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HINDUSTANI (Hindustani: हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی , lit. '"of Hindustan "' ), historically also known as HINDAVI, DEHLAVI and REKHTA , is the lingua franca of North India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
. It is an Indo-Aryan language , deriving its base primarily from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi
Delhi
, and incorporates a large amount of vocabulary from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, Persian , Arabic and Chagatai . It is a pluricentric language , with two official forms, Modern Standard Hindi
Hindi
and Modern Standard Urdu
Urdu
, which are its standardised registers , and which may be called HINDUSTANI or HINDI-URDU when taken together. The colloquial registers are mostly indistinguishable, and even though the official standards are nearly identical in grammar, they differ in literary conventions and in academic and technical vocabulary, with Urdu
Urdu
adopting stronger Persian, Chagatai and Arabic influences, and Hindi
Hindi
relying more heavily on Sanskrit. Before the Partition of the British Indian Empire , the terms Hindustani, Urdu, and Hindi
Hindi
were synonymous; all covered what would be mostly called Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi
Hindi
today. The term Hindustani is still used for the colloquial language and lingua franca of North India
India
and Pakistan, for example for the language of Bollywood films, as well as for several quite different varieties of Hindi spoken outside the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
, such as Fiji
Fiji
Hindi
Hindi
of Fiji and the Caribbean Hindustani of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
, Guyana
Guyana
, Suriname
Suriname
, and the rest of the Caribbean
Caribbean
. Hindustani is also spoken by a small number of people in Mauritius
Mauritius
and South Africa
South Africa
.

Hindustani is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Modern Standard Hindi
Hindi
* 3 Modern Standard Urdu
Urdu
* 4 Bazaar
Bazaar
Hindustani * 5 Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
* 6 Names * 7 Literature * 8 Official status * 9 Hindustani outside South Asia * 10 Phonology * 11 Grammar * 12 Vocabulary * 13 Writing system
Writing system

* 14 Sample text

* 14.1 Formal Hindi
Hindi
* 14.2 Formal Urdu
Urdu

* 15 Hindustani and Bollywood
Bollywood
* 16 Urdu
Urdu
films and Lollywood * 17 See also * 18 Notes * 19 References * 20 Bibliography * 21 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Hindustani
History of Hindustani

Early forms of present-day Hindustani developed from the Middle Indo-Aryan apabhramsha vernaculars of present-day North India
India
in the 7th–13th centuries. Amir Khusro
Amir Khusro
, who lived in the 13th century CE during the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate period in North India, used these forms (which was the lingua franca of the period) in his writings and referred to it as Hindavi. The Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, which comprised several Turkic and Afghan dynasties that ruled from Delhi, was succeeded by the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in 1526

Although the Mughals were of Timurid (Gurkānī) Turko-Mongol descent, they were Persianised , and Persian had gradually become the state language of the Mughal empire after Babur
Babur
, a continuation since the introduction of Persian by Central Asian Turkic rulers in the Indian Subcontinent, and the patronisation of it by the earlier Turko-Afghan Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate. The basis in general for the introduction of Persian language
Persian language
into the subcontinent was set, from its earliest days, by various Persianised Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties.

In the 18th century, towards the end of the Mughal period, with the fragmentation of the empire and the elite system, a variant of Khariboli , one of the successors of apabhramsha vernaculars at Delhi , and nearby cities, came to gradually replace Persian as the lingua franca among the educated elite upper class particularly in northern India, though Persian still retained much of its pre-eminence for a short period. The term Hindustani (literally "of Hindustan ") was the name given to that variant of Khariboli.

For socio-political reasons, though essentially the variant of Khariboli with Persian vocabulary, the emerging prestige dialect became also known as Urdu
Urdu
(properly zabān-e Urdu-e mo'alla "language of the court" or zabān-e Urdu
Urdu
زبان اردو‎, ज़बान-ए उर्दू, "language of the camp" in Persian, derived from Turkic Ordū "camp", cognate with English horde; due to its origin as the common speech of the Mughal army). The more highly Persianised version later established as a language of the court was called REKHTA , or "mixed".

