ListMoto - Holocaust In Ukraine

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The HOLOCAUST IN UKRAINE took place in Reichskommissariat Ukraine during the occupation of the Soviet Ukraine
by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in World War II. Between 1941 and 1944 approximately 900,000 Jews amounting to 60 percent of the pre-Holocaust population of 1,500,000 Jewish men, women and children living in Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
were murdered as part of Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
and the Final Solution
Final Solution
extermination policies.

According to Yale historian Timothy D. Snyder
Timothy D. Snyder
, "the Holocaust is integrally and organically connected to the Vernichtungskrieg, to the war in 1941, and is organically and integrally connected to the attempt to conquer Ukraine." An additional 3,000,000 inhabitants of Ukraine
died as soldiers of the Soviet army or indirectly as a consequence of World War II.


* 1 Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost

* 1.1 Death squads (1941–1943)

* 2 Collaboration in Ukraine
* 3 Executor units * 4 Survivors * 5 Rescuers * 6 Massacres * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links


A map of the Holocaust in Ukraine
Main articles: Generalplan Ost and Final Solution
Final Solution

One of Hitler's ambitions at the start of the war was to exterminate, expel, or enslave most or all Slavs from their native lands so as to make living space for German settlers. This plan of genocide was to be carried into effect gradually over a period of 25–30 years.

According to historian William W. Hagen , " Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
. . . forecast the diminution of the targeted east European peoples' populations by the following measures: Poles – 85 percent; Belarusians – 75 percent; Ukrainians – 65 percent; Czechs – 50 percent. ... The Russian people, once subjugated in war, would join the four Slavic-speaking nations whose fate Generalplan Ost foreshadowed."

DEATH SQUADS (1941–1943)

A member of Einsatzgruppe D is about to shoot a man sitting by a mass grave in Vinnytsia
, Ukraine
in 1942. Present in the background are members of the German Army , the German Labor Service , and the Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth
. The back of the photograph is inscribed "The last Jew in Vinnitsa" Main articles: Einsatzgruppen
and Mass graves in the Soviet Union

Total civilian losses during the war and German occupation in Ukraine are estimated at four million, including up to a million Jews who were murdered by the Einsatzgruppen
and local Nazi collaborators. Einsatzgruppe C (SS-Gruppenführer Dr. Otto Rasch
Otto Rasch
) was assigned to north and central Ukraine, and Einsatzgruppe D (SS-Gruppenführer Dr. Otto Ohlendorf
Otto Ohlendorf
) to Moldavia, south Ukraine, the Crimea
, and, during 1942, the north Caucasus
. According to Ohlendorf at his trial , "the Einsatzgruppen
had the mission to protect the rear of the troops by killing the Jews, Romani, Communist functionaries, active Communists, uncooperative slavs, and all persons who would endanger the security." In practice, their victims were nearly all Jewish civilians (not a single Einsatzgruppe member was killed in action during these operations). The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
tells the story of one survivor of the Einsatzgruppen
in Piryatin
, Ukraine
, when they killed 1,600 Jews on April 6, 1942, the second day of Passover

I saw them do the killing. At 5:00 p.m. they gave the command, "Fill in the pits." Screams and groans were coming from the pits. Suddenly I saw my neighbor Ruderman rise from under the soil … His eyes were bloody and he was screaming: "Finish me off!" … A murdered woman lay at my feet. A boy of five years crawled out from under her body and began to scream desperately. "Mommy!" That was all I saw, since I fell unconscious. Jews digging their own graves. Storow, July 4, 1941

From September 16–30, 1941 the Nikolaev massacre in and around the city of Mykolaiv
resulted in the deaths of 35,782 Soviet citizens, most of whom were Jews, as was reported to Hitler

