HOME
ListMoto - Hindu Kush


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Coordinates : 35°N 71°E / 35°N 71°E / 35; 71

HINDU KUSH

Hindu
Hindu
Kush range

HIGHEST POINT

PEAK Tirich Mir

ELEVATION 7,708 m (25,289 ft)

COORDINATES 36°14′45″N 71°50′38″E / 36.24583°N 71.84389°E / 36.24583; 71.84389  

GEOGRAPHY

Topography of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range

COUNTRIES List

* Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Pakistan
Pakistan
* China
China
* Tajikistan
Tajikistan

REGION Central Asia
Central Asia
-South

PARENT RANGE Himalayas
Himalayas

Hindu
Hindu
Kush and its extending mountain ranges to the west.

The HINDU KUSH (/kʊʃ, kuːʃ/ ; Pashto
Pashto
, Persian and Urdu : هندوکش‎), also known in Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
as the CAUCASUS INDICUS ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Παροπαμισάδαι), is an 800-kilometre-long (500 mi) mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border, from central Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to northern Pakistan
Pakistan
. It forms the western section of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush Himalayan Region (HKH). It divides the valley of the Amu Darya (the ancient Oxus) to the north from the Indus River
Indus River
valley to the south.

The Hindu
Hindu
Kush range has numerous high snow-capped peaks, with the highest point in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush being Tirich Mir or Terichmir at 7,708 metres (25,289 ft) in the Chitral District
Chitral District
of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
, Pakistan. To the north, near its northeastern end, the Hindu
Hindu
Kush buttresses the Pamir Mountains near the point where the borders of China, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
meet, after which it runs southwest through Pakistan
Pakistan
and into Afghanistan
Afghanistan
near their border. The eastern end of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush in the north merges with the Karakoram Range
Karakoram Range
. Towards its southern end, it connects with the Spin Ghar Range near the Kabul River .

According to Gnoli, "if we compare the first chapter of the Vidēvdād with the passages of geographical interest that we come across mainly in the great yašts , we can conclude that the geographical area of Avesta was dominated by the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range at the center, the western boundary being marked by the districts of Margiana, Areia, and Drangiana, the eastern one by the Indo-Iranian frontier regions such as Gandhāra, Bunēr, the land of the Seven Rivers." The Hindu
Hindu
Kush range region was later a historically significant centre of Buddhism
Buddhism
with sites such as the Bamiyan Buddhas . The range and communities settled in it hosted ancient monasteries, important trade networks, and travelers between Central Asia
Asia
and South Asia
South Asia
. The Hindu
Hindu
Kush range has also been the passageway during the invasions of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, and continues to be important during modern era warfare in Afghanistan.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geology and formation

* 2 Origin of name

* 2.1 Other names

* 3 Mountains

* 3.1 Eastern Hindu
Hindu
Kush * 3.2 Highest mountains

* 4 History

* 4.1 Ancient

* 4.2 Medieval era

* 4.2.1 Slavery

* 4.3 Modern era

* 5 Ethnography * 6 See also

* 7 References

* 7.1 Bibliography * 7.2 Further reading

* 8 External links

GEOLOGY AND FORMATION

Geologically, the range is rooted in the formation of a subcontinent from a region of Gondwana that drifted away from East Africa about 160 million years ago, around the Middle Jurassic period. The Indian subcontinent, Australia
Australia
and islands of Indian Ocean
Ocean
rifted further, drifting northeastwards, with the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Palaeocene. This collision created the Himalayas, including the Hindu Kush.

The Hindu
Hindu
Kush range remains geologically active and are still rising. It is prone to earthquakes.

ORIGIN OF NAME

The origins of the name Hindu
Hindu
Kush are uncertain, with various theories being propounded by different scholars and writers. According to Hobson-Jobson , the name might be a possible corruption of Indicus Caucasus, with another explanation mentioned first by Ibn Batuta remaining popular despite doubts upon it, and the modification of the name by some later writers into Hindu
Hindu
Koh is factitious and throws no light on the name's origin.

The Persian-English dictionary indicates that the word 'koš' is derived from the verb ('koštan' کشتن ), meaning "to kill". According to Francis Joseph Steingass, the word and suffix "-kush" means "a male; (imp. of kushtan in comp.) a killer, who kills, slays, murders, oppresses as azhdaha-kush". A Practical Dictionary of the Persian Language gives the meaning of the word kush as "hotbed". According to one interpretation, the name Hindu
Hindu
Kush means "kills the Hindu
Hindu
" or " Hindu
Hindu
killer" and is a reminder of the days when slaves from the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
died in the harsh weather typical of the Afghan mountains while being taken to Central Asia. The World Book Encyclopedia states that the word kush means death, and was probably given to the mountains because of their dangerous passes.

In his travel memoirs about India, the 14th century Moroccan traveller Muhammad Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
mentioned crossing into India via the mountain passes of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush. In his Rihla , he mentions these mountains and the history of the range in slave trading. Alexander von Humboldt stated that it can be learned from his work that the name only referred to a single mountain pass upon which many Indian slaves died of the cold weather. Battuta wrote,

After this I proceeded to the city of Barwan, in the road to which is a high mountain, covered with snow and exceedingly cold; they call it the Hindu
Hindu
Kush, that is Hindu-slayer, because most of the slaves brought thither from India die on account of the intenseness of the cold. — Ibn Batutta, Chapter XIII, Rihla – Khorasan An 1879 map of Hindu
Hindu
Kush and its passes by Royal Geographic Society. Kabul
Kabul
is in lower left, Kashmir
Kashmir
in lower right.

The name Hindu
Hindu
Kush is relatively young, states Ervin Grötzbach, and it is "missing from the accounts of the early Arab geographers and occurs for the first time in Ibn Baṭṭuṭa (ca. 1330)". Ibn Baṭṭuṭa, states Grötzbach, saw the "origin of the name Hindu Kush (Hindu-killer) in the fact that numerous Hindu
Hindu
slaves died crossing the pass on their way from India to Turkestan". In contrast, state Fosco Maraini and Nigel Allan, the earliest known usage occurs on a map published about 1000 CE. According to Allan, the term Hindu Kush has been commonly seen to mean " Hindu
Hindu
killer", but two other meanings of the term include "sparkling snows of India" and "mountains of India" with "Kush" possibly a soft variant of Kuh which means "mountain". Hindu
Hindu
Kush in Arabic means mountains of India. To Arab geographers, states Allan, Hindu
Hindu
Kush was the frontier boundary where Hindustan started.

According to McColl, the origins of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush name are controversial. Along with its origin in the perishing of Indian slaves, two other possibilities exist. The term could be a corruption of Hindu
Hindu
Koh from pre-Islamic times where it separated Hindu population of southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from non- Hindu
Hindu
population in northern Afghanistan. The second possibility is that the name may be from the ancient Avestan language
Avestan language
, with the meaning "water mountain".

OTHER NAMES

The mountain range was also called " Paropamisadae " by Hellenic Greeks in the late first millennium BC.

Some 19th century Encyclopedias and gazetteers state that the term Hindu
Hindu
Kush originally applied only to the peak in the area of the Kushan Pass
Kushan Pass
, which had become a centre of the Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
by the first century.

