NOCs with each Olympic quadrennium. The IOC
IOC
provided approximately US$318.5 million to NOCs for the 2001–2004 quadrennium. International Olympic Sports Federations (IFs)[edit] The IOC
IOC
is now the largest single revenue source for the majority of IFs, with its contributions of Olympic broadcast revenue that assist the IFs in the development of their respective sports worldwide. The IOC
IOC
provides financial support from Olympic broadcast revenue to the 28 IFs of Olympic summer sports and the seven IFs of Olympic winter sports after the completion of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
and the Olympic Winter Games, respectively. The continually increasing value of Olympic broadcast partnership has enabled the IOC
IOC
to deliver substantially increased financial support to the IFs with each successive Games. The seven winter sports IFs shared US$85.8 million, €75 million in Salt Lake 2002 broadcast revenue. The contribution to the 28 summer sports IFs from Athens
Athens
2004 broadcast revenue has not yet been determined, but the contribution is expected to mark a significant increase over the US$190 million, €150 million that the IOC
IOC
provided to the summer IFs following Sydney 2000. Other organisations[edit] The IOC
IOC
contributes Olympic marketing revenue to the programmes of various recognised international sports organisations, including the International Paralympic Committee, and the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Environmental concerns[edit] The International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC) recognizes that the Olympic Games demand tremendous environmental resources, activities, and construction projects that could be detrimental to a host city’s environment.[22] In 1995, IOC
IOC
President Juan Antonio Samaranch stated, “the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
is resolved to ensure that the environment becomes the third dimension of the organization of the Olympic Games, the first and second being sport and culture.”[23] Acting on this statement, in 1996 the IOC
IOC
added the ‘environment’ as a third pillar to its vision for Olympic games.[24] The IOC requires cities bidding to host the Olympics to provide a comprehensive strategy to protect the environment in preparation for hosting, and following the conclusion of the Games.[25] This initiative was most notably acted upon in 2000, when the “Green Olympics” effort was developed by the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Beijing Olympic Games. The Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics
Summer Olympics
effort to host environmentally friendly games resulted in over 160 projects meeting the goal of “green” games through improved air quality and water quality, implementation of sustainable energy sources, improved waste management, and environmental education. These projects included industrial plant relocation or closure, furnace replacement, introduction of new emission standards, and more strict traffic control.[26] Most of these measures were adopted on a temporary basis, and although real improvements were realized (particularly in air quality), most of these improvements had disappeared one year following the Games. Although these improvements were short lived, IOC’s inclusion of environmental policies in evaluating and selecting host cities demonstrates a corporate responsibility that may be built upon in years to come. Detailed frameworks for environmental sustainability have been released for the 2018 Winter Olympics, and 2020 Summer Olympics
Summer Olympics
in PyeongChang, South Korea, and Tokyo, Japan, respectively.[27][28] International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
approaches[edit] The IOC
IOC
has 4 major approaches to addressing environmental health concerns during the construction and competitions of the Olympic Games. First, the IOC
IOC
Sustainability and Legacy Commission focuses on how the IOC
IOC
can improve the strategies and policies associated with environmental health throughout the process of cities hosting the Olympic Games.[29] Secondly, every candidate city must provide information to the IOC
IOC
on environmental health issues like air quality and environmental impact assessments. Thirdly, every host city is given the option to declare “pledges” to address specific or general environmental health concerns of hosting the Olympic Game. Fourthly, the IOC
IOC
has every host city collaborate with the United Nations to work towards addressing environmental health objectives.[30] Ultimately, the IOC
IOC
uses these four major approaches in an attempt to minimize the negative environmental health concerns of a host city. Venue construction effects on air[edit] Cities hosting the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
have two primary concerns: traffic congestion and air pollution, both of which can result in compromised air quality during and after Olympic venue construction.[31] Research at the Beijing Olympic Games
Olympic Games
identified particulate matter - measured in terms of PM10 (the amount of aerodynamic diameter of particle≤10 μm in a given amount of air) - as a top priority that should be taken into consideration.[32][33] The particulate matter in the air, along with other airborne pollutants, cause both serious health problems, such as asthma, and contribute to the deterioration of urban ecosystems. Black Carbon is released into the air from incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fluids contributing to global climate change and human health effects. The black carbon concentrations are highly impacted by the truck traffic due to the traffic congestion during the massive construction. Additionally, secondary pollutants like CO, NOx, SO2, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) are also released during the venue construction, resulting in harmful effects to the environment.