The most notorious massacre of Jews in Ukraine
was at the Babi Yar ravine outside Kiev
, where 33,771 Jews were killed in a single operation on September 29–30, 1941. (An amalgamation of 100,000 to 150,000 Ukrainian and other Soviet citizens were also killed in the following weeks). The mass killing of Jews in Kiev
was decided on by the military governor Major-General Friedrich Eberhardt, the Police Commander for Army Group South (SS-Obergruppenführer Friedrich Jeckeln ) and the Einsatzgruppe C Commander Otto Rasch. It was carried out by a mixture of SS, SD and Security Police, assisted by the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
. On the Monday, the Jews of Kiev
gathered by the cemetery , expecting to be loaded onto trains. The crowd was large enough that most of the men, women, and children could not have known what was happening until it was too late: by the time they heard the machine-gun fire, there was no chance to escape. All were driven down a corridor of soldiers, in groups of ten, and then shot. A truck driver described the scene: Jews of the city of Kiev
and vicinity! On Monday, September 29, you are to appear by 08:00 a.m. with your possessions, money, documents, valuables, and warm clothing at Dorogozhitskaya Street, next to the Jewish cemetery. Failure to appear is punishable by death. Order posted in Kiev
in Russian and Ukrainian on or around September 26, 1941.

ne after the other, they had to remove their luggage, then their coats, shoes, and overgarments and also underwear … Once undressed, they were led into the ravine which was about 150 meters long and 30 meters wide and a good 15 meters deep … When they reached the bottom of the ravine they were seized by members of the Schutzmannschaft
and made to lie down on top of Jews who had already been shot … The corpses were literally in layers. A police marksman came along and shot each Jew in the neck with a submachine gun … I saw these marksmen stand on layers of corpses and shoot one after the other … The marksman would walk across the bodies of the executed Jews to the next Jew, who had meanwhile lain down, and shoot him.


See also: Ukrainian collaborationism with the Axis powers

The National Geographic reported: " A number of Ukrainians had collaborated: According to German historian Dieter Pohl (de), around 100,000 joined police units that provided key assistance to the Nazis. Many others staffed the local bureaucracies or lent a helping hand during mass shootings of Jews. Ukrainians, such as the infamous Ivan the Terrible of Treblinka
, were also among the guards who manned the German Nazi death camps.”

According to The Simon Wiesenthal Center (in January 2011) "Ukraine has, to the best of our knowledge, never conducted a single investigation of a local Nazi war criminal, let alone prosecuted a Holocaust perpetrator."

According to the Israeli Holocaust historian Yitzhak Arad
Yitzhak Arad
, "In January 1942 a company of Tatar volunteers was established in Simferopol under the command of Einsatzgruppe 11 . This company participated in anti-Jewish manhunts and murder actions in the rural regions."

According to Timothy Snyder
Timothy Snyder
, "something that is never said, because its inconventient for precisely everyone, is that more Ukrainian Communists collaborated with the Germans, than did Ukrainian nationalists." As well, very many of those who collaborated with the German occupation, also collaborated Soviet policies of the 1930s.


* Einsatzgruppen
C & D ( Einsatzkommando
) * Abwehr/Brandemburg special saboteur unit Nachtigall Battalion
Nachtigall Battalion
* Freiwilligen-Stamm-Regiment 3 & 4 (Russians "> Lvov Ghetto
Lvov Ghetto
, 1942 * Simon Wiesenthal
Simon Wiesenthal
* Adam Daniel Rotfeld
Adam Daniel Rotfeld
* Mordechai Rokeach
Mordechai Rokeach
* Stefan Petelycky


rates the 4th in the number of people recognized as " Righteous Among the Nations " for saving Jews during the Holocaust, with the total of 2,515 individuals recognized as of 1 January 2015.

The Shtundists , an evangelical Protestant denomination which emerged in late 19th century Ukraine, helped hide Jews.