As an emerging common dialect, Hindustani absorbed large numbers of Persian, Arabic, and Turkic words, and as Mughal conquests grew it spread as a lingua franca across much of northern India. Written in the Perso-Arabic Script
Perso-Arabic Script
or Devanagari script , it remained the primary lingua franca of northern India
India
for the next four centuries (although it varied significantly in vocabulary depending on the local language) and achieved the status of a literary language, alongside Persian, in Muslim courts. Its development was centred on the poets of the Mughal courts of cities in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
such as Delhi, Lucknow
Lucknow
, and Agra
Agra
.

John Fletcher Hurst in his book published in 1891 mentioned that the Hindustani or Camp language or Language of the Camps of Moughal courts at Delhi
Delhi
was not regarded by philologists as distinct language but only as a dialect of Hindi
Hindi
with admixture of Persian . He continued: "But it has all the magnitude and importance of separate language. It is linguistic result of Muslim rule of eleventh "> Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari
Devanagari
(early 19th century) Main article: Hindi
Hindi

Standard Hindi, one of the official languages of India
India
, is based on the Khariboli dialect of the Delhi
Delhi
region and differs from Urdu
Urdu
in that it is usually written in the indigenous Devanagari script of India
India
and exhibits less Persian and Arabic influence than Urdu. Many scholars today employ a Sanskritised form of Hindi
Hindi
developed primarily in Varanasi
Varanasi
, the Hindu
Hindu
holy city, which is based on the Eastern Hindi dialect of that region and thus a separate language from official Standard Hindi. It has a literature of 500 years, with prose, poetry, religion "> The phrase Zabān-e Urdu-e Mo'alla written in Nasta\'liq calligraphy Main article: Urdu
Urdu

Urdu
Urdu
is the national language of Pakistan
Pakistan
and an officially recognised regional language of India. Urdu
Urdu
is the official language of all Pakistani provinces and is taught in all schools as compulsary subject upto the 12th grade. It is also an official language in the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
, National Capital Territory of Delhi
Delhi
, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
, Bihar , Telangana
Telangana
that have significant Muslim populations.

BAZAAR HINDUSTANI

Main article: Hindi
Hindi
dialects

In a specific sense, "Hindustani" may be used to refer to the dialects and varieties used in common speech, in contrast with the standardised Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu. This meaning is reflected in the use of the term "bazaar Hindustani", in other words, the "language of the street or the marketplace", as opposed to the perceived refinement of formal Hindi, Urdu, or even Sanskrit. Thus, the Webster's New World Dictionary defines the term Hindustani as the principal dialect of Hindi/Urdu, used as a trade language throughout north India
India
and Pakistan.

HINDI AND URDU

This article DUPLICATES THE SCOPE OF OTHER ARTICLES. Please discuss this issue on the talk page and edit it to conform with\'s Manual of Style . (May 2013)

See also: Hindi– Urdu
Urdu
controversy

Although, at the spoken level, Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
are considered registers of a single language, they differ vastly in literary and formal vocabulary ; where literary Hindi
Hindi
draws heavily on Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and to a lesser extent Prakrit
Prakrit
, literary Urdu
Urdu
draws heavily on Persian and Arabic . The grammar and base vocabulary (most pronouns, verbs, adpositions, etc.) of both Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu, however, are the same and derive from a Prakritic base, and both have a heavy Persian influence.

The standardised registers Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
are collectively known as "Hindi-Urdu". Hindustani is perhaps the lingua franca of the north and west of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, though it is understood fairly well in other regions also, especially in the urban areas. A common vernacular sharing characteristics with Sanskritised Hindi, regional Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu, Hindustani is more commonly used as a vernacular than highly Sanskritised Hindi
Hindi
or highly Arabicised/Persianised Urdu.