[34] Methods to measure particulates in the air[edit] Environmental magnetic methods have been established as a successful way of measuring the degree of pollution in air, water and soil. Environmental magnetism is sensitive to particle size, and has proven effective even at low detection levels. For these reasons, it is becoming more widely used. Measures undertaken to improve the air quality[edit] Various air quality measures are undertaken before and after the Olympics Games. Research studies demonstrate that the primary method to reduce concentrations of air pollutants is traffic control, including barring heavy vehicles from the roads. For the Beijing Olympics, vehicles not meeting the Euro 1 emission standards were also banned from the roads, and the odd-even rule was implemented in the Beijing administrative area. Additional air quality improvement measures include replacing coal with natural gas, suspending construction and/or imposing strict dust control on construction sites, closing or relocating the polluting industrial plants, building long subway lines, using cleaner fluid in power plants, and reducing the activity by some of the polluting factories. These were several air quality improvement measures implemented by the Beijing government. There, levels of primary and secondary pollutants were reduced, and good air quality was recorded during the Beijing Olympics on most of the days. Venue construction effects on soil[edit] Soil contamination
Soil contamination
can occur during the process of constructing the Olympic venues. In the case of the 2006 Winter Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in Torino, Italy, negative environmental impacts were observed, including impacts on soil. Before the Games, researchers studied four areas which the Games would likely affect: a floodplain, a highway, the motorway connecting the city to Lyon, France, and a landfill. They performed an extensive analysis in the types of chemicals found in the soils in these areas both before and after the Games. Their findings revealed an increase in the number of metals in the topsoils post-Games, and indicated that soil was capable, as part of an ecosystem, of negating, or “buffering,” the effects of many heavy metals. However, their findings also revealed that this was not the case for all metals, and that mercury, lead, and arsenic may have been transferred into the food chain on a massive scale.[35] One of the promises made to Londoners when they won the right to host the 2012 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
was that the Olympic Park would be a “blueprint for sustainable living.” However, residents of the allotments of Manor Road were relocated, due to the building of the Olympic stadium, and would later disagree that the Olympics had had any positive effect on their lives. Allotments, originally, were intended to provide low-income residents with a plot of land on which to grow their own food, thus receiving the dual health benefits of a supply of fresh food and outdoor work. Many of these sites were lost as a result of the Olympic venue construction, most notably the Manor Road site. Residents were promised that the allotments would be returned, and they eventually were. However, the soil quality would never be the same. Crops tended by allotment residents were the result of years of careful cultivation, and thus, those years of care and attention were destroyed by a bulldozer. Further, allotment residents were exposed to radioactive waste for five months prior to moving, during the excavation of the site for the Games. Other local residents, construction workers, and onsite archeologists faced similar exposures and risks.[36] In contrast, the Sydney Olympic Games
Olympic Games
of 2000 provided an opportunity to improve a highly contaminated area known as the Homebush Bay site. A study commissioned by the New South Wales Government Olympic Coordination Authority, which was responsible for the Games’ site preparation, looked at soil contamination prior to the Games. The work assessed soils that had been previously impacted by waste and identified areas that could pose a risk to the environment. Soil metal concentrations were found to be high enough to potentially contaminate groundwater. After risk areas were identified, a remediation strategy was developed. Contaminated soil was consolidated into four containment areas within the site, which left the remaining areas available for recreational use. Also, the contained waste materials no longer posed a threat to surrounding aquifers. Sydney’s winning Olympic bid provided a catalyst to undertake the “greenest” single urban remediation ever attempted in Australia.[37] Venue construction effects on water[edit] The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
can affect water quality in the surrounding region in several ways, including water runoff and the transfer of polluting substances from the air to water sources through rainfall. Harmful particulates come from both natural substances (such as plant matter crushed by higher volumes of pedestrian and vehicle traffic) and man-made substances (such as exhaust from vehicles or industry). Contaminants from these two categories lead to elevated amounts of toxins in street dust. Street dust then reaches water sources through runoff, facilitating the transfer of toxins to environments and communities that rely on these water sources.[31] For example, one method of measuring the runoff contamination of water sources involves magnetism. Magnetism measurement systems allow specialists to measure the differences in mineral magnetic parameters in samples of water, air, and vegetation. Unlike traditional methods of measuring pollutants, magnetism is relatively inexpensive, and can identify smaller particle sizes.[38] Another method used to assess the amount and effects of water pollutants is to measure the amount of PM2.5 in rainfall. Measuring PM2.5 (the amount of aerodynamic diameter of particle≤2.5 μm in a given amount of air) is a common metric for assessing air quality. Comparing PM2.5 levels between air and rainfall samples allows scientists to determine the amount of air pollution being transferred to water sources. Pollutants in rainfall quickly and directly affect pollution in groundwater sources.[39] In 2013, researchers in Beijing found a significant relationship between the amount of PM2.5 concentrations in the air and in rainfall. Studies showed that rainfall had a significant “washing” effect on PM2.5 in the air, transferring a large portion of these pollutants from the air to water sources.[40] In this way, Beijing’s notorious air pollution has a direct and significant impact on rainfall, and therefore, on water resources throughout the region. Controversies[edit]

