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Himeji
Himeji
Castle (姫路城, Himeji-jō) is a hilltop Japanese castle complex located in the city of Himeji, Hyōgo, Japan. The castle is regarded as the finest surviving example of prototypical Japanese castle architecture, comprising a network of 83 buildings with advanced defensive systems from the feudal period.[7] The castle is frequently known as Hakuro-jō or Shirasagi-jō ("White Egret
Egret
Castle" or "White Heron
Heron
Castle") because of its brilliant white exterior and supposed resemblance to a bird taking flight.[6][8] Himeji
Himeji
Castle dates to 1333, when Akamatsu Norimura
Akamatsu Norimura
built a fort on top of Himeyama hill. The fort was dismantled and rebuilt as Himeyama Castle in 1346, and then remodeled into Himeji
Himeji
Castle two centuries later. Himeji
Himeji
Castle was then significantly remodeled in 1581 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who added a three-story castle keep. In 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
awarded the castle to Ikeda Terumasa
Ikeda Terumasa
for his help in the Battle of Sekigahara, and Ikeda completely rebuilt the castle from 1601 to 1609, expanding it into a large castle complex.[3] Several buildings were later added to the castle complex by Honda Tadamasa from 1617 to 1618.[5] For over 400 years, Himeji
Himeji
Castle has remained intact, even throughout the extensive bombing of Himeji
Himeji
in World War II, and natural disasters such as the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake.[3][2][9] Himeji
Himeji
Castle is the largest and most visited castle in Japan, and it was registered in 1993 as one of the first UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites in the country.[2] The area within the middle moat of the castle complex is a designated Special
Special
Historic Site and five structures of the castle are also designated National Treasures.[5][10] Along with Matsumoto Castle
Matsumoto Castle
and Kumamoto Castle, Himeji
Himeji
Castle is considered one of Japan's three premier castles.[11] In order to preserve the castle buildings, it underwent restoration work for several years and reopened to the public on March 27, 2015.[12] The works also removed decades of dirt and grime, restoring the formerly grey roof to its original brilliant white color.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Historical recognition

2 Design details

2.1 Defences

3 Cultural impact

3.1 Lore and legend

4 Visitor statistics 5 Additional information

5.1 National treasures and sister castle

5.1.1 Matsumoto castle 5.1.2 Inuyama castle 5.1.3 Hikone castle 5.1.4 Château de Chantilly

6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] Himeji
Himeji
Castle's construction dates to 1333, when a fort was constructed on Himeyama hill by Akamatsu Norimura, the ruler of the ancient Harima Province.[3] In 1346, his son Sadanori demolished this fort and built Himeyama Castle in its place.[3][13] In 1545, the Kuroda clan was stationed here by order of the Kodera clan, and feudal ruler Kuroda Shigetaka remodeled the castle into Himeji
Himeji
Castle, completing the work in 1561.[3][14] In 1580, Kuroda Yoshitaka presented the castle to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and in 1581 Hideyoshi significantly remodeled the castle, building a three-story keep with an area of about 55 m2 (590 sq ft).[5][14] Following the Battle of Sekigahara
Battle of Sekigahara
in 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
granted Himeji
Himeji
Castle to his son-in-law, Ikeda Terumasa, as a reward for his help in battle.[3] Ikeda demolished the three-story keep that had been created by Hideyoshi, and completely rebuilt and expanded the castle from 1601 to 1609, adding three moats and transforming it into the castle complex that is seen today.[3][5] The expenditure of labor involved in this expansion is believed to have totaled 2.5 million man-days.[3] Ikeda died in 1613, passing the castle to his son, who also died three years later.[4] In 1617, Honda Tadamasa
Honda Tadamasa
and his family inherited the castle, and Honda added several buildings to the castle complex, including a special tower for his daughter-in-law, Princess Sen (千姫, Senhime).[4] In the Meiji Period
Meiji Period
(1868 to 1912), many Japanese castles were destroyed.[2] Himeji
Himeji
Castle was abandoned in 1871 and some of the castle corridors and gates were destroyed to make room for Japanese army barracks.[5][14] The entirety of the castle complex was slated to be demolished by government policy, but it was spared by the efforts of Nakamura Shigeto, an army colonel.[5] A stone monument honoring Nakamura was placed in the castle complex within the first gate, the Hishi Gate (菱の門, Hishinomon).[5][15] Although Himeji
Himeji
Castle was spared, Japanese castles had become obsolete and their preservation was costly.[5]

