Hezekiah (/ˌhɛzɪˈkaɪ.ə/)[a] was, according to the Hebrew Bible,
the son of
Ahaz and the 13th king of Judah. Archaeologist Edwin
Thiele has concluded that his reign was between c. 715 and 686 BC.
He is considered a very righteous king by the author of the Books of
Kings. He is also one of the most prominent kings of Judah
mentioned in the Bible and is one of the kings mentioned in the
genealogy of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew.
According to the Bible,
Hezekiah witnessed the destruction of the
northern Kingdom of Israel by Sargon's Assyrians in c. 722 BC and was
king of Judah during the siege of
Sennacherib in 701
Hezekiah enacted sweeping religious reforms, including a strict
mandate for the sole worship of
Yahweh and a prohibition on venerating
other deities within the Temple of Jerusalem.
Isaiah and Micah
prophesied during his reign.
2 Biblical sources
2.1 Family and life
2.2 Reign over Judah
2.3 Political moves and Assyrian invasion
2.4 Hezekiah's construction
2.5 Defeat of Sennacherib's army
2.6 Death of Sennacherib
2.7 Hezekiah's illness and recovery
3 Extra-Biblical records
3.1 Archaeological record
3.1.1 Increase in the power of Judah
3.1.2 Siloam inscription
Sennacherib's Prism of Nineveh
3.2 Other records
4 Chronological interpretation
5 Other chronological notes
9 External links
Hezekiah means "
Yahweh (Jehovah) Strengthens" in Hebrew.
See also: Assyrian Siege of
Jerusalem and Sennacherib's Prism
The main account of Hezekiah's reign is found in
2 Kings 18–20,
Isaiah 36–39, and 2 Chronicles 29–32 of the Hebrew Bible. Proverbs
25:1 mentions that it is a collection of King Solomon's proverbs that
were "copied by the officials of King
Hezekiah of Judah". His reign is
also referred to in the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, Hosea,
and Micah. The books of Hosea and Micah record that their prophecies
were made during Hezekiah’s reign.
Family and life
Hezekiah was the son of King
Ahaz and Abijah. His mother, Abijah (also
called Abi), was a daughter of the high priest Zechariah. Based on
Hezekiah was born in c. 741 BC. He was married to
2 Kings 21:1) He died from natural causes at the age of
54 in c. 687 BC, and was succeeded by his son Manasseh (2 Kings
Reign over Judah
Remnants of the Broad Wall of biblical Jerusalem, built during
Hezekiah's days against Sennacherib's siege
According to the Bible,
Hezekiah assumed the throne of Judah at the
age of 25 and reigned for 29 years (
2 Kings 18:2). Some writers[who?]
have proposed that
Hezekiah served as coregent with his father Ahaz
for about 14 years. His sole reign is dated by
William F. Albright
William F. Albright as
715–687 BC, and by
Edwin R. Thiele
Edwin R. Thiele as 716–687 BC (the last ten
years being a co-regency with his son Manasseh).
Hezekiah purified and repaired the Temple, purged its idols, and
reformed the priesthood. In an effort to abolish idolatry from his
kingdom, he destroyed the high places (or bamot) and the "bronze
serpent" (or Nehushtan), recorded as being made by Moses, which became
objects of idolatrous worship. In place of this, he centralized the
worship of God at the
Hezekiah also defeated the
Philistines, "as far as Gaza and its territory", (
2 Kings 18:8) and
Passover pilgrimage and the tradition of inviting the
scattered tribes of Israel to take part in a
Passover festival. He
sent messengers to Ephraim and Manasseh inviting them to
the celebration of the Passover. The messengers, however, were not
only not listened to, but were even laughed at; only a few men of
Asher, Manasseh, and Zebulun came to the city. Nevertheless, the
Passover was celebrated with great solemnity and such rejoicing as had
not been in
Jerusalem since the days of Solomon.
portrayed by the Bible as a great and good king.
Political moves and Assyrian invasion
Main article: Sennacherib's campaign in Judah
After the death of Assyrian king
Sargon II in 705 BC, Sargon's son
Sennacherib became king of Assyria. In 703 BC,
Sennacherib began a
series of major campaigns to quash opposition to Assyrian rule,
starting with cities in the eastern part of the realm. According to
the Bible, Hoshea, king of Israel, made a conspiratorial alliance with
Egypt in the false hope of throwing off the Assyrian yoke. In 701 BC,
Sennacherib turned toward cities in the west.