This can be seen in the popular culture of Bollywood
Bollywood
or, more generally, the vernacular of North Indians and Pakistanis, which generally employs a lexicon common to both "Hindi" and "Urdu" speakers. Minor subtleties in region will also affect the 'brand' of Hindustani, sometimes pushing the Hindustani closer to Urdu
Urdu
or to Hindi. One might reasonably assume that the Hindustani spoken in Lucknow
Lucknow
, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
(known for its usage of Urdu) and Varanasi
Varanasi
(a holy city for Hindus and thus using highly Sanskritised Hindi) is somewhat different.

NAMES

Amir Khusro
Amir Khusro
ca. 1300 referred to this language of his writings as Dahlavi ('of Delhi') or Hindavi (हिन्दवी, هندوی 'of Hindustan '). During this period, Hindustani was used by Sufis in promulgating their message across the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
. After the advent of the Mughals in the subcontinent, Hindustani acquired more Persian loanwords. Rekhta ('mixture') and Hindi
Hindi
(of 'Hindustan') became popular names for the same language until the 18th century. The name Urdu
Urdu
appeared around 1780. During the British Raj
British Raj
, the term Hindustani was used by British officials. In 1796, John Borthwick Gilchrist published a "A Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language". Upon partition , India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
established national standards that they called Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu, respectively, and attempted to make distinct, with the result that "Hindustani" commonly, but mistakenly, came to be seen as a "mixture" of Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu.

Grierson , in his highly influential Linguistic Survey of India
India
, proposed that the names Hindustani, Urdu, and Hindi
Hindi
be separated in use for different varieties of the Hindustani language, rather than as the overlapping synonyms they frequently were:

We may now define the three main varieties of Hindōstānī as follows:—Hindōstānī is primarily the language of the Upper Gangetic Doab, and is also the lingua franca of India, capable of being written in both Persian and Dēva-nāgarī characters, and without purism, avoiding alike the excessive use of either Persian or Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words when employed for literature. The name 'Urdū' can then be confined to that special variety of Hindōstānī in which Persian words are of frequent occurrence, and which hence can only be written in the Persian character, and, similarly, 'Hindī' can be confined to the form of Hindōstānī in which Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words abound, and which hence can only be written in the Dēva-nāgarī character.

LITERATURE

Main articles: Hindi
Hindi
literature and Urdu
Urdu
literature

OFFICIAL STATUS

Hindustani, in its standardised registers, is one of the official languages of both India
India
(Hindi) and Pakistan
Pakistan
(Urdu).

Hindi, a major standardized register of Hindustani, is declared by the Constitution of India
India
as the "official language (rājabhāshā) of the Union" (Art. 343(1)) (In this context, "Union" means the Federal Government and not the entire country – India
India
has 23 official languages ). At the same time, however, the definitive text of Federal laws is officially the English text and proceedings in the higher appellate courts must be conducted in English. At the state level, Hindi
Hindi
is one of the official languages in 9 of the 29 Indian states and three Union Territories (namely Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
, Bihar , Jharkhand , Uttarakhand , Madhya Pradesh , Rajasthan
Rajasthan
, Chhattisgarh , Himachal Pradesh , and Haryana and UTs are Delhi
Delhi
, Chandigarh
Chandigarh
, Andaman and Nicobar Islands ). In the remaining states Hindi
Hindi
is not an official language. In the state of Tamil Nadu studying Hindi
Hindi
is not compulsory in the state curriculum. However an option to take the same as second or third language does exist. In many other states, studying Hindi
Hindi
is usually compulsory in the school curriculum as a third language (the first two languages being the state's official language and English), though the intensiveness of Hindi
Hindi
in the curriculum varies.

Urdu, also a major standardized register of Hindustani, is also one of the languages recognized by the Indian Constitution and is an official language of the Indian states of Telangana
Telangana
, Bihar , Delhi
Delhi
, Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
, and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
. Although the government school system in most other states emphasises Modern Standard Hindi
Hindi
, at universities in cities such as Lucknow
Lucknow
, Aligarh and Hyderabad , Urdu is spoken and learnt, and Saaf Urdu
Urdu
is treated with just as much respect as Shuddha Hindi
Hindi
.

