Hokkaido (北海道, Hokkaidō, literally "Northern Sea Circuit")
(Japanese: [hokkaꜜidoː] ( listen)), formerly known
as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan,
and the largest and northernmost prefecture. The Tsugaru Strait
Hokkaido from Honshu. The two islands are connected by
the undersea railway Seikan Tunnel. The largest city on
its capital, Sapporo, which is also its only ordinance-designated
city. About 43 km north of
Sakhalin Island, Russia,
whereas to its east and north-east are the disputed Kuril Islands.
1.1 Naming of Hokkaido
2.1 Seismic activity
2.2 National parks and quasi-national parks
5 Major cities and towns
10.1 American football
10.2 Association football
10.5 Ice hockey
11 Winter festivals
12 International relations
13.3 National representation
14 See also
17 External links
Hokkaido was settled by the Ainu, Nivkh, and Orok before recorded
history. The Nihon Shoki, finished in 720 AD, is often said to be
the first mention of
Hokkaido in recorded history. According to the
text, Abe no Hirafu led a large navy and army to northern areas
from 658 to 660 and came into contact with the
Mishihase and Emishi.
One of the places Hirafu went to was called Watarishima (渡島),
which is often believed to be present-day Hokkaido. However, many
theories exist in relation to the details of this event, including the
location of Watarishima and the common belief that the
Watarishima were the ancestors of the present-day Ainu people.
During the Nara and Heian periods (710–1185), people in Hokkaido
conducted trade with Dewa Province, an outpost of the Japanese central
government. From the Middle Ages, the people in
Hokkaido began to be
called Ezo. Hokkaido, formerly known as Ezochi Ezochi (蝦夷地,
lit. "Ezo-land") or Ezogashima (蝦夷ヶ島, lit. "Island of the
Ezo mainly relied upon hunting and fishing and obtained
rice and iron through trade with the Japanese.
Muromachi period (1336–1573), the Japanese created a
settlement at the south of the Oshima Peninsula. As more people moved
to the settlement to avoid battles, disputes arose between the
Japanese and the Ainu. The disputes eventually developed into a war.
Takeda Nobuhiro killed the Ainu leader, Koshamain, and defeated the
opposition in 1457. Nobuhiro's descendants became the rulers of the
Matsumae-han, which was granted exclusive trading rights with the Ainu
in the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods (1568–1868). The Matsumae
family's economy relied upon trade with the Ainu. They held authority
over the south of Ezochi until the end of the
Edo period in 1868.
Matsumae clan rule over the Ainu must be understood in the context
of the expansion of the Japanese feudal state. Medieval military
leaders in northern Honshū (ex. Northern Fujiwara, Akita clan)
maintained only tenuous political and cultural ties to the imperial
court and its proxies, the
Kamakura Shogunate and Ashikaga Shogunate.
Feudal strongmen sometimes located themselves within medieval
institutional order, taking shogunal titles, while in other times they
assumed titles that seemed to give them a non-Japanese identity. In
fact many of the feudal strongmen were descended from
leaders who had been assimilated into Japanese society. The
Matsumae clan were of Yamato descent like other ethnic Japanese
people, whereas the
Emishi of northern
Honshu were a distinctive group
related to the Ainu. The
Emishi were conquered and integrated into the
Japanese state dating back as far as the 8th century, and as result
began to lose their distinctive culture and ethnicity as they became
minorities. By the time the
Matsumae clan ruled over the Ainu most of
Emishi were ethnically mixed and physically closer to Japanese
than they were to Ainu. This dovetails nicely with the
"transformation" theory that native
Jōmon peoples changed gradually
with the infusion of Yayoi immigrants into the Tōhoku rather than the
"replacement" theory which posits that one population (Jōmon) was
replaced by another (Yayoi).