Front view of the castle complex

A 1761 depiction of the castle complex

When the han feudal system was abolished in 1871, Himeji
Himeji
Castle was put up for auction.[5] The castle was purchased by a Himeji
Himeji
resident for 23 Japanese yen
Japanese yen
(about 200,000 yen or US$2,258 today).[5] The buyer wanted to demolish the castle complex and develop the land, but the cost of destroying the castle was estimated to be too great, and it was again spared.[5] Himeji
Himeji
was heavily bombed in 1945, at the end of World War II, and although most of the surrounding area was burned to the ground, the castle survived intact.[7] One firebomb was dropped on the top floor of the castle but failed to explode.[16] In order to preserve the castle complex, substantial repair work was undertaken starting in 1956, with a labor expenditure of 250,000 man-days and a cost of 550 million yen.[5][14] In January 1995, the city of Himeji
Himeji
was substantially damaged by the Great Hanshin earthquake, but Himeji Castle again survived virtually undamaged, demonstrating remarkable earthquake resistance.[9] Even the bottle of sake placed on the altar at the top floor of the keep remained in place.[9]

The "Three Country Moat" in the centre of the castle complex

Historical recognition[edit] Himeji
Himeji
Castle was registered on 11 December 1993 as one of the first UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites in Japan.[5][2][7] Five structures of the castle are also designated National Treasures: The main keep (大天守, daitenshu),[17][18] northwest small keep (乾小天守, inui kotenshu),[19] west small keep (西小天守, nishi kotenshu),[20] east small keep (東小天守, higashi kotenshu),[21] and I, Ro, Ha, Ni-corridors and kitchen (イ, ロ, ハ, ニの渡櫓附台所1棟, i, ro, ha, ni no watariyagura tsuketari daidokoro 1 to).[10][22] The area within the middle moat of the castle complex is a designated Special
Special
Historic Site.[5] Along with Matsumoto Castle
Matsumoto Castle
and Kumamoto Castle, Himeji
Himeji
Castle is considered one of Japan's three premier castles.[11] It is the most visited castle in Japan, receiving over 2,860,000 visitors in 2015.[3][2] Starting in April 2010, Himeji
Himeji
Castle underwent restoration work to preserve the castle buildings, and reopened to the public on March 27, 2015.[12] Design details[edit] Himeji
Himeji
Castle is the largest castle in Japan.[2] It serves as an excellent example of prototypical Japanese castle
Japanese castle
architecture, containing many of the defensive and architectural features associated with Japanese castles.[7] The curved walls of Himeji
Himeji
Castle are sometimes said to resemble giant fans (扇子, sensu), but the principal materials used in the structures are stone and wood.[5][6] Feudal family crests (家紋, kamon) are installed throughout the architecture of the building, signifying the various lords that inhabited the castle throughout its history.[5]

A depiction of the intricate castle complex

The family crest of Ikeda Terumasa[5]

The Himeji
Himeji
Castle complex is located in the centre of Himeji, Hyōgo on top of a hill called Himeyama, which is 45.6 m (150 ft) above sea level. The castle complex comprises a network of 83 buildings such as storehouses, gates, corridors, and turrets (櫓, yagura).[5][15] Of these 83 buildings, 74 are designated as Important Cultural Assets: 11 corridors, 16 turrets, 15 gates, and 32 earthen walls.[9] The highest walls in the castle complex have a height of 26 m (85 ft).[5] Joining the castle complex is Koko-en Garden (好古園, Kōkoen), a Japanese garden
Japanese garden
created in 1992 to commemorate Himeji
Himeji
city's 100th anniversary.[23] From east to west, the Himeji
Himeji
Castle complex has a length of 950 to 1,600 m (3,120 to 5,250 ft), and from north to south, it has a length of 900 to 1,700 m (3,000 to 5,600 ft).[5] The castle complex has a circumference of 4,200 m (2.6 mi).[5] It covers an area of 233 hectares (2,330,000 m2 or 576 acres), making it roughly 50 times as large as the Tokyo Dome
Tokyo Dome
or 60 times as large as Koshien Stadium.[3][5][7]

