ListMoto - Hygiene

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HYGIENE is a set of practices performed for the preservation of health . According to the World Health
Organization (WHO), "Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases."

Whereas in popular culture and parlance it can often mean mere 'cleanliness', hygiene goes much beyond that to include all circumstances and practices, lifestyle issues, premises and commodities that engender a safe and healthy environment, especially in modern medicine . Some regular hygienic practices may be considered good habits by a society, while the neglect of hygiene can be considered disgusting, disrespectful or even threatening.


* 1 Etymology * 2 Background * 3 Medical hygiene

* 4 Home and everyday life hygiene

* 4.1 Handwashing * 4.2 Respiratory hygiene * 4.3 Food hygiene at home * 4.4 Hygiene
in the kitchen, bathroom and toilet * 4.5 Laundry hygiene * 4.6 Medical hygiene at home * 4.7 Disinfectants and antibacterials in home hygiene

* 4.8 Home hygiene in developing countries

* 4.8.1 Household water treatment and safe storage

* 5 Body hygiene

* 5.1 Excessive body hygiene

* 5.1.1 Excessive body hygiene and allergies * 5.1.2 Excessive body hygiene of internal ear canals

* 6 Culinary (food) hygiene * 7 Personal service hygiene * 8 Sleep hygiene

* 9 History

* 9.1 Hygiene
in medieval Europe

* 10 Society and culture

* 10.1 Islamic hygienical jurisprudence

* 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links


First attested in English in 1677s, the word hygiene comes from the French hygiène, the latinisation of the Greek ὑυγιεινή (τέχνη) hugieinē technē, meaning "(art) of health", from ὑυγιεινός hugieinos, "good for the health, healthy", in turn from ὑυγιής (hugiēs), "healthful, sound, salutary, wholesome". In ancient Greek religion , Hygeia (Ὑυγίεια) was the personification of health, cleanliness and hygiene.


Washing one's hands, a form of HYGIENE, is the most effective way to prevent the spread of infectious diseases Astronaut taking a hot bath in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab
space station cluster in Earth orbit
Earth orbit
. In deploying the shower facility the shower curtain is pulled up from the floor and attached to the ceiling. The water comes through a push-button shower head attached to a flexible hose. Water is drawn off by a vacuum system.

This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (September 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

is a concept related to cleanliness, health and medicine, as well as to personal and professional care practices related to most aspects of living. In medicine and in home (domestic) and everyday life settings, hygiene practices are employed as preventative measures to reduce the incidence and spreading of disease. In the manufacture of food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and other products, good hygiene is a key part of quality assurance i.e. ensuring that the product complies with microbial specifications appropriate to its use. The terms cleanliness (or cleaning) and hygiene are often used interchangeably, which can cause confusion. In general, hygiene mostly means practices that prevent spread of disease-causing organisms. Since cleaning processes (e.g., hand washing) remove infectious microbes as well as dirt and soil, they are often the means to achieve hygiene. Other uses of the term appear in phrases including: body hygiene, personal hygiene, sleep hygiene , mental hygiene , dental hygiene , and occupational hygiene , used in connection with public health . Hygiene
is also the name of a branch of science that deals with the promotion and preservation of health, also called hygienic. Hygiene
practices vary widely, and what is considered acceptable in one culture might not be acceptable in another.


Medical hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices related to the administration of medicine, and medical care, that prevents or minimizes disease and the spreading of disease.

Medical hygiene practices include:

* Isolation or quarantine of infectious persons or materials to prevent spread of infection. * Sterilization of instruments used in surgical procedures . * Use of protective clothing and barriers, such as masks , gowns , caps , eyewear and gloves . * Proper bandaging and dressing of injuries . * Safe disposal of medical waste . * Disinfection of reusables (i.e. linen, pads, uniforms) * Scrubbing up, hand-washing, especially in an operating room, but in more general health-care settings as well, where diseases can be transmitted

Most of these practices were developed in the 19th century and were well established by the mid-20th century. Some procedures (such as disposal of medical waste ) were refined in response to late-20th century disease outbreaks, notably AIDS
and Ebola .


Home hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices that prevent or minimize disease and the spreading of disease in home (domestic) and in everyday life settings such as social settings, public transport, the work place, public places etc.

in home and everyday life settings plays an important part in preventing spread of infectious diseases. It includes procedures used in a variety of domestic situations such as hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, food and water hygiene, general home hygiene (hygiene of environmental sites and surfaces), care of domestic animals, and home healthcare (the care of those who are at greater risk of infection).