Some scholars remove the space, and refer to Hindu
Hindu
Kush as "Hindukush".

MOUNTAINS

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (July 2017)

The Hindu
Hindu
Kush is a formidable mountain range to cross with most peaks being between 14,500 and 17,000 feet, and some much higher. The mountains experience heavy snowfall and blizzards, with the lowest mountain pass through them being southern Shibar pass (9,000 feet) where the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range terminates. Other mountain passes being generally about 12,000 or higher. They become passable in late spring and summer.

The mountains of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range diminish in height as they stretch westward. Near Kabul, in the west, they attain heights of 3,500 to 4,000 meters (11,500 to 13,100 ft); in the east they extend from 4,500 to 6,000 meters (14,800 to 19,700 ft). The average altitude of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush is 4,500 meters (14,800 feet).

The Hindu
Hindu
Kush system stretches about 966 kilometres (600 mi) laterally, and its median north-south measurement is about 240 kilometres (150 mi). Only about 600 kilometres (370 mi) of the Hindu Kush system is called the Hindu
Hindu
Kush mountains. The rest of the system consists of numerous smaller mountain ranges. Rivers that flow from the mountain system include the Helmand River, the Hari River
River
and the Kabul
Kabul
River, watersheds for the Sistan Basin . The lower Sistan basin gets little rainfall (~50 mm per year) and the main source of water is the Helmand River
River
which brings snowmelt water from the southern Hindu Kush. The smaller Khash, the Farah and the Arashkan (Harut) rivers bring water from the western Hindu
Hindu
Kush. The basin of these rivers serves the ecology and economy of the region west to Hindu
Hindu
Kush, but the water flow in these rivers fluctuates severely and has been a historical problem for any settlement. Extreme and extended droughts have been common. A Badakhshan
Badakhshan
valley (left), August in Hindu
Hindu
Kush.

The Hindu
Hindu
Kush are orographically described in several parts. The western Hindu
Hindu
Kush, states Yarshater, rises to over 5,100 meters and stretches between Darra-ye Sekari and the Shibar Pass in the west and the Khawak Pass in the east. The central Hindu
Hindu
Kush rising over 6,800 meters has numerous spurs between the Khawak Pass in the east and the Durāh Pass in the west. The eastern Hindu
Hindu
Kush with peaks over 7,000 meter extends from the Durāh Pass to the Baroghil Pass at the border between northeastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and north Pakistan. The ridges between Khawak Pass and Badakshan is over 5,800 meter and is called the Kaja Mohammed range.

The Hindu
Hindu
Kush, states Yarshater, are a part of the "young Eurasian mountain range consisting of metamorphic rocks such as schist, gneiss and marble, as well as of intrusives such as granite, diorite of different age and size". The northern regions of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush witness Himalayan winter and have glaciers, while its southeastern end witness the fringe of Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
summer monsoons. From about 1,300 to 2,300 meter, states Yarshater, "sklerophyllous forests are predominant with Quercus and Olea (wild olive); above that up to a height of about 3,300 m one finds coniferous forests with cedars, Picea, Abies, Pinus, and junipers". The inner valleys of the Hindu Kush see little rain and have desert vegetation.

Numerous high passes ("kotal") transect the mountains, forming a strategically important network for the transit of caravans. The most important mountain pass is the Salang Pass (Kotal-e Salang) (3,878 m); it links Kabul
Kabul
and points south of it to northern Afghanistan. The completion of a tunnel within this pass in 1964 reduced travel time between Kabul
Kabul
and the north to a few hours. Previously access to the north through the Kotal-e Shibar (3,260 m) took three days. The Salang tunnel at 3,363 m and the extensive network of galleries on the approach roads were constructed with Soviet financial and technological assistance and involved drilling 1.7 miles through the heart of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush. The Salang tunnel is on Afghan Highway 76, northwest of Golbahar town, and has been an active area of armed conflict with various parties trying to control it.

These mountainous areas are mostly barren, or at the most sparsely sprinkled with trees and stunted bushes. Very ancient mines producing lapis lazuli are found in Kowkcheh Valley, while gem-grade emeralds are found north of Kabul
Kabul
in the valley of the Panjsher River
River
and some of its tributaries. According to Walter Schumann, the West Hindu
Hindu
Kush mountains have been the source of finest Lapis Lazuli for thousands of years.

EASTERN HINDU KUSH

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (July 2017)

The Eastern Hindu
Hindu
Kush range, also known as the High Hindu
Hindu
Kush range, is mostly located in northern Pakistan
Pakistan
and the Nuristan
Nuristan
and Badakhshan
Badakhshan
provinces of Afghanistan. The Chitral District
Chitral District
of Pakistan is home to Tirich Mir , Noshaq , and Istoro Nal , the highest peaks in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush. The range also extends into Ghizar , Yasin Valley , and Ishkoman
Ishkoman
in Pakistan's Northern Areas.

Chitral , Pakistan, is considered to be the pinnacle of the Hindu Kush region. The highest peaks, as well as countless passes and massive glaciers, are located in this region. The Chiantar , Kurambar , and Terich glaciers are amongst the most extensive in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush and the meltwater from these glaciers form the Kunar River
River
, which eventually flows south into Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and joins the Bashgal , Panjshir , and eventually the much smaller Kabul River .

HIGHEST MOUNTAINS

NAME HEIGHT COUNTRY

Tirich Mir 7,708 metres (25,289 ft) Pakistan

Noshak 7,492 metres (24,580 ft) Afghanistan, Pakistan

Istor-o-Nal 7,403 metres (24,288 ft) Pakistan

Saraghrar 7,338 metres (24,075 ft) Pakistan

Udren Zom 7,140 metres (23,430 ft) Pakistan

Lunkho e Dosare 6,901 metres (22,641 ft) Afghanistan, Pakistan

Kuh-e Bandaka 6,843 metres (22,451 ft) Afghanistan

Koh-e Keshni Khan 6,743 metres (22,123 ft) Afghanistan

Sakar Sar 6,272 metres (20,577 ft) Afghanistan, Pakistan

Kohe Mondi 6,234 metres (20,453 ft) Afghanistan

HISTORY

Kabul
Kabul
, situated 5,900 feet (1,800 m) above sea level in a narrow valley, wedged between the Hindu
Hindu
Kush mountains

The mountains have historical significance in the Indian subcontinent and China. The Hindu
Hindu
Kush range was a major centre of Buddhism
Buddhism
with sites such as the Bamiyan Buddhas . It has also been the passageway during the invasions of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, a region where the Taliban
Taliban
and Al Qaeda grew, and to modern era warfare in Afghanistan. Buddhas of Bamiyan
Buddhas of Bamiyan
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1896 (top) and after destruction in 2001 by the Taliban
Taliban
Islamists.

Buddhism
Buddhism
was widespread in the ancient Hindu
Hindu
Kush region. Ancient artwork of Buddhism
Buddhism
include the giant rock carved statues called the Bamiyan Buddha, in the southern and western end of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush. These statues were blown up by the Taliban
Taliban
Islamists. The southeastern valleys of Hindu
Hindu
Kush connecting towards the Indus Valley region were a major centre that hosted monasteries, religious scholars from distant lands, trade networks and merchants of ancient Indian subcontinent.

