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Heidelberg
Heidelberg
(German pronunciation: [ˈhaɪdl̩bɛʁk] ( listen)) is a college town in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
situated on the river Neckar
Neckar
in south-west Germany. At the 2015 census, its population was 156,257, with roughly a quarter of its population being students.[2] Located about 78 km (48 mi) south of Frankfurt, Heidelberg is the fifth-largest city in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is part of the densely populated Rhine- Neckar
Neckar
Metropolitan Region. Founded in 1386, Heidelberg University
Heidelberg University
is Germany's oldest and one of Europe's most reputable universities.[3] A scientific hub in Germany, the city of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is home to several internationally renowned research facilities adjacent to its university, including four Max Planck Institutes.[4] A former residence of the Electorate of the Palatinate, Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is a popular tourist destination due to its romantic cityscape, including Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Castle, the Philosophers' Walk, and the baroque style Old Town.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Flora and fauna 1.2 Administrative structures 1.3 Neighbouring communes 1.4 Climate

2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 Modern history 2.4 1803 to 1933 2.5 Nazism and the World War II-period 2.6 History after 1945

3 Population 4 Politics 5 Cityscape

5.1 The old town 5.2 Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Castle 5.3 Philosophers' Walk 5.4 Heidelberg
Heidelberg
churches

6 Education

6.1 Universities and academia 6.2 Research 6.3 Schools

7 Economy

7.1 Tourism 7.2 Industry 7.3 Roads

7.3.1 Tourist roads

7.4 Railways 7.5 Public transport 7.6 United States
United States
military installations

8 Culture

8.1 Events 8.2 Cinemas 8.3 Museums and exhibitions 8.4 Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Romanticism 8.5 Old Heidelberg 8.6 I Lost My Heart in Heidelberg

9 Sport 10 International relations

10.1 Twin towns – sister cities

11 In popular culture 12 Notable inhabitants 13 Notable people who died in Heidelberg 14 Gallery 15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links

Geography[edit]

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
with suburbs

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is in the Rhine
Rhine
Rift Valley, on the left bank of the lower part of the Neckar
Neckar
in a steep valley in the Odenwald. It is bordered by the Königsstuhl (568 m) and the Gaisberg (375 m) mountains. The Neckar
Neckar
here flows in an east-west direction. On the right bank of the river, the Heiligenberg mountain rises to a height of 445 meters. The Neckar
Neckar
flows into the Rhine
Rhine
approximately 22 kilometres north-west in Mannheim. Villages incorporated during the 20th century stretch from the Neckar
Neckar
Valley along the Bergstraße, a road running along the Odenwald
Odenwald
hills. Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is on European walking route E1
European walking route E1
(Sweden-Umbria).

The districts of Heidelberg

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
seen from Königstuhl

Flora and fauna[edit] Since Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is among the warmest regions of Germany, plants atypical of the central-European climate flourish there, including almond and fig trees; there is also an olive tree in Gaisbergstraße. Alongside the Philosophenweg (Philosophers' Walk) on the opposite side of the Old Town, winegrowing was restarted in 2000.[5] There is a wild population of African rose-ringed parakeets,[6] and a wild population of Siberian swan geese, which can be seen mainly on the islands in the Neckar
Neckar
near the district of Bergheim. Administrative structures[edit]