Matsumae Takahiro, a Matsumae lord of the late Edo period. December
10, 1829 – June 9, 1866
There were numerous revolts by the Ainu against feudal rule. The last
large-scale resistance was
Shakushain's Revolt in 1669–1672. In
1789, a smaller movement, the Menashi-Kunashir Rebellion, was also
crushed. After that rebellion the terms "Japanese" and "Ainu" referred
to clearly distinguished groups, and the Matsumae were unequivocally
Japanese. In 1799–1821 and 1855–1858, the Edo Shogunate took
direct control over
Hokkaido in response to a perceived threat from
Leading up to the Meiji Restoration, the
Tokugawa Shogunate realized
there was a need to prepare northern defenses against a possible
Russian invasion and took over control of most of Ezochi. The
Shogunate made the plight of the Ainu slightly easier, but did not
change the overall form of rule.
Hokkaido was known as Ezochi until the Meiji Restoration. Shortly
Boshin War in 1868, a group of Tokugawa loyalists led by
Enomoto Takeaki temporarily occupied the island (the polity is
commonly but mistakenly known as the Republic of Ezo), but the
rebellion was crushed in May 1869. Ezochi was subsequently put under
control of Hakodate-fu (箱館府), Hakodate Prefectural Government.
When establishing the Development Commission (開拓使, Kaitakushi),
the Meiji Government introduced a new name. After 1869, the northern
Japanese island was known as Hokkaido; and regional subdivisions
were established, including the provinces of Oshima, Shiribeshi,
Iburi, Ishikari, Teshio, Kitami, Hidaka, Tokachi, Kushiro, Nemuro and
The Ainu are Hokkaido's indigenous people
The primary purpose of the development commission was to secure
Hokkaido before the Russians extended their control of the Far East
Kuroda Kiyotaka was put in charge of the venture.
His first step was to journey to the
United States and recruit Horace
Capron, President Grant's Commissioner of Agriculture. From 1871 to
1873 Capron bent his efforts to expounding Western agriculture and
mining with mixed results. Capron, frustrated with obstacles to his
efforts returned home in 1875. In 1876,
William S. Clark
William S. Clark arrived to
found an agricultural college in Sapporo. Although he only remained a
year, Clark left lasting impression on Hokkaido, inspiring the
Japanese with his teachings on agriculture as well as Christianity.
His parting words, "Boys, be ambitious!", can be found on public
Hokkaido to this day. The population of
from 58,000 to 240,000 during that decade.
In 1882, the Development Commission was abolished. Transportation on
the island was still underdeveloped, so the prefecture was split into
several "sub-prefectures" (支庁 shichō), namely Hakodate Prefecture
Sapporo Prefecture (札幌県,
Sapporo-ken), and Nemuro Prefecture (根室県, Nemuro-ken), that
could fulfill administrative duties of the prefectural government and
keep tight control over the developing island. In 1886, the three
prefectures were demoted, and
Hokkaido was put under the Hokkaido
Agency (北海道庁, Hokkaidō-chō). These sub-prefectures still
exist today, although they have much less power than they possessed
before and during World War II: they now exist primarily to handle
paperwork and other bureaucratic functions.
In mid-July 1945 shipping, cities and military facilities in Hokkaido
were attacked by the
United States Navy's Task Force 38. On 14 and 15
July aircraft operating from the task force's aircraft carriers sank
and damaged a large number of ships in ports along Hokkaido's southern
coastline as well as in northern Honshu. In addition, on 15 July a
force of three battleships and two light cruisers bombarded the city
of Muroran. Before the Japanese surrender was formalized, the
Soviet Union made preparations for an invasion of Hokkaido, but
President Harry Truman
President Harry Truman made it clear that the surrender of all of the
Japanese home islands would be carried out by
General MacArthur per
the 1943 Cairo Declaration.
Hokkaido became equal with other prefectures in 1947, when the revised
Local Autonomy Law became effective. The Japanese central government
Hokkaido Development Agency (北海道開発庁,
Hokkaidō Kaihatsuchō) as an agency of the Prime Minister's Office in
1949 to maintain its executive power in Hokkaido. The Agency was
absorbed by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in
Hokkaido Bureau (北海道局, Hokkaidō-kyoku) and the
Hokkaido Regional Development Bureau (北海道開発局, Hokkaidō
Kaihatsukyoku) of the Ministry still have a strong influence on public
construction projects in Hokkaido.