Olympic Games

Main topics

Bids Boycotts Ceremonies Charter Host cities IFs IOC Medal Medal tables Medalists NOCs Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Coubertin
medal Scandals and controversies Sports Symbols Torch relays Venues

Games

Summer Winter

Summer Paralympic Winter Paralympic

Deaflympics Youth Special

American Asian Pacific African European

EYOF

Ancient Intercalated

v t e

Amateurism and professionalism[edit] Main article: Olympic Games
Olympic Games
§ Amateurism and professionalism Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the IOC, was influenced by the ethos of the aristocracy as exemplified in the English public schools.[41] The public schools subscribed to the belief that sport formed an important part of education and there was a prevailing concept of fairness in which practicing or training was considered cheating.[41] As class structure evolved through the 20th century, the definition of the amateur athlete as an aristocratic gentleman became outdated.[41] The advent of the state-sponsored "full-time amateur athlete" of the Eastern Bloc countries further eroded the ideology of the pure amateur, as it put the self-financed amateurs of the Western countries at a disadvantage. The Soviet Union entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students, soldiers, or working in a profession, but many of whom were in reality paid by the state to train on a full-time basis.[42] Nevertheless, the IOC
IOC
held to the traditional rules regarding amateurism.[43] Near the end of the 1960s, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) felt their amateur players could no longer be competitive against the Soviet team's full-time athletes and the other constantly improving European teams. They pushed for the ability to use players from professional leagues but met opposition from the IIHF and IOC. Avery Brundage, president of the IOC
IOC
from 1952 to 1972, was opposed to the idea of amateur and professional players competing together. At the IIHF Congress in 1969, the IIHF decided to allow Canada to use nine non-NHL professional hockey players[44] at the 1970 World Championships in Montreal
Montreal
and Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.[45] The decision was reversed in January 1970 after Brundage said that ice hockey's status as an Olympic sport would be in jeopardy if the change was made.[44] In response, Canada withdrew from international ice hockey competition and officials stated that they would not return until "open competition" was instituted.[44][46] Beginning in the 1970s, amateurism requirements were gradually phased out of the Olympic Charter. After the 1988 Games, the IOC
IOC
decided to make all professional athletes eligible for the Olympics, subject to the approval of the IFs.[47] 1976 Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
(Denver, Colorado)[edit] Main article: Bids for the 1976 Winter Olympics The cities of Denver, Colorado, United States; Sion, Switzerland; Tampere, Finland; and Vancouver
Vancouver
(with the Garibaldi mountains), Canada, made bids for the Games. The games were originally awarded to Denver
Denver
on 12 May 1970, but a 300% rise in costs and worries about environmental impact led to Colorado voters' rejection on 7 November 1972, by a 3 to 2 margin, of a $5 million bond issue to finance the games with public funds.[48][49] Denver
Denver
officially withdrew on 15 November, and the IOC
IOC
then offered the games to Whistler, British Columbia, Canada, but they too declined owing to a change of government following elections. Whistler would go on to be associated with neighbouring Vancouver's successful bid for the 2010 games. Salt Lake City, Utah, a 1972 Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
final candidate who would eventually host the 2002 Winter Olympics, offered itself as a potential host after the withdrawal of Denver. The IOC, still reeling from the Denver
Denver
rejection, declined and selected Innsbruck
Innsbruck
to host the 1976 Winter Olympics, which had hosted the 1964 Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
games twelve years earlier, on 5 February 1973. Salt Lake bid scandal[edit] Main article: 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal A scandal broke on 10 December 1998, when Swiss IOC
IOC
member Marc Hodler, head of the coordination committee overseeing the organisation of the 2002 games, announced that several members of the IOC
IOC
had taken bribes. Soon four independent investigations were underway: by the IOC, the United States
United States
Olympic Committee (USOC), the SLOC, and the United States
United States
Department of Justice. Before any of the investigations could even get under way, both Welch and Johnson resigned their posts as the head of the SLOC. Many others soon followed. The Department of Justice filed charges against the two: fifteen charges of bribery and fraud. Johnson and Welch were eventually acquitted of all criminal charges in December 2003. As a result of the investigation, ten members of the IOC
IOC
were expelled and another ten were sanctioned.[50] This was the first expulsion or sanction for corruption in the more than a century the IOC
IOC