Urdu
Urdu
is also the national language of Pakistan, where it shares official language status with English . Although English is used in most elite circles and Punjabi is the native language of the majority of the population, Urdu
Urdu
is the lingua franca.

"Hindustani" was the official language of the British Indian Empire and was synonymous with both Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu. After India's independence in 1947, the Sub-Committee on Fundamental Rights recommended that the official language of India
India
be Hindustani: "Hindustani, written either in Devanagari
Devanagari
or the Perso-Arabic script at the option of the citizen, shall, as the national language, be the first official language of the Union."

However, this recommendation was not adopted by the Constituent Assembly.

HINDUSTANI OUTSIDE SOUTH ASIA

Besides being the lingua franca of North India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
in South Asia, Hindustani is also spoken among the Hindustani diaspora and their descendants around the world, including in North America
North America
(in Canada for example, Urdu
Urdu
is one of the fastest growing languages), and in the Middle East
Middle East
.

Hindustani was also one of the languages that was spoken widely in Burma
Burma
during British rule. Many older Burmese , particularly the Anglo-Indians and Anglo-Burmese of the country, still know it, although it has had no official status in the country since military rule.

Hindustani is also spoken in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council , where migrant workers from various countries live and work for several years.

PHONOLOGY

Main article: Hindustani phonology

GRAMMAR

Main article: Hindustani grammar

VOCABULARY

See also: Hindustani etymology

Both Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
contain around 5,500 words of Persian and Arabic origin.

WRITING SYSTEM

Main articles: Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
orthography , Hindi
Hindi
Braille
Braille
, and Urdu Braille
Braille

Historically, Hindustani was written in the Kaithi
Kaithi
, Devanagari
Devanagari
, and Urdu
Urdu
alphabets . Kaithi
Kaithi
and Devanagari
Devanagari
are two of the Brahmic scripts native to India, whereas Urdu
Urdu
is a derivation of the Perso-Arabic script Nastaliq
Nastaliq
which is preferred calligraphic style for Urdu
Urdu
.

Today, Hindustani continues to be written in the Urdu
Urdu
alphabet, and this is nearly exclusive in Pakistan. In India, the Hindi
Hindi
register is officially written in Devanagari
Devanagari
(a relative of Kaithi), and Urdu
Urdu
in Perso-Arabic script Nastaliq
Nastaliq
, to the extent that these standards are partly defined by their script.

However, in popular publications in India, Urdu
Urdu
is also written in Devanagari
Devanagari
script, with slight variations to establish a Devanagari Urdu
Urdu
alphabet alongside the Devanagari
Devanagari
Hindi
Hindi
alphabet.

Devanagari
Devanagari
अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ए ऐ ओ औ

