The HOLOCAUST IN UKRAINE took place in Reichskommissariat Ukraine
during the occupation of the Soviet
Nazi Germany in World
War II. Between 1941 and 1944 approximately 900,000 Jews amounting to
60 percent of the pre-Holocaust population of 1,500,000 Jewish men,
women and children living in
Ukrainian SSR were murdered as part of
Generalplan Ost and the
Final Solution extermination policies.
According to Yale historian
Timothy D. Snyder
Timothy D. Snyder , "the Holocaust is
integrally and organically connected to the Vernichtungskrieg, to the
war in 1941, and is organically and integrally connected to the
attempt to conquer Ukraine." An additional 3,000,000 inhabitants of
Ukraine died as soldiers of the Soviet army or indirectly as a
consequence of World War II.
* 1.1 Death squads (1941–1943)
* 2 Collaboration in
* 3 Executor units
* 4 Survivors
* 5 Rescuers
* 6 Massacres
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 External links
A map of the Holocaust in
Ukraine Main articles: Generalplan
One of Hitler's ambitions at the start of the war was to exterminate,
expel, or enslave most or all Slavs from their native lands so as to
make living space for German settlers. This plan of genocide was to
be carried into effect gradually over a period of 25–30 years.
According to historian
William W. Hagen , "
Generalplan Ost . . .
forecast the diminution of the targeted east European peoples'
populations by the following measures: Poles – 85 percent;
Belarusians – 75 percent; Ukrainians – 65 percent; Czechs – 50
percent. ... The Russian people, once subjugated in war, would join
the four Slavic-speaking nations whose fate Generalplan Ost
DEATH SQUADS (1941–1943)
A member of
Einsatzgruppe D is about to shoot a man sitting by a
mass grave in
Ukraine in 1942. Present in the background
are members of the German Army , the
German Labor Service , and the
Hitler Youth . The back of the photograph is inscribed "The last Jew
in Vinnitsa" Main articles:
Einsatzgruppen and Mass graves in the
Total civilian losses during the war and German occupation in Ukraine
are estimated at four million, including up to a million Jews who were
murdered by the
Einsatzgruppen and local Nazi collaborators.
Einsatzgruppe C (SS-Gruppenführer Dr.
Otto Rasch ) was assigned to
north and central Ukraine, and
Einsatzgruppe D (SS-Gruppenführer Dr.
Otto Ohlendorf ) to Moldavia, south Ukraine, the
Crimea , and, during
1942, the north
Caucasus . According to Ohlendorf at his trial , "the
Einsatzgruppen had the mission to protect the rear of the troops by
killing the Jews, Romani, Communist functionaries, active Communists,
uncooperative slavs, and all persons who would endanger the security."
In practice, their victims were nearly all Jewish civilians (not a
single Einsatzgruppe member was killed in action during these
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum tells the
story of one survivor of the
when they killed 1,600 Jews on April 6, 1942, the second day of
I saw them do the killing. At 5:00 p.m. they gave the command, "Fill
in the pits." Screams and groans were coming from the pits. Suddenly I
saw my neighbor Ruderman rise from under the soil … His eyes were
bloody and he was screaming: "Finish me off!" … A murdered woman lay
at my feet. A boy of five years crawled out from under her body and
began to scream desperately. "Mommy!" That was all I saw, since I fell
unconscious. Jews digging their own graves. Storow, July 4,
From September 16–30, 1941 the
Nikolaev massacre in and around the
Mykolaiv resulted in the deaths of 35,782 Soviet citizens,
most of whom were Jews, as was reported to
The most notorious massacre of Jews in
Ukraine was at the Babi Yar
Kiev , where 33,771 Jews were killed in a single
operation on September 29–30, 1941. (An amalgamation of 100,000 to
150,000 Ukrainian and other Soviet citizens were also killed in the
following weeks). The mass killing of Jews in
Kiev was decided on by
the military governor Major-General Friedrich Eberhardt, the Police
Commander for Army Group South (SS-Obergruppenführer Friedrich
Jeckeln ) and the
Einsatzgruppe C Commander Otto Rasch. It was carried
out by a mixture of SS, SD and Security Police, assisted by the
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police . On the Monday, the Jews of
by the cemetery , expecting to be loaded onto trains. The crowd was
large enough that most of the men, women, and children could not have
known what was happening until it was too late: by the time they heard
the machine-gun fire, there was no chance to escape. All were driven
down a corridor of soldiers, in groups of ten, and then shot. A truck
driver described the scene: Jews of the city of
Kiev and vicinity!
On Monday, September 29, you are to appear by 08:00 a.m. with your
possessions, money, documents, valuables, and warm clothing at
Dorogozhitskaya Street, next to the Jewish cemetery. Failure to appear
is punishable by death. Order posted in
Kiev in Russian and Ukrainian
on or around September 26, 1941.
ne after the other, they had to remove their luggage, then their
coats, shoes, and overgarments and also underwear … Once undressed,
they were led into the ravine which was about 150 meters long and 30
meters wide and a good 15 meters deep … When they reached the bottom
of the ravine they were seized by members of the
made to lie down on top of Jews who had already been shot … The
corpses were literally in layers. A police marksman came along and
shot each Jew in the neck with a submachine gun … I saw these
marksmen stand on layers of corpses and shoot one after the other …
The marksman would walk across the bodies of the executed Jews to the
next Jew, who had meanwhile lain down, and shoot him.