had existed. Although nothing strictly illegal had been done, it was felt that the acceptance of the gifts was morally dubious. Stricter rules were adopted for future bids, and caps were put into place as to how much IOC
IOC
members could accept from bid cities. Additionally, new term and age limits were put into place for IOC
IOC
membership, and fifteen former Olympic athletes were added to the committee. Other controversies: 2006–2013[edit] In 2006, a report ordered by the Nagano region's governor said the Japanese city provided millions of dollars in an "illegitimate and excessive level of hospitality" to IOC
IOC
members, including $4.4 million spent on entertainment alone.[51] Earlier reports put the figure at approximately $14 million. The precise figures are unknown since Nagano, after the IOC
IOC
asked that the entertainment expenditures not be made public, destroyed the financial records.[52][53] International groups attempted to pressure the IOC
IOC
to reject Beijing's bid in protest of the state of human rights in the People's Republic of China. One Chinese dissident who expressed similar sentiments was arrested and sentenced to two years in prison for calling on the IOC to do just that at the same time that IOC
IOC
inspectors were touring the city.[54] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
expressed concern in 2006 regarding the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
to be held in China
China
in 2008, likewise expressing concerns over the human rights situation. The second principle in the Fundamental Principles of Olympism, Olympic Charter
Olympic Charter
states that The goal of Olympism is to place sport at the service of the harmonious development of man, with a view to promoting a peaceful society concerned with the preservation of human dignity.[55] Amnesty International considers the policies and practices of the People's Republic as failing to meet that principle, and urged the IOC
IOC
to press China
China
to immediately enact human rights reform.[56] In August 2008, the IOC
IOC
issued DMCA
DMCA
take down notices on Tibetan Protest videos of the Beijing Olympics hosted on YouTube.[57] YouTube and the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) both pushed back against the IOC, which then withdrew their complaint. In 2010, the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
was nominated for the Public Eye Awards. This award seeks to present "shame-on-you-awards to the nastiest corporate players of the year".[58] Before the start of the 2012 Olympic Games, the IOC
IOC
decided not to hold a minute of silence to honor the 11 Israeli Olympians who were killed 40 years prior in the Munich Massacre. Jacques Rogge, the then- IOC
IOC
President, said it would be "inappropriate" to do so. Speaking of the decision, Israeli Olympian Shaul Ladany, who had survived the Munich Massacre, commented: "I do not understand. I do not understand, and I do not accept it".[59] In February 2013, the IOC
IOC
did not include wrestling as one of its core Olympic sports
Olympic sports
for the Summer Olympic program for the 2020 Olympics. This decision was poorly received by the sporting and wrestling community. Wrestling
Wrestling
was still part of the program at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro.[60] This decision was later overturned, and wrestling will be a part of the 2020 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in Tokyo.[61] As planned, the alpine ski run and luge racing area of 2022 Beijing Olympic Winter Games will be built in the core area of Beijing Songshan National Reserves. A great number of valuable species such as Lonicera oblata and Cypripedium shanxiense S. C. Chen are found here and many of them can not be conserved through ex situ conservation. Many Chinese professionals of biology and environmentalists deemed that if the Olympic venues are developed in such area, the rare species and integrated ecological environment will be catastrophically collapsed. Chinese government intended to remove such area out from the range of the natural reserves and chose some other area with few rare species as the reserves. Besides, the comments regarding the strict compliance with laws and protection of Songshan National Reserves are widely deleted or restricted in China. All these actions have been criticized by some media and the professionals of biology in China.[62] Russian doping scandal[edit] See also: Doping in Russia, Russia at the 2016 Summer Olympics, McLaren Report, Independent Olympians at the Olympic Games, and Olympic Athletes from Russia at the 2018 Winter Olympics Media attention began growing in December 2014 when German broadcaster ARD reported on state-sponsored doping in Russia, comparing it to doping in East Germany. In November 2015, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) published a report and the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) suspended Russia indefinitely from world track and field events. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Anti-Doping agency later assisted WADA with testing in Russia. In June 2016, they reported that they were unable to fully carry out their work and noted intimidation by armed Federal Security Service
Federal Security Service
