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Hindi
Hindi
(Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi
Standard Hindi
(Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and sanskritised register[5] of the Hindustani language. Modern Hindi
Hindi
and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century.[6] Along with the English language, Hindi
Hindi
written in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Government of India.[7] On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India
India
adopted Hindi written in Devanagari script
Devanagari script
as the official language of the Republic of India. To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favor of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar, Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth Govind Das who even debated in Parliament on this issue. As such, on the 50th birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 September 1949, the efforts came to fruition following adoption of Hindi
Hindi
as the official language.[8] It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India.[9] However, it is not the national language of India
India
because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution.[10][11] Hindi
Hindi
is the lingua franca of the Hindi
Hindi
belt, and to a lesser extent the whole of India
India
(usually in a simplified or pidginized variety such as Bazaar Hindustani or Haflong Hindi). Outside India, several other languages are recognized officially as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi
Standard Hindi
language described here and instead descend from other dialects of Hindustani, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri. Such languages include Fiji
Fiji
Hindi, which is official in Fiji, and Caribbean Hindustani, which is a recognized language in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname.[12][13][14][15] Apart from specialized vocabulary, Hindi
Hindi
is mutually intelligible with Standard Urdu, another recognized register of Hindustani. Individually, as a linguistic variety, Hindi
Hindi
is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin, Spanish and English.[16] Alongside Urdu
Urdu
as Hindustani, it is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English.[17]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Use outside the Hindi
Hindi
Belt

3 Status

3.1 Outside India

4 Comparison with Modern Standard Urdu 5 Script

5.1 Romanization

6 Vocabulary

6.1 Prakrit 6.2 Sanskrit

7 Media

7.1 Literature 7.2 Internet

8 Sample text 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Notes 10.2 Bibliography

11 External links

Etymology[edit] The term Hindī originally was used to refer to inhabitants of the region east of the Indus. It was borrowed from Classical Persian Hindī (Iranian Persian Hendi), meaning "Indian", from the proper noun Hind "India".[18] The name Hindavī was used by Amir Khusrow
Amir Khusrow
in his poetry.[19] History[edit] Further information: History of Hindustani Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi
Hindi
is a direct descendant of an early form of Vedic Sanskrit, through Sauraseni Prakrit and Śauraseni Apabhraṃśa (from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
apabhraṃśa "corrupted"), which emerged in the 7th century A.D.[20] Modern Standard Hindi
Standard Hindi
is based on the Khariboli dialect,[20] the vernacular of Delhi
Delhi
and the surrounding region, which came to replace earlier prestige dialects such as Awadhi, Maithili (sometimes regarded as separate from the Hindi
Hindi
dialect continuum) and Braj. Urdu
Urdu
– another form of Hindustani – acquired linguistic prestige in the later Mughal period (1800s), and underwent significant Persian influence. In the late 19th century, a movement to develop Hindi
Hindi
as a standardised form of Hindustani separate from Urdu
Urdu
took form. In 1881, Bihar
Bihar
accepted Hindi
Hindi
as its sole official language, replacing Urdu, and thus became the first state of India
India
to adopt Hindi.[21] Modern Standard Hindi
Standard Hindi
is one of the youngest Indian languages in this regard. After independence, the government of India
India
instituted the following conventions:[original research?]

standardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Government of India
India
set up a committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi; The committee's report was released in 1958 as A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi. standardisation of the orthography, using the Devanagari
Devanagari
script, by the Central Hindi Directorate
Central Hindi Directorate
of the Ministry of Education and Culture to bring about uniformity in writing, to improve the shape of some Devanagari
Devanagari
characters, and introducing diacritics to express sounds from other languages.

The Constituent Assembly adopted Hindi
Hindi
as an official language of India
India
on 14 September 1949.[22] Now, it is celebrated as Hindi
Hindi
Day. Use outside the Hindi
Hindi
Belt[edit] In Northeast India
India
a pidgin known as Haflong Hindi has developed as a lingua franca for various tribes in Assam
Assam
that speak other languages natively.[23] In Arunachal Pradesh, Hindi
Hindi
emerged as a lingua franca among locals who speak over 50 dialects natively.[24] Status[edit] Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official language of the Indian Commonwealth. Under Article 343, the official languages of the Union has been prescribed, which includes Hindi
Hindi
in Devanagari script and English:

(1) The official language of the Union shall be Hindi
Hindi
in Devanagari script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.[12] (2) Notwithstanding anything in clause (1), for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used immediately before such commencement: Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorize the use of the Hindi
Hindi
language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari
Devanagari
form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union[25]

Article 351 of the Indian constitution
Indian constitution
states

It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India
India
and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India
India
specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and secondarily on other languages.