ə aː ɪ iː ʊ uː eː ɛː oː ɔː

क क़ ख ख़ ग ग़ घ ङ

k q kʰ x ɡ ɣ ɡʱ ŋ

च छ ज ज़ झ झ़ ञ

t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ d͡ʒ z d͡ʒʱ ʒ ɲ

ट ठ ड ड़ ढ ढ़ ण

ʈ ʈʰ ɖ ɽ ɖʱ ɽʱ ɳ

त थ द ध न

t̪ t̪ʰ d̪ d̪ʱ n

प फ फ़ ब भ म

p pʰ f b bʱ m

य र ल व

j ɾ l ʋ

श ष स ह

ʃ ʂ s ɦ

Urdu
Urdu
alphabet LETTER NAME OF LETTER TRANSCRIPTION IPA

ا alif – –

ب be b /b /

پ pe p /p /

ت te t /t̪ /

ٹ ṭe ṭ /ʈ /

ث se s /s /

ج jīm j /d͡ʒ /

چ che ch /t͡ʃ /

ح baṛī he h /h ~ ɦ /

خ khe kh /x /

د dāl d /d̪ /

ڈ ḍāl ḍ /ɖ /

ذ zāl dh /z /

ر re r /r ~ ɾ /

ڑ ṛe ṛ /ɽ /

ز ze z /z /

ژ zhe zh /ʒ /

س sīn s /s /

ش shīn sh /ʃ /

ص su'ād ṣ /s /

ض zu'ād z̤ /z /

ط to'e t /t /

ظ zo'e ẓ /z /

ع ‘ain ' –

غ ghain gh /ɣ /

ف fe f /f /

ق qāf q /q /

ک kāf k /k /

گ gāf g /ɡ /

ل lām l /l /

م mīm m /m /

ن nūn n /n /

و vā'o v, o, or ū /ʋ /, /oː /, /ɔ / or /uː /

ہ, ﮩ, ﮨ choṭī he h /h ~ ɦ /

ھ do chashmī he h /ʰ / or /ʱ /

ء hamza ' /ʔ /

ی ye y, i /j / or /iː /

ے baṛī ye ai or e /ɛː /, or /eː /

Because of anglicisation in South Asia and the international use of the Latin script , Hindustani is occasionally written in the Latin script. This adaptation is called Roman Urdu
Urdu
or Romanised Hindi, depending upon the register used. Because the Bollywood
Bollywood
film industry is a major proponent of the Latin script, the use of Latin script to write in Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
is growing amongst younger Internet users. Since Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi
Hindi
are mutually intelligible when spoken, Romanised Hindi
Hindi
and Roman Urdu
Urdu
(unlike Devanagari
Devanagari
Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
in the Urdu alphabet) are mutually intelligible as well.

SAMPLE TEXT

Following is a sample text, Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights , in the two official registers of Hindustani, Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu. Because this is a formal legal text, differences in formal vocabulary are maximised.

FORMAL HINDI

अनुच्छेद 1—सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के विषय में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता प्राप्त हैं। उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिये।

Nastaliq
Nastaliq
transcription:

انچھید ١ : سبھی منشیوں کو گورو اور ادھکاروں کے وشے میں جنمجات سؤتنترتا پراپت ہیں۔ انہیں بدھی اور انتراتما کی دین پراپت ہے اور پرسپر انہیں بھائی چارے کے بھاؤ سے برتاؤ کرنا چاہئے۔

Transliteration (IAST): Anucched 1: Sabhī manushyoṇ ko gaurav aur adhikāroṇ ke vishay meṇ janm'jāt svatantratā prāpt haiṇ. Unheṇ buddhi aur antarātmā kī den prāpt hai aur paraspar unheṇ bhāīchāre ke bhāv se bartāv karnā chāhiye.

Transcription (IPA ): ənʊtʃʰːed̪ ek səbʱi mənʊʂjõ ko ɡɔɾəʋ ɔr əd̪ʱɪkaɾõ ke viʂaj mẽ dʒənmdʒat̪ sʋət̪ənt̪ɾət̪a pɾapt̪ hɛ̃ ʊnʱẽ bʊd̪ʱːɪ ɔɾ ənt̪əɾat̪ma kiː d̪en pɾapt̪ hɛ ɔɾ pəɾəspəɾ ʊnʱẽ bʱaitʃaɾe keː bʱaʋ se bəɾt̪aʋ kəɾna tʃahɪe

Gloss (word-to-word): Article 1—All human-beings to dignity and rights' matter in from-birth freedom acquired is. Them to reason and conscience's endowment acquired is and always them to brotherhood's spirit with behaviour to do should.

