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The Human Poverty
Poverty
Index (HPI) was an indication of the standard of living in a country, developed by the United Nations
United Nations
(UN) to complement the Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) and was first reported as part of the Human Development Report
Human Development Report
in 1997. It was considered to better reflect the extent of deprivation in developed countries compared to the HDI.[1] In 2010 it was supplanted by the UN's Multidimensional Poverty
Poverty
Index. The HPI concentrates on the deprivation in the three essential elements of human life already reflected in the HDI: longevity, knowledge and a decent standard of living. The HPI is derived separately for developing countries (HPI-1) and a group of select high-income OECD
OECD
countries (HPI-2) to better reflect socio-economic differences and also the widely different measures of deprivation in the two groups

Contents

1 For developing countries (HPI-1) 2 For selected high-income OECD
OECD
countries (HPI-2) 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

For developing countries (HPI-1)[edit] The Human Development Reports website summarizes this as "A composite index measuring deprivations in the three basic dimensions captured in the human development index — a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living." The formula for calculating it is:

HPI-1 =

[

1 3

(

P

1

α

+

P

2

α

+

P

3

α

)

]

1 α

displaystyle left[ frac 1 3 left(P_ 1 ^ alpha +P_ 2 ^ alpha +P_ 3 ^ alpha right)right]^ frac 1 alpha

P

1

displaystyle P_ 1

: Probability at birth of not surviving to age 40 (times 100)

P

2

displaystyle P_ 2

: Adult illiteracy rate

P

3

displaystyle P_ 3

: Unweighted average of population without sustainable access to an improved water source and children under weight for age

α

displaystyle alpha

: 3 For selected high-income OECD
OECD
countries (HPI-2)[edit] The Human Development Reports website summarizes this as "A composite index measuring deprivations in the four basic dimensions captured in the human development index — a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living — and also capturing social exclusion." The formula for calculating it is:

HPI-2 =

[

1 4

(

P

1

α

+

P

2

α

+

P

3

α

+

P

4

α

)

]

1 α

displaystyle left[ frac 1 4 left(P_ 1 ^ alpha +P_ 2 ^ alpha +P_ 3 ^ alpha +P_ 4 ^ alpha right)right]^ frac 1 alpha

P

1

displaystyle P_ 1

: Probability at birth of not surviving to age 60 (times 100)

P

2

displaystyle P_ 2

: Adults lacking functional literacy skills

P

3

displaystyle P_ 3

: Population below income poverty line (50% of median adjusted household disposable income)

P

4

displaystyle P_ 4

: Rate of long-term unemployment (lasting 12 months or more)

α

displaystyle alpha

: 3 The last report, 2007–2008, only has a ranking for 19 of the 22 countries with the highest Human Development Index. The ranking is as follows (with the country with the lowest amount of poverty at the top):

Ranking Country HPI-2 Probability at birth of not surviving to age 60 (%) People lacking functional literacy skills (%) Long-term unemployment (%) Population below 50% of median income (%)

1  Sweden 6.3 6.7 7.5 1.1 6.5

2  Norway 6.8 7.9 7.9 0.5 6.4

3  Netherlands 8.1 8.3 10.5 1.8 7.3

4  Finland 8.1 9.4 10.4 1.8 5.4

5  Denmark 8.2 10.3 9.6 0.8 5.6

6  Germany 10.3 8.6 14.4 5.8 8.4

7   Switzerland 10.7 7.2 15.9 1.5 7.6

8  Canada 10.9 8.1 14.6 0.5 11.4

9  Luxembourg 11.1 9.2 - 1.2 6.0

10  Austria 11.1 8.8 - 1.3 7.7

11  France 11.2 8.9 - 4.1 7.3

12  Japan 11.7 6.9 - 1.3 11.8

13  Australia 12.1 7.3 17.0 0.9 12.2

14  Belgium 12.4 9.3 18.4 4.6 8.0

15  Spain 12.5 7.7 - 2.2 14.2

16  United Kingdom 14.8 8.7 21.8 1.2 12.5

17  United States 15.4 11.6 20.0 0.4 17.0

18  Ireland 16.0 8.7 22.6 1.5 16.2

19  Italy 29.8 7.7 47.0 3.4 12.7

The countries ranked in the top 22 by HDI that are not on this list are Iceland, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Liechtenstein. Not all countries are included in this ranking because data are not always available. The ranks of many countries, especially those at the bottom, could drop considerably if the list included more countries. For information about the component values for countries other than the ones on the list, see source links below. Indicators used are:

Probability at birth of not surviving to age 60 (% of cohort), 2000-2005. Varies from 7.1% for Japan
Japan
to 11.8 for the USA. This is the indicator that is best known for all countries (including the ones not on the list). The US has specific values associated with disease characteristics of poverty. Worse values start only at position 35 of the HDI, indicating that many countries could climb on an extended list based on this, knocking down lower ranked countries on the above list. People lacking functional literacy skills (% of people scoring in the range called “Level 1” in the International Adult Literacy Survey, age 16-65, 1994–2003). Varies from 7.5% for Sweden
Sweden
to 47.0% for Italy. These figures are higher than most commonly cited illiteracy rates due to the choice of the literacy test. Long-term unemployment (12 months or more, % of labour force), 2005. Varies from 0.4% for the United States
United States
to 5.0% for Germany. This indicator has by far the greatest variation, with a value as high as 9.3% at HDI position 37. Population below 50% of median adjusted household disposable income (%), 1994-2002. Varies from 5.4% for Finland
Finland
to 17% for the US.

See also[edit]

Indices

Bhutan GNH Index Broad measures of economic progress Disability-adjusted life year Full cost accounting Green national product Green gross domestic product
Green gross domestic product
(Green GDP) Gender-related Development Index Genuine Progress Indicator
Genuine Progress Indicator
(GPI) Global Peace Index Gross National Happiness Gross National Well-being (GNW) Happiness economics Happy Planet Index
Happy Planet Index
(HPI) Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) Human Poverty
Poverty
Index country ranking in 2000 (fr) ISEW (Index of sustainable economic welfare) Legatum Prosperity Index Leisure satisfaction Living planet index Law of Social Cycle Millennium Development Goals
Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) Money-rich, time-poor OECD
OECD
Better Life Index BLI Subjective life satisfaction Where-to-be-born Index Wikiprogress World Happiness Report
World Happiness Report
(WHR) World Values Survey (WVS)

Other

Economics Democracy Ranking Demographic economics Economic development Ethics of care Human Development and Capability Association Human Poverty
Poverty
Index Progress (history) Progressive utilization theory Post-materialism Psychometrics International Association for Feminist Economics International development Sustainable development System of National Accounts Welfare
Welfare
economics

References[edit]

^ http://hdr.undp.org/hdr2006/pdfs/report/Human_development_indicators.pdf

External links[edit]

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/understanding/indices/hpi/

UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME: Human Development Reports

http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_20072008_Tech_Note_1.pdf Human Development Reports 2007/2008 A map of world poverty that includes human poverty index Development Economics List of Global Development Indexes and Rankings

v t e

Deprivation and poverty indicators

Social

Topics:

Social exclusion Social vulnerability Relative deprivation Disadvantaged Fushūgaku Hikikomori Social determinants of health in poverty

Measures:

Social Progress Index

Psychological

Topics:

psychological poverty Poverty
Poverty
and mental health Social and psychological value of money

Economic

Topics:

Energy poverty Money-rich, time-poor Poverty
Poverty
threshold Secondary poverty Asset poverty Housing stress Income deficit Survival sex Debt bondage

Measures:

Below Poverty
Poverty
Line (India) Homeless Vulnerability Index Misery index (economics) Gini coefficient Genuine progress indicator
Genuine progress indicator
(GPI) Legatum Prosperity Index Poverty
Poverty
gap index

Physical

Topics:

Poverty
Poverty
and Violence Disability and poverty Food insecurity

Measures:

India State Hunger Index Global Hunger Index Disability-adjusted life year
Disability-adjusted life year
(DALYs) Global Peace Index
Global Peace Index
(GPI)