Naming of Hokkaido
Former Hokkaidō Government Office
Former Hokkaidō Government Office in Chūō-ku, Sapporo
When establishing the Development Commission (開拓使, Kaitakushi),
the Meiji Government decided to change the name of Ezochi. Matsuura
Takeshirō submitted six proposals, including names such as Kaihokudō
(海北道) and Hokkaidō (北加伊道), to the government. The
government eventually decided to use the name Hokkaidō, but decided
to write it as 北海道, as a compromise between 海北道 and
北加伊道 because of the similarity with names such as Tōkaidō
(東海道). According to Matsuura, the name was thought up because
the Ainu called the region Kai. Historically, many peoples who had
interactions with the ancestors of the Ainu called them and their
islands[dubious – discuss] Kuyi, Kuye, Qoy, or some similar name,
which may have some connection to the early modern form Kai. The Kai
element also strongly resembles the On'yomi, or Sino-Japanese, reading
of the characters 蝦夷 (on'yomi as [ka.i, カイ], kun'yomi as
[e.mi.ɕi, えみし]) which have been used for over a thousand years
Japan as the standard orthographic form to be used when
referring to Ainu and related peoples; it is possible that Matsuura's
Kai was actually an alteration, influenced by the Sino-Japanese
reading of 蝦夷 Ka-i, of the Nivkh exonym for the Ainu, namely Qoy
or IPA: [kʰuɣi].
There is no known established
Ainu language word for the island of
Hokkaido. However, the
Ainu people did have a name for all of their
domain, which included
Hokkaido along with the Kuril Islands,
Sakhalin, and parts of northern Honshu, which was Aynu Mosir
(アィヌ・モシリ), a name taken by the modern Ainu to refer to
their traditional homeland. "Ainu Mosir" literally
translates as "The Land Where People (the Ainu) Live", and it was
traditionally used to be contrasted with
Kamuy Mosir, "The Land of the
Hokkaido became a full-fledged prefecture, but the -ken
suffix was never added to its name, so the -dō suffix came to be
understood to mean "prefecture". "Hokkai-do-ken" (literally "North Sea
Province Prefecture") is therefore, technically speaking, a redundant
term, although it is occasionally used to differentiate the government
from the island itself. The prefecture's government calls itself the
Hokkaido Government" rather than the "
Native name: 北海道
43°N 142°E / 43°N 142°E / 43; 142
77,981.87 km2 (30,108.97 sq mi)
2,290 m (7,510 ft)
Sapporo (pop. 1,890,561)
5,377,435 (September 30, 2016)
64.5 /km2 (167.1 /sq mi)
Sōunkyō, a gorge in the Daisetsu-zan Volcanic Area.
Satellite image of Hokkaido
Oyashio Current colliding with the
Kuroshio Current off the coast
of Hokkaido. When two currents collide, they create eddies.
Phytoplankton growing in the surface waters become concentrated along
the boundaries of these eddies, tracing out the motions of the water.
The island of
Hokkaido is located at the north end of Japan, near
Russia, and has coastlines on the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk,
and the Pacific Ocean. The center of the island has a number of
mountains and volcanic plateau, and there are coastal plains in all
directions. Major cities include
Sapporo and Asahikawa in the central
region and the port of Hakodate facing Honshu.
The governmental jurisdiction of
Hokkaido incorporates several smaller
islands, including Rishiri, Okushiri Island, and Rebun. (By Japanese
Hokkaido also incorporates several of the Kuril Islands).
Because the prefectural status of
Hokkaido is denoted by the dō in
its name, it is rarely referred to as "
Hokkaido Prefecture", except
when necessary to distinguish the governmental entity from the island.