Translation (grammatical): Article 1—All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

FORMAL URDU

:دفعہ 1: تمام انسان آزاد اور حقوق و عزت کے اعتبار سے برابر پیدا ہوئے ہیں۔ انہیں ضمیر اور عقل ودیعت ہوئی ہیں۔ اسلئے انہیں ایک دوسرے کے ساتھ بھائی چارے کا سلوک کرنا چاہئے۔

Devanagari
Devanagari
transcription: दफ़ा 1: तमाम इनसान आज़ाद और हुक़ूक़ ओ इज़्ज़त के ऐतबार से बराबर पैदा हुए हैं। इन्हें ज़मीर और अक़्ल वदीयत हुई हैं। इसलिए इन्हें एक दूसरे के साथ भाई चारे का सुलूक करना चाहीए।

Transliteration (ALA-LC): Dafʻah 1: Tamām insān āzād aur ḥuqūq o ʻizzat ke iʻtibār se barābar paidā hu’e haiṇ. Unheṇ zamīr aur ʻaql wadīʻat hu’ī he. Isli’e unheṇ ek dūsre ke sāth bhā’ī chāre kā sulūk karnā chāhi’e.

Transcription (IPA ): d̪əfa ek t̪əmam ɪnsan azad̪ ɔɾ hʊquq o izːət̪ ke ɛt̪əbaɾ se bəɾabəɾ pɛd̪a hʊe hɛ̃ ʊnʱẽ zəmiɾ ɔɾ əql ʋədiət̪ hʊi hɛ̃ ɪslɪe ʊnʱẽ ek d̪usɾe ke sat̪ʰ bʱai tʃaɾe ka sʊluk kəɾna tʃahɪe

Gloss (word-to-word): Article 1: All humans free and rights and dignity's consideration from equal born are. To them conscience and intellect endowed is. Therefore, they one another's with brotherhood's treatment do must.

Translation (grammatical): Article 1—All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

HINDUSTANI AND BOLLYWOOD

The predominant Indian film industry Bollywood
Bollywood
, located in Mumbai
Mumbai
, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
uses dialects of Khariboli , Awadhi , Rajasthani , Bhojpuri , Braj Bhasha , and Bambaiya Hindi
Hindi
, along with the language of Punjabi and with the liberal use of English for the dialogue and soundtrack lyrics.

Movie titles are often screened in three scripts: Latin, Devanagari and occasionally Perso-Arabic. The use of Urdu
Urdu
or Hindi
Hindi
in films depends on the film's context: historical films set in the Delhi Sultanate or Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
are almost entirely in Urdu, whereas films based on Hindu
Hindu
mythology make heavy use of Hindi
Hindi
with Sanskrit vocabulary.

URDU FILMS AND LOLLYWOOD

The Pakistani film industry, centred historically in Lahore
Lahore
, has seen a rise in Punjabi movies lately. Urdu
Urdu
languages have seen a surge throughout Pakistan
Pakistan
specifically Karachi, with new age films, and to a lesser extent in Islamabad
Islamabad
and Lahore.

SEE ALSO

* India
India
portal * Pakistan
Pakistan
portal * Languages portal

* Languages of India
India
* Languages of Pakistan
Pakistan
* List of Hindi
Hindi
authors * List of Urdu
Urdu
writers * Uddin and Begum Hindustani Romanisation