Hezekiah then had to
face the invasion of Judah. According to the Bible,
Hezekiah did not
rely on Egypt for support, but relied on God and prayed to Him for
deliverance of his capital city Jerusalem. (
2 Kings 18:19-22; 2 Kings
2 Kings 19:14-19;
2 Kings 19:28;
The Assyrians recorded that
Sennacherib lifted his siege of Jerusalem
Sennacherib tribute. The Bible records that
Hezekiah paid him three hundred talents of silver and thirty of gold
as tribute, even sending the doors of the Temple to produce the
promised amount, but, even after the payment was made, Sennacherib
renewed his assault on Jerusalem.
Sennacherib surrounded the city
and sent his
Rabshakeh to the walls as a messenger. The Rabshakeh
addressed the soldiers manning the city wall in Hebrew (Yĕhuwdiyth),
asking them to distrust
Yahweh and Hezekiah, claiming that Hezekiah's
righteous reforms (destroying the idols and High Places) were a sign
that the people should not trust their god to be favorably disposed (2
2 Kings 19:15 records that
Hezekiah went to the
Temple and there he prayed to God.
Jerusalem would eventually be subject to siege, Hezekiah
had been preparing for some time by fortifying the walls of the
capital, building towers, and constructing a tunnel to bring fresh
water to the city from a spring outside its walls. He made at
least two major preparations that would help
Jerusalem to resist
conquest: the construction of the Siloam Tunnel, and construction of
the Broad Wall.
Sennacherib had come, intent on making war against Jerusalem,
Hezekiah consulted with his officers about stopping the flow of the
springs outside the city … for otherwise, they thought, the King of
Assyria would come and find water in abundance" (2 Chronicles
The narratives of the Bible state that Sennacherib's army besieged
2 Kings 18:17; 2 Chronicles 32:9;
Defeat of Sennacherib's army
The Defeat of Sennacherib, oil on panel by Peter Paul Rubens,
According to the biblical record,
Sennacherib sent threatening letters
Hezekiah that he had not desisted from his determination to
take the Judean capital. (
Isaiah 37:9-20) Although they besieged
Jerusalem, the Bible states that the Assyrians did not so much as
“shoot an arrow there, ... nor cast up a siege rampart against
it”, and that God sent out an angel who, in one night, struck down
“a hundred and eighty-five thousand in the camp of the Assyrians,”
Sennacherib back “with shame of face to his own land”.
Sennacherib’s inscriptions make no mention of the disaster suffered
by his forces. But, as Professor
Jack Finegan comments: “In view of
the general note of boasting which pervades the inscriptions of the
Assyrian kings, ... it is hardly to be expected that
record such a defeat.”  It is interesting to note the version
Sennacherib presents of the matter, as found inscribed on what is
known as the
Sennacherib Prism preserved in the University of Chicago
Oriental Institute. In part he says: “As to Hezekiah, the Jew, he
did not submit to my yoke ...
Hezekiah himself ... did send me, later,
to Nineveh, my lordly city, together with 30 talents of gold, 800
talents of silver, ..."  This version inflates the number of
silver talents sent from 300 to 800; but in other regards it confirms
the biblical record and shows that
Sennacherib made no claim that he
captured Jerusalem. However,
Sennacherib presents the matter of
Hezekiah’s paying tribute as having come after the Assyrian threat
of a siege against Jerusalem, whereas the Bible states it was paid
Death of Sennacherib
The Flight of Adrammelech, biblical illustration by Arthur Murch
Of Sennacherib's death
2 Kings 19:37 says
"It came about as he was worshiping in the house of Nisroch his god,
that Adrammelech and Sharezer killed him [Sennacherib] with the sword;
and they escaped into the land of Ararat. And
Esarhaddon his son
became king in his place."