At present, these components of hygiene tend to be regarded as separate issues, although all are based on the same underlying microbiological principles. Preventing the spread of infectious diseases means breaking the chain of infection transmission. The simple principle is that, if the chain of infection is broken, infection cannot spread. In response to the need for effective codes of hygiene in home and everyday life settings the International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene
has developed a risk-based approach based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point ( HACCP
), which has come to be known as "targeted hygiene". Targeted hygiene is based on identifying the routes of spread of pathogens in the home, and applying hygiene procedures at critical points at appropriate times to break the chain of infection.

The main sources of infection in the home are people (who are carriers or are infected), foods (particularly raw foods) and water, and domestic animals (in the U.S. more than 50% of homes have one or more pets ). Additionally, sites that accumulate stagnant water—such as sinks, toilets, waste pipes, cleaning tools, face cloths—readily support microbial growth, and can become secondary reservoirs of infection, though species are mostly those that threaten "at risk" groups. Germs (potentially infectious bacteria, viruses etc.) are constantly shed from these sources via mucous membranes, faeces, vomit, skin scales, etc. Thus, when circumstances combine, people become exposed, either directly or via food or water, and can develop an infection.

The main "highways" for spread of germs in the home are the hands, hand and food contact surfaces, and cleaning cloths and utensils. Germs can also spread via clothing and household linens, such as towels . Utilities such as toilets and wash basins, for example, were invented for dealing safely with human waste, but still have risks associated with them, which may become critical at certain times, e.g., when someone has sickness or diarrhea. Safe disposal of human waste is a fundamental need; poor sanitation is a primary cause of diarrhea disease in low income communities. Respiratory viruses and fungal spores are also spread via the air.

Good home hygiene means targeting hygiene procedures at critical points, at appropriate times, to break the chain of infection i.e. to eliminate germs before they can spread further. Because the "infectious dose" for some pathogens can be very small (10-100 viable units, or even less for some viruses), and infection can result from direct transfer from surfaces via hands or food to the mouth, nasal mucosa or the eye, 'hygienic cleaning' procedures should be sufficient to eliminate pathogens from critical surfaces. Hygienic cleaning can be done by:

* Mechanical removal (i.e. cleaning) using a soap or detergent . To be effective as a hygiene measure, this process must be followed by thorough rinsing under running water to remove germs from the surface. * Using a process or product that inactivates the pathogens in situ. Germ kill is achieved using a "micro-biocidal" product i.e. a disinfectant or antibacterial product or waterless hand sanitizer , or by application of heat. * In some cases combined germ removal with kill is used, e.g. laundering of clothing and household linens such as towels and bedlinen.


Main article: Handwashing A tippy tap for handwashing after using a urine-diverting dry toilet in Pumpuentsa, Ecuador

Hand hygiene is defined as hand washing or washing hands and nails with soap and water or using a waterless hand sanitizer . Hand hygiene is central to preventing spread of infectious diseases in home and everyday life settings.

In situations where hand washing with soap is not an option (e.g. when in a public place with no access to wash facilities), a waterless hand sanitizer such as an alcohol hand gel can be used. They can also be used in addition to hand washing, to minimize risks when caring for "at risk" groups. To be effective, alcohol hand gels should contain not less than 60%v/v alcohol.

The World Health
Organization recommends hand washing with ash if soap is not available in emergencies, schools without access to soap and other difficult situations like post-emergencies where use of (clean) sand is recommended too. Use of ash is common in rural areas of developing countries and has in experiments been shown at least as effective as soap for removing bacteria.


Correct respiratory and hand hygiene when coughing and sneezing reduces the spread of germs particularly during the cold and flu season.

* Carry tissues and use them to catch coughs and sneezes * Dispose of tissues as soon as possible * Clean your hands by hand washing or using an alcohol hand sanitizer .


Main article: Food hygiene

Food hygiene is concerned with the hygiene practices that prevent food poisoning. The five key principles of food hygiene, according to WHO
, are:

* Prevent contaminating food with mixing chemicals, spreading from people, and animals . * Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods. * Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature to kill pathogens. * Store food at the proper temperature. * Use safe water and raw materials


Routine cleaning of (hand, food, even in the European region it is estimated that 120 million people do not have access to safe drinking water . Point-of-use water quality interventions can reduce diarrheal disease in communities where water quality is poor, or in emergency situations where there is a breakdown in water supply. Since water can become contaminated during storage at home (e.g. by contact with contaminated hands or using dirty storage vessels), safe storage of water in the home is also important.