(FSB) agents.[63] After a Russian former lab director made allegations about the 2014 Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
in Sochi, WADA commissioned an independent investigation led by Richard McLaren. McLaren's investigation found corroborating evidence, concluding in a report published in July 2016 that the Ministry of Sport and the FSB had operated a "state-directed failsafe system" using a "disappearing positive [test] methodology" (DPM) from "at least late 2011 to August 2015".[64] In response to these findings, WADA announced that RUSADA should be regarded as non-compliant with respect to the World Anti-Doping Code and recommended that Russia be banned from competing at the 2016 Summer Olympics.[65] The International Olympic Commission
International Olympic Commission
(IOC) rejected the recommendation, stating that the IOC
IOC
and each sport's international federation would make decisions on each athlete's individual basis.[66][67] One day prior to the opening ceremony, 270 athletes were cleared to compete under the Russian flag, while 167 were removed because of doping.[68] In contrast, the entire Kuwaiti team was banned from competing under their own flag (for a non-doping related matter).[69][70] The IOC's decision on 24 July 2016 was criticised by athletes[71][72][73][74][75] and writers.[76][77][78][79][80] It received support from the European Olympic Committees, which said that Russia is "a valued member".[73] Cam Cole of Canada's National Post said that the IOC
IOC
had "caved, as it always does, defaulting to whatever compromise it could safely adopt without offending a superpower."[80] Expressing disappointment, a member of the IOC Athletes' Commission, Hayley Wickenheiser, wrote, "I ask myself if we were not dealing with Russia would this decision to ban a nation [have] been an easier one? I fear the answer is yes."[74] Writing for Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
in Germany, Olivia Gerstenberger said that Bach had "flunked" his first serious test, adding, "With this decision, the credibility of the organization is shattered once more, while that of state-sponsored doping actually receives a minor boost."[81] Bild (Germany) described Bach as "Putin's poodle".[76] Paul Hayward, chief sports writer of The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
(UK), remarked, "The white flag of capitulation flies over the International Olympic Committee. Russia's deep political reach should have told us this would happen.[77] Leaders of thirteen national anti-doping organisations wrote that the IOC
IOC
had "violated the athletes' fundamental rights to participate in Games that meet the stringent requirements of the World Anti-Doping Code" and "[demonstrated that] it lacks the independence required to keep commercial and political interests from influencing the tough decisions necessary to protect clean sport."[82] WADA's former chief investigation, Jack Robertson, said "The anti-doping code is now just suggestions to follow or not" and that "WADA handed the IOC
IOC
that excuse [not enough time before the Olympics] by sitting on the allegations for close to a year."[83] McLaren was dissatisfied with the IOC's handling of his report, saying "It was about state-sponsored doping and the mis-recording of doping results and they turned the focus into individual athletes and whether they should compete. [...] it was a complete turning upside down of what was in the report and passing over responsibility to all the different international federations."[84][85] In contrast to the IOC, the International Paralympic Committee
International Paralympic Committee
voted unanimously to ban the entire Russian team from the 2016 Summer Paralympics, having found evidence that the DPM was also in operation at the 2014 Winter Paralympics.[86] On 5 December 2017, the IOC
IOC
announced that the Russian Olympic Committee had been suspended effective immediately from the 2018 Winter Olympics. Athletes who had no previous drug violations and a consistent history of drug testing were to be allowed to compete under the Olympic Flag
Olympic Flag
as an "Olympic Athlete from Russia" (OAR).[87] Under the terms of the decree, Russian government officials were barred from the Games, and neither the country's flag nor anthem would be present. The Olympic Flag
Olympic Flag
and Olympic Anthem
Olympic Anthem
will be used instead,[88] and on 20 December 2017 the IOC
IOC
proposed an alternate logo for the uniforms (seen at right).[89] IOC
IOC
President Thomas Bach
Thomas Bach
said that "after following due process [the IOC] has issued proportional sanctions for this systematic manipulation while protecting the clean athletes."[90] On 1 February 2018, the Court of Arbitration for Sport
Court of Arbitration for Sport
partially overturned IOC's doping suspensions. For 28 of 42 suspended athletes, their appeals were upheld, the sanctions annulled and their individual results achieved in Sochi
Sochi
2014 were reinstated.[91] The IOC
IOC
has been was harshly criticized for their handling of the Russian doping scandal. After reinstating the Russian Olympic committee following the 2018 Winter Olympics, Jim Walden, attorney for Dr. Grigory Rodchenkov, who masterminded Russia's program, called the move "weakness in the face of evil." [92] See also[edit]