According to Assyrian records,
Sennacherib was assassinated in 681 BC,
twenty years after the 701 BC invasion of Judah. A Neo-Babylonian
letter corroborates with the biblical account a sentiment from
Sennacherib’s sons to assassinate him, an event Assyriologists have
reconstructed as historical. The son Ardi-Mulishi, who is mentioned in
the letter as killing anyone who would reveal his conspiracy,
successfully murders his father in c. 681 BC, and was most likely
the Adrammelech in 2 Kings, though Sharezer is not known
elsewhere. Assyriologists posit the murder was motivated because
Esarhaddon was chosen as heir to the throne instead of Ardi-Mulishi,
the next eldest son. Assyrian and Hebrew biblical history corroborate
Esarhaddon ultimately did succeed the throne. Other
Assyriologists assert that
Sennacherib was murdered in revenge for his
destruction of Babylon, a city sacred to all Mesopotamians, including
Hezekiah's illness and recovery
Hezekiah showing off his wealth to envoys of the Babylonian king, oil
on canvas by Vicente López Portaña, 1789
Later in his life,
Hezekiah was ill with a boil  or an
inflammation  which
Isaiah initially thought would be fatal. The
narrative of his sickness and miraculous recovery is found in 2 Kings
20:1, 2 Chronicles 32:24 and
Isaiah 38:1. Various ambassadors came to
congratulate him on his recovery, among them from
Merodach-baladan, son of the king of Babylon, "for he had heard that
Hezekiah had been sick". Hezekiah, his vanity flattered by the
visit, showed the Babylonian embassy all the wealth, arms and
stores of Jerusalem, revealing too much information to Baladan, king
of Babylon (or perhaps boasting about his wealth): he was then
confronted by Isaiah, who foretold that a future generation of the
people of Judah would be taken as captives to Babylon.
reassured that his own lifetime would see peace and security.
Hezekiah lived another 15 years after
praying to God. His son and successor, Manasseh, was born during this
time: he was 12 years of age when he succeeded Hezekiah.
According to the Talmud, the disease came about because of a dispute
between him and
Isaiah over who should pay whom a visit and over
Hezekiah's refusal to marry and have children. Some Talmudists also
considered that it might have come about as a way for
purge his sins or due to his arrogance in assuming his
Stamped bulla sealed by a servant of King Hezekiah, formerly pressed
against a cord; unprovenanced Redondo Beach collection of antiquities
Extra-Biblical sources do much more for us than give us a pan-Mid
Eastern picture into which we contextualize Hezekiah: there are
extra-Biblical sources that specify
Hezekiah by name, along with his
reign and influence. "Historiographically, his reign is noteworthy for
the convergence of a variety of biblical sources and diverse
extrabiblical evidence often bearing on the same events. Significant
Hezekiah appear in the Deuteronomistic History, the
Chronicler, Isaiah, Assyrian annals and reliefs, Israelite epigraphy,
and, increasingly, stratigraphy". Archaeologist
Amihai Mazar calls
the tensions between
Assyria and Judah "one of the best-documented
events of the Iron Age" (172). Hezekiah's story is one of the best to
cross-reference with the rest of the Mid Eastern world's historical
A seal impression dating back to 727–698 BCE, reading
"לחזקיהו [בן] אחז מלך יהדה" "Belonging to Hezekiah
Ahaz king of Judah" was uncovered in a dig at the
Jerusalem. The impression on this inscription was set in
ancient Hebrew script.
A lintel inscription, found over the doorway of a tomb, has been
ascribed to his secretary, Shebnah (
2 Kings 18:18). LMLK stored jars
along the border with
Assyria "demonstrate careful preparations to
counter Sennacherib's likely route of invasion" and show "a notable
degree of royal control of towns and cities which would facilitate
Hezekiah's destruction of rural sacrificial sites and his
centralization of worship in Jerusalem". Evidence suggests they
were used throughout his 29-year reign (Grena, 2004, p. 338).