Methods for treatment of drinking water, include:

* Chemical disinfection using chlorine or iodine * Boiling * Filtration using ceramic filters * Solar disinfection - Solar disinfection is an effective method, especially when no chemical disinfectants are available. * UV irradiation - community or household UV systems may be batch or flow-though. The lamps can be suspended above the water channel or submerged in the water flow. * Combined flocculation/disinfection systems – available as sachets of powder that act by coagulating and flocculating sediments in water followed by release of chlorine. * Multibarrier methods – Some systems use two or more of the above treatments in combination or in succession to optimize efficacy.


Swedish ad for toiletries, 1905/1906. See also: Body hygiene kit

Personal hygiene involves those practices performed by an individual to care for one's bodily health and well being, through cleanliness. Motivations for personal hygiene practice include reduction of personal illness, healing from personal illness, optimal health and sense of well being, social acceptance and prevention of spread of illness to others. What is considered proper personal hygiene can be cultural-specific and may change over time. In some cultures removal of body hair is considered proper hygiene. Other practices that are generally considered proper hygiene include bathing regularly, washing hands regularly and especially before handling food, washing scalp hair, keeping hair short or removing hair, wearing clean clothing, brushing one's teeth, cutting finger nails, besides other practices. Some practices are gender-specific, such as by a woman during her menstrual cycle. People tend to develop a routine for attending to their personal hygiene needs. Other personal hygienic practices would include covering one's mouth when coughing, disposal of soiled tissues appropriately, making sure toilets are clean, and making sure food handling areas are clean, besides other practices. Some cultures do not kiss or shake hands to reduce transmission of bacteria by contact.

Personal grooming extends personal hygiene as it pertains to the maintenance of a good personal and public appearance, which need not necessarily be hygienic. It may involve, for example, using deodorants or perfume, shaving, or combing, besides other practices.


Excessive body hygiene is one example of obsessive compulsive disorder .

Excessive Body Hygiene
And Allergies

The hygiene hypothesis was first formulated in 1989 by Strachan who observed that there was an inverse relationship between family size and development of atopic allergic disorders – the more children in a family, the less likely they were to develop these allergies . From this, he hypothesised that lack of exposure to "infections" in early childhood transmitted by contact with older siblings could be a cause of the rapid rise in atopic disorders over the last thirty to forty years. Strachan further proposed that the reason why this exposure no longer occurs is, not only because of the trend towards smaller families, but also "improved household amenities and higher standards of personal cleanliness ".

Although there is substantial evidence that some microbial exposures in early childhood can in some way protect against allergies, there is no evidence that humans need exposure to harmful microbes (infection) or that it is necessary to suffer a clinical infection. Nor is there evidence that hygiene measures such as hand washing, food hygiene etc. are linked to increased susceptibility to atopic disease . If this is the case, there is no conflict between the goals of preventing infection and minimising allergies. A consensus is now developing among experts that the answer lies in more fundamental changes in lifestyle etc. that have led to decreased exposure to certain microbial or other species, such as helminths, that are important for development of immuno-regulatory mechanisms. There is still much uncertainty as to which lifestyle factors are involved.

Although media coverage of the hygiene hypothesis has declined, a strong ‘collective mindset’ has become established that dirt is ‘healthy’ and hygiene somehow ‘unnatural’. This has caused concern among health professionals that everyday life hygiene behaviours, which are the foundation of public health, are being undermined. In response to the need for effective hygiene in home and everyday life settings, the International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene
has developed a "risk-based" or targeted approach to home hygiene that seeks to ensure that hygiene measures are focussed on the places, and at the times most critical for infection transmission. Whilst targeted hygiene was originally developed as an effective approach to hygiene practice, it also seeks, as far as possible, to sustain "normal" levels of exposure to the microbial flora of our environment to the extent that is important to build a balanced immune system.