One of the early Buddhist schools , the Mahāsāṃghika - Lokottaravāda , was prominent in the area of Bamiyan. The Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang
Xuanzang
visited a Lokottaravāda monastery in the 7th century CE, at Bamiyan, Afghanistan. Birchbark and palm leaf manuscripts of texts in this monastery's collection, including Mahāyāna sūtras , have been discovered in the caves of Hindu
Hindu
Kush, and these are now a part of the Schøyen Collection . Some manuscripts are in the Gāndhārī language and Kharoṣṭhī script, while others are in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and written in forms of the Gupta script
Gupta script
.

According to Alfred Foucher , the Hindu
Hindu
Kush and nearby regions gradually converted to Buddhism
Buddhism
by the 1st century CE, and this region was the base from where Buddhism
Buddhism
crossed the Hindu
Hindu
Kush expanding into the Oxus valley region of Central Asia. After the Islamic conquest of the region and Islam becoming the state religion, Buddhism
Buddhism
vanished and locals became Muslims.

ANCIENT

The significance of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush mountain range has been recorded since the time of Darius I of Persia . Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
entered the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
through the Hindu
Hindu
Kush as his army moved past Bactria
Bactria
into the Afghan valley in the spring of 329 BCE. He moved towards the Indus valley river region in 327 BCE, his armies building several towns in this region over the intervening two years.

After Alexander the Great's death in 323 BCE, the region became part of the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
, according to the ancient history of Strabo written in 1st century BCE, before it became a part of the Indian Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
around 305 BCE. The region became a part of the Kushan Empire in centuries around the start of the common era.

MEDIEVAL ERA

The lands north of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush, in the Hephthalite dominion, Buddhism
Buddhism
was the predominant religion by mid 1st millennium CE. These Buddhists were religiously tolerant and they co-existed with followers of Zoroastrianism, Manichaseism and Nestorian Christianity. This Central Asia
Central Asia
region along the Hindu
Hindu
Kush was taken over by Western Turks and Arabs by the eighth century, facing wars with mostly Iranians. One major exception was the period in mid to late seventh century, when the Tang dynasty from China
China
destroyed the Northern Turks and extended its rule all the way to Oxus River
River
valley and regions of Central Asia
Central Asia
bordering all along the Hindu
Hindu
Kush. Hindu
Hindu
Kush relative to Bactria, Bamiyan, Kabul
Kabul
and Gandhara (bottom right).

The subcontinent side and valleys of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush remained unconquered by the Islamic armies till the 9th century, even though they had conquered the southern regions of Indus River
Indus River
valley such as Sind . Kabul
Kabul
fell to the army of Al-Ma\'mun , the seventh Abbasid caliph, in 808 and the local king agreed to accept Islam and pay annual tributes to the caliph. However, states André Wink, inscriptional evidence suggests that Kabul
Kabul
area near Hindu
Hindu
Kush had an early presence of Islam.

Mahmud of Ghazni came to power in 998 CE, in Ghazna , Afghanistan south of Kabul
Kabul
and Hindu
Hindu
Kush range. He began a military campaign that rapidly brought both sides of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range under his rule. From his mountainous Afghan base, he systematically raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030. Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries of kingdoms, sacked cities and destroyed Hindu
Hindu
temples, with each campaign starting every spring, but he and his army returned to Ghazni and Hindu
Hindu
Kush base before monsoons arrived in the northwestern part of the subcontinent. He retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab.

In 1017, the Iranian Islamic historian Al-Biruni was deported after a war that Mahmud of Ghazni won, to northwest Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
under Mahmud's rule. Al Biruni stayed in the region for about fifteen years, learnt Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and translated many Indian texts, and wrote about Indian society, culture, sciences and religion in Persian and Arabic. He stayed for some time in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush region, particularly near Kabul. In 1019, he recorded and described a solar eclipse in what is modern era Laghman Province
Laghman Province
of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
through which Hindu
Hindu
Kush pass. Al Biruni also wrote about early history of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush region and Kabul
Kabul
kings, who ruled the region long before he arrived, but this history is inconsistent with other records available from that era. Al Biruni was supported by Sultan Mahmud. Al Biruni found it difficult to get access to Indian literature locally in the Hindu Kush area, and to explain this he wrote, "Mahmud utterly ruined the prosperity of the country, and performed wondeful exploits by which the Hindus became the atoms scattered in all directions, and like a tale of old in the mouth of the people. (...) This is the reason, too, why Hindu
Hindu
sciences have retired far from those parts of the country conquered by us, and have fled to places which our hand cannot yet reach, to Kashmir
Kashmir
, Benares and other places".

In late 12th century, the historically influential Ghurid empire led by Mu\'izz al-Din ruled the Hindu
Hindu
Kush region. He was influential in seeding the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
, shifting the base of his Sultanate from south of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range and Ghazni towards the Yamuna River
River
and Delhi. He thus helped bring the Islamic rule to the northern plains of Indian subcontinent.

The Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
arrived in the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
by passing through the Hindu
Hindu
Kush. The mountain passes of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range were used by Timur and his army and they crossed to launch the 1398 invasion of northern Indian subcontinent. Timur , also known as Temur or Tamerlane in Western scholarly literature, marched with his army to Delhi, plundering and killing all the way. He arrived in the capital Delhi where his army looted and killed its residents. Then he carried the wealth and the captured slaves, returning to his capital through the Hindu
Hindu
Kush.

Babur , the founder of Mughal Empire, was a patrilineal descendant of Timur with roots in Central Asia. He first established himself and his army in Kabul
Kabul
and the Hindu
Hindu
Kush region. In 1526, he made his move into north India, won the Battle of Panipat, ending the last Delhi Sultanate dynasty, and starting the era of the Mughals.

Slavery

Slavery, as with all major ancient and medieval societies, has been a part of Central Asia
Central Asia
and South Asia
South Asia
history. The Hindu
Hindu
Kush mountain passes connected the slave markets of Central Asia
Central Asia
with slaves seized in South Asia. The seizure and transportation of slaves from Indian subcontinent became intense in and after the 8th century CE, with evidence suggesting that the slave transport involved "hundreds of thousands" of slaves from India in different periods of Islamic rule era. According to John Coatsworth and others, the slave trading operations during the pre-Akbar Mughal and Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
era "sent thousands of Hindus every year north to Central Asia
Central Asia
to pay for horses and other goods". However, the interaction between Central Asia
Central Asia
and South Asia
South Asia
through the Hindu
Hindu
Kush was not limited to slavery, it included trading in food, goods, horses and weapons.

The practice of raiding tribes, hunting and kidnapping people for slave trading continued through the 19th century, at an extensive scale, around Hindu
Hindu
Kush. According to a British Anti-Slavery Society report of 1874, the Governor of Faizabad, Mir Ghulam Bey, kept 8,000 horses and cavalry men who routinely captured non-Muslim infidels (kafir) as well as Shia Muslims as slaves. Others alleged to be involved in slave trade were feudal lords such as Ameer Sheer Ali. The isolated communities in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush were one of the targets of these slave hunting expeditions.