There are some Bullae from sealed documents that may have belonged to
Hezekiah himself (Grena, 2004, p. 26, Figs. 9 and 10). There are
also some that name his servants (ah-vah-deem in Hebrew,
ayin-bet-dalet-yod-mem). In 2015 Eilat Mazar discovered a bulla that
bears an inscription in ancient Hebrew script that translates as:
Hezekiah [son of]
Ahaz king of Judah."This is the
first seal impression of an Israelite or Judean king to come to light
in a scientific archaeological excavation. Archaeological findings
Hezekiah seal led scholars to surmise that the ancient
Judahite kingdom had a highly developed administrative system. In
2018 Mazar published a report discussing the discovery of a bulla (a
type of seal) which she says may have to have belonged to Isaiah. She
believes the fragment to have been part of a seal whose complete text
might have read "Belonging to
Isaiah the prophet." Several other
biblical archaeologists, including George Washington University's
Christopher Rollston have pointed to the bulla being incomplete, and
the present inscription not enough to necessarily refer to the
Increase in the power of Judah
According to the work of archaeologists and philologists, the reign of
Hezekiah saw a notable increase in the power of the Judean state. At
this time Judah was the strongest nation on the Assyrian-Egyptian
frontier. There were increases in literacy and in the production
of literary works. The massive construction of the Broad Wall was made
during his reign, the city was enlarged to accommodate a large influx,
and population increased in
Jerusalem up to 25,000, "five times the
population under Solomon." Archaeologist
Amihai Mazar explains,
Jerusalem was a virtual city-state where the majority of the state's
population was concentrated," in comparison to the rest of Judah's
cities (167). Archaeologist
Israel Finkelstein says, "The key
phenomenon—which cannot be explained solely against the background
of economic prosperity—was the sudden growth of the population of
Jerusalem in particular, and of Judah in general" (153). He says
the cause of this growth must be a large influx of Israelites fleeing
from the Assyrian destruction of the northern state. It is "[t]he only
reasonable way to explain this unprecedented demographic development"
(154). This, according to Finkelstein, set the stage for
motivations to compile and reconcile Hebrew history into a text at
that time (157). Mazar questions this explanation, since, he
argues, it is "no more than an educated guess" (167).
Siloam Tunnel was chiseled through 533 meters (1,750 feet) of
solid rock in order to provide
Jerusalem underground access to the
waters of the
Gihon Spring or Siloam Pool, which lay outside the city.
Siloam Inscription from the
Siloam Tunnel is now in the Istanbul
Archaeology Museum. It "commemorates the dramatic moment when the two
original teams of tunnelers, digging with picks from opposite ends of
the tunnel, met each other" (564). It is "[o]ne of the most
important ancient Hebrew inscriptions ever discovered."
Finkelstein and Mazar cite this tunnel as an example of Jerusalem's
impressive state-level power at the time.
William G. Dever have pointed at archaeological
evidence for the iconoclasm during the period of Hezekiah's reign. The
central cult room of the temple at Arad (a royal Judean fortress) was
deliberately and carefully dismantled, "with the altars and massebot"
concealed "beneath a Str. 8 plaster floor". This stratum correlates
with the late 8th century; Dever concludes that "the deliberate
dismantling of the temple and its replacement by another structure in
the days of
Hezekiah is an archeological fact. I see no reason for
Part of the
Lachish Relief, British Museum. Battle scene, showing
Assyrian cavalry in action. Above, prisoners are led away.
Lachish became the second most important city of the
kingdom of Judah. During the revolt of king
Hezekiah against Assyria,
it was captured by
Sennacherib despite determined resistance (see
Siege of Lachish).
Lachish relief attests,
Sennacherib began his siege of the city
Lachish in 701 BC. The
Lachish Relief graphically depicts the
battle, and the defeat of the city, including Assyrian archers
marching up a ramp and Judahites pierced through on mounted stakes.
"The reliefs on these slabs" discovered in the Assyrian palace at
Nineveh "originally formed a single, continuous work, measuring 8 feet
... tall by 80 feet ... long, which wrapped around the room"
(559). Visitors "would have been impressed not only by the
magnitude of the artwork itself but also by the magnificent strength
of the Assyrian war machine."
Sennacherib's Prism of Nineveh
Six-sided clay prism containing narratives of Sennacherib's military
campaigns, Oriental Institute Museum of Chicago University
Sennacherib's Prism was found buried in the foundations of the Nineveh
palace. It was written in cuneiform, the Mesopotamian form of writing
of the day. The prism records the conquest of 46 strong towns  and
"uncountable smaller places," along with the siege of
Sennacherib says he just "shut him up...like a bird in a cage,"
subsequently enforcing a larger tribute upon him.
Hebrew Bible states that during the night, the angel of Jehovah
YHWH Hebrew) brought death to 185,000 Assyrians troops (2 Kings
19:35), forcing the army to abandon the siege, yet it also records a
tribute paid to
Sennacherib of 300 silver talents following the siege.
There is no account of the supernatural event in the prism.