Excessive Body Hygiene
Of Internal Ear Canals

See also: Earwax

Excessive body hygiene of the ear canals can result in infection or irritation. The ear canals require less body hygiene care than other parts of the body, because they are sensitive, and the body system adequately cares for these parts. Most of the time the ear canals are self-cleaning; that is, there is a slow and orderly migration of the skin lining the ear canal from the eardrum to the outer opening of the ear. Old earwax is constantly being transported from the deeper areas of the ear canal out to the opening where it usually dries, flakes, and falls out. Attempts to clean the ear canals through the removal of earwax can actually reduce ear canal cleanliness by pushing debris and foreign material into the ear that the natural movement of ear wax out of the ear would have removed. Excessive application of soaps, creams, and ointments can also adversely affect certain of the natural processes of the skin. For examples, soaps and ointments can deplete the skin of natural protective oils and fat-soluble content such as cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), and external substances can be absorbed, to disturb natural hormonal balances.


Main article: Food safety
Food safety

Culinary hygiene pertains to the practices related to food management and cooking to prevent food contamination , prevent food poisoning and minimize the transmission of disease to other foods, humans or animals. Culinary hygiene practices specify safe ways to handle, store, prepare, serve and eat food.

Culinary practices include:

* Cleaning and disinfection of food-preparation areas and equipment (for example using designated cutting boards for preparing raw meats and vegetables). Cleaning may involve use of chlorine bleach , ethanol , ultraviolet light , etc. for disinfection. * Careful avoidance of meats contaminated by trichina worms , salmonella , and other pathogens; or thorough cooking of questionable meats. * Extreme care in preparing raw foods, such as sushi and sashimi . * Institutional dish sanitizing by washing with soap and clean water. * Washing of hands thoroughly BEFORE touching any food. * Washing of hands after touching uncooked food when preparing meals . * Not using the same utensils to prepare different foods. * Not sharing cutlery when eating. * Not licking fingers or hands while or after eating. * Not reusing serving utensils that have been licked. * Proper storage of food so as to prevent contamination by vermin . * Refrigeration
of foods (and avoidance of specific foods in environments where refrigeration is or was not feasible). * Labeling food to indicate when it was produced (or, as food manufacturers prefer, to indicate its "best before" date ). * Proper disposal of uneaten food and packaging.


Personal service hygiene pertains to the practices related to the care and use of instruments used in the administration of personal care services to people:

Personal hygiene practices include:

* Sterilization of instruments used by service providers including hairdressers , aestheticians , and other service providers. * Sterilization by autoclave of instruments used in body piercing and tattoo marking . * Cleaning hands.


Main article: Sleep hygiene

Sleep hygiene is the recommended behavioral and environmental practice that is intended to promote better quality sleep. This recommendation was developed in the late 1970s as a method to help people with mild to moderate insomnia , but, as of 2014 , the evidence for effectiveness of individual recommendations is "limited and inconclusive". Clinicians assess the sleep hygiene of people who present with insomnia and other conditions, such as depression, and offer recommendations based on the assessment. Sleep
hygiene recommendations include establishing a regular sleep schedule, using naps with care, not exercising physically or mentally too close to bedtime, limiting worry, limiting exposure to light in the hours before sleep, getting out of bed if sleep does not come, not using bed for anything but sleep and avoiding alcohol as well as nicotine , caffeine , and other stimulants in the hours before bedtime, and having a peaceful, comfortable and dark sleep environment.


The earliest written account of Elaborate codes of hygiene can be found in several Hindu texts, such as the Manusmriti
and the Vishnu Purana . Bathing
is one of the five Nitya karmas (daily duties) in Hinduism, and not performing it leads to sin, according to some scriptures. Three young women bathing, 440–430 BC. Ancient Greece.

Regular bathing was a hallmark of Roman civilization . Elaborate baths were constructed in urban areas to serve the public, who typically demanded the infrastructure to maintain personal cleanliness. The complexes usually consisted of large, swimming pool-like baths, smaller cold and hot pools, saunas, and spa-like facilities where individuals could be depilated, oiled, and massaged. Water was constantly changed by an aqueduct -fed flow. Bathing
outside of urban centers involved smaller, less elaborate bathing facilities, or simply the use of clean bodies of water. Roman cities also had large sewers , such as Rome's Cloaca Maxima , into which public and private latrines drained. Romans didn't have demand-flush toilets but did have some toilets with a continuous flow of water under them.