Weapon racks inside the keep

The main keep (大天守, daitenshu) at the center of the complex is 46.4 m (152 ft) high, standing 92 m (302 ft) above sea level. Together with the main keep, three smaller subsidiary keeps (小天守, kotenshu) form a cluster of towers.[5] Externally, the keep appears to have five floors, because the second and third floors from the top appear to be a single floor; however, it actually has six floors and a basement.[8] The basement of the main keep has an area of 385 m2 (4,140 sq ft), and its interior contains special facilities that are not seen in other castles, including lavatories, a drain board, and a kitchen corridor.[5] The main keep has two pillars, with one standing in the east and one standing in the west.[5] The east pillar, which has a base diameter of 97 cm (38 in), was originally a single fir tree, but it has since been mostly original.[5] [24] The base of the west pillar is 85 by 95 cm (33 by 37 in), and it is made of Japanese cypress.[5] During the Shōwa Restoration (1956–1964) a Japanese cypress tree with a length of 26.4 m (87 ft) was brought down from the Kiso Mountains
Kiso Mountains
and replaced the old pillar.[5] The tree was broken in this process, so another tree was brought down from Mount Kasagata, and the two trees were joined on the third floor.[5] The first floor of the main keep has an area of 554 m2 (5,960 sq ft) and is often called the "thousand-mat room" because it has over 330 Tatami
Tatami
mats.[5] The walls of the first floor have weapon racks (武具掛け, bugukake) for holding matchlocks and spears, and at one point, the castle contained as many as 280 guns and 90 spears.[5][25] The second floor has an area of roughly 550 m2 (5,900 sq ft).[5] The third floor has an area of 440 m2 (4,700 sq ft) and the fourth floor has an area of 240 m2 (2,600 sq ft).[5] Both the third and fourth floors have platforms situated at the north and south windows called "stone-throwing platforms" (石打棚, ishiuchidana), where defenders could observe or throw objects at attackers.[5] They also have small enclosed rooms called "warrior hiding places" (武者隠し, mushakakushi), where defenders could hide themselves and kill attackers by surprise as they entered the keep.[5] The final floor, the sixth floor, has an area of only 115 m2 (1,240 sq ft).[5] The sixth floor windows now have iron bars in place, but in the feudal period the panoramic view from the windows was unobstructed.[5] Defences[edit]

Defensive loopholes

Angled chutes or "stone drop windows"

Himeji
Himeji
Castle contains advanced defensive systems from the feudal period.[7] Loopholes (狭間, sama) in the shape of circles, triangles, squares, and rectangles are located throughout Himeji Castle, intended to allow defenders armed with tanegashima or archers to fire on attackers without exposing themselves.[8] Roughly 1,000 loopholes exist in the castle buildings remaining today.[5] Angled chutes called "stone drop windows" (石落窓, ishi-otoshi-mado) were also set at numerous points in the castle walls, enabling stones or boiling oil to be poured on the heads of attackers passing by underneath, and white plaster was used in the castle's construction for its resistance to fire.[26] The castle complex included three moats, one of which—the outer moat—is now buried.[6] Parts of the central moat and all of the inner moats survive.[6] The moats have an average width of 20 m (66 ft), a maximum width of 34.5 m (113 ft), and a depth of about 2.7 m (8.9 ft).[9] The Three Country Moat (三国堀, sangoku-bori) is a 2,500 m2 (27,000 sq ft) pond which exists inside the castle; one of the purposes of this moat was to store water for use in fire prevention.[5] The castle complex, particularly the Waist Quarter (腰曲輪, koshikuruwa), contains numerous warehouses that were used to store rice, salt and water in case of a siege.[5] A building known as the Salt Turret (塩櫓, shioyagura) [15] was used specifically to store salt, and it is estimated that it contained as many as 3,000 bags of salt when the castle complex was in use.[5] The castle complex also contained 33 wells within the inner moat, 13 of which remain; the deepest of these has a depth of 30 m (98 ft).[5]