The island ranks 21st in the world by area. It is 3.6% smaller than
the island of
Hispaniola is 6.1% smaller than Hokkaido.
By population it ranks 20th, between
Ireland and Sicily. Hokkaido's
population is 4.7% less than that of the island of Ireland, and
Sicily's is 12% lower than Hokkaido's.
In the east, there are two areas (surrounding, for example, Shari and
the Nakashibetsu Airport) where a grid with spacing of nearly
3 km is formed by narrow bands of forest. It was
designed to buffer wind, especially during blizzards, to protect
cattle. It also serves as habitat and transportation corridors for
animals and hikers.
Like many areas of Japan,
Hokkaido is seismically active. Aside from
numerous earthquakes, the following volcanoes are still considered
active (at least one eruption since 1850):
Mount Usu and Shōwa-shinzan
See also: Category:Volcanoes of Hokkaido
In 1993, an earthquake of magnitude 7.7 generated a tsunami which
devastated Okushiri, killing 202 inhabitants. An earthquake of
magnitude 8.3 struck near the island on 26 September 2003.
National parks and quasi-national parks
Main article: National parks in Hokkaido
Overview of Kushiro Wetland
Lake Akan and Mount Meakan
Overview of Lake Mashu
There exist many undisturbed forests in Hokkaido, including:
Shiretoko National Park*
Akan National Park
Kushiro-shitsugen National Park
Daisetsuzan National Park
Shikotsu-Tōya National Park
Rishiri-Rebun-Sarobetsu National Park
* designated a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site by
UNESCO on 2005-07-14.
Quasi-national parks (国定公園)
Abashiri Quasi-National Park
Hidaka-sanmyaku Erimo Quasi-National Park
Niseko-Shakotan-Otaru Kaigan Quasi-National Park
Ōnuma Quasi-National Park
Shokanbetsu-Teuri-Yagishiri Quasi-National Park
Twelve prefectural natural parks (道立自然公園). The prefectural
natural parks cover 146,802 ha, the largest area of any
Akkeshi Prefectural Natural Park
Esan Prefectural Natural Park
Furano-Ashibetsu Prefectural Natural Park
Hiyama Prefectural Natural Park
Kariba-Motta Prefectural Natural Park
Matsumae-Yagoshi Prefectural Natural Park
North Okhotsk Prefectural Natural Park
Nopporo Shinrin Kōen Prefectural Natural Park
Notsuke-Fūren Prefectural Natural Park
Sharidake Prefectural Natural Park
Shumarinai Prefectural Natural Park
Teshiodake Prefectural Natural Park
Ramsar wetland sites
Lake Akkeshi, Bekkanbeushi Wetland
Notsuke Peninsula, Notsuke Bay
Lake Fūren, Shunkunitai
There are three populations of the
Hokkaido brown bear subspecies
(Ursus arctos yesoensis). There are more brown bears than anywhere
else in Asia besides Russia. The
Hokkaido brown bear is separated into
three distinct lineages. There are only eight lineages in the
world. Those on
Honshu died out long ago. Native conifer species
Hokkaido is the Abies Sachalinensis (sakhalin fir) The
hydrangea hirta species is also located on this island.
Hokkaido showing the subprefectures and the primary cities
Subprefectures of Hokkaido
Subprefectures of Hokkaido and List of mergers in
See also: List of municipalities of Hokkaido
Japan claims the southern part of
Kuril Islands (Northern
Territories), currently administered by Russia,
Nemuro Subprefecture divided into six villages. However, the
table above excludes these islands' data.
From April 2010,
Hokkaido has 9 General Subprefectural Bureaus
(総合振興局) and 5 Subprefectural Bureaus (振興局). Prior to
Hokkaido is one of eight prefectures in
Japan that have
subprefectures (支庁 shichō). However, it is the only one of the
eight to have such offices covering the whole of its territory outside
the main cities (rather than having them just for outlying islands or
remote areas). This is mostly due to its great size: many parts of the
prefecture are simply too far away to be effectively administered by
Sapporo. Subprefectural offices in
Hokkaido carry out many of the
duties that prefectural offices fulfill elsewhere in Japan.