Until the late 19th Century, only the elite in Western cities typically possessed indoor facilities for relieving bodily functions. The poorer majority used communal facilities built above cesspools in backyards and courtyards. This changed after Dr. John Snow discovered that cholera was transmitted by the fecal contamination of water. Though it took decades for his findings to gain wide acceptance, governments and sanitary reformers were eventually convinced of the health benefits of using sewers to keep human waste from contaminating water. This encouraged the widespread adoption of both the flush toilet and the moral imperative that bathrooms should be indoors and as private as possible.


has always placed a strong emphasis on hygiene , Despite the denunciation of the mixed bathing style of Roman pools by early Christian clergy, as well as the pagan custom of women naked bathing in front of men, this did not stop the Church from urging its followers to go to public baths for bathing, which contributed to hygiene and good health according to the Church Father
Church Father
, Clement of Alexandria . The Church also built public bathing facilities that were separate for both sexes near monasteries and pilgrimage sites; also, the popes situated baths within church basilicas and monasteries since the early Middle Ages. Pope Gregory the Great
Gregory the Great
urged his followers on value of bathing as a bodily need.

Contrary to popular belief and although the Early Christian
Early Christian
leaders, such as Boniface I, condemned bathing as unspiritual, bathing and sanitation were not lost in Europe with the collapse of the Roman Empire . Soapmaking first became an established trade during the so-called "Dark Ages ". The Romans used scented oils (mostly from Egypt), among other alternatives.

Northern Europeans were not in the habit of bathing: in the ninth century Notker the Stammerer
Notker the Stammerer
, a Frankish monk of St Gall, related a disapproving anecdote that attributed ill results of personal hygiene to an Italian fashion:

There was a certain deacon who followed the habits of the Italians in that he was perpetually trying to resist nature. He used to take baths, he had his head very closely shaved, he polished his skin, he cleaned his nail, he had his hair cut as short as if it were turned on a lathe, and he wore linen underclothes and a snow-white shirt. Woman's Bath, 1496, by Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer

Secular medieval texts constantly refer to the washing of hands before and after meals, but Sone de Nansay, hero of a 13th-century romance, discovers to his chagrin that the Norwegians do not wash up after eating. In the 11th and 12th centuries, bathing was essential to the Western European upper class: the Cluniac monasteries to which they resorted or retired were always provided with bathhouses, and even the monks were required to take full immersion baths twice a year, at the two Christian festivals of renewal, though exhorted not to uncover themselves from under their bathing sheets. In 14th century Tuscany, the newlywed couple's bath together was such a firm convention one such couple, in a large coopered tub, is illustrated in fresco in the town hall of San Gimignano.

had fallen out of fashion in Northern Europe long before the Renaissance
, when the communal public baths of German cities were in their turn a wonder to Italian visitors. Bathing
was replaced by the heavy use of sweat-bathing and perfume , as it was thought in Europe that water could carry disease into the body through the skin. Bathing encouraged an erotic atmosphere that was played upon by the writers of romances intended for the upper class; in the tale of Melusine
the bath was a crucial element of the plot. " Bathing
and grooming were regarded with suspicion by moralists, however, because they unveiled the attractiveness of the body. Bathing
was said to be a prelude to sin, and in the penitential of Burchard of Worms we find a full catalogue of the sins that ensued when men and women bathed together." Medieval church authorities believed that public bathing created an environment open to immorality and disease; the 26 public baths of Paris in the late 13th century were strictly overseen by the civil authorities. At a later date Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
officials even banned public bathing in an unsuccessful effort to halt syphilis epidemics from sweeping Europe.

Modern sanitation was not widely adopted until the 19th and 20th centuries. According to medieval historian Lynn Thorndike, people in Medieval Europe probably bathed more than people did in the 19th century. Some time after Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
's experiments proved the germ theory of disease and Joseph Lister and others put them into practice in sanitation , hygienic practices came to be regarded as synonymous with health , as they are in modern times.



Main article: Islamic hygienical jurisprudence Further information: Islamic cleanliness , Wuzu , Ghusl , Islamic dietary laws
Islamic dietary laws
, and Islamic toilet etiquette

Since the 7th century, Islam
has always placed a strong emphasis on hygiene. Other than the need to be ritually clean in time for the daily prayer (Arabic: Salat
) through Wuzu and Ghusl , there are a large number of other hygiene-related rules governing the lives of Muslims. Other issues include the Islamic dietary laws
Islamic dietary laws
. In general, the Qur\'an advises Muslims to uphold high standards of physical hygiene and to be ritually clean whenever possible.