Sennacherib's account records his levying of a tribute from Hezekiah,
the king of Judea, who was within Jerusalem, leaving the city as the
only one intact following the exile of the northern ten-tribe kingdom
of Israel due to idolatry. (
2 Kings 17:22,23;
2 Kings 18:1-8)
Sennacherib recorded a payment of 800 silver talents, which suggests a
capitulation to end the siege. However, Inscriptions have been
discovered describing Sennacherib’s defeat of the Ethiopian forces.
These say: “As to Hezekiah, the Jew, he did not submit to my yoke, I
laid siege to 46 of his strong cities . . . and conquered (them) . . .
Himself I made a prisoner in Jerusalem, his royal residence, like a
bird in a cage.” (Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p. 288) He does
not claim to have captured the city. This is consistent with the Bible
account of Hezekiah’s revolt against
Assyria in the sense that
neither account seems to indicate that
Sennacherib ever entered or
formally captured the city.
Sennacherib in this inscription claims
Hezekiah paid for tribute 800 talents of silver, in contrast with
the Bible’s 300, however this could be due to boastful exaggeration
which was not uncommon amongst kings of the period. Furthermore, the
annals[specify] record a list of booty sent from
Nineveh. In the inscription,
Sennacherib claims that Hezekiah
accepted servitude, and some theorize that
Hezekiah remained on his
throne as a vassal ruler. The campaign is recorded with
differences in the Assyrian records and in the biblical Books of
Kings; there is agreement that the Assyrian have a propensity for
One theory that takes the biblical view posits that a defeat was
caused by "possibly an outbreak of the bubonic plague" (303).
Another that this is a composite text which makes use of a 'legendary
motif' analogous to that of the Exodus story.
2 Kings account explains giving 300 talents of silver,
Sennacherib's prism records 800 talents. "This discrepancy may be
the result of differences in the weight of Assyrian and Israelite
silver talents, or it may simply be due to the Assyrian propensity for
Talmud (Bava Batra 15a) credits
Hezekiah with overseeing the
compilation of the biblical books of Isaiah, Proverbs, Song of Songs
According to Jewish tradition, the victory over the Assyrians and
Hezekiah's return to health happened at the same time, the first night
The Greek historian
Herodotus (c. 484 BC – c. 425 BC) wrote of the
invasion and acknowledges many Assyrian deaths, which he claims were
the result of a plague of mice. The Jewish historian
the writings of Herodotus. These historians record Sennacherib's
failure to take
Jerusalem is "uncontested".
Understanding the biblically recorded sequence of events in Hezekiah's
life as chronological or not is critical to the contextual
interpretation of his reign. According to scholar Stephen L. Harris,
chapter 20 of
2 Kings does not follow the events of chapters 18 and 19
(161). Rather, the Babylonian envoys precede the Assyrian invasion
and siege. Chapter 20 would have been added during the exile, and
Harris says it "evidently took place before Sennacherib's invasion'
Hezekiah was "trying to recruit Babylon as an ally against
Assyria.' Consequently, "
Hezekiah ends his long reign impoverished
and ruling over only a tiny scrap of his former domain.' Likewise,
The Archaeological Study Bible says, "The presence of these riches'
Hezekiah shows to the Babylonians "indicates that this event took
place before Hezekiah's payment of tribute to
Sennacherib in 701 BC"
(564). Again, "Though the king's illness and the subsequent
Babylonian mission are described at the end of the accounts of his
reign, they must have occurred before the war with Assyria. Thus,
Isaiah's chastening of
Hezekiah is due to his alliances made with
other countries during the Assyrian conflict for insurance. To a
reader who interprets the chapters chronologically, it would appear
Hezekiah ended his reign at a climax, but with a scholarly
analysis, his end would contrarily be interpreted as a long fall from
where he began.
Other chronological notes
There has been considerable academic debate about the actual dates of
reigns of the Israelite kings. Scholars have endeavored to synchronize
the chronology of events referred to in the
Hebrew Bible with those
derived from other external sources. In the case of Hezekiah, scholars
have noted that the apparent inconsistencies are resolved by accepting
the evidence that Hezekiah, like his predecessors for four generations
in the kings of Judah, had a coregency with his father, and this
coregency began in 729 BC.