"Diamond Gate", the first of the castle's 21 remaining gates[5]

One of the castle's most important defensive elements is the confusing maze of paths leading to the castle's keep.[8] The gates, baileys, and outer walls of the complex are organized so as to confuse an approaching force, causing it to travel in a spiral pattern around the complex on its way to the keep.[8] The castle complex originally contained 84 gates, 15 of which were named according to the Japanese syllabary (I, Ro, Ha, Ni, Ho, He, To, etc.).[5] At present, 21 gates from the castle complex remain intact, 13 of which are named according to the Japanese syllabary.[5] In many cases, the castle walkways even turn back on themselves, greatly inhibiting navigation.[26] For example, the straight distance from the Hishi Gate (菱の門, hishinomon)[15] to the main keep (大天守, daitenshu) is only 130 m (430 ft), but the path itself is a much longer 325 m (1,066 ft).[5] The passages are also steep and narrow, further inhibiting entry.[5] This system allowed the intruders to be watched and fired upon from the keep during their lengthy approach, but Himeji
Himeji
Castle was never attacked in this manner so the system remains untested.[7][8] However, even today with the route clearly marked, many visitors have trouble navigating the castle complex. Cultural impact[edit] Himeji
Himeji
Castle is frequently known as Hakuro-jō or Shirasagi-jō ("White Egret
Egret
Castle" or "White Heron
Heron
Castle") because of its brilliant white exterior and supposed resemblance to a bird taking flight.[6][8] The castle has been featured extensively in foreign and Japanese films, including the James Bond movie "You Only Live Twice" (1967), and Akira Kurosawa's Kagemusha
Kagemusha
(1980) and Ran (1985).[11] In the television miniseries Shōgun (1980) it served as a stand-in for feudal-era Osaka castle.[16] In the video games Civilization Revolution and Civilization V, Himeji
Himeji
Castle is available to build as a world wonder. Lore and legend[edit]

Okiku's Well

Himeji
Himeji
Castle is associated with a number of local legends.[5] The well-known kaidan (or Japanese ghost story) of Banchō Sarayashiki (番町皿屋敷, "The Dish Mansion at Banchō") is set in Edo (Tokyo), but a variant called Banshū Sarayashiki (播州皿屋敷, "The Dish mansion in Harima Province") is set in Himeji
Himeji
Castle. There is a disputed claim that the castle is the bona fide location of the entire legend, and the alleged Okiku's Well remains in the castle to this day.[4] According to the legend, Okiku was falsely accused of losing dishes that were valuable family treasures, and then killed and thrown into the well.[5] Her ghost remained to haunt the well at night, counting dishes in a despondent tone.[5] The legend of the "Old Widow's Stone" (姥が石, Ubagaishi) is another folklore story associated with the castle.[5] According to the legend, Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
ran out of stones when building the original three-story keep, and an old woman heard about his trouble.[5] She gave him her hand millstone even though she needed it for her trade.[5] It was said that people who heard the story were inspired and also offered stones to Hideyoshi, speeding up construction of the castle.[5] To this day, the supposed stone can be seen covered with a wire net in the middle of one of the stone walls in the castle complex.[5] A folklore story is also associated with Sakurai Genbei, who was Ikeda Terumasa's master carpenter in the construction of the keep.[5] According to the legend, Sakurai was dissatisfied with his construction, feeling that the keep leaned a little to the southeast.[5] Eventually, he became distraught and climbed to the top of the keep, where he jumped to his death with a chisel in his mouth.[5] Visitor statistics[edit]

On 14 April 2009, the total number of visits since the Showa-era restoration surpassed 40 million.[27]

