The INTERNATIONAL ALPHABET OF SANSKRIT TRANSLITERATION (I.A.S.T.) is
a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of
Indic scripts as employed by
* 1 Use
* 2 Inventory and conventions
* 3 Comparison with
* 4 Computer input by alternative keyboard layout
* 5 Computer input by selection from a screen
University scholars commonly use IAST in publications that cite textual material in Sanskrit, Pāḷi and other classical Indian languages.
IAST is also used for major e-text repositories such as SARIT, Muktabodha, and GRETIL.
The IAST scheme represents more than a century of scholarly usage in books and journals on classical Indian studies. By contrast, the ISO 15919 standard for transliterating Indic scripts emerged in 2001 from the standards and library worlds and includes solutions to problems such as representing Old Indo-Aryan and New Indo-Aryan languages side-by-side in library catalogues, etc. For the most part, ISO 15919 followed the IAST scheme, and departed from it only in minor ways (e.g., ṃ/ṁ and ṛ/r̥). See comparison below.
The Indian National Library at Kolkata romanization , intended for the romanization of all Indic scripts , is an extension of IAST.
INVENTORY AND CONVENTIONS
Further information: Help:IPA/
The IAST letters are listed with their
Devanāgarī equivalents and
phonetic values in IPA , valid for
Vowels and codas DEVANāGARī TRANSCRIPTION CATEGORY
अ a A monophthongs and syllabic liquids
आ ā Ā
इ i I
ई ī Ī
उ u U
ऊ ū Ū
ऋ ṛ Ṛ
ॠ ṝ Ṝ
ऌ ḷ Ḷ
ॡ ḹ Ḹ
ए e E diphthongs
ऐ ai Ai
ओ o O
औ au Au
अं ṃ Ṃ anusvara
अः ḥ Ḥ visarga
Consonants VELARS PALATALS RETROFLEXES DENTALS LABIALS CATEGORY
क k K च c C ट ṭ Ṭ त t T प p P tenuis stops
ख kh Kh छ ch Ch ठ ṭh Ṭh थ th Th फ ph Ph aspirated stops
ग g G ज j J ड ḍ Ḍ द d D ब b B voiced stops
घ gh Gh झ jh Jh ढ ḍh Ḍh ध dh Dh भ bh Bh breathy-voiced stops
ङ ṅ Ṅ ञ ñ Ñ ण ṇ Ṇ न n N म m M nasal stops
ह h H य y Y र r R ल l L व v V approximants
श ś Ś ष ṣ Ṣ स s S sibilants
The highlighted letters are those modified with diacritics: long vowels are marked with an overline, vocalic (syllabic) consonants and retroflexes have an underdot.
COMPARISON WITH ISO 15919
For the most part, IAST is a subset of ISO 15919 that merges: the retroflex (underdotted) liquids with the vocalic ones (ringed below ); and the short close-mid vowels with the long ones. The following seven exceptions are from the ISO standard accommodating an extended repertoire of symbols to allow transliteration of Devanāgarī and other Indic scripts, as used for languages other than Sanskrit.
DEVANāGARī IAST ISO 15919 COMMENT
ए / े e ē (e) ISO e generally represents ऎ / ॆ, but optionally represents long ए / े in Devanagari, Bengali, Gurmukhi, Gujarati, and Oriya script.
ओ / ो o ō (o) ISO o generally represents ऒ / ॆ, but optionally represents long ओ / ो in Devanagari, Bengali, Gurmukhi, Gujarati, and Oriya script.
अं / ं
ISO ṃ represents
ऋ / ृ ṛ r̥ ISO ṛ represents ड़ /ɽ /.
ॠ / ॄ ṝ r̥̄ for consistency with r̥.
ऌ / ॢ ḷ l̥ ISO ḷ represents ळ /ɭ̆ /.
ॡ / ॣ ḹ l̥̄ for consistency with l̥.
COMPUTER INPUT BY ALTERNATIVE KEYBOARD LAYOUT
The most convenient method of inputting romanized
macOS One can use the pre-installed US International keyboard, or
install Toshiya Unebe's Easy
Microsoft Windows Windows also allows one to change keyboard layouts and set up additional custom keyboard mappings for IAST.
COMPUTER INPUT BY SELECTION FROM A SCREEN
Further Information: Unicode input#Selection from a screen Applet for character selection
Many systems provide a way to select
Microsoft Windows has provided a
macOS provides a "character palette" with much the same functionality, along with searching by related characters, glyph tables in a font, etc. It can be enabled in the input menu in the menu bar under System Preferences → International → Input Menu (or System Preferences → Language and Text → Input Sources) or can be viewed under Edit → Emoji ">
* ^ Monier-Williams, Monier (1899). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (PDF). Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. xxx.
* Shashir Reddy, "Shashir's Notes: Modern Transcription of Sanskrit. " * Anthony Stone, " Transliteration of Indic Scripts: How to use ISO 15929." * Dominik Wujastyk, " Transliteration of Devanagari." * Typing a macron - page from Penn State University about typing with