As an example of the reasoning that finds inconsistencies in
calculations when coregencies are a priori ruled out,
2 Kings 18:10
dates the fall of Samaria (the Northern Kingdom) to the 6th year of
William F. Albright
William F. Albright has dated the fall of the
Kingdom of Israel to 721 BC, while E. R. Thiele calculates the date as
723 BC. If Abright's or Thiele's dating are correct, then
Hezekiah's reign would begin in either 729 or 727 BC. On the other
hand, 18:13 states that
Sennacherib invaded Judah in the 14th year of
Hezekiah's reign. Dating based on Assyrian records date this invasion
to 701 BC, and Hezekiah's reign would therefore begin in 716/715
BC. This dating would be confirmed by the account of Hezekiah's
illness in chapter 20, which immediately follows Sennacherib's
2 Kings 20). This would date his illness to Hezekiah's 14th
year, which is confirmed by Isaiah's statement (
2 Kings 20:6) that he
will live fifteen more years (29 − 15 = 14). As shown below, these
problems are all addressed by scholars who make reference to the
ancient Near Eastern practice of coregency.
Following the approach of Wellhausen, another set of calculations
shows it is probable that
Hezekiah did not ascend the throne before
722 BC. By Albright's calculations, Jehu's initial year is 842 BC; and
between it and Samaria's destruction the
Books of Kings
Books of Kings give the total
number of the years the kings of Israel ruled as 143 7/12, while for
the kings of Judah the number is 165. This discrepancy, amounting in
the case of Judah to 45 years (165–120), has been accounted for in
various ways; but every one of those theories must allow that
Hezekiah's first six years fell before 722 BC. (That
Hezekiah began to
reign before 722 BC, however, is entirely consistent with the
principle that the Ahaz/
Hezekiah coregency began in 729 BC.) Nor is it
clearly known how old
Hezekiah was when called to the throne, although
2 Kings 18:2 states he was twenty-five years of age. His father died
at the age of thirty-six (
2 Kings 16:2); it is not likely that
the age of eleven should have had a son. Hezekiah's own son Manasseh
ascended the throne twenty-nine years later, at the age of twelve.
This places his birth in the seventeenth year of his father's reign,
or gives Hezekiah's age as forty-two, if he was twenty-five at his
ascension. It is more probable that
Ahaz was twenty-one or twenty-five
Hezekiah was born (and suggesting an error in the text), and that
the latter was thirty-two at the birth of his son and successor,
Miniature from Chludov Psalter
Since Albright and Friedman, several scholars have explained these
dating problems on the basis of a coregency between
Hezekiah and his
Ahaz between 729 and 716/715 BC. Assyriologists and
Egyptologists recognize that coregency was a practice both in Assyria
and Egypt. After noting that coregencies were only used
sporadically in the northern kingdom (Israel), Nadav Na'aman writes,
In the kingdom of Judah, on the other hand, the nomination of a
co-regent was the common procedure, beginning from
David who, before
his death, elevated his son
Solomon to the throne. When taking into
account the permanent nature of the co-regency in Judah from the time
of Joash, one may dare to conclude that dating the co-regencies
accurately is indeed the key for solving the problems of biblical
chronology in the eighth century BC."
Among the numerous scholars who have recognized the coregency between
Hezekiah are Kenneth Kitchen in his various writings,
Leslie McFall, and Jack Finegan. McFall, in his 1991 article,
argues that if 729 BC (that is, the Judean regnal year beginning in
Tishri of 729) is taken as the start of the Ahaz/
and 716/715 BC as the date of the death of Ahaz, then all the
extensive chronological data for
Hezekiah and his contemporaries in
the late eighth century BC are in harmony. Further, McFall found that
no textual emendations are required among the numerous dates, reign
lengths, and synchronisms given in the Hebrew Testament for this
period. In contrast, those who do not accept the Ancient Near
Eastern principle of coregencies require multiple emendations of the
Scriptural text, and there is no general agreement on which texts
should be emended, nor is there any consensus among these scholars on
the resultant chronology for the eighth century BC. This is in
contrast with the general consensus among those who accept the
Biblical and near Eastern practice of coregencies that
installed as coregent with his father
Ahaz in 729 BC, and the
2 Kings 18 must be measured from that date, whereas
the synchronisms to
Sennacherib are measured from the sole reign
starting in 716/715 BC. The two synchronisms to
Hoshea of Israel in 2
Kings 18 are then in exact agreement with the dates of Hoshea's reign
that can be determined from Assyrian sources, as is the date of
Samaria's fall as stated in
2 Kings 18:10. An analogous situation of
two ways of measurement, both equally valid, is encountered in the
dates given for Jehoram of Israel, whose first year is synchronized to
the 18th year of the sole reign of
Jehoshaphat of Judah in
2 Kings 3:1
(853/852 BC), but his reign is also reckoned according to another
method as starting in the second year of the coregency of Jehoshaphat
and his son
Jehoram of Judah
Jehoram of Judah (
2 Kings 1:17); both methods refer to the
same calendrical year.