Association of International Olympic Winter Sports Federations (AIOWF) Association of IOC Recognised International Sports Federations (ARISF) Association of Summer Olympic International Federations (ASOIF) Deaflympics International Academy of Sport Science and Technology (AISTS) International Committee of Sports for the Deaf (ICSD) International Paralympic Committee SportAccord FICTS (Fédération Internationale Cinéma Télévision Sportifs) (Organisation recognised by the IOC)

References[edit] Notes[edit]

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distinction" (Press release). Lausanne: International Olympic Committee. 4 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016. KIP KEINO (KEN) IS THE FIRST EVER RECIPIENT OF THE OLYMPIC LAUREL, A DISTINCTION CREATED BY THE INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE (IOC) TO HONOUR AN OUTSTANDING INDIVIDUAL FOR THEIR ACHIEVEMENTS IN EDUCATION, CULTURE, DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE THROUGH SPORT.  ^ Source: Olympic Charter, in force as from 1 September 2004. ^ "International federations". olympic.org. Retrieved 4 June 2012.  ^ "ASOIF – Members". asoif.com. Retrieved 8 August 2016.  ^ "AIOWF -Members". olympic.org. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2012.  ^ "Who We Are - ARISF (Association of IOC
IOC
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Marketing Supremo: Smile, Beijing". china.org.cn. 6 August 2008. Retrieved 23 February 2011.  ^ "How the IOC
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took on Nike in Atlanta". Sports Business Journal Daily. Sports Business Journal. 11 July 2005. Retrieved 23 February 2011.  ^ "London Bid 'Has Improved'". Sporting Life. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.  ^ "Boost for London's Olympic Bid". RTÉ Sport. 14 February 2005. Archived from the original on 21 September 2005. Retrieved 23 February 2011.  ^ Campbell, Struan (22 October 2008). "Payne – London 2012 to tap fountain of youth". Sportbusiness.com. Retrieved 23 February 2011.  ^ IOC: Revenue Sources and Distribution ^ Jin Y, Zhang JJ, Ma X, Connaughton DP. (2011). Residents’ Perceptions of Environmental Impacts of the 2008 Beijing Green Olympic Games. European Sport Management Quarterly, 11:3, 275-300. ^ Jagemann H. (2003). Sport and the Environment: Ways toward Achieving the Sustainable Development of Sport. Retrieved 23 October 2016 from: http://thesportjournal.org/article/sports-and-the-environment-ways-towards-achieving-the-sustainable-development-of-sport/ ^ Beyer S. (2006). The green Olympic Movement: Beijing 2008. Chinese Journal of International Law, 5:2, 423-440. ^ IOC. (2009). Host City Contract. Retrieved 23 October 2016 from: http://www.gamesmonitor.org.uk/files/Host%20City%20Contract.pdf ^ Chen Y, Jin GZ, Kumar N, Shi G. (2012). The Promise of Beijing: Evaluating the Impact of the 2008 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
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High-level Sustainability Plan. Retrieved 23 October 2016 from: https://tokyo2020.jp/en/games/sustainability/data/sus-plan-EN.pdf ^ https://www.olympic.org/sustainability-and-legacy-commission ^ http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R44575.pdf ^ a b Qiao Q, Zhang C, Huang B, Piper JDA. (2011). Evaluating the environmental quality impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games: magnetic monitoring of street dust in Beijing Olympic Park. Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 187; 1222. ^ Chena DS, Chenga SY, Liub L, Chenc T, Guoa XR. (2007). An integrated MM5–CMAQ modeling approach for assessing transboundary PM10 contribution to the host city of 2008 Olympic summer games—Beijing, China. Atmospheric environment. Vol. 41; 1237-1250. ^ Wang X et. al. (2009). Evaluating the air quality impacts of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games: On-road emission factors and black carbon profiles. Atmospheric environment. Vol. 43; 4535-4543. ^ Wang T et. al. (2010). Air quality