Before the current political divisions and after 1869,
divided into provinces. See Former provinces of Hokkaido.
Satellite image of
Hokkaido in winter
Japan's coldest region,
Hokkaido has relatively cool summers and
icy/snowy winters. Most of the island falls in the humid continental
climate zone with
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification Dfb (hemiboreal) in
most areas but Dfa (hot summer humid continental) in some inland
lowlands. The average August temperature ranges from 17 to 22 °C
(62.6 to 71.6 °F), while the average January temperature ranges
from −12 to −4 °C (10.4 to 24.8 °F), in both cases
depending on elevation and distance from the ocean, though
temperatures on the western side of the island tend to be a little
warmer than on the eastern.
The northern portion of
Hokkaido falls into the taiga biome with
significant snowfall. Snowfall varies widely from as much as 11 metres
(400 in) on the mountains adjacent to the Sea of
Japan down to
around 1.8 metres (71 in) on the Pacific coast. The island tends
to see isolated snowstorms that develop long-lasting snowbanks, in
contrast to the constant flurries seen in the Hokuriku region. Total
precipitation varies from 1,600 millimetres (63 in) on the
mountains of the Sea of
Japan coast to around 800 millimetres
(31 in) (the lowest in Japan) on the
Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk coast and
interior lowlands and up to around 1,100 millimetres (43 in) on
the Pacific side.
Unlike the other major islands of Japan,
Hokkaido is normally not
affected by the June–July rainy season and the relative lack of
humidity and typically warm, rather than hot, summer weather makes its
climate an attraction for tourists from other parts of Japan.
In winter, the generally high quality of powder snow and numerous
Hokkaido make it a popular region for snow sports. The
snowfall usually commences in earnest in November and ski resorts
(such as those at Niseko, Furano, Teine and Rusutsu) usually operate
between December and April.
Hokkaido celebrates its winter weather at
Sapporo Snow Festival.
During the winter, passage through the
Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk is often
complicated by large floes of drift ice. Combined with high winds that
occur during winter, this frequently brings air travel and maritime
activity to a halt beyond the northern coast of Hokkaido. Ports on the
Pacific Ocean and Sea of
Japan are generally ice-free year round,
though most rivers freeze during the winter.
Major cities and towns
Hokkaido's largest city, Sapporo
See also: List of cities in Hokkaido
Hokkaido's largest city is the capital, Sapporo, which is a designated
city. The island has two core cities: Hakodate in the south and
Asahikawa in the central region. Other important population centers
include Rumoi, Iwamizawa, Kushiro, Obihiro, Kitami, Abashiri,
Wakkanai, and Nemuro.
Hokkaido has the highest rate of depopulation in Japan. In 2000, 152
(71.7%) of Hokkaido's 212 municipalities were shrinking. Altogether,
shrinking municipalities in
Japan in the same year numbered
Large farm of Tokachi plain
Although there is some light industry (most notably paper milling and
beer brewing) most of the population is employed by the service
sector. In 2001, the service sector and other tertiary industries
generated more than three-quarters of the gross domestic product.
However, agriculture and other primary industries play a large role in
Hokkaido has nearly one fourth of Japan's total
arable land. It ranks first in the nation in the production of a host
of agricultural products, including wheat, soybeans, potatoes, sugar
beet, onions, pumpkins, corn, raw milk, and beef.
accounts for 22% of Japan's forests with a sizable timber industry.
The prefecture is also first in the nation in production of marine
products and aquaculture.
Tourism is an important industry, especially during the cool
summertime when visitors are attracted to Hokkaido's open spaces from
hotter and more humid parts of
Japan and other Asian countries. During
the winter, skiing and other winter sports bring other tourists, and
increasingly international ones, to the island.
Hokkaido's only land link to the rest of
Japan is the Seikan Tunnel.