MODERN ERA

Landscape of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
with a T-62 in the foreground.

In early 19th century, the Sikh Empire expanded under Ranjit Singh in the northwest till the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range.

The Hindu
Hindu
Kush served as a geographical barrier to the British empire, leading to paucity of information and scarce direct interaction between the British colonial officials and Central Asian peoples. The British had to rely on tribal chiefs, Sadozai and Barakzai noblemen for information, and they generally downplayed the reports of slavery and other violence for geo-political strategic considerations.

In the colonial era, the Hindu
Hindu
Kush were considered, informally, the dividing line between Russian and British areas of influence in Afghanistan. During the Cold War
Cold War
the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range became a strategic theatre, especially during the 1980s when Soviet forces and their Afghan allies fought the Mujahideen with support from the US allies channeled through Pakistan. After the Soviet withdrawal and the end of the Cold War, many Mujahideen morphed into Taliban
Taliban
and Al Qaeda forces imposing a strict interpretation of Islamic law (Sharia ), with Kabul, these mountains and other parts of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as their base. Other Mujahideen joined the Northern Alliance to oppose the Taliban
Taliban
rule.

After September 11, 2001 terror attacks in New York, the American and ISAF campaign against Al Qaeda and their Taliban
Taliban
allies made the Hindu Kush once again a militarized conflict zone.

ETHNOGRAPHY

Pre-Islamic populations of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush included Shins , Yeshkun, Chiliss , Neemchas Koli, Palus, Gaware, Yeshkuns, and Krammins.

SEE ALSO

* Mount Imeon * Paropamisus Mountains * Himalayas
Himalayas
* A Short Walk in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush * Geography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Geography of Pakistan
Pakistan
* Hindustan * List of highest mountains (a list of mountains above 7,200m) * List of mountain ranges * 2002 Hindu
Hindu
Kush earthquakes * 2005 Hindu
Hindu
Kush earthquake

REFERENCES

* ^ Hindu
Hindu
Kush, Encyclopedia Iranica * ^ A B Mike Searle (2013). Colliding Continents: A geological exploration of the Himalaya, Karakoram, and Tibet. Oxford University Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-19-165248-6 . , Quote: "The Hindu
Hindu
Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan". * ^ George C. Kohn (2006). Dictionary of Wars. Infobase Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4381-2916-7 . * ^ " Hindu
Hindu
Kush Himalayan Region". ICIMOD. Retrieved 17 October 2014. * ^ "Mapping the vulnerability hotspots over Hindu-Kush Himalaya region to flooding disasters". Weather and Climate Extremes. 8: 46–58. doi :10.1016/j.wace.2014.12.001 . Retrieved 2015-09-06. * ^ "Development of an ASSESSment system to evaluate the ecological status of rivers in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush-Himalayan region" (PDF). assess-hkh.at. Retrieved 2015-09-06. * ^ Karakoram
Karakoram
Range: MOUNTAINS, ASIA, Encyclopedia Britannica * ^ Stefan Heuberger (2004). The Karakoram-Kohistan Suture Zone in NW Pakistan
Pakistan
Hindu
Hindu
Kush Mountain Range. vdf Hochschulverlag AG. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-3-7281-2965-9 . * ^ Spīn Ghar Range, MOUNTAINS, PAKISTAN-AFGHANISTAN, Encyclopedia Britannica * ^ Jonathan M. Bloom; Sheila S. Blair (2009). The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture. Oxford University Press. pp. 389–390. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1 . * ^ G. Gnoli (2011), Avestan Geography Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 1, pp. 44-47 * ^ A B Deborah Klimburg-Salter (1989), The Kingdom of Bamiyan: Buddhist art and culture of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush, Naples – Rome: Istituto Universitario Orientale & Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, ISBN 978-0877737650 (Reprinted by Shambala) * ^ Claudio Margottini (2013). After the Destruction of Giant Buddha Statues in Bamiyan (Afghanistan) in 2001: A UNESCO\'s Emergency Activity for the Recovering and Rehabilitation of Cliff and Niches. Springer. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-3-642-30051-6 . * ^ A B Jason Neelis (2010). Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks: Mobility and Exchange Within and Beyond the Northwestern Borderlands of South Asia. BRILL Academic. pp. 114–115, 144, 160–163, 170–176, 249–250. ISBN 90-04-18159-8 . * ^ A B C D Ibn Battuta; Samuel Lee (Translator) (2010). The Travels of Ibn Battuta: In the Near East, Asia
Asia
and Africa. Cosimo (Reprint). pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-1-61640-262-4 . ; Columbia University Archive * ^ A B Konrad H. Kinzl (2010). A Companion to the Classical Greek World. John Wiley & Sons. p. 577. ISBN 978-1-4443-3412-8 . * ^ A B André Wink (2002). Al-Hind: The Slavic Kings and the Islamic conquest, 11th–13th centuries. BRILL Academic. pp. 52–53. ISBN 0-391-04174-6 . * ^ A B C D Frank Clements (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8 . * ^ A B Michael Ryan (2013). Decoding Al-Qaeda\'s Strategy: The Deep Battle Against America. Columbia University Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0-231-16384-2 . * ^ A B Robert Wynn Jones (2011). Applications of Palaeontology: Techniques and Case Studies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 267–271. ISBN 978-1-139-49920-0 . * ^ Hinsbergen, D. J. J. van; Lippert, P. C.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; McQuarrie, N.; Doubrovine; et al. (2012). " Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (20): 7659–7664, for geologic Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
see Figure 1. doi :10.1073/pnas.1117262109 . CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * ^ S. Mukherjee; R. Carosi; P.A. van der Beek; et al. (2015). Tectonics of the Himalaya. Geological Society of London. pp. 55–57. ISBN 978-1-86239-703-3 . CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * ^ Martin Beniston (2002). Mountain Environments in Changing Climates. Routledge. p. 320. ISBN 978-1-134-85236-9 . * ^ Frank Clements (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8 .

* ^ Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Pakistan
Pakistan
Earthquake National Geographic; Afghanistan
Afghanistan
earthquake BBC News; See also October 2015 Hindu
Hindu
Kush earthquake and 2016 Afghanistan
Afghanistan
earthquake . * ^ A B C D R. W. McColl (2014). Encyclopedia of World Geography. Infobase Publishing. pp. 413–414. ISBN 978-0-8160-7229-3 . * ^ Henry Yule, A. C. Burnell; ed. by Kate Teltscher. Hobson-Jobson: The Definitive Glossary of British India. Oxford University Press. p. 258. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Boyle, J.A. (1949). A Practical Dictionary of the Persian Language. Luzac & Co. p. 129. * ^ Francis Joseph Steingass (1992). A Comprehensive Persian-English Dictionary. Asian Educational Services. pp. 1030–1031 (KUSH MEANS "killer, kills, slays, murders, oppresses"), p. 455 (khirs–kush means "bear killer"), p. 734 (shutur–kush means "camel butcher"), p. 1213 (mardum–kush means "man slaughter"). ISBN 978-81-206-0670-8 . * ^ Boyle, J.A. (1949). A Practical Dictionary of the Persian Language (PDF). Luzac & Co. p. 131. * ^ Amy Romano (2003). A Historical Atlas of Afghanistan. Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-8239-3863-6 .

