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The Holocaust in Ukraine took place in Reichskommissariat Ukraine during the occupation of the Soviet Ukraine by Nazi Germany in World War II.[6] Between 1941 and 1944 approximately 250,000 Jews amounting to 17 percent of the pre-Holocaust population of 1,500,000 Jewish men, women and children living in Ukrainian SSR were murdered as part of Generalplan Ost and the Final Solution extermination policies.[5][7] According to Yale historian Timothy D. Snyder, "the Holocaust is integrally and organically connected to the Vernichtungskrieg, to the war in 1941, and is organically and integrally connected to the attempt to conquer Ukraine."[8] An additional 3,000,000 inhabitants of Ukraine died as soldiers of the Soviet army or indirectly as a consequence of World War II.

Contents

1 Generalplan Ost

1.1 Death squads (1941–1943)

2 Collaboration in Ukraine 3 Executor units 4 Survivors 5 Rescuers 6 Massacres 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Generalplan Ost[edit]

A map of the Holocaust in Ukraine

Main articles: Generalplan Ost and Final Solution One of Hitler's ambitions at the start of the war was to exterminate, expel, or enslave most or all Slavs from their native lands so as to make living space for German settlers.[9] This plan of genocide[10] was to be carried into effect gradually over a period of 25–30 years.[11] According to historian William W. Hagen, "Generalplan Ost . . . forecast the diminution of the targeted east European peoples' populations by the following measures: Poles – 85 percent; Belarusians – 75 percent; Ukrainians – 65 percent; Czechs – 50 percent. ... The Russian people, once subjugated in war, would join the four Slavic-speaking nations whose fate Generalplan Ost foreshadowed."[9] Death squads (1941–1943)[edit]

A member of Einsatzgruppe D is about to shoot a man sitting by a mass grave in Vinnytsia, Ukraine in 1942. Present in the background are members of the German Army, the German Labor Service, and the Hitler Youth.[12] The back of the photograph is inscribed "The last Jew in Vinnitsa"

Main articles: Einsatzgruppen and Mass graves in the Soviet Union Total civilian losses during the war and German occupation in Ukraine are estimated at four million, including up to a million Jews who were murdered by the Einsatzgruppen and local Nazi collaborators. Einsatzgruppe C (SS-Gruppenführer Dr. Otto Rasch) was assigned to north and central Ukraine, and Einsatzgruppe D (SS-Gruppenführer Dr. Otto Ohlendorf) to Moldavia, south Ukraine, the Crimea, and, during 1942, the north Caucasus. According to Ohlendorf at his trial, "the Einsatzgruppen had the mission to protect the rear of the troops by killing the Jews, Romani, Communist functionaries, active Communists, uncooperative slavs, and all persons who would endanger the security." In practice, their victims were nearly all Jewish civilians (not a single Einsatzgruppe member was killed in action during these operations[citation needed]). The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum tells the story of one survivor of the Einsatzgruppen in Piryatin, Ukraine, when they killed 1,600 Jews on April 6, 1942, the second day of Passover:

I saw them do the killing. At 5:00 p.m. they gave the command, "Fill in the pits." Screams and groans were coming from the pits. Suddenly I saw my neighbor Ruderman rise from under the soil … His eyes were bloody and he was screaming: "Finish me off!" … A murdered woman lay at my feet. A boy of five years crawled out from under her body and began to scream desperately. "Mommy!" That was all I saw, since I fell unconscious.[12]

Jews digging their own graves. Storow, July 4, 1941

From September 16–30, 1941 the Nikolaev massacre in and around the city of Mykolaiv resulted in the deaths of 35,782 Soviet citizens, most of whom were Jews, as was reported to Hitler.[13] The most notorious massacre of Jews in Ukraine was at the Babi Yar ravine outside Kiev, where 33,771 Jews were killed in a single operation on September 29–30, 1941. (An amalgamation of 100,000 to 150,000 Ukrainian and other Soviet citizens were also killed in the following weeks). The mass killing of Jews in Kiev was decided on by the military governor Major-General Friedrich Eberhardt, the Police Commander for Army Group South (SS-Obergruppenführer Friedrich Jeckeln) and the Einsatzgruppe C Commander Otto Rasch. It was carried out by a mixture of SS, SD and Security Police, assisted by the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police. On the Monday, the Jews of Kiev gathered by the cemetery, expecting to be loaded onto trains. The crowd was large enough that most of the men, women, and children could not have known what was happening until it was too late: by the time they heard the machine-gun fire, there was no chance to escape. All were driven down a corridor of soldiers, in groups of ten, and then shot. A truck driver described the scene:

Jews of the city of Kiev and vicinity! On Monday, September 29, you are to appear by 08:00 a.m. with your possessions, money, documents, valuables, and warm clothing at Dorogozhitskaya Street, next to the Jewish cemetery. Failure to appear is punishable by death.

Order posted in Kiev in Russian and Ukrainian on or around September 26, 1941.[14]

[O]ne after the other, they had to remove their luggage, then their coats, shoes, and overgarments and also underwear … Once undressed, they were led into the ravine which was about 150 meters long and 30 meters wide and a good 15 meters deep … When they reached the bottom of the ravine they were seized by members of the Schutzmannschaft and made to lie down on top of Jews who had already been shot … The corpses were literally in layers. A police marksman came along and shot each Jew in the neck with a submachine gun … I saw these marksmen stand on layers of corpses and shoot one after the other … The marksman would walk across the bodies of the executed Jews to the next Jew, who had meanwhile lain down, and shoot him.[14]

Collaboration in Ukraine[edit] See also: Ukrainian collaborationism with the Axis powers The National Geographic reported: " A number of Ukrainians had collaborated: According to German historian Dieter Pohl (de), around 100,000 joined police units that provided key assistance to the Nazis. Many others staffed the local bureaucracies or lent a helping hand during mass shootings of Jews. Ukrainians, such as the infamous Ivan the Terrible of Treblinka, were also among the guards who manned the German Nazi death camps.”[15] According to The Simon Wiesenthal Center (in January 2011) "Ukraine has, to the best of our knowledge, never conducted a single investigation of a local Nazi war criminal, let alone prosecuted a Holocaust perpetrator."[16] According to the Israeli Holocaust historian Yitzhak Arad, "In January 1942 a company of Tatar volunteers was established in Simferopol under the command of Einsatzgruppe 11. This company participated in anti-Jewish manhunts and murder actions in the rural regions."[17] According to Timothy Snyder, "something that is never said, because its inconventient for precisely everyone, is that more Ukrainian Communists collaborated with the Germans, than did Ukrainian nationalists." As well, very many of those who collaborated with the German occupation, also collaborated Soviet policies of the 1930s.[18] Executor units[edit]

Einsatzgruppen C & D (Einsatzkommando) Abwehr/Brandemburg special saboteur unit Nachtigall Battalion Freiwilligen-Stamm-Regiment 3 & 4 (Russians & Ukrainians) Ukrainian auxiliary units:[19] Schutzmannschaft as well as Ukrainische Hilfspolizei

Survivors[edit]

Mina Rosner Roald Hoffmann Shevah Weiss

Lvov Ghetto, 1942

Simon Wiesenthal Adam Daniel Rotfeld Mordechai Rokeach Stefan Petelycky[20]

Rescuers[edit] Ukraine rates the 4th in the number of people recognized as "Righteous Among the Nations" for saving Jews during the Holocaust, with the total of 2,515 individuals recognized as of 1 January 2015.[21] The Shtundists, an evangelical Protestant denomination which emerged in late 19th century Ukraine, helped hide Jews.[22] Massacres[edit]

Babi Yar Bila Tserkva Dnipropetrovsk Feodosiya Ivano-Frankivsk Klevan Lviv pogroms Massacre of Lviv professors Mezhirichi Mizoch Nikolaev massacre Olyka Plyskiv Terebovl Zhytomyr

See also[edit]

Einsatzgruppen trial Gas van History of the Jews in Ukraine Hegewald, a short-lived German Colony near Zhytomyr No Place on Earth, a 2012 documentary film on a group of Ukrainian Jews who survived the height of The Holocaust in the Verteba and Priest's Grotto caves

References[edit]