1964 – 1,738,000 (Showa-era restoration work completed) 1989 – 1,197,000 1990 – 811,000 1991 – 871,000 1992 – 885,000 1993 – 1,019,000 1994 – 983,000 1995 – 695,000 1996 – 861,000 1997 – 716,000 1998 – 792,000 1999 – 713,000 2000 – 662,000 2001 – 708,000 2002 – 729,000 2003 – 814,000 2004 – 771,000 2005 – 778,000 2006 – 899,000 2007 – 1,023,000 2008 – 1,195,000 2009 – 1,561,000 2010 – 458,000 (restoration work started) 2011 – 611,000 2012 – 711,000 2013 – 881,000[28] 2014 – 919,000[28] 2015 – 2,860,000 (restoration work completed in March)[29]

Additional information[edit] National treasures and sister castle[edit] Other national treasures (castles) besides Himeji
Himeji
castle include Matsumoto castle, Inuyama castle, Matsue Castle, and Hikone castle. The sister castle of Himeji
Himeji
castle is Château de Chantilly
Château de Chantilly
in France.[30] Matsumoto castle[edit] Matsumoto castle (松本城 Matsumoto-jō) is one of Japan's oldest castles and is situated in Matsumoto, in Nagano Prefecture. The main donjon (天守閣 tenshukaku) was constructed by the Ishikawa family from 1593 to 1594 when the family was put in charge of the castle. The donjon of Matsumoto castle is one of Japan's oldest existing five stories Tenshu. Inuyama castle[edit] Inuyama castle (犬山城 Inuyama-jō) is located in the southern coast of Kiso river in the city of Inuyama, in Aichi Prefecture. In 1537, Oda Nobunaga's uncle, Oda Nobuyasu strengthened the castle. Inuyama castle is claimed to be one of Japan's oldest castles and one of the castles that managed to retain its original structure. Hikone castle[edit] Hikone castle (彦根城 Hikone-jō) is located in the eastern coast of Lake Biwa. The castle was completed in 1622 by Ii Naokatsu, after 20 years of construction. Château de Chantilly[edit] Château de Chantilly
Château de Chantilly
is a sister castle of Himeji
Himeji
castle, and it is said to be the most beautiful castle in France. It is located 40 kilometres north of Paris. The castle is a representation of the magnificent architectural style of the Renaissance period. The partnership between Himeji
Himeji
castle and Chantilly castle began in 1989. Gallery[edit] Panoramic overview

A panoramic view of the castle grounds, with Himeji
Himeji
city in the background

Views from afar

The castle's keeps and city as seen from Engyō-ji

The castle complex as seen from the west

Keeps and bridge as seen from the entrance

A view of Keeps and the lush castle grounds below

Keeps as seen from the grounds below

Views from below

One of the steep, narrow walkways controlling access to the castle

One of the steep castle walls

Himeji
Himeji
castle as seen from the princess quarters

The keep as seen from within the inner circle (本丸, honmaru)

Curved gables (千鳥破風, chidori hafu)

Detail of keep

Views at night

Views from above

Castle walls and rooftops

East tower and corridors

The castle rooftops and surrounding city

Part of the intricate castle complex

A mythical tiger-headed fish called shachi (鯱). This motif was used atop the castle towers as a talisman for fire prevention.[8]

Views from the interior

A stone drop window (石落窓, ishi-otoshi-mado)

A window for an archer or defender using a Matchlock

An interior room with Tatami
Tatami
mats

A hallway

Castle windows

Views with cherry blossoms

Taken at Three Country Moats

Sakura at Himeji
Himeji
Castle

Taken at Himeji
Himeji
City Zoo

Taken from the south

Views of the restoration

Temporary cover and gantry

Temporary cover

Different stages of applying plaster to the roof tiles. The plaster protects the roof from water ingress, and stops the tiles being dislodged by typhoon winds.

Roof structure underneath the tiles

View of the keep roof nearing completion, taken from the public view gallery.

Views of pictures

Bodhidharma.

Samurais.

A fish.