Air quality
during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: secondary pollutants and regional impact. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Vol. 10; 7603–7615. ^ "Soil Heavy Metals Patterns in the Torino Olympic Winter Games Venue (E.U.)". Soil and Sediment Contamination. 17 (3): 205–220. doi:10.1080/15320380802006905.  ^ Sadd D. (2012). Not all Olympic ‘events’ are good for the health just ask the previous occupants of the Manor Road. Allotments Perspectives in Public Health. Vol. 132; 2, 62-63.[SIC] ^ Suh J-Y, Birch G. F., Hughes K., Matthai C. (2004) Spatial distribution and source of heavy metals in reclaimed lands of Homebush Bay: the venue of the 2000 Olympic Games, Sydney, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences. Vol. 51: 53-66. ^ Qiao, 1223. ^ Ouyang W et. al. The washing effect of precipitation on particulate matter and the pollution dynamics of rainwater in downtown Beijing. Science of the Total Environment. Vol. 505; 306-314. 1 February 2015. ^ Ouyang W. 313. ^ a b c Eassom, Simon (1994). Critical Reflections on Olympic Ideology. Ontario: The Centre for Olympic Studies. pp. 120–123. ISBN 0-7714-1697-0.  ^ Benjamin, Daniel (27 July 1992). "Traditions Pro Vs. Amateur". Time. Retrieved 18 March 2009.  ^ Schantz, Otto. "The Olympic Ideal and the Winter Games Attitudes Towards the Olympic Winter Games in Olympic Discourses—from Coubertin to Samaranch" (PDF). Comité International Pierre De Coubertin. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2008.  ^ a b c Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #17–Protesting amateur rules, Canada leaves international hockey. ^ Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #40–Finally, Canada to host the World Championship. ^ "Summit Series '72 Summary". Hockey Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2009.  ^ "Amateurism". USA Today. 12 July 1999. Retrieved 9 February 2009.  ^ " Colorado
Colorado
only state ever to turn down Olympics". Denver.rockymountainnews.com. Archived from the original on 1 June 2009. Retrieved 23 March 2011.  ^ "The Games that got away – 2002 Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
coverage". Deseretnews.com. Archived from the original on 1 September 2010. Retrieved 23 March 2011.  ^ "Samaranch reflects on bid scandal with regret". 2002 Winter Olympics coverage. Deseret News Archives. 19 May 2001. Archived from the original on 26 February 2002.  ^ "Mainichi Daily News ends its partnership with MSN, takes on new Web address". Mdn.mainichi-msn.co.jp. Retrieved 8 May 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ Jordan, Mary; Sullivan, Kevin (21 January 1999), "Nagano Burned Documents Tracing '98 Olympics Bid", Washington Post, pp. A1, retrieved 20 August 2016  ^ Macintyre, Donald (1 February 1999). "Japan's Sullied Bid". Time Magazine. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ Bodeen, Christopher (25 February 2001). "Beijing opens itself up to Olympic inspectors". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 15 November 2007.  ^ "Olympic Charter, in force as from 1 September 2004", International Olympic Committee Archived 27 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "People’s Republic of China: The Olympics countdown – failing to keep human rights promises" Amnesty International, 21 September 2006 Archived 18 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ IOC