* ^ Michael Franzak (2010). A Nightmare\'s Prayer: A Marine Harrier Pilot\'s War in Afghanistan. Simon and Schuster. p. 241. ISBN 978-1-4391-9499-7 . ; Ehsan Yarshater (2003). Encyclopædia Iranica. The Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation. p. 312. ISBN 978-0-933273-76-4 . James Wynbrandt (2009). A Brief History of Pakistan. Infobase Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8160-6184-6 . ; Encyclopedia Americana. 14. 1993. p. 206. ; André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th–11th Centuries. BRILL Academic. p. 110. ISBN 0-391-04173-8 . , Quote: "(..) the Muslim Arabs also applied the name 'Khurasan' to all the Muslim provinces to the east of the Great Desert and up to the HINDU-KUSH (\'HINDU KILLER\') mountains, the Chinese desert and the Pamir mountains". * ^ The World Book
Book
Encyclopedia. 9 (1994 ed.). World Book
Book
Inc. 1990. p. 235. * ^ Dunn, Ross E. (2005). The Adventures of Ibn Battuta. University of California Press. pp. 171–178. ISBN 0-520-24385-4 . * ^ Alexander von Humboldt; ed. by Stephen T. Jackson, Laura Dassow Walls. Views of Nature. University of Chicago Press. p. 68. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Ervin Grötzbach (2012 Edition, Original: 2003), Hindu
Hindu
Kush, Encyclopaedia Iranica * ^ A B Fosco Maraini et al, Hindu
Hindu
Kush, Encyclopaedia Britannica * ^ Allan, Nigel (2001). "Defining Place and People in Afghanistan". Post Soviet Geography and Economics. 8. 42: 545–560. * ^ Vogelsang, Willem (2002). The Afghans. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19841-5 . Retrieved 2010-08-22.

* ^ 1890,1896 Encyclopedia Brittanica s.v. "Afghanistan", Vol I p.228.; 1893, 1899 Johnson's Universal Encyclopedia Vol I p.61.; 1885 Imperial Gazetteer of India, V. I p. 30.; 1850 A Gazetteer of the World Vol I p. 62. * ^ Karl Jettmar; Schuyler Jones (1986). The Religions of the Hindukush: The religion of the Kafirs. Aris & Phillips. ISBN 978-0-85668-163-9 . * ^ Winiger, M.; Gumpert, M.; Yamout, H. (2005). "Karakorum-Hindukush-western Himalaya: assessing high-altitude water resources". Hydrological Processes. Wiley-Blackwell. 19 (12): 2329–2338. doi :10.1002/hyp.5887 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ A B Scott-Macnab, David (1994). On the roof of the world. London: Reader's Digest Assiciation Ldt. p. 22. * ^ History of Environmental Change in the Sistan Basin, UNEP, United Nations, pages 5, 12-14 * ^ A B C D E Ehsan Yarshater (2003). Encyclopædia Iranica. The Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation. p. 312. ISBN 978-0-933273-76-4 . * ^ John Laffin (1997). The World in Conflict: War Annual 8 : Contemporary Warfare Described and Analysed. Brassey's. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-1-85753-216-6 . * ^ Walter Schumann (2009). Gemstones of the World. Sterling. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-4027-6829-3 . * ^ Claudio Margottini (2013). After the Destruction of Giant Buddha Statues in Bamiyan (Afghanistan) in 2001: A UNESCO\'s Emergency Activity for the Recovering and Rehabilitation of Cliff and Niches. Springer. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-3-642-30051-6 . * ^ Magnus, Ralph H. (1998). " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1997: The War Moves North". Asian Survey. University of California Press. 38 (2): 109–115. doi :10.2307/2645667 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ A B Jan Goldman (2014). The War on Terror Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 360–362. ISBN 978-1-61069-511-4 . * ^ ASOKA MUKHANAGAVINAYAPARICCHEDA, The Schoyen Collection, Quote: "Provenance: 1. Buddhist monastery of Mahasanghika, Bamiyan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(−7th c.); 2. CAVE IN HINDU KUSH, BAMIYAN." * ^ "Schøyen Collection: Buddhism". Retrieved 23 June 2012. * ^ "Afghan archaeologists find Buddhist site as war rages". Sayed Salahuddin. News Daily. Aug 17, 2010. Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-16. * ^ Jason Neelis (2010). Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks: Mobility and Exchange Within and Beyond the Northwestern Borderlands of South Asia. BRILL Academic. pp. 234–235. ISBN 90-04-18159-8 . * ^ Lars Fogelin (2015). An Archaeological History of Indian Buddhism. Oxford University Press. pp. 6–11, 218, 229–230. ISBN 978-0-19-994823-9 . * ^ Sheila Canby (1993). "Depictions of Buddha Sakyamuni in the Jami al-Tavarikh and the Majma al-Tavarikh". Muqarnas. 10: 299–310. doi :10.2307/1523195 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Michael Jerryson (2016). The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Buddhism. Oxford University Press. p. 464. ISBN 978-0-19-936239-4 . * ^ Peter Marsden (1998). The Taliban: War, Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-85649-522-6 . * ^ Peter Marsden (1998). The Taliban: War, Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-1-85649-522-6 . * ^ Nancy Hatch Dupree / Aḥmad ʻAlī Kuhzād (1972). "An Historical Guide to Kabul
Kabul
– The Name". American International School of Kabul. Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2010. * ^ Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill\'s first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. 2. BRILL. p. 159. ISBN 90-04-08265-4 . Retrieved 2010-08-23. * ^ A B C André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th–11th Centuries. BRILL Academic. pp. 110–111. ISBN 0-391-04173-8 . * ^ M. A. Shaban (1979). The \'Abbāsid Revolution. Cambridge University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-521-29534-5 . * ^ André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th–11th Centuries. BRILL Academic. pp. 114–115. ISBN 0-391-04173-8 . * ^ A B André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th–11th Centuries. BRILL Academic. pp. 9–10, 123. ISBN 0-391-04173-8 . * ^ A B André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th–11th Centuries. BRILL Academic. p. 124. ISBN 0-391-04173-8 . * ^ A B Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Routledge. pp. 164–165. ISBN 978-0-415-32919-4 . * ^ A B Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 3–4, 6–7. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3 . * ^ T. A. Heathcote, The Military in British India: The Development of British Forces in South Asia:1600–1947, (Manchester University Press, 1995), pp 5–7 * ^ Barnett, Lionel (1999), Antiquities of India: An Account of the History and Culture of Ancient Hindustan, p. 1, at Google Books
Google Books
, Atlantic pp. 73–79 * ^ A B C Al-Biruni Bobojan Gafurov (June 1974), The Courier Journal, UNESCO, page 13 * ^ William J. Duiker; Jackson J. Spielvogel (2013). The Essential World History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage. p. 228. ISBN 1-133-60772-1 . * ^ K.A. Nizami (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. UNESCO. p. 186. ISBN 978-92-3-103467-1 . * ^ Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 7–15, 24–27. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3 . * ^ Francis Robinson (1996). The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World. Cambridge University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-521-66993-1 . * ^ A B Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 311–319. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3 . * ^ Beatrice F. Manz (2000). "Tīmūr Lang". In P. J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C. E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W. P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Encyclopaedia of Islam
. 10 (2 ed.). Brill . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ A B Annemarie Schimmel (1980). Islam in the Indian Subcontinent. BRILL. pp. 36–44. ISBN 90-04-06117-7 . * ^ Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-415-32919-4 . * ^ Paddy Docherty (2007). The Khyber Pass: A History of Empire and Invasion. London: Union Square. pp. 160–162. ISBN 978-1-4027-5696-2 . * ^ Gerhard Bowering; Patricia Crone; Wadad Kadi; et al. (2012). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0691134840 . CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * ^ Scott Cameron Levi; Muzaffar Alam (2007). India and Central Asia: Commerce and Culture, 1500–1800. Oxford University Press. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-0-19-568647-0 . * ^ Scott C. Levi (2002), Hindus beyond the Hindu
Hindu
Kush: Indians in the Central Asian Slave Trade, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Cambridge University Press, Volume 12, Number 3 (Nov., 2002), pages 277–288 * ^ A B Christoph Witzenrath (2016). Eurasian Slavery, Ransom and Abolition in World History, 1200–1860. Routledge. pp. 10–11 with footnotes. ISBN 978-1-317-14002-3 . * ^ Scott Cameron Levi; Muzaffar Alam (2007). India and Central Asia: Commerce and Culture, 1500–1800. Oxford University Press. pp. 11–12, 43–49, 86 note 7, 87 note 18. ISBN 978-0-19-568647-0 . * ^ John Coatsworth; Juan Cole; Michael P. Hanagan; et al. (2015). Global Connections: Volume 2, Since 1500: Politics, Exchange, and Social Life in World History. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-316-29790-2 . CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * ^ According to Clarence-Smith, the practice was curtailed but continued during Akbar's era, and returned after Akbar's death; W. G. Clarence-Smith (2006). Islam and the Abolition of Slavery. Oxford University Press. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-0-19-522151-0 . * ^ Scott Cameron Levi; Muzaffar Alam (2007). India and Central Asia: Commerce and Culture, 1500–1800. Oxford University Press. pp. 9–10, 53, 126, 160–161. ISBN 978-0-19-568647-0 . * ^ Junius P. Rodriguez (2015). Encyclopedia of Emancipation and Abolition in the Transatlantic World. Routledge. pp. 666–667. ISBN 978-1-317-47180-6 . * ^ J. S. Grewal (1998). The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-521-63764-0 . * ^ Jonathan L. Lee (1996). The "Ancient Supremacy": Bukhara, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Battle for Balkh, 1731–1901. BRILL Academic. pp. 74 with footnote. ISBN 90-04-10399-6 . * ^ Mohammed Kakar (1995). Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979–1982. University of California Press. pp. 130–133. ISBN 978-0-520-91914-3 . * ^ Scott Gates; Kaushik Roy (2016). Unconventional Warfare in South Asia: Shadow Warriors and Counterinsurgency. Routledge. pp. 142–144. ISBN 978-1-317-00541-4 . * ^ Mark Silinsky (2014). The Taliban: Afghanistan\'s Most Lethal Insurgents. ABC-CLIO. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-0-313-39898-8 . * ^ Mark Silinsky (2014). The Taliban: Afghanistan\'s Most Lethal Insurgents. ABC-CLIO. pp. 8, 37–39, 81–82. ISBN 978-0-313-39898-8 . * ^ A B C Nicola Barber (2015). Changing World: Afghanistan. Encyclopaedia Britannica. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-62513-318-2 . * ^ A Short March to the Hindu
Hindu
Kush, Alpinist 18. * ^ "Alexander in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush". Livius. Articles on Ancient History. Retrieved 2007-09-12. * ^ Biddulph, p.38 * ^ Biddulph, p.7 * ^ A B Biddulph, p.9 * ^ Biddulph, p.11 * ^ A B Biddulph, p.12