Scholars who accept the principle of coregencies note that abundant
evidence for their use is found in the biblical material itself.
The agreement of scholarship built on these principles with both
biblical and secular texts was such that the Thiele/McFall chronology
was accepted as the best chronology for the kingdom period in Jack
Finegan's encyclopedic Handbook of Biblical Chronology.
^ Hebrew: Hebrew: חִזְקִיָּ֫הוּ, חִזְקִיָּ֫ה,
יְחִזְקִיָּ֫הוּ, Modern H̱ízqiyáhu,
H̱ízqiyá, Yəẖízqiyáhu, Tiberian Ḥizeqiyahû,
Ḥizeqiyā, Yeḥizeqiyāhû; Akkadian: 𒄩𒍝𒆥𒀀𒌑
Ḥazaqya'u; Greek: Ἐζεκίας [Septuagint: Εζεζία],
translit. Ezekias [Ezezía]; Latin: Ezechias; also transliterated
as Ḥizkiyyahu or Ḥizkiyyah
^ a b c Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto:
Mayfield. 1985. "Glossary", pp. 367–432
^ Edwin Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, (1st ed.;
New York: Macmillan, 1951; 2d ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965; 3rd
ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983). ISBN 0-8254-3825-X,
2 Kings 18:3
^ Matthew 1:10
^ "Hezekiah." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. 12 Nov 2009.
^ John Jarick (22 March 2012). "The Stings in the Tales of the Kings
of Judah". In Duncan Burns; John W. Rogerson. Far From Minimal:
Celebrating the Work and Influence of Philip R. Davies. Bloomsbury
Publishing. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-567-31337-9.
^ Hosea 1:1; Micah 1:1
^ a b c "Hezekiah". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15 April
William F. Albright
William F. Albright for the former and for the latter Edwin R.
The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (3rd ed.; Grand
Rapids, MI: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983) 217. But
Gershon Galil dates his
reign to 697–642 BC.
^ a b "
Sennacherib and Jerusalem".
^ Peter J. Leithart, "1 & 2 Kings," Brazos Theological Commentary
on the Bible, p. 255–256, Baker Publishing Group, Grand Rapids, MI
Isaiah 37:33-37; 2 Chronicles 32:21
^ See Light From the Ancient Past, 1959, p. 213
^ Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p. 288
^ J. D. Douglas, ed., New Bible Dictionary (Grand Rapids, MI:
Eerdmans, 1965) 1160.
^ The New Oxford Annotated Bible. 4th ed. New York: Oxford Press,
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Archaeological Study Bible. Grand Rapids:
Zondervan, 2005. Print.
^ Georges Roux. Ancient Iraq.
2 Kings 20:7 in most English translations
2 Kings 20:7 in the
Amplified Bible translation
^ 2 Chronicles 32:23
2 Kings 20:12
^ Keil and Delitzsch, Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament on 2
Kings 20, accessed 23 January 2018
2 Kings 20:12–19: ESV translation
2 Kings 20:21;
2 Kings 21:1
^ a b c d e "Hezekiah." The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 1992. Print.
^ ben Zion, Ilan (2 December 2015). ""לחזקיהו [בן] אחז
מלך יהדה" "Belonging to
Hezekiah [son of]
Ahaz king of Judah"".
Times of Israel. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
^ "First ever seal impression of an Israelite or Judean king exposed
near Temple Mount".