* Babi Yar
Babi Yar
* Bila Tserkva * Dnipropetrovsk * Feodosiya * Ivano-Frankivsk * Klevan * Lviv pogroms
Lviv pogroms
* Massacre of Lviv professors * Mezhirichi * Mizoch * Nikolaev massacre * Olyka * Plyskiv * Terebovl
* Zhytomyr


* Einsatzgruppen
trial * Gas van
Gas van
* History of the Jews in Ukraine
* Hegewald , a short-lived German Colony near Zhytomyr * No Place on Earth , a 2012 documentary film on a group of Ukrainian Jews who survived the height of The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in the Verteba and Priest\'s Grotto caves


* ^ Grzegorz,, Rossolinski, (2014). Stepan Bandera : the life and afterlife of a Ukrainian nationalist : Fascism, genocide, and cult. Stuttgart, Germany: Ibidem-Verlag. ISBN 9783838206868 . OCLC
880566030 . * ^ 1926-, Arad, Yitzhak, (2009). Holocaust in the Soviet Union. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. p. 89. ISBN 9780803222700 . OCLC
466441935 . * ^ "Nazikollaborateur als neuer Held der Ukraine
- Jüdische Gemeinde zu Berlin". www.jg-berlin.org (in German). Retrieved 2018-01-05. * ^ Himka, John-Paul. "The Lviv Pogrom of 1941: The Germans, Ukrainian Nationalists, and the Carnival Crowd". * ^ A B C Dawidowicz, Lucy S. (1986). The war against the Jews, 1933–1945. New York: Bantam Books. p. 403. ISBN 0-553-34302-5 . * ^ Gregorovich, Andrew (1995). "World War II in Ukraine: Jewish Holocaust in Ukraine". Reprinted from FORUM Ukrainian Review (92). * ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine. University of Toronto Press. p. 633. ISBN 9780802078209 . * ^ "Timothy Snyder: Germany must own up to past atrocities in Ukraine". Retrieved 5 July 2017. * ^ A B Hagen WW (2012). German History in Modern Times: Four Lives of the Nation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. p. 313. * ^ DIETRICH EICHHOLTZ "»Generalplan Ost« zur Versklavung osteuropäischer Völker" * ^ Madajczyk, Czesław. "Die Besatzungssysteme der Achsenmächte. Versuch einer komparatistischen Analyse." Studia Historiae Oeconomicae vol. 14 (1980): pp. 105-122 in Hitler\'s War in the East, 1941-1945 : A Critical Assessment by Gerd R. Ueberschär and Rolf-Dieter Müller * ^ A B Berenbaum, Michael (2006). The World Must Know. Contributors: Arnold Kramer, USHMM (2nd ed.). USHMM / Johns Hopkins Univ Press. ISBN 978-0801883583 . P. 93. * ^ Hemme, Amira Lapidot (2012). "Jewish History of Mykolayiv (Nikolayev), Kherson Gubernia". JewishGen
. Retrieved 29 December 2014. * ^ A B Berenbaum 2006 , pp. 97-8. * ^ ”President Putin Has Called Ukraine
a Hotbed of Anti-Semites. It\'s Not.". National Geographic . May 30, 2014 * ^ Nazi-hunters give low grades to 13 countries, including Ukraine, Kyiv Post (January 12, 2011) * ^ Arad, Yitzhak (2009). The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in the Soviet Union. U of Nebraska Press. p. 211. ISBN 0-8032-2270-X . * ^ Germans must remember the truth about Ukraine
– for their own sake, Eurozine (7 July 2017) * ^ "Mobile Killing Squads". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) * ^ Petelycky, Stefan (1999). Into Auschwitz, for Ukraine
(PDF). Kashtan Press. ISBN 978-1-896354-16-3 . * ^ "Names and Numbers of Righteous Among the Nations - per Country & Ethnic Origin, as of January 1, 2015". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 12 December 2015. * ^ Snyder, Timothy (2015). Black Earth: The Holocaust
The Holocaust
as History and Warning. Crown/Archetype. p. 328. ISBN 978-1-101-90346-9 .


* The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Ukraine: New