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Biddulph, John. Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh (Sang-e-Meel, 2001)

FURTHER READING

* Drew, Frederic (1877). The Northern Barrier of India: A Popular Account of the Jammoo and Kashmir
Kashmir
Territories with Illustrations. Frederic Drew. 1st edition: Edward Stanford, London. Reprint: Light & Life Publishers, Jammu, 1971 * Gibb, H. A. R. (1929). Ibn Battūta: Travels in Asia
Asia
and Africa, 1325–1354. Translated and selected by H. A. R. Gibb. Reprint: Asian Educational Services, New Delhi and Madras, 1992 * Gordon, T. E. (1876). The Roof of the World: Being the Narrative of a Journey over the High Plateau of Tibet
Tibet
to the Russian Frontier and the Oxus Sources on Pamir. Edinburgh. Edmonston and Douglas. Reprint: Ch’eng Wen Publishing Company. Tapei, 1971 * Leitner, Gottlieb Wilhelm (1890). Dardistan in 1866, 1886 and 1893: Being An Account of the History, Religions, Customs, Legends, Fables and Songs of Gilgit, Chilas, Kandia (Gabrial) Yasin, Chitral, Hunza, Nagyr and other parts of the Hindukush, as also a supplement to the second edition of The Hunza and Nagyr Handbook. And An Epitome of Part III of the author's 'The Languages and Races of Dardistan '. Reprint, 1978. Manjusri Publishing House, New Delhi. ISBN 81-206-1217-5 * Newby, Eric . (1958). A Short Walk in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush . Secker, London. Reprint: Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-0-86442-604-8 * Yule, Henry and Burnell, A. C. (1886). Hobson-Jobson: The Anglo-Indian Dictionary. 1996 reprint by Wordsworth Editions Ltd. ISBN 1-85326-363-X * A Country Study: Afghanistan, Library of Congress
Library of Congress
* Hindu
Hindu
Kush at Encyclopædia Iranica * Encyclopædia Britannica, 15 th Ed, Vol.21, pp. 54–55, 1987 * An Advanced History of India , by R. C. Majumdar , H. C. Raychaudhuri , K.Datta, 2nd Ed., MacMillan and Co, London, pp. 336–37, 1965 * Encyclopædia Britannica, 15 th Ed, Vol.21, p. 65, 1987 * The Cambridge History of India, Vol.IV – The Mughul Period, by W.Haig & R.Burn, S.Chand ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Mountain ranges of the Iranian Plateau and their political geography