NOTES

* ^ Hindustānī * ^ Hindūstānī

REFERENCES

* ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2016. * ^ A B Standard Hindi
Hindi
L1: 260.1 million (2001), L2: 120.5 million (1999). Urdu
Urdu
L1: 68.6 million (2001–2014), L2: 94 million (1999): Ethnologue 19. Hindi
Hindi
at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016). Urdu
Urdu
at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016). * ^ Takkar, Gaurav. "Short Term Programmes". punarbhava.in. * ^ The Central Hindi
Hindi
Directorate regulates the use of Devanagari script and Hindi
Hindi
spelling in India
India
. Source: Central Hindi Directorate: Introduction Archived 15 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "National Council for Promotion of Urdu
Urdu
Language". www.urducouncil.nic.in. * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Hindustani". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ "About Hindi-Urdu". North Carolina State University
North Carolina State University
. Archived from the original on 15 August 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2009. * ^ Mohammad Tahsin Siddiqi (1994), Hindustani-English code-mixing in modern literary texts, University of Wisconsin, ... Hindustani is the lingua franca of both India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
... * ^ Lydia Mihelič Pulsipher; Alex Pulsipher; Holly M. Hapke (2005), World Regional Geography: Global Patterns, Local Lives, Macmillan, ISBN 0-7167-1904-5 , ... By the time of British colonialism, Hindustani was the lingua franca of all of northern India and what is today Pakistan
Pakistan
... * ^ Michael Huxley (editor) (1935), The Geographical magazine, Volume 2, Geographical Press, ... For new terms it can draw at will upon the Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
dictionaries ... CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Great Britain, Royal Society of Arts (1948), Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Volume 97, ... it would be very unwise to restrict it to a vocabulary mainly dependent upon Sanskrit, or mainly dependent upon Persian. If a language is to be strong and virile it must draw on both sources, just as English has drawn on Latin and Teutonic sources ... * ^ Robert E. Nunley; Severin M. Roberts; George W. Wubrick; Daniel L. Roy (1999), The Cultural Landscape an Introduction to Human Geography, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-080180-1 , ... Hindustani is the basis for both languages ... * ^ Benjamin W. Fortson. Indo-European Language and Culture An Introduction, Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, 2011. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-4051-8896-8 . * ^ Hindi
Hindi
by Yamuna Kachru * ^ Students\' Britannica: India: Select essays by Dale Hoiberg, Indu Ramchandani page 175 * ^ "Hindustani B2". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press . September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) * ^ "Hindustani". Columbia University
Columbia University
press. encyclopedia.com. * ^ A B Keith Brown; Sarah Ogilvie (2008), Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, Elsevier, ISBN 0-08-087774-5 , ... Apabhramsha seemed to be in a state of transition from Middle Indo-Aryan to the New Indo-Aryan stage. Some elements of Hindustani appear ... the distinct form of the lingua franca Hindustani appears in the writings of Amir Khusro
Amir Khusro
(1253–1325), who called it Hindwi ... * ^ Gat, Azar (2013). Nations: The Long History and Deep Roots of Political Ethnicity and Nationalism. Cambridge University Press. p. 126. ISBN 9781107007857 . * ^ Zahir ud-Din Mohammad (2002-09-10), Thackston, Wheeler M., ed., The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor, Modern Library Classics, ISBN 0-375-76137-3 , Note: Gurkānī is the Persianized form of the Mongolian word "kürügän" ("son-in-law"), the title given to the dynasty's founder after his marriage into Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
's family. * ^ B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam , Online Edition, 2006 * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
, "Timurid Dynasty", Online Academic Edition, 2007. (Quotation:...Turkic dynasty descended from the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), renowned for its brilliant revival of artistic and intellectual life in Iran and Central Asia....Trading and artistic communities were brought into the capital city of Herat, where a library was founded, and the capital became the centre of a renewed and artistically brilliant Persian culture...) * ^ "Timurids". The Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth ed.). New York City: Columbia University
Columbia University
. Retrieved 2006-11-08. * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article: Consolidation & expansion of the Indo-Timurids, Online Edition, 2007. * ^ "South Asian Sufis: Devotion, Deviation, and Destiny". Retrieved 2 January 2015. * ^ Sigfried J. de Laet. History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century UNESCO, 1994. ISBN 9231028138 p 734 * ^ A B C McGregor, Stuart (2003), "The Progress of Hindi, Part 1", Literary cultures in history: reconstructions from South Asia, p. 912, ISBN 978-0-520-22821-4 in Pollock (2003) * ^ Indika: the country and the people of India
India
and Ceylon By John Fletcher Hurst (1891) Page 344. * ^ A B Writing Systems by Florian Coulmas, page 232 * ^ http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.0:10298.bahri * ^ "The Origin and Growth of Urdu
Urdu
Language". Yaser Amri. Retrieved 2007-01-08. * ^ A B C D Faruqi, Shamsur Rahman (2003), "A Long History of Urdu Literarature, Part 1", Literary cultures in history: reconstructions from South Asia, p. 806, ISBN 978-0-520-22821-4 in Pollock (2003). * ^ A Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language, Chronicle Press, 1796, retrieved 2007-01-08 * ^ Grierson, vol. 9-1, p. 47. * ^ Government of India: National Policy on Education Archived 20 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.. * ^ "Colonial Knowledge and the Fate of Hindustani". 35. Cambridge University Press : 665–682. JSTOR
JSTOR
179178 . * ^ Indian critiques of Gandhi by Harold G. Coward page 218 * ^ "Hindi, not a national language: Court". * ^ Kuczkiewicz-Fraś, Agnieszka (2008). Perso-Arabic Loanwords in Hindustani. Kraków: Księgarnia Akademicka. p. X. ISBN 978-83-7188-161-9 .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Asher, R. E. (1994). Hindi. In Asher (Ed.) (pp. 1547–1549). * Asher, R. E. (Ed.). (1994). The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-035943-4 . * Bailey, Thomas G. (1950). Teach yourself Hindustani. London: English Universities Press. * Chatterji, Suniti K. (1960). Indo-Aryan and Hindi
Hindi
(rev. 2nd ed.). Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay. * Dua, Hans R. (1992). Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
as a pluricentric language. In M. G. Clyne (Ed.), Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012855-1 . * Dua, Hans R. (1994a). Hindustani. In Asher (Ed.) (pp. 1554). * Dua, Hans R. (1994b). Urdu. In Asher (Ed.) (pp. 4863–4864). * Rai, Amrit. (1984). A house divided: The origin and development of Hindi-Hindustani. Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-561643-X .