It was envisioned that Hindi
Hindi
would become the sole working language of the Union Government by 1965 (per directives in Article 344 (2) and Article 351),[26] with state governments being free to function in the language of their own choice. However, widespread resistance to the imposition of Hindi
Hindi
on non-native speakers, especially in South India (such as the those in Tamil Nadu) led to the passage of the Official Languages Act of 1963, which provided for the continued use of English indefinitely for all official purposes, although the constitutional directive for the Union Government to encourage the spread of Hindi was retained and has strongly influenced its policies.[27] Article 344 (2b) stipulates that official language commission shall be constituted every ten years to recommend steps for progressive use of Hindi
Hindi
language and imposing restrictions on the use of the English language by the union government. In practice, the official language commissions are constantly endeavouring to promote Hindi
Hindi
but not imposing restrictions on English in official use by the union government. At the state level, Hindi
Hindi
is the official language of the following Indian states: Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
and West Bengal.[28][29] Each may also designate a "co-official language"; in Uttar Pradesh, for instance, depending on the political formation in power, this language is generally Urdu. Similarly, Hindi
Hindi
is accorded the status of official language in the following Union Territories: Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, National Capital Territory. National language status for Hindi
Hindi
is a long-debated theme. In 2010, the Gujarat High Court
Gujarat High Court
clarified that Hindi
Hindi
is not the national language of India
India
because the constitution does not mention it as such.[10][11][30] Outside India[edit] Outside Asia, the Awadhi language (A Hindi
Hindi
dialect)[31] is an official language in Fiji
Fiji
as per the 1997 Constitution of Fiji,[32] where it referred to it as "Hindustani", however in the 2013 Constitution of Fiji, it is simply called " Fiji
Fiji
Hindi".[33] It is spoken by 380,000 people in Fiji.[34] Hindi
Hindi
is also spoken by a large population of Madheshis (people having roots in north- India
India
but have migrated to Nepal
Nepal
over hundreds of years) of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, Hindi
Hindi
is mutually intelligible with Standard Urdu, another recognized register of Hindustani. Hindi
Hindi
is quite easy to understand for some Pakistanis, who speak Urdu, which, like Hindi, is part of Hindustani. Apart from this, Hindi
Hindi
is spoken by the large Indian diaspora
Indian diaspora
which hails from, or has its origin from the " Hindi
Hindi
Belt" of India. A substantially large North Indian diaspora
Indian diaspora
lives in countries like The United States
United States
of America, the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, South Africa, Fiji
Fiji
and Mauritius, where it is natively spoken at home and among their own Hindustani-speaking communities. Outside India, Hindi
Hindi
speakers are 8 million in Nepal; 649,000 in United States
United States
of America;[35] 450,170 in Mauritius; 380,000 in Fiji;[34] 250,292 in South Africa; 150,000 in Suriname;[36] 100,000 in Uganda; 45,800 in United Kingdom;[37] 20,000 in New Zealand; 20,000 in Germany; 16,000 in Trinidad and Tobago;[36] 3,000 in Singapore. Comparison with Modern Standard Urdu[edit] Main articles: Hindi– Urdu
Urdu
controversy, Hindustani phonology, and Hindustani grammar Linguistically, Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
are two registers of the same language and are mutually intelligble.[38] Hindi
Hindi
is written in the Devanagari script and uses more Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words, whereas Urdu
Urdu
is written in the Perso-Arabic
Perso-Arabic
script and uses more Arabic
Arabic
and Persian words. Hindi
Hindi
is the most commonly used official language in India. Urdu
Urdu
is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan
Pakistan
and is one of 22 official languages of India. The splitting of Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
into separate languages is largely motivated by politics, namely the Indo-Pakistani rivalry.[39] Script[edit] Main article: Devanagari
Devanagari
script Hindi
Hindi
is written in the Devanagari
Devanagari
script, an abugida. Devanagari consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants and is written from left to right. Unlike for Sanskrit, Devanagari
Devanagari
is not entirely phonetic for Hindi, especially failing to mark schwa dropping in spoken Standard Hindi.[40] Romanization[edit] Main article: Devanagari
Devanagari
transliteration The Government of India
India
uses Hunterian transliteration
Hunterian transliteration
as its official system of writing Hindi
Hindi
in the Latin script. Various other systems also exist, such as IAST, ITRANS and ISO 15919. Vocabulary[edit] Further information: Hindustani etymology and List of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Persian roots in Hindi Traditionally, Hindi
Hindi
words are divided into five principal categories according to their etymology:

Tatsam (तत्सम "same as that") words: These are words which are spelled the same in Hindi
Hindi
as in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(except for the absence of final case inflections).[41] They include words inherited from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
via Prakrit
Prakrit
which have survived without modification (e.g. Hindi
Hindi
नाम nām / Sanskrit
Sanskrit
नाम nāma, "name"; Hindi कर्म karm / Sanskrit
Sanskrit
कर्म karma, "deed, action; karma"),[42] as well as forms borrowed directly from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
in more modern times (e.g. प्रार्थना prārthanā, "prayer").[43] Pronunciation, however, conforms to Hindi
Hindi
norms and may differ from that of classical Sanskrit. Amongst nouns, the tatsam word could be the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
non-inflected word-stem, or it could be the nominative singular form in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
nominal declension. Ardhatatsam (अर्धतत्सम "semi-tatsama") words: Such words are typically earlier loanwords from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
which have undergone sound changes subsequent to being borrowed. (e.g. Hindi सूरज sūraj from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
सूर्य surya) Tadbhav (तद्भव "born of that") words: These are native Hindi words derived from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
after undergoing phonological rules (e.g. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
कर्म karma, "deed" becomes Sauraseni Prakrit कम्म kamma, and eventually Hindi
Hindi
काम kām, "work") and are spelled differently from Sanskrit.[41] Deshaj (देशज) words: These are words that were not borrowings but do not derive from attested Indo-Aryan words either. Belonging to this category are onomatopoetic words or ones borrowed from local non-Indo-Aryan languages. Videshī (विदेशी "foreign") words: These include all loanwords from non-indigenous languages. The most frequent source languages in this category are Persian, Arabic, English and Portuguese. Examples are कमेटी kameṭī from English committee and साबुन sābun "soap" from Arabic.