IOC
backs off DMCA
DMCA
take-down for Tibet protest "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 August 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2008.  ^ "The Public Eye Awards
Public Eye Awards
Nominations 2010". Public Eye. Archived from the original on 28 September 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2010.  ^ James Montague (5 September 2012). "The Munich massacre: A survivor's story". CNN. Retrieved 25 February 2013.  ^ " Wrestling
Wrestling
dropped from 2020 Games". Espn.go.com. 14 February 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.  ^ " Wrestling
Wrestling
reinstated for Tokyo 2020 Olympics News". ESPN.co.uk. 8 September 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.  ^ "Beijing Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
2022's Environmental Impact Includes Nature Reserve Damage, Critics Say". ibtimes.com. 13 August 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.  ^ "Update on the status of Russia testing" (PDF). WADA. June 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2017.  ^ "McLaren Independent Investigations Report into Sochi
Sochi
Allegations". WADA. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2017.  ^ "WADA Statement: Independent Investigation confirms Russian State manipulation of the doping control process". WADA. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2017.  ^ "Decision of the IOC
IOC
Executive Board concerning the participation of Russian athletes in the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
Rio 2016". IOC. 24 July 2016. Retrieved 24 July 2016.  ^ " IOC
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at German parliament". dw.com. 27 April 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017.  ^ "Rio Olympics 2016: Wada criticises IOC
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for failing to ban Russian team". bbc.com. 25 July 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2017.  ^ "British Olympians slam 'spineless IOC' over Russia". sports.yahoo.com. 25 July 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2017.  ^ a b "Olympics: No blanket ban for Russia -- who's saying what". pri.org. 24 July 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2017.  ^ a b "Canadian athletes critical of IOC
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Bars Russian Athletes and Officials From Winter Olympic Games". The Moscow Times. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.  ^ "THE COURT OF ARBITRATION FOR SPORT (CAS) DELIVERS ITS DECISIONS IN THE MATTER OF 39 RUSSIAN ATHLETES V/ THE IOC: 28 APPEALS UPHELD, 11 PARTIALLY UPHELD" (PDF) (Press release). Court of Arbitration for Sport. 1 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2018.  ^ CNN, Henry Young,. "Russian Olympic Committee's reinstatement is 'weakness in the face of evil', says lawyer". CNN. Retrieved 2018-03-02. 

Further reading[edit]

Chappelet, Jean-Loup; Brenda Kübler-Mabbott (2008). International Olympic Committee and the Olympic system: the governance of world sport. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-43167-5.  Lenskyj, Helen Jefferson (2000). Inside the Olympic Industry: Power, Politics and Activism. New York: SUNY. 

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