^ Grzegorz,, Rossolinski, (2014). Stepan Bandera : the life and afterlife of a Ukrainian nationalist : Fascism, genocide, and cult. Stuttgart, Germany: Ibidem-Verlag. ISBN 9783838206868. OCLC 880566030.  ^ 1926-, Arad, Yitzhak, (2009). Holocaust in the Soviet Union. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. p. 89. ISBN 9780803222700. OCLC 466441935.  ^ "Nazikollaborateur als neuer Held der Ukraine - Jüdische Gemeinde zu Berlin". www.jg-berlin.org (in German). Retrieved 2018-01-05.  ^ Himka, John-Paul. "The Lviv Pogrom of 1941: The Germans, Ukrainian Nationalists, and the Carnival Crowd".  ^ a b c Dawidowicz, Lucy S. (1986). The war against the Jews, 1933–1945. New York: Bantam Books. p. 403. ISBN 0-553-34302-5.  ^ Gregorovich, Andrew (1995). "World War II in Ukraine: Jewish Holocaust in Ukraine". Reprinted from FORUM Ukrainian Review (92).  ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine. University of Toronto Press. p. 633. ISBN 9780802078209.  ^ "Timothy Snyder: Germany must own up to past atrocities in Ukraine". Retrieved 5 July 2017.  ^ a b Hagen WW (2012). German History in Modern Times: Four Lives of the Nation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 313.  ^ DIETRICH EICHHOLTZ "»Generalplan Ost« zur Versklavung osteuropäischer Völker" [1] ^ Madajczyk, Czesław. "Die Besatzungssysteme der Achsenmächte. Versuch einer komparatistischen Analyse." Studia Historiae Oeconomicae vol. 14 (1980): pp. 105-122 [2] in Hitler's War in the East, 1941-1945: A Critical Assessment by Gerd R. Ueberschär and Rolf-Dieter Müller [3] ^ a b Berenbaum, Michael (2006). The World Must Know. Contributors: Arnold Kramer, USHMM (2nd ed.). USHMM / Johns Hopkins Univ Press. ISBN 978-0801883583.  P. 93. ^ Hemme, Amira Lapidot (2012). "Jewish History of Mykolayiv (Nikolayev), Kherson Gubernia". JewishGen. Retrieved 29 December 2014.  ^ a b Berenbaum 2006, pp. 97-8. ^ ”President Putin Has Called Ukraine a Hotbed of Anti-Semites. It's Not.". National Geographic. May 30, 2014 ^ Nazi-hunters give low grades to 13 countries, including Ukraine, Kyiv Post (January 12, 2011) ^ Arad, Yitzhak (2009). The Holocaust in the Soviet Union. U of Nebraska Press. p. 211. ISBN 0-8032-2270-X.  ^ Germans must remember the truth about Ukraine – for their own sake, Eurozine (7 July 2017) ^ "Mobile Killing Squads". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) ^ Petelycky, Stefan (1999). Into Auschwitz, for Ukraine (PDF). Kashtan Press. ISBN 978-1-896354-16-3.  ^ "Names and Numbers of Righteous Among the Nations - per Country & Ethnic Origin, as of January 1, 2015". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 12 December 2015.  ^ Snyder, Timothy (2015). Black Earth: The Holocaust as History and Warning. Crown/Archetype. p. 328. ISBN 978-1-101-90346-9. 

External links[edit]

The Holocaust in Ukraine: New Sources and Perspectives, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Conference Papers, 2013 Holocaust, Fascism, and Ukrainian History: Does It Make Sense to Rethink the History of Ukrainian Perpetrators in the European Context, published by the American Association for Polish-Jewish Studies, April 2016.

v t e

The Holocaust in Ukraine

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia

Crimes

Babi Yar Bila Tserkva massacre Drobytsky Yar Drohobych Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa Pripyat Swamps

Major perpetrators

Paul Blobel Werner Braune Kurt Eberhard Lothar Fendler Hans Frank Günther Herrmann Friedrich Jeckeln Ernst Kaltenbrunner Fritz Katzmann Erich Koch Felix Landau Gustav Adolf Nosske Otto Ohlendorf Paul Otto Radomski Otto Rasch Walter Schimana Karl Eberhard Schöngarth Erwin Schulz Heinrich Seetzen Otto Wächter Dieter Wisliceny