Hindi
Hindi
also makes extensive use of loan translation (calqueing) and occasionally phono-semantic matching of English.[44] Prakrit[edit] Hindi
Hindi
has naturally inherited a large portion of its vocabulary from Śaurasenī Prākṛt, in the form of tadbhava words. This process usually involves compensatory lengthening of vowels preceding consonant clusters in Prakrit, e.g. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
tīkṣṇa > Prakrit tikkha > Hindi
Hindi
tīkhā. Sanskrit[edit] Much of Modern Standard Hindi's vocabulary is borrowed from Sanskrit as tatsam borrowings, especially in technical and academic fields. The formal Hindi
Hindi
standard, from which much of the Persian, Arabic
Arabic
and English vocabulary has been replaced by neologisms compounding tatsam words, is called Śuddh Hindi
Hindi
(pure Hindi), and is viewed as a more prestigious dialect over other more colloquial forms of Hindi. Excessive use of tatsam words sometimes creates problems for native speakers. They may have Sanskrit
Sanskrit
consonant clusters which do not exist in native Hindi, causing difficulties in pronunciation.[45] As a part of the process of Sanskritization, new words are coined using Sanskrit
Sanskrit
components to be used as replacements for supposedly foreign vocabulary. Usually these neologisms are calques of English words already adopted into spoken Hindi. Some terms such as dūrbhāṣ "telephone", literally "far-speech" and dūrdarśan "television", literally "far-sight" have even gained some currency in formal Hindi
Hindi
in the place of the English borrowings (ṭeli)fon and ṭīvī.[46] Media[edit] Literature[edit] Main article: Hindi
Hindi
literature Hindi literature
Hindi literature
is broadly divided into four prominent forms or styles, being Bhakti
Bhakti
(devotional – Kabir, Raskhan); Śṛṇgār (beauty – Keshav, Bihari); Vīgāthā (epic); and Ādhunik (modern). Medieval Hindi literature
Hindi literature
is marked by the influence of Bhakti movement and the composition of long, epic poems. It was primarily written in other varieties of Hindi, particularly Avadhi and Braj Bhasha, but to a degree also in Khariboli, the basis for Modern Standard Hindi. During the British Raj, Hindustani became the prestige dialect. Chandrakanta, written by Devaki Nandan Khatri
Devaki Nandan Khatri
in 1888, is considered the first authentic work of prose in modern Hindi.[47] The person who brought realism in the Hindi
Hindi
prose literature was Munshi Premchand, who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi fiction and progressive movement. Literary, or Sāhityik, Hindi
Hindi
was popularised by the writings of Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Bhartendu Harishchandra and others. The rising numbers of newspapers and magazines made Hindustani popular with the educated people.[citation needed] The Dvivedī Yug ("Age of Dwivedi") in Hindi literature
Hindi literature
lasted from 1900 to 1918. It is named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, who played a major role in establishing Modern Standard Hindi
Standard Hindi
in poetry and broadening the acceptable subjects of Hindi
Hindi
poetry from the traditional ones of religion and romantic love. In the 20th century, Hindi literature
Hindi literature
saw a romantic upsurge. This is known as Chāyāvād (shadow-ism) and the literary figures belonging to this school are known as Chāyāvādī. Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', Mahadevi Varma
Mahadevi Varma
and Sumitranandan Pant, are the four major Chāyāvādī poets. Uttar Ādhunik is the post-modernist period of Hindi
Hindi
literature, marked by a questioning of early trends that copied the West as well as the excessive ornamentation of the Chāyāvādī movement, and by a return to simple language and natural themes. Internet[edit] The Hindi
Hindi
was the first Indic-language wiki to reach 100,000 articles. Hindi
Hindi
literature, music, and film have all been disseminated via the internet. In 2015, Google reported a 94% increase in Hindi-content consumption year-on-year, adding that 21% of users in India
India
prefer content in Hindi.[48] Many Hindi
Hindi
newspapers also offer digital editions. Sample text[edit] See also: Urdu
Urdu
§ Sample text The following is a sample text in High Hindi, of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(by the United Nations):

Hindi अनुच्छेद 1 (एक) – सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के विषय में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता और समानता प्राप्त हैं। उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिए।

Transliteration (IAST) Anucched 1 (ek) – Sabhī manuṣyõ ko gaurav aur adhikārõ ke viṣay mẽ janmajāt svatantratā aur samāntā prāpt hai. Unhẽ buddhi aur antarātmā kī den prāpt hai aur paraspar unhẽ bhāīcāre ke bhāv se bartāv karnā cāhie.

Transcription (IPA) [ənʊtʃʰːeːd̪ eːk səbʱiː mənʊʃjõː koː ɡɔːɾəʋ ɔːr əd̪ʱɪkaːɾõ keː maːmleː mẽː dʒənmədʒaːt̪ sʋət̪ənt̪ɾət̪aː ɔːr səmaːntaː pɾaːpt̪ hɛː ‖ ʊnʱẽ bʊd̪ʱːɪ ɔːɾ ənt̪əɾaːt̪maː kiː d̪eːn pɾaːpt̪ hɛː ɔːɾ pəɾəspəɾ ʊnʱẽː bʱaːiːtʃaːɾeː keː bʱaːʋ seː bəɾt̪aːʋ kəɾnə tʃaːhɪeː ‖]

Gloss (word-to-word) Article 1 (one) – All human-beings to dignity and rights' matter in from-birth freedom and equality acquired is. Them to reason and conscience's endowment acquired is and always them to brotherhood's spirit with behaviour to do should.