ALBORZ MOUNTAINS

* Iran
Iran
* Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan

ALADAGH MOUNTAINS

* Iran
Iran
* Turkmenistan

HINDU KUSH MOUNTAINS

* Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Pakistan
Pakistan

SULAIMAN MOUNTAINS

* Pakistan
Pakistan
* Afghanistan
Afghanistan

TAURUS MOUNTAINS

* Turkey
Turkey
* Syria
Syria

ZAGROS MOUNTAINS

* Turkey
Turkey
* Iraq
Iraq
* Iran
Iran
* Armenia
Armenia

* v * t * e

Geography of South Asia
South Asia

MOUNTAINS AND PLATEAUS

* Himalayas
Himalayas

* Mount Everest
Mount Everest

* Western Ghats
Western Ghats
* Eastern Ghats * Aravalli Range * Nilgiris * Vindhya Range
Vindhya Range
* Satpura Range * Garo Hills * Shivalik Hills * Mahabharat Range * Khasi Hills * Annamalai Hills * Cardamom Hills
Cardamom Hills
* Sulaiman Mountains
Sulaiman Mountains
* Toba Kakar Range * Karakoram
Karakoram
* Hindu
Hindu
Kush * Chittagong Hill Tracts
Chittagong Hill Tracts
* Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
* Thar Desert
Thar Desert
* Makran * Chota Nagpur * Naga Hills
Naga Hills
* Mysore Plateau * Ladakh Plateau * Gandhamardan Hills * Malwa
Malwa

LOWLANDS AND ISLANDS

* Indo-Gangetic plain * Doab
Doab
* Indus Valley * Indus River
Indus River
Delta * Ganges Basin * Ganges Delta
Ganges Delta
* Terai
Terai
* Atolls of the Maldives
Atolls of the Maldives
* Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
* Konkan
Konkan
* Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
* Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
* Sundarbans Reserve Forest
Sundarbans Reserve Forest
* Greater Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Protected areas in Tamil Nadu

BY COUNTRY

* India * Pakistan
Pakistan
* Nepal * Bhutan * Sri Lanka * Bangladesh * Maldives * Afghanistan
Afghanistan

* v * t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa
Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Maghreb
Maghreb

* Barbary Coast * Barbara * Ancient Libya
Ancient Libya
* Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
( Middle Atlas ) * Sahara
Sahara
* Western Sahara
Sahara
* Sahel
Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt

* Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
* Middle Egypt * Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
* Cataracts of the Nile
Cataracts of the Nile
* Bashmur

* Nubia

* Lower Nubia

* Nile Valley * Nile Delta
Nile Delta
* Darfur
Darfur
* Gulf of Aqaba * Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia
Aethiopia
* Swahili coast * East African Rift * Great Rift Valley * Afar Triangle * Danakil Desert * Danakil Alps * Albertine Rift Valley * Gregory Rift Valley * Southern Rift Valley

* Rift Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika
Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa
Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan (region) * Sudanian Savanna * East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe
Mayombe

* Igboland
Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland * Pool Malebo * Congo Basin * Chad Basin
Chad Basin
* Congolese rainforests * Ouaddaï highlands * Ennedi Plateau * Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast * Gold Coast * Slave Coast
Slave Coast
* Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
* Cape Palmas * Cape Mesurado * Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna * Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa
Africa
* Sudan (region) * Niger Delta * Inner Niger Delta * Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar
Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar) * Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland
Thembuland
* Succulent Karoo * Nama Karoo * Bushveld * Highveld * Fynbos
Fynbos
* Cape Floristic Region * Kalahari Desert * Okavango Delta * False Bay * Hydra Bay * Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa
Africa
* Francophone Africa
Africa
* Lusophone Africa
Africa
* Arabophone Africa
Africa
* Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
* Tropical Africa
Africa
* Islands

* v * t * e

Regions of North America
North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada
Canada
* Western Canada
Canada
* Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Atlantic Canada
Canada
* French Canada
Canada
* English Canada
Canada

* Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor
Quebec City–Windsor Corridor
* Peace River
River
Country * Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
* Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga * Newfoundland (island) * Vancouver island
Vancouver island
* Gulf Islands * Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
* Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Canadian Arctic Archipelago
* Labrador Peninsula * Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula
Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula
Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula * Melville Peninsula
Melville Peninsula
* Bruce Peninsula * Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) * Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay * Hudson Bay * James Bay * Greenland
Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Eastern

* Appalachia * East Coast * Great Lakes

* Northeastern

* Mid-Atlantic * New England
New England

* Western

* Alaska Peninsula * Mountain States * Northwestern * Pacific * Pacific Northwest * Rocky Mountains * West Coast

* Central

* Great Plains * Midwestern

* Southern

* Deep South
Deep South
* Gulf * Southeastern * South Central * Southwestern * Upland South

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt
Bible Belt
* Black Belt * Corn Belt
Corn Belt
* Cotton Belt * Frost Belt * Rice Belt
Rice Belt
* Rust Belt * Sun Belt
Sun Belt
* Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico
Mexico
* Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California
Gulf of California

* Colorado River
River
Delta

* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Soconusco * Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca * La Huasteca * Bajío * Valley of Mexico
Mexico
* Mezquital Valley * Sierra Madre de Oaxaca * Yucatán Peninsula * Basin and Range Province
Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula * Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies
West Indies

* Antilles

* Greater Antilles

* Lesser Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles * Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago * Southern Caribbean
Caribbean

* Aridoamerica * Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
* Oasisamerica
Oasisamerica
* Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of South America
South America

NORTH

* Caribbean
Caribbean
South America
South America
* West Indies
West Indies
* Los Llanos * The Guianas * Gulf of Paria * Paria Peninsula * Paraguaná Peninsula
Paraguaná Peninsula
* Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego * Patagonia
Patagonia
* Pampas * Pantanal
Pantanal
* Gran Chaco
Gran Chaco
* Chiquitano dry forests * Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes
Andes
* Altiplano
Altiplano
* Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin
Amazon basin
* Caatinga
Caatinga
* Cerrado
Cerrado

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia
Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East

* Aral Sea
Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert * Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana

* Turan

* Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan
* Ariana
Ariana
* Khwarezm
Khwarezm
* Sistan * Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields

* Yedisan
Yedisan
* Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains

* Volga region * Idel-Ural * Kolyma
Kolyma
* Transbaikal * Pryazovia * Bjarmaland * Kuban * Zalesye * Ingria * Novorossiya * Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Pamir Mountains * Tian Shan
Tian Shan
* Badakhshan
Badakhshan
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass * Mount Imeon * Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions

NORTH

* Inner Asia
Asia
* Northeast

* Far East
Far East

* Russian Far East
Far East
* Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North

* Siberia
Siberia

* Baikalia ( Lake Baikal ) * Transbaikal * Khatanga Gulf * Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
* Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf * Yenisei Basin * Beringia

EAST

* Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan Arc * Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
* Gobi Desert * Taklamakan Desert
Taklamakan Desert
* Greater Khingan * Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia
Asia
* Inner Mongolia * Outer Mongolia * China
China
proper

* Manchuria
Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria
Manchuria
* Inner Manchuria
Manchuria
* Northeast China
China
Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China
China
Plain * Liaodong Peninsula * Himalayas
Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet
Tibet

* Tarim Basin * Northern Silk Road * Hexi Corridor * Nanzhong * Lingnan * Liangguang * Jiangnan * Jianghuai * Guanzhong * Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan * Shaannan

* Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau * Shaanbei

* Leizhou Peninsula
Leizhou Peninsula
* Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
* Yangtze River
River
Delta * Pearl River
River
Delta * Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast * Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
* Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula

* Najd * Hejaz
Hejaz
* Tihamah
Tihamah
* Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia
South Arabia

* Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
* Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia * Lower Mesopotamia * Sawad * Nineveh plains
Nineveh plains
* Akkad (region)