^ Alyssa Navarro, Archaeologists Find Biblical-Era Seal Of King
Jerusalem "Tech Times" December 6
^ Heilpern, Will. "King Hezekiah's seal discovered in
CNN". CNN. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
^ "Impression of King Hezekiah's Royal Seal Discovered in Ophel
Excavations South of Temple Mount in
האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים The Hebrew
University of Jerusalem". new.huji.ac.il. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
^ Fridman, Julia (14 March 2018). "
Hezekiah Seal Proves Ancient
Jerusalem Was a Major Judahite Capital". Retrieved 14 March 2018 –
^ Mazar, Eliat (March/April May/June 2018). "Is This the Prophet
Isaiah's Signature?". Biblical Archaeology Review. 44 (2): 64–69.
Retrieved 14 March 2018. This seal impression of Isaiah, therefore, is
unique, and questions still remain about what it actually says.
However, the close relationship between
Isaiah and King Hezekiah, as
described in the Bible, and the fact the bulla was found next to one
bearing the name of
Hezekiah seem to leave open the possibility that,
despite the difficulties presented by the bulla’s damaged area, this
may have been a seal impression of
Isaiah the prophet, adviser to King
Hezekiah. Check date values in: date= (help)
^ "2018 February". www.rollstonepigraphy.com. Retrieved
^ Na'aman, Nadav. Ancient Israel and Its Neighbors, Eisenbrauns, 2005,
^ a b c d e Finkelstein, Israel and Amihai Mazar. The Quest for the
Historical Israel: Debating Archaeology and the History of Early
Israel. Leiden: Brill, 2007
^ Dever, William G. (2005) Did God Have a Wife?: Archaeology and Folk
Religion in Ancient Israel (Eerdmans), pp. 174, 175.
^ a b "Hezekiah." The Family Bible Encyclopedia. 1972. Print.
^ James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Related to the
Old Testament (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1965)
^ Grayson 1991, p. 110.
^ Grabbe 2003, p. 314.
^ Grabbe 2003, p. 308-309.
^ Zondervan Handbook to the Bible. Grand Rapids: Lion Publishing,
Isaiah 1–39: With an Introduction to Prophetic Literature By
Marvin Alan Sweeney Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1996 pg 476
^ a b c Harris, Stephen L. Understanding the Bible. 8th ed. New York:
^ Edwin R. Thiele,
The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (3rd
ed.; Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983) pp. 134, 217.
^ Leslie McFall, "A Translation Guide to the Chronological Data in
Kings and Chronicles," Bibliotheca Sacra 148 (1991) p. 33. (Link)
^ William J. Murnane, Ancient Egyptian Coregencies (Chicago: The
Oriental Institute, 1977).
^ J. D. Douglas, ed., New Bible Dictionary (Grand Rapids, MI:
Eerdmans, 1965) p. 1160.
^ Nadav Na'aman, "Historical and Chronological Notes on the Kingdoms
of Israel and Judah in the Eighth Century BC"
Vetus Testamentum 36
(1986) p. 91.
^ See Kitchen's chronology in New Bible Dictionary p. 220.
^ Leslie McFall, "Translation Guide" p.42.
^ Jack Finegan, Handbook of Biblical Chronology (rev. ed.; Peabody MA:
Hendrickson, 1998) p. 246.
^ Leslie McFall, "Translation Guide" pp. 4–45 (Link).
^ Thiele, Mysterious Numbers chapter 3, "Coregencies and Rival
^ Jack Finegan, Handbook of Biblical Chronology p. 246.
Grena, G.M. (2004). LMLK—A Mystery Belonging to the King vol. 1.
Redondo Beach, California: 4000 Years of Writing History.
Austin, Lynn. Gods And Kings. ISBN 0-7642-2989-3. a
fictionalized account of Hezekiah's rise to power, Book 1 in Austin's
"Chronicles of the Kings" series
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hezekiah.
"Hezekiah." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Hezekiah See all Bible verses pertaining to King Hezekiah
The Reign Of
Hezekiah by John F. Brug
Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Ezechias". Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
Sennacherib's Invasion of Hezekiah's Judah in 701 BC – by Craig C.
Interactive Map of Sennacherib's Invasion of Hezekiah's Judah,
including the accounts of Sennacherib, Herodotus, 2 Kings,
Hezekiah of Judah
House of David
King of Judah
Coregent: 729–716 BC
Sole reign: 716–697 BC
Coregent: 697–687 BC
Rulers of Israel and Judah
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The Twelve Spies
Antigonus II Mattathias
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Bar Kokhba revolt
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List of Jewish leaders in the Land of Israel
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