Translation (grammatical) Article 1 – All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See also[edit]

Book: Hindi

Anti- Hindi
Hindi
agitations of Tamil Nadu Bengali Language Movement (Manbhum) Hindi Divas
Hindi Divas
– the official day to celebrate Hindi
Hindi
as a language. Languages of India
India
and Languages with official status in India List of English words of Hindi
Hindi
or Urdu
Urdu
origin List of Hindi television channels broadcast in Europe (by country) List of Hindi channels in Europe (by type) list of Hindi
Hindi
words at Wiktionary, the free dictionary List of languages by number of native speakers
List of languages by number of native speakers
in India List of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Persian roots in Hindi World Hindi
Hindi
Secretariat

India
India
portal Languages portal Writing portal Linguistics
Linguistics
portal

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Hindi
Hindi
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(19th ed., 2016) ^ a b Hindustani (2005). Keith Brown, ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics
Linguistics
(2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4.  ^ "Central Hindi
Hindi
Directorate: Introduction". Archived from the original on 4 May 2012.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hindi". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ "Constitution of India". Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2012.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 August 2006. Retrieved 9 October 2006.  ^ "Constitutional Provisions: Official Language Related Part-17 of The Constitution Of India". Department of Official Language, Government of India. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.  ^ "हिन्दी दिवस विशेष: इनके प्रयास से मिला था हिन्दी को राजभाषा का दर्जा". Archived from the original on 11 September 2017.  ^ "PART A Languages specified in the Eighth Schedule (Scheduled Languages)". Archived from the original on 2013-10-29.  ^ a b Khan, Saeed (25 January 2010). "There's no national language in India: Gujarat High Court". The Times of India. Ahmedabad: The Times Group. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.  ^ a b "Hindi, not a national language: Court". The Hindu. Ahmedabad: Press Trust of India. 25 January 2010. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.  ^ a b "Sequence of events with reference to official language of the Union". Archived from the original on 2 August 2011.  ^ रिपब्लिक ऑफ फीजी का संविधान (Constitution of the Republic of Fiji, the Hindi version) Archived 1 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Caribbean Languages and Caribbean Linguistics" (PDF). University of the West Indies Press. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.  ^ Richard K. Barz (8 May 2007). "The cultural significance of Hindi
Hindi
in Mauritius". Taylor&Francis Online. 3: 1–13. doi:10.1080/00856408008722995. Retrieved 12 January 2013.  ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin. Asterisks mark the 2010 estimates Archived 11 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine. for the top dozen languages. ^ "Hindustani". Columbia University press. encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017.  ^ Steingass, Francis Joseph (1892). A comprehensive Persian-English dictionary. London: Routledge & K. Paul. p. 1514. Retrieved 13 February 2018.  ^ Khan, Rajak. "Indo-Persian Literature and Amir Khusro". University of Delhi. Retrieved 17 February 2018.  ^ a b "Brief History of Hindi". Central Hindi
Hindi
Directorate. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2012.  ^ Parthasarathy, Kumar, p.120 ^ " Hindi
Hindi
Diwas celebration: How it all began". The Indian Express. 14 September 2016. Archived from the original on 8 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.  ^ Kothari, Ria, ed. (2011). Chutnefying English: The Phenomenon of Hinglish. Penguin Books India. p. 128. ISBN 9780143416395.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ How Hindi
Hindi
became the language of choice in Arunachal Pradesh ^ "The Constitution of India" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 September 2014.  ^ "Rajbhasha" (PDF) (in Hindi
Hindi
and English). india.gov.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 January 2012.  ^ "THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ACT, 1963 (AS AMENDED, 1967) (Act No. 19 of 1963)". Department of Official Language. Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.  ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2014.  ^ Roy, Anirban (28 February 2018). "Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi make it to list of official languages in". India
India
Today. Retrieved 31 March 2018.  ^ " Gujarat High Court
Gujarat High Court
order". Archived from the original on 4 July 2014.  ^ " Fiji Hindi alphabet, pronunciation and language". www.omniglot.com. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.  ^ "Section 4 of Fiji
Fiji
Constitution". servat.unibe.ch. Archived from the original on 9 June 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2009.  ^ "Constitution of Fiji". Official site of the Fijian Government. Archived from the original on 11 October 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016.  ^ a b "Hindi, Fiji". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.  ^ "United States- Languages". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.  ^ a b Frawley, p. 481 ^ "United Kingdom- Languages". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.  ^ " Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
are classified as literary registers of the same language". Archived from the original on 2 June 2016.  ^ Sin, Sarah J. (2017). Bilingualism in Schools and Society: Language, Identity, and Policy, Second Edition. Routledge. Retrieved 17 February 2018.  ^ Bhatia, Tej K. (1987). A History of the Hindi
Hindi
Grammatical Tradition: Hindi-Hindustani Grammar, Grammarians, History and Problems. Brill. ISBN 9789004079243.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b Masica, p. 65 ^ Masica, p. 66 ^ Masica, p. 67 ^ Arnold, David; Robb, Peter (2013). Institutions and Ideologies: A SOAS South Asia
Asia
Reader. Routledge. p. 79. ISBN 9781136102349. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018.  ^ Ohala, Manjari (1983). Aspects of Hindi
Hindi
Phonology. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 38. ISBN 9780895816702.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Arnold, David; Robb, Peter (2013). Institutions and Ideologies: A SOAS South Asia
Asia
Reader. Routledge. p. 82. ISBN 9781136102349.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Stop outraging over Marathi – Hindi
Hindi
and English chauvinism is much worse in India". Archived from the original on 19 September 2015.  ^ " Hindi
Hindi
content consumption on internet growing at 94%: Google". The Economic Times. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2018. 