* Canaan
Canaan
* Aram * Eber-Nari * Eastern Mediterranean * Mashriq

* Levant
Levant

* Southern Levant
Levant
* Transjordan * Jordan Rift Valley

* Levantine Sea * Golan Heights
Golan Heights
* Hula Valley
Hula Valley
* Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
* West Bank
West Bank
* Galilee
Galilee
* Gilead
Gilead
* Judea
Judea
* Samaria * Arabah
Arabah
* Anti-Lebanon Mountains * Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
* Arabian Desert * Syrian Desert * Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
* Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Syria
Syria
* Palestine * Iranian plateau * Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus
Caucasus

* Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains

* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus

* North Caucasus
Caucasus

* South Caucasus
Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland * Lankaran Lowland * Alborz
Alborz
* Absheron Peninsula
Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia
Anatolia
* Cilicia * Cappadocia
Cappadocia
* Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India * Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
* Himalayas
Himalayas
* Hindu
Hindu
Kush * Western Ghats
Western Ghats
* Eastern Ghats * Ganges Basin * Ganges Delta
Ganges Delta
* Pashtunistan * Punjab * Balochistan * Thar Desert
Thar Desert
* Indus Valley * Indus River
Indus River
Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
* Eastern coastal plains * Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab
Doab
* Bagar region * Great Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
* Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
* Konkan
Konkan
* False Divi Point * Hindi Belt
Hindi Belt
* Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
* Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
* Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Mannar * Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract * Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass * Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
* Maldive Islands * Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina * Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia * Sunda Islands * Greater Sunda Islands * Lesser Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago * Timor
Timor

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula
Papuan Peninsula
* Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula
Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon
Luzon
* Visayas * Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf * Gulf of Thailand * East Indies * Nanyang * Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific * Tropical Asia
Asia
* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe
Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia
Scandinavia
* Scandinavian Peninsula * Fennoscandia
Fennoscandia
* Baltoscandia * Sápmi * West Nordic * Baltic * Gulf of Bothnia * Iceland
Iceland
* Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast
Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit
Curonian Spit
* Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor
Lithuania Minor
* Nemunas Delta * Baltic

* Southeastern

* Balkans
Balkans
* Aegean Islands * Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus
Caucasus
* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Kabardia

* European Russia

* Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Alpine states * Alpide belt * Mitteleuropa * Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux * Low Countries
Low Countries
* Northwest * British Isles
British Isles
* English Channel
English Channel
* Channel Islands
Channel Islands
* Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
* Normandy
Normandy
* Brittany
Brittany
* Gulf of Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System

* Pyrenees
Pyrenees
* Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula * Insular Italy * Tuscan Archipelago
Tuscan Archipelago
* Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc * Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea
Crimea
* Donbass * Sloboda Ukraine * Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * Uralic * European Plain * Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe
* Pontic–Caspian steppe * Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain * Little Hungarian Plain * Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia
Volhynia
* Karelia * East Karelia

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania
Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula
Papuan Peninsula
* Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula
Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand
New Zealand

* South Island
South Island

* North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia
Zealandia
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf

* Australia
Australia
* Capital Country * Eastern Australia
Australia
* Lake Eyre basin * Murray–Darling basin * Northern Australia
Australia
* Nullarbor Plain * Outback
Outback

* Southern Australia
Australia

* Maralinga

* Sunraysia * Great Victoria Desert * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf St Vincent * Lefevre Peninsula * Fleurieu Peninsula * Yorke Peninsula * Eyre Peninsula
Eyre Peninsula
* Mornington Peninsula * Bellarine Peninsula
Bellarine Peninsula
* Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region

* Bismarck Archipelago * Solomon Islands Archipelago

* Fiji
Fiji
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia
Micronesia
* Palau
Palau

* Guam
Guam
* Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Nauru
Nauru
* Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
* Wake Island
Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island
Easter Island
* Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
* Cook Islands

* French Polynesia
Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands * Society Islands * Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands
* Mangareva Islands * Samoa
Samoa
* Tokelau * Tonga
Tonga
* Tuvalu
Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula * East Antarctica * West Antarctica * Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic
Arctic
Alaska * British Arctic
Arctic
Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Canadian Arctic Archipelago
* Finnmark
Finnmark
* Greenland
Greenland
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Northwest Territories * Nunavik
Nunavik
* Nunavut
Nunavut
* Russian Arctic
Arctic
* Sakha * Sápmi * Yukon
Yukon
* North American Arctic
Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth
Earth
's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf * Barents Sea
Barents Sea
* Beaufort Sea * Chukchi Sea
Chukchi Sea
* East Siberian Sea * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea
Kara Sea
* Laptev Sea
Laptev Sea
* Lincoln Sea * Prince Gustav Adolf Sea * Pechora Sea * Queen Victoria Sea * Wandel Sea * White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
* Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
* Alboran Sea * Archipelago Sea * Argentine Sea
Argentine Sea
* Baffin Bay * Balearic Sea * Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
* Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
* Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy * Black Sea
Black Sea
* Bothnian Sea * Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea * Celtic Sea * English Channel
English Channel
* Foxe Basin * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
* Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine * Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Gulf of Saint Lawrence * Gulf of Sidra * Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay * Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
* Irish Sea * Irminger Sea * James Bay * Labrador Sea * Levantine Sea * Libyan Sea * Ligurian Sea
Ligurian Sea
* Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* Myrtoan Sea * North Sea
North Sea
* Norwegian Sea
Norwegian Sea
* Sargasso Sea
Sargasso Sea
* Sea of Åland * Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
* Sea of Crete * Sea of the Hebrides
Sea of the Hebrides
* Thracian Sea * Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
* Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea * Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
* Bali Sea
Bali Sea
* Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
* Flores Sea * Great Australian Bight * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Suez * Java Sea
Java Sea
* Laccadive Sea
Laccadive Sea
* Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Timor
Timor
Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea
Arafura Sea
* Banda Sea * Bering Sea * Bismarck Sea * Bohai Sea * Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea * Celebes Sea
Celebes Sea
* Ceram Sea * Chilean Sea * Coral Sea
Coral Sea
* East China
China
Sea * Gulf of Alaska
Gulf of Alaska
* Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California
Gulf of California
* Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama * Gulf of Thailand * Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
* Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea
Koro Sea
* Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea
Molucca Sea
* Moro Gulf * Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
* Salish Sea
Salish Sea
* Savu Sea
Savu Sea
* Sea of Japan * Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
* Seto Inland Sea
Seto Inland Sea
* Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea * Solomon Sea * South China
China
Sea * Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
* Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
* Visayan Sea
Visayan Sea
* Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea
Amundsen Sea
* Bellingshausen Sea * Cooperation Sea * Cosmonauts Sea * Davis Sea
Davis Sea
* D\'Urville Sea * King Haakon VII Sea * Lazarev Sea * Mawson Sea * Riiser-Larsen Sea * Ross Sea
Ross Sea
* Scotia Sea
Scotia Sea
* Somov Sea * Weddell Sea

ENDORHEIC BASINS

* Aral Sea
Aral Sea
* Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
* Salton Sea

* BOOK * CATEGORY

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 237687320 * GND : 4024960-8 * BNF : cb11937245p (data) * NDL

.