See also[edit]

Japanese architecture Japanese castle Koko-en Garden
Koko-en Garden
Japanese garden
Japanese garden
joining the castle complex List of National Treasures of Japan
National Treasures of Japan
(castles) List of reportedly haunted locations List of Special
Special
Places of Scenic Beauty, Special
Special
Historic Sites and Special
Special
Natural Monuments List of World Heritage Sites in Japan Tourism in Japan

References[edit]

^ " Himeji
Himeji
Castle and its surroundings". Sansen-ya. Retrieved July 6, 2010.  ^ a b c d e f g " Himeji
Himeji
Castle starts its renovation in April". Official Tourism Guide for Japan
Japan
Travel. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "A hilltop white heron 400 years old". The Daily Yomiuri. Retrieved July 5, 2010.  ^ a b c d e Jacqueline A., Ball (2005). Himeji
Himeji
Castle: Japan's Samurai Past. New York: Bearport Publishing. p. 32. ISBN 1-59716-001-6.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm "National Treasure Himeji
Himeji
Castle Guide book" (PDF). Himeji
Himeji
Rojyo Lions Club. 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 10, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2010.  ^ a b c d e f Bornoff, Nicholas (2000). The National Geographic Traveler: Japan. Washington: National Geographic Society. pp. 256–257. ISBN 0-7894-5545-5.  ^ a b c d e f g "Himeji-jo". UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. Retrieved July 4, 2010.  ^ a b c d e f g h Eyewitness Travel Guides: Japan. New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing. 2000. pp. 200–203. ISBN 0-7894-5545-5.  ^ a b c d e " Himeji
Himeji
Castle". Japan
Japan
Atlas. Retrieved July 5, 2010.  ^ a b 国宝一覧 (in Japanese). Himeji
Himeji
city. Retrieved July 5, 2010.  ^ a b c "The Three Famous Castles of Japan". Kobayashi Travel Service. Archived from the original on March 22, 2010. Retrieved July 4, 2010.  ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.  ^ Hinago, Motoo (1986). Japanese Castles. Kodansha International Ltd. and Shibundo. pp. 121–125. ISBN 0-87011-766-1.  ^ a b c d O'Grady, Daniel. "Japanese Castle Explorer – Himeji Castle". Japanese Castle Explorer. Retrieved July 11, 2010.  ^ a b c d "世界遺産姫路城 城の楽しみ方". Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ a b Lowe, Sam (May 11, 2010). "Restoring a Japanese Treasure". Best Western's Travel Blog. Retrieved July 11, 2010.  ^ "姫路城大天守". Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ "National Treasure, World Heritage, Himeji
Himeji
Castle". Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ "姫路城乾小天守". Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ "姫路城西小天守". Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ "姫路城東小天守". Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ "姫路城イ・ロ・ハ・ニの渡櫓附台所1棟". Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ "Kokoen Garden, Traditional Japanese Garden in Himeji
Himeji
City". EOK. Retrieved July 4, 2010.  ^ 姫路市史第十四巻別編姫路城. Himeji
Himeji
City: City of Himeji. 2001. p. 494.  ^ "Hoplology". Guillaume Morel. Retrieved July 11, 2010.  ^ a b Turnbull, Stephen (2003). Japanese Castles 1540–1640. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-84176-429-0.  ^ 姫路城、入場者4000万人突破 昭和の大修理から45年で Archived July 12, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.(共同通信2009年4月14日) ^ a b "平成26年度姫路市入込客数、観光動向・イベントアンケート調査報告書 P3" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 16, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ Yoshiko Yukinaga. "「姫路城来場者、日本一に。過去最多286万人」". Mainichi Shinbun. Retrieved 13 May 2016.  ^ "姫路市|ほかにもある国宝のお城・姉妹城". www.city.himeji.lg.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved 2017-10-22. 

Further reading

Mitchelhill, Jennifer (2013). Castles of the Samurai:Power & Beauty. USA: Kodansha. ISBN 978-1-56836-512-1.  Schmorleitz, Morton S. (1974). Castles in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co. pp. 123–125. ISBN 0-8048-1102-4.  Motoo, Hinago (1986). Japanese Castles. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 0-87011-766-1. 

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Himeji
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