Bibliography[edit]

Bhatia, Tej K. (11 September 2002). Colloquial Hindi: The Complete Course for Beginners. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-134-83534-8. Retrieved 19 July 2014.  Grierson, G. A. Linguistic Survey of India
India
Vol I-XI, Calcutta, 1928, ISBN 81-85395-27-6 (searchable database). Koul, Omkar N. (2008). Modern Hindi
Hindi
grammar (PDF). Springfield, VA: Dunwoody Press. ISBN 978-1-931546-06-5. Retrieved 19 July 2014.  McGregor, R.S. (1995). Outline of Hindi
Hindi
grammar: With exercises (3. ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Pr. ISBN 0-19-870008-3. Retrieved 19 July 2014.  Frawley, William (2003). International Encyclopedia of Linguistics: AAVE-Esparanto. Vol.1. Oxford University Press. p. 481. ISBN 978-0-195-13977-8.  Parthasarathy, R.; Kumar, Swargesh (2012). Bihar
Bihar
Tourism: Retrospect and Prospect. Concept Publishing Company. p. 120. ISBN 978-8-180-69799-9.  Masica, Colin (1991). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2.  Ohala, Manjari (1999). "Hindi". In International Phonetic Association. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: a Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge University Press. pp. 100–103. ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0.  Sadana, Rashmi (2012). English Heart, Hindi
Hindi
Heartland: the Political Life of Literature in India. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-26957-6. Retrieved 19 July 2014.  Shapiro, Michael C. (2001). "Hindi". In Garry, Jane; Rubino, Carl. An encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. New England Publishing Associates. pp. 305–309.  Shapiro, Michael C. (2003). "Hindi". In Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 250–285. ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5.  Snell, Rupert; Weightman, Simon (1989). Teach Yourself
Teach Yourself
Hindi
Hindi
(2003 ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-142012-9.  Taj, Afroz (2002) A door into Hindi. Retrieved 8 November 2005. Tiwari, Bholanath ([1966] 2004) हिन्दी भाषा (Hindī Bhasha), Kitab Pustika, Allahabad, ISBN 81-225-0017-X.

Dictionaries

McGregor, R.S. (1993), Oxford Hindi–English Dictionary (2004 ed.), Oxford University Press, USA . Hardev Bahri (1989), Learners' Hindi-English dictionary, Delhi: Rajapala  Mahendra Caturvedi (1970), A practical Hindi-English dictionary, Delhi: National Publishing House  Academic Room Hindi
Hindi
Dictionary Mobile App developed in the Harvard Innovation Lab (iOS, Android and Blackberry) John Thompson Platts (1884), A dictionary of Urdū, classical Hindī, and English (reprint ed.), LONDON: H. Milford, p. 1259, retrieved 6 July 2011 

Further reading

Bhatia, Tej K A History of the Hindi
Hindi
Grammatical Tradition. Leiden, Netherlands & New York, NY: E.J. Brill, 1987. ISBN 90-04-07924-6 Tiwari, Deepa (April 2015). "The Hindi
Hindi
Stories". www.badikhabar.com.  Gyani, Pandit (September 2016). " Hindi
Hindi
Biography & History". www.gyanipandit.com. 

External links[edit]

Hindi
Hindi
edition of, the free encyclopedia

Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Hindi.