COLLABORATION IN UKRAINE
Ukrainian collaborationism with the Axis powers
The National Geographic reported: " A number of Ukrainians had
collaborated: According to German historian Dieter Pohl (de), around
100,000 joined police units that provided key assistance to the Nazis.
Many others staffed the local bureaucracies or lent a helping hand
during mass shootings of Jews. Ukrainians, such as the infamous Ivan
the Terrible of
Treblinka , were also among the guards who manned the
German Nazi death camps.”
The Simon Wiesenthal Center (in January 2011) "Ukraine
has, to the best of our knowledge, never conducted a single
investigation of a local Nazi war criminal, let alone prosecuted a
According to the Israeli Holocaust historian
Yitzhak Arad , "In
January 1942 a company of Tatar volunteers was established in
Simferopol under the command of Einsatzgruppe 11 . This company
participated in anti-Jewish manhunts and murder actions in the rural
Timothy Snyder , "something that is never said, because
its inconventient for precisely everyone, is that more Ukrainian
Communists collaborated with the Germans, than did Ukrainian
nationalists." As well, very many of those who collaborated with the
German occupation, also collaborated Soviet policies of the 1930s.
Einsatzgruppen C & D (
* Abwehr/Brandemburg special saboteur unit
* Freiwilligen-Stamm-Regiment 3 & 4 (Russians ">
Lvov Ghetto ,
Adam Daniel Rotfeld
Adam Daniel Rotfeld
* Stefan Petelycky
Ukraine rates the 4th in the number of people recognized as
Righteous Among the Nations " for saving Jews during the Holocaust,
with the total of 2,515 individuals recognized as of 1 January 2015.
Shtundists , an evangelical Protestant denomination which emerged
in late 19th century Ukraine, helped hide Jews.
* Bila Tserkva
Massacre of Lviv professors
* History of the Jews in
* Hegewald , a short-lived German Colony near Zhytomyr
No Place on Earth , a 2012 documentary film on a group of
Ukrainian Jews who survived the height of
The Holocaust in the Verteba
and Priest\'s Grotto caves
* ^ Grzegorz,, Rossolinski, (2014). Stepan Bandera : the life and
afterlife of a Ukrainian nationalist : Fascism, genocide, and cult.
Stuttgart, Germany: Ibidem-Verlag. ISBN 9783838206868 .
* ^ 1926-, Arad, Yitzhak, (2009). Holocaust in the Soviet Union.
Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. p. 89. ISBN 9780803222700 .
OCLC 466441935 .
* ^ "Nazikollaborateur als neuer Held der
Ukraine - Jüdische
Gemeinde zu Berlin". www.jg-berlin.org (in German). Retrieved
* ^ Himka, John-Paul. "The Lviv Pogrom of 1941: The Germans,
Ukrainian Nationalists, and the Carnival Crowd".
* ^ A B C Dawidowicz, Lucy S. (1986). The war against the Jews,
1933–1945. New York: Bantam Books. p. 403. ISBN 0-553-34302-5 .
* ^ Gregorovich, Andrew (1995). "World War II in Ukraine: Jewish
Holocaust in Ukraine". Reprinted from FORUM Ukrainian Review (92).
* ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine. University
of Toronto Press. p. 633. ISBN 9780802078209 .
* ^ "Timothy Snyder: Germany must own up to past atrocities in
Ukraine". Retrieved 5 July 2017.
* ^ A B Hagen WW (2012). German History in Modern Times: Four Lives
of the Nation. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press . p. 313.
* ^ DIETRICH EICHHOLTZ "»Generalplan Ost« zur Versklavung
* ^ Madajczyk, Czesław. "Die Besatzungssysteme der Achsenmächte.
Versuch einer komparatistischen Analyse." Studia Historiae Oeconomicae
vol. 14 (1980): pp. 105-122 in Hitler\'s War in the East, 1941-1945 :
A Critical Assessment by
Gerd R. Ueberschär and Rolf-Dieter Müller
* ^ A B Berenbaum, Michael (2006). The World Must Know.
Contributors: Arnold Kramer, USHMM (2nd ed.). USHMM / Johns Hopkins
Univ Press. ISBN 978-0801883583 . P. 93.
* ^ Hemme, Amira Lapidot (2012). "Jewish History of Mykolayiv
(Nikolayev), Kherson Gubernia".
JewishGen . Retrieved 29 December
* ^ A B Berenbaum 2006 , pp. 97-8.
* ^ ”President Putin Has Called
Ukraine a Hotbed of Anti-Semites.
It\'s Not.". National Geographic . May 30, 2014
* ^ Nazi-hunters give low grades to 13 countries, including
Kyiv Post (January 12, 2011)
* ^ Arad, Yitzhak (2009).
The Holocaust in the Soviet Union. U of
Nebraska Press. p. 211. ISBN 0-8032-2270-X .
* ^ Germans must remember the truth about
Ukraine – for their own
Eurozine (7 July 2017)
* ^ "Mobile Killing Squads". United States Holocaust Memorial
* ^ Petelycky, Stefan (1999). Into Auschwitz, for
Kashtan Press. ISBN 978-1-896354-16-3 .
* ^ "Names and Numbers of
Righteous Among the Nations - per Country
& Ethnic Origin, as of January 1, 2015". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 12
* ^ Snyder, Timothy (2015). Black Earth:
The Holocaust as History
and Warning. Crown/Archetype. p. 328. ISBN 978-1-101-90346-9 .
The Holocaust in Ukraine: New