* Contamination control
Contamination control
* Human decontamination * Hygiene hypothesis * Hygiene program * Mysophobia * Ritual purification * Sanitation


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Hypothesis and its implications for home hygiene, lifestyle and public health: Summary". International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene. 2012. * ^ Bloomfield, S. F.; Stanwell-Smith, R.; Crevel, R. W. R.; Pickup, J. (April 2006). "Too clean, or not too clean: the Hygiene Hypothesis and home hygiene". Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 36 (4): 402–425. doi :10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02463.x . * ^ Bremner, SA; Carey, IM; DeWilde, S; Richards, N; Maier, WC; Hilton, SR; Strachan, DP; Cook, DG (March 2008). "Infections presenting for clinical care in early life and later risk of hay fever in two UK birth cohorts.". Allergy. 63 (3): 274–83. PMID 18269673 . * ^ Rook, G. A. W. (11 March 2010). "99th Dahlem Conference on Infection, Inflammation and Chronic Inflammatory Disorders: Darwinian medicine and the ‘hygiene’ or ‘old friends’ hypothesis". Clinical & Experimental Immunology. 160 (1): 70–79. doi :10.1111/j.1365-2249.2010.04133.x . * ^ "Ear Wax Symptoms, Treatment, Causes - When should ear wax be removed? - MedicineNet". medicinenet.com. * ^ A B Irish, Leah A.; Kline, Christopher E; Gunn, Heather E; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica H (October 2014). "The role of sleep hygiene in promoting public health: A review of empirical evidence". Sleep
Medicine Reviews. PMID 25454674 . doi :10.1016/j.smrv.2014.10.001 . * ^ "Aryan Code of Toilets (2nd Century AD)". Sulabh International Museum of Toilets. * ^ "Roman bath houses". Time Team. Channel Four Television Corporation. Archived from the original on 4 February 2007. * ^ Poop Culture: How America is Shaped by its Grossest National Product, ISBN 1-932595-21-X . * ^ Warsh, Cheryl Krasnick (2006). Children’s Health
Issues in Historical Perspective. Veronica Strong-Boag. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. p. 315. ISBN 9780889209121 . ... From Fleming's perspective, the transition to Christianity
required a good dose of personal and public hygiene ... * ^ Warsh, Cheryl Krasnick (2006). Children’s Health
Issues in Historical Perspective. Veronica Strong-Boag. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. p. 315. ISBN 9780889209121 . ... Thus bathing also was considered a part of good health practice. For example, Tertullian attended the baths and believed them hygienic. Clement of Alexandria, while condemning excesses, had given guidelines for Christian] who wished to attend the baths ... * ^ Thurlkill, Mary (2016). Sacred Scents in Early Christianity
and Islam: Studies in Body and Religion. Rowman popes continued to build baths situated within church basilicas and monasteries throughout the early medieval period ... * ^ Squatriti, Paolo (2002). Water and Society in Early Medieval Italy, AD 400-1000, Parti 400-1000. Cambridge University Press. p. 54. ISBN 9780521522069 . ... but baths were normally considered therapeutic until the days of Gregory the Great, who understood virtuous bathing to be bathing "on account of the needs of body" ... * ^ "Did Medieval Brides Really Smell Bad?". about.com. * ^ * ^ "Ablutions or Bathing, Historical Perspectives + (Latin: abluere, to wash away)". Word Information. Retrieved 22 February 2017.

* ^ "The Great Famine and the Black Death - 1315-1317, 1346-1351 - Lectures in Medieval History - Dr. Lynn H. Nelson, Emeritus Professor, Medieval History, KU". vlib.us. * ^ " Middle Ages
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Hygiene". middle-ages.org.uk. * ^ Noted in Danielle Régnier-Bohler, "Imagining the self" in Duby 1988:363f. * ^ Philippe Braunstein "Solitude: eleventh to thirteenth century", in Georges Duby, ed. A History of Private Life: II. Revelations of the Medieval World 1988:525 * ^ Fresco of c. 1320 illustrated in Charles de la Roncière, "Tuscan notables on the eve of the Renaissance" in Duby 1988:232. * ^ Régnier-Bohler 1988:363ff. * ^ A B Braunstein 1988:525. * ^ Paige, John C; Laura Woulliere Harrison (1987). Out of the Vapors: A Social and Architectural History of Bathhouse Row, Hot Springs National Park (PDF). U.S. Department of the Interior. * ^ "Thorndike, Tales of the Middle Ages
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* International Journal of Hygiene
and Environmental Health, ISSN 1438-4639 , Elsevier


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