Hindi
Hindi
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) The Union: Official Language Official Unicode Chart for Devanagari
Devanagari
(PDF)

v t e

Hindi

Grammar Phonology Devanagari Braille History Vocabulary Hindustani

Varieties

Western

Braj
Braj
Bhasha Bundeli Haryanvi Kannauji Khari Boli
Khari Boli
(Registers: Standard Hindi Standard Urdu; Dialects: Dakhini) Sansi Boli

Eastern

Awadhi Bagheli Caribbean Hindi Chhattisgarhi Fiji
Fiji
Hindi

Pidgins and Creoles

Andaman Creole Hindi Bombay Hindi Haflong Hindi Hinglish

Language politics

Anti- Hindi
Hindi
agitations of Karnataka Anti- Hindi
Hindi
agitations of Tamil Nadu Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
controversy Punjabi Suba movement

Global organizations

World Hindi
Hindi
Secretariat World Hindi
Hindi
Conference

Arts

Literature Awards Sahitya Akademi Award Jnanpith Award Cinema Music Writers Poets

v t e

Languages of India

Official languages

Union-level

Hindi English

8th schedule to the Constitution of India

Assamese Bengali Bodo Dogri Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Maithili Malayalam Meitei (Manipuri) Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Sindhi Santali Tamil Telugu Urdu

State-level only

Garo Gurung Khasi Kokborok Lepcha Limbu Mangar Mizo Newari Rai Sherpa Sikkimese Sunwar Tamang

Major unofficial languages

Over 1 million speakers

Angika Awadhi Bagheli Bagri Bajjika Bhili Bhojpuri Bundeli Chhattisgarhi Dhundhari Garhwali Gondi Harauti Haryanvi Ho Kangri Khandeshi Khortha Kumaoni Kurukh Lambadi Magahi Malvi Marwari Mewari Mundari Nimadi Rajasthani Sadri Surjapuri Tulu Wagdi Varhadi

100,000 – 1 million speakers

Adi Angami Ao Dimasa Halbi Karbi Kharia Kodava Kolami Konyak Korku Koya Kui Kuvi Ladakhi Lotha Malto Mishing Nishi Phom Rabha Sema Sora Tangkhul Thadou

v t e

Modern Indo-Aryan languages

Dardic

Dameli Domaaki Gawar-Bati Indus Kohistani Kalami Kalash Kashmiri Khowar Kundal Shahi Mankiyali Nangalami Palula Pashayi Sawi Shina Shumashti Torwali Ushoji

Northern

Eastern

Doteli Jumli Nepali Palpa

Central

Garhwali Kumaoni

Western

Dogri Kangri Mandeali

North- western

Punjabi

Punjabi

dialects

Lahnda

Hindko Khetrani Pahari-Pothwari Saraiki

Sindhi

Jadgali Kutchi Luwati Memoni Sindhi

Western

Gujarati

Aer Gujarati Jandavra Koli Lisan ud-Dawat Parkari Koli Saurashtra Vaghri

Bhil

Bhili Gamit Kalto Vasavi

Rajasthani

Bagri Goaria Gujari Jaipuri Malvi Marwari Mewari Dhatki

Others

Domari Khandeshi Romani

list of languages

Central

Western

Braj
Braj
Bhasha Bundeli Haryanvi Hindustani

Hindi

Bombay Hindi

Urdu

Dakhini Hyderabadi Urdu Rekhta

Khariboli Kannauji Sansi Sadhukadi

Eastern

Awadhi Bagheli Chhattisgarhi Fiji
Fiji
Hindi

Others

Danwar Parya

Eastern

Bihari

Angika Bhojpuri Caribbean Hindustani Vajjika Magahi Maithili Majhi Sadri

Bengali– Assamese

Assamese Bengali

dialects

Bishnupriya Manipuri Chakma Chittagonian Goalpariya Hajong Kamrupi Kharia Thar Kurmukar Rangpuri Rohingya Sylheti Tanchangya

Odia

Odia Kosli Bodo Parja Kupia Reli

Halbic

Halbi Bhatri Kamar Mirgan Nahari

Others

Mal Paharia

Southern

Marathi–Konkani

Konkani Kukna Marathi others..

Insular

Maldivian Sinhalese

Unclassified

Chinali Sheikhgal

Pidgins/ creoles

Andaman Creole Hindi Haflong Hindi Nagamese Nefamese Vedda

See also: Old and Middle Indo-Aryan; Indo-Iranian languages; Nuristani languages; Iranian languages

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