Further reading

* Henry Blochmann (1877). English and Urdu
Urdu
dictionary, romanized (8 ed.). CALCUTTA: Printed at the Baptist mission press for the Calcutta school-book society. p. 215. Retrieved 2011-07-06. the University of Michigan * John Dowson (1908). A grammar of the Urdū or Hindūstānī language (3 ed.). LONDON: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., ltd. p. 264. Retrieved 2011-07-06. the University of Michigan * John Dowson (1872). A grammar of the Urdū or Hindūstānī language. LONDON: Trübner & Co. p. 264. Retrieved 2011-07-06. Oxford University * John Thompson Platts (1874). A grammar of the Hindūstānī or Urdū language. Volume 6423 of Harvard College Library preservation microfilm program. LONDON: W.H. Allen. p. 399. Retrieved 2011-07-06. Oxford University * John Thompson Platts (1892). A grammar of the Hindūstānī or Urdū language. LONDON: W.H. Allen. p. 399. Retrieved 2011-07-06. the New York Public Library * John Thompson Platts (1884). A dictionary of Urdū, classical Hindī, and English (reprint ed.). LONDON: H. Milford. p. 1259. Retrieved 2011-07-06. Oxford University * Shakespear, John. A Dictionary, Hindustani and English. 3rd ed., much enl. London: Printed for the author by J.L. Cox and Son: Sold by Parbury, Allen, as edited by the late W. Hunter ; by William Carmichael Smyth.)

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for HINDI-URDU_PHRASEBOOK .

* Hamari Boli (Hindustani) * Khan Academy (Hindi-Urdu): academic lessons taught in Hindi-Urdu * Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th Edition: Hindostani * Hindi, Urdu, Hindustani, khaRî bolî * Hindustani FAQ at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived 27 October 2009) * Hindustani as an anxiety between Hindi– Urdu
Urdu
Commitment * Hindi? Urdu? Hindustani? Hindi-Urdu? * Hindi/Urdu-English-Kalasha-Khowar-Nuristani-Pashtu Comparative Word List * GRN Report for Hindustani * Hindustani Poetry * Hindustani online resources * Biggest Hindustani-Indian poetry forum * National Language Authority (Urdu), Pakistan
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