Most travellers travel to the island by air: the main airport is New
Chitose Airport at Chitose, just south of Sapporo. Tokyo-Chitose is in
the top 10 of the world's busiest air routes, handling more than 40
widebody round trips on several airlines each day. One of the
Air Do was named after Hokkaido.
Hokkaido can also be
reached by ferry from Sendai, Niigata and some other cities, with the
Tokyo dealing only in cargo. The
takes passengers from
Tokyo to near Hakodate in slightly over four
Within Hokkaido, there is a fairly well-developed railway network (see
Hokkaido Railway Company), but many cities can only be accessed by
Hokkaido is home to one of Japan's three Melody Roads, which is made
from grooves cut into the ground, which when driven over causes a
tactile vibration and audible rumbling transmitted through the wheels
into the car body.
Hokkaido Prefectural Board of Education
Hokkaido Prefectural Board of Education oversees public schools
(except colleges and universities) in Hokkaido. Public elementary and
junior high schools (except
Hokkaido Noboribetsu Akebi Secondary
School and schools attached to
Hokkaido University of Education) are
operated by municipalities, and public high schools are operated by
either the prefectural board or municipalities.
Hokkaido has 37 universities (7 national, 5 local public, and 25
private universities), 34 junior colleges, and 5 colleges of
technology (4 national and 1 local public colleges). National
universities located in
Hokkaido University (former
Sapporo Agricultural College)
Hokkaido University of Education
Muroran Institute of Technology
Otaru University of Commerce
Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine
Asahikawa Medical University
Kitami Institute of Technology
Hokkaido government runs
Sapporo Medical University, a medical school
1972 Winter Olympics
1972 Winter Olympics were held in Sapporo.
The sports teams listed below are based in Hokkaido.
Hokkaido American Football Association
Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters
Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters (Sapporo)
Levanga Hokkaido (Sapporo)
Japan Basketball League (JBL)
Nippon Paper Cranes
Nippon Paper Cranes (Kushiro)
Oji Eagles (Tomakomai)
Sapporo Snow Festival
Asahikawa Snow Festival
Sōunkyō Ice Festival
Big Air – snowboarding freestyle competition
Hokkaido has relationships with several provinces, states, and other
Alberta, Canada, since 1980
Heilongjiang, China, since 1980
Massachusetts, USA, since 1988
Sakhalin Oblast, Russia, since 1998
Busan, South Korea, since 2005
Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea, since 2006
Seoul, South Korea, since 2010
As of January 2014, 74 individual municipalities in
sister city agreements with 114 cities in 21 different countries
The current governor of
Hokkaido is Harumi Takahashi. She won a fourth
term in the gubernatorial election in 2015 with centre-right support.
Her first election in 2003 in a close race against centre-left
Yoshio Hachiro and seven other candidates ended a 20-year
streak of victories by Socialist Party heavyweight Takahiro Yokomichi
and then his former vice governor
Tatsuya Hori who beat Hideko Itō
twice by large margins. Itō, a former Socialist Diet member was
supported by the Liberal Democratic Party against Hori in 1995 (at the
time, Socialists and Liberal Democrats formed the ruling "grand"
coalition on the national level); In 1999, Hori was supported by all
major non-Communist parties and Itō ran without party support. Before
1983, the governorship had been held by Liberal Democrats Naohiro
Dōgakinai and Kingo Machimura for 24 years. In the 1971 election when
Machimura retired, the Socialist candidate Shōhei Tsukada lost to
Dōgakinai by only 13,000 votes; Tsukada was also supported by the
Communist Party – the leftist cooperation in opposition to the
US-Japanese security treaty had brought joint Socialist-Communist
candidates to victory in many other prefectural and local elections in
the 1960s and 1970s. In 1959, Machimura had defeated Yokomichi's
father Setsuo in the race to succeed Hokkaido's first elected
governor, Socialist Toshibumi Tanaka who retired after three terms.