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiment South Reichskommissariat Ukraine

Collaborators

Individuals John Demjanjuk Feodor Fedorenko Anatoliy Kabayda Vladimir Katriuk Oleksander Ohloblyn Hryhoriy Vasiura Petro Voinovsky Petro Zakhvalynsky

Organizations Schutzmannschaft Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Nachtigall Battalion

Ghettos, camps and prisons

Bogdanovka Drohobych Ghetto Syrets concentration camp Vapniarka concentration camp

Resistance and survivors

Priest's Grotto Syrets inmate revolt

Planning, methods, documents and evidence

Planning Generalplan Ost Volksliste

Evidence Graebe affidavit

Concealment and denial

Sonderaktion 1005

Investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen trial Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Klymentiy Sheptytsky Omelyan Kovch Hermann Friedrich Graebe

Memorials

Babi Yar memorials List of Babi Yar victims

See also History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia Transnistria Governorate

v t e

The Holocaust

By territory

Albania Belarus Belgium Channel Islands Croatia Estonia France Norway Latvia Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Poland Russia Serbia Ukraine

Lists and timelines

Victims of Nazism Holocaust survivors Survivors of Sobibór Victims and survivors of Auschwitz

Books and other resources Films about the Holocaust Nazi concentration camps Nazi ideologues Rescuers of Jews Shtetls depopulated of Jews Timeline of deportations of French Jews Timeline of the Holocaust Timeline of the Holocaust in Norway Treblinka timeline

Camps

Concentration

Bergen-Belsen Bogdanovka Buchenwald Dachau Danica Dora Đakovo Esterwegen Flossenbürg Gonars Gospić Gross-Rosen Herzogenbusch Jadovno Janowska Kaiserwald Kraków-Płaszów Kruščica Lobor Mauthausen-Gusen Neuengamme Rab Ravensbrück Sachsenhausen Salaspils Sisak children's camp Stutthof Tenja Theresienstadt Topovske Šupe Uckermark Warsaw

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Bełżec Chełmno Jasenovac Majdanek Maly Trostenets Sajmište Slana Sobibór Treblinka

Transit

be Breendonk Mechelen fr Gurs Drancy it Bolzano Risiera di San Sabba nl Amersfoort Schoorl Westerbork

Methods

Einsatzgruppen Gas van Gas chamber Extermination through labour Human medical experimentation

Nazi units

SS-Totenkopfverbände Concentration Camps Inspectorate Politische Abteilung Sanitätswesen

Victims

Jews

Roundups

fr Izieu Marseille Vel' d'Hiv

Pogroms

Kristallnacht Bucharest Dorohoi Iaşi Jedwabne Kaunas Lviv Odessa Tykocin Wąsosz

Ghettos

Poland

Białystok Kraków Łódź Lublin Lwów Warsaw

Elsewhere

Budapest Kovno Minsk Riga Vilna

"Final Solution"

Wannsee Conference Operation Reinhard Holocaust trains Extermination camps

Einsatzgruppen

Babi Yar Bydgoszcz Kamianets-Podilskyi Ninth Fort Piaśnica Ponary Rumbula Erntefest

Resistance

Jewish partisans Ghetto uprisings

Warsaw Białystok Częstochowa

End of World War II

Death marches Wola Bricha Displaced persons Holocaust denial

trivialization

Others

Romani people (gypsies) Poles Soviet POWs Slavs in Eastern Europe Homosexuals People with disabilities Serbs Freemasons Jehovah's Witnesses Black people

Responsibility

Organizations

Nazi Party Schutzstaffel (SS) Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) Sicherheitsdienst (SD) Waffen-SS Wehrmacht

Units

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiments Orpo Police Battalions

Collaborators

Ypatingasis būrys Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann Arajs Kommando Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Trawnikis Nederlandsche SS Special Brigades

Individuals

Major perpetrators Nazi ideologues

Early elements Aftermath Remembrance

Early elements

Nazi racial policy Nazi eugenics Nuremberg Laws Haavara Agreement Madagascar Plan Forced euthanasia (Action T4)

Nuremberg trials Denazification Holocaust survivors

Survivor guilt

Reparations

Remembrance

Days of remembrance Memorials an

.