Complex measures

Human Poverty
Poverty
Index (HPI) Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) Multidimensional Poverty Index
Multidimensional Poverty Index
(MPI) Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) Laeken indicators (EU) Scottish index of multiple deprivation Townsend deprivation index Living Planet Index
Living Planet Index
(LPI) Progress out of Poverty
Poverty
Index

Gender

Topics:

Feminization of poverty

Measures:

Gender-related Development Index (GDI) Gender Parity Index

Other

Theories of poverty Well-being Welfare Wellness Quality of Life Self-perceived quality-of-life scale Subjective well-being
Subjective well-being
(SWB) Suboptimal health Stress Rural access issues Providing Urban Amenities to Rural Areas Post-materialism Pen's parade

v t e

Diseases of poverty

Diseases of poverty

AIDS Malaria Tuberculosis Measles Pneumonia Diarrheal diseases

Neglected diseases

Cholera Chagas disease African sleeping sickness Schistosomiasis Dracunculiasis River blindness Leishmaniasis Trachoma

Miscellaneous

Malnutrition Priority review voucher

v t e

Indices of Deprivation

National (general deprivation)

Carstairs index Index of Multiple Deprivation 2000 (IMD2000) Indices of deprivation 2004 (ID2004) Indices of deprivation 2007 (ID2007) Indices of deprivation 2010 (ID2010)

National (subject specific deprivation)

Underprivileged area score Department of Environment Index

Environment portal Category Commons Organizations

v t e

Economic classification of countries

Developed country Developing country Least Developed Countries World Bank high-income economy Newly industrialized country Heavily indebted poor countries

Three-World Model

First World Second World Third World Fourth World

Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
(GDP)

Nominal

By country

past and projected

per capita

per capita

Purchasing power parity (PPP)

By country

future estimates

per capita

per capita per hour worked per person employed

Gross national income (GNI)

(Nominal, Atlas method) per capita (PPP) per capita

Wages

Average wage

Europe by monthly average wage

Employee compensation (per hour) List of countries by median wage Minimum wages

Canada Europe United States

Wealth

Wealth per adult

Other national accounts

Gross National Happiness Net material product Research and development spending

Human development

Human Development Index

by country inequality-adjusted

Human Poverty
Poverty
Index Percentage living in poverty Social Progress Index

Digital divide

ICT Development Index Number of broadband Internet subscriptions Number of Internet users Smartphone penetration

Net international investment position (NIIP)

Per capita

v t e

Lists of countries by population statistics

Global

Current population Current population (United Nations)

(Sub-)Continents

Africa Asia Europe North America

Caribbean

Oceania South America

Intercontinental

Americas Arab world Commonwealth of Nations Eurasia European Union Islands Latin America Middle East

Cities/urban regions

National capitals Cities proper Metropolitan areas Urban areas Megacities Megalopolises

Past and future

Past population (United Nations) Past and future population 1 1000 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 1907 1939 1989 2000 2005 2010 Future population

Population density

Current density Current real density based on food growing capacity

Growth indicators

Population growth rate Natural increase Birth rate Mortality rate Fertility rate

Other demographics

Age at first marriage Divorce rate Ethnic and cultural diversity level Foreign-born population Immigrant population Linguistic diversity Median
Median
age Net migration rate Number of households Sex ratio Urban population Urbanization

Health

Antiviral medications for pandemic influenza HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
adult prevalence rate Infant and under-five mortality rates Life expectancy Percentage suffering from undernourishment Health
Health
expenditure covered by government Suicide rate Total health expenditure per capita Body Mass Index (BMI)

Education and innovation

Bloomberg Innovation Index Education Index International Innovation Index Innovation Union Scoreboard Literacy rate Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies Progress in International Reading Literacy Study Student skills Tertiary education attainment Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Women's average years in school World Intellectual Property Indicators

Economic

Development aid given

Official Development Assistance received

Employment rate Irrigated land area Human Development Index

by country inequality-adjusted

Human Poverty
Poverty
Index Imports Income equality Job security Labour force Number of millionaires (US dollars) Number of billionaires (US dollars) Percentage living in poverty Public sector Sen social welfare function Unemployment rate

List of international rankings List of top international rankings by countr

.