Tanaka had only won the governorship in 1947 in a run-off election
against Democrat Eiji Arima because no candidate had received the
necessary vote share to win in the first round as required by law at
Hokkaido Prefectural Assembly has 101 members from 47 electoral
districts. As of April 30, 2015, the LDP caucus holds a majority with
51 seats, the DPJ-led group has 26 members. Other groups are the
Hokkaidō Yūshikai of
New Party Daichi and independents with twelve
Kōmeitō with eight, and the
Japanese Communist Party
Japanese Communist Party with
four members. General elections for the
Hokkaido assembly are
currently held together with gubernatorial elections in the unified
local elections (last round: April 2015).
For the lower house of the National Diet,
Hokkaido is divided into
twelve single-member electoral districts. In the 2017 election,
candidates from the governing coalition of Liberal Democrats and
Kōmeitō won seven districts and the main opposition Constitutional
Democrats five. For the proportional election segment,
Tokyo are the only two prefectures that form a regional "block"
district of their own. The
Hokkaido proportional representation block
elects eight Representatives. In 2017, the Liberal Democratic Party
received 28.8% of the proportional vote and won three seats, the
Constitutional Democratic Party won three (26.4% of the vote), one
seat each went to
Kibō no Tō
Kibō no Tō (12.3%) and
Kōmeitō (11.0%). The
Japanese Communist Party, who won a seat in 2014, lost their seat in
2017 while receiving 8.5% of the votes.
In the upper house of the National Diet, a major reapportionment in
the 1990s halved the number of Councillors from
Hokkaido per election
from four to two. After the elections of 2010 and 2013, the Hokkaido
electoral district – like most two-member districts for the upper
house – is represented by two Liberal Democrats and two Democrats.
In the 2016 upper house election, the district magnitude will be
raised to three, Hokkaidō will then temporarily be represented by
five members and six after the 2019 election.
Red-crowned cranes in Hokkaido
Kuril Islands earthquake
Asia League Ice Hockey
Former Hokkaidō Government Office
Kuril Islands dispute
People from Hokkaido
Sankebetsu brown bear incident
^ a b Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Hokkaido" in Japan
Encyclopedia, p. 343, p. 343, at Google Books
^ "Recognition at last for Japan's Ainu ". BBC News. July 6, 2008
^ a b c
Japan Handbook, p. 760
^ McClain, James L. (2002). Japan, A Modern History (First ed.). New
York, N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Company. p. 285.
^ Howell, David. "Ainu Ethnicity and the Boundaries of the Early
Modern Japanese State", Past and Present 142 (February 1994), p. 142
^ Ossenberg, Nancy (see reference) has the best evidence of this
relationship with the Jōmon. Also, a newer study, Ossenberg, et al.,
"Ethnogenesis and craniofacial change in
Japan from the perspective of
nonmetric traits" (Anthropological Science v.114:99–115) is an
updated analysis published in 2006 which confirms this finding.
^ Nakamura, Akemi, "Japan's last frontier took time to tame, cultivate
Japan Times, 8 July 2008, p. 3.
^ Satow, Ernest. (1882). "The Geography of Japan" in Transactions of
the Asiatic Society of Japan, Vols. 1–2, p. 88., p. 33, at Google
^ McDougall, Walter A. (1993). Let the Sea Make a Noise, pp.
^ McDougall, p. 357.
^ "Chapter VII: 1945". The Official Chronology of the US Navy in World
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hokkaido.
Hokkaido in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hokkaido.
Hokkaido Official Website (in Japanese)
Hokkaido Official Website (in English)
Wards of Sapporo
Kamikawa (Ishikari) District
Kamikawa (Teshio) District
Kuril Islands dispute
List of mergers in Hokkaido
Regions and administrative divisions of Japan
Islands of the Sea of Okhotsk
Malyy Shantar Island
Ptichy Island (Kamchatka Krai)
Ptichy Island (Shantar Islands)
Coordinates: 43°N 142°E / 43°N 142°E / 43; 142
BNF: cb11940409w (d