The Old Town

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is a unitary authority within the Regierungsbezirk Karlsruhe. The Rhein-Neckar-Kreis
Rhein-Neckar-Kreis
rural district surrounds it and has its seat in the town, although the town is not a part of the district. Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is a part of the Rhine- Neckar
Neckar
Metropolitan Region, often referred to as the Rhein- Neckar
Neckar
Triangle. This region consists of the southern part of the State of Hessen, the southern part of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
(Vorderpfalz), the administrative districts of Mannheim
Mannheim
and Heidelberg, and the southern municipalities of the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis. The Rhein- Neckar
Neckar
Triangle became a European metropolitan area in 2005. Heidelberg
Heidelberg
consists of 15 districts distributed in six sectors of the town. In the central area are Altstadt (the Old Town), Bergheim and Weststadt; in the north, Neuenheim and Handschuhsheim; in the east, Ziegelhausen and Schlierbach; in the south, Südstadt, Rohrbach, Emmertsgrund, and Boxberg; in the southwest, Kirchheim; in the west, Pfaffengrund, Wieblingen, and a new district, named Bahnstadt, is built on land in Weststadt and Wieblingen. The new district will have approximately 5,000–6,000 residents and employment for 7,000. Neighbouring communes[edit] The following towns and communes border the city of Heidelberg, beginning in the west and in a clockwise direction: Edingen-Neckarhausen, Dossenheim, Schriesheim, Wilhelmsfeld, Schönau, Neckargemünd, Bammental, Gaiberg, Leimen, Sandhausen, Oftersheim, Plankstadt, Eppelheim
Eppelheim
(all part of the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis) and Mannheim. Climate[edit] Heidelberg
Heidelberg
has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb), defined by the protected valley between the Pfälzerwald and the Odenwald. Year-round, the mild temperatures are determined by maritime air masses coming from the west. In contrast to the nearby Upper Rhine Plain, Heidelberg's position in the valley leads to more frequent easterly winds than average. The hillsides of the Odenwald
Odenwald
favour clouding and precipitation. The warmest month is July, the coldest is January. Temperatures often rise beyond 30 °C (86 °F) in midsummer. According to the German Meteorological Service, Heidelberg was the warmest place in Germany
Germany
in 2009.[7][8][9]

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
panorama.

This panorama from the Theodor-Heuss-Brücke shows the Neckar
Neckar
running through Heidelberg. On the left is Neuenheim, with its Neckarwiesen ( Neckar
Neckar
meadows); on the right is the Altstadt.

Climate data for Heidelberg

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 3.8 (38.8) 6.1 (43.0) 10.9 (51.6) 15.4 (59.7) 19.9 (67.8) 23 (73.4) 25.5 (77.9) 25.1 (77.2) 21.5 (70.7) 15.3 (59.5) 8.5 (47.3) 4.8 (40.6) 15 (59.0)

Daily mean °C (°F) 2.4 (36.3) 3.7 (38.7) 7.4 (45.3) 11.2 (52.2) 15.5 (59.9) 18.1 (64.6) 20.6 (69.1) 20.1 (68.2) 16.1 (61) 11.5 (52.7) 6.3 (43.3) 3.3 (37.9) 11.4 (52.5)

Average low °C (°F) −1.4 (29.5) −0.7 (30.7) 1.9 (35.4) 4.9 (40.8) 8.9 (48.0) 12.2 (54.0) 14 (57.2) 13.8 (56.8) 10.6 (51.1) 6.7 (44.1) 2.4 (36.3) −0.4 (31.3) 6.1 (42.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 56 (2.2) 53 (2.1) 53 (2.1) 61 (2.4) 79 (3.1) 86 (3.4) 71 (2.8) 66 (2.6) 53 (2.1) 58 (2.3) 66 (2.6) 66 (2.6) 770 (30.3)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 46 78 118 173 206 215 233 219 157 101 50 35 1,631

Source #1: Intellicast[10]

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst[11]

History[edit]

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
on the Neckar
Neckar
at night

Karlsplatz and Neckar
Neckar
with Old Bridge

Early history[edit] Between 600,000 and 200,000 years ago[citation needed], "Heidelberg Man" died at nearby Mauer. His jaw bone was discovered in 1907. Scientific dating determined his remains as the earliest evidence of human life in Europe. In the 5th century BC, a Celtic fortress of refuge and place of worship were built on the Heiligenberg, or "Mountain of Saints". Both places can still be identified. In 40 AD, a fort was built and occupied by the 24th Roman cohort and the 2nd Cyrenaican
Cyrenaican
cohort (CCG XXIIII and CCH II CYR). The Romans built and maintained castra (permanent camps) and a signal tower on the bank of the Neckar. They built a wooden bridge based on stone pillars across it. The camp protected the first civilian settlements that developed. The Romans remained until 260 AD, when the camp was conquered by Germanic tribes. The local administrative center in Roman times was the nearby city of Lopodunum. Middle Ages[edit] Modern Heidelberg
Heidelberg
can trace its beginnings to the fifth century. The village Bergheim ("Mountain Home") is first mentioned for that period in documents dated to 769 AD. Bergheim now lies in the middle of modern Heidelberg. The people gradually converted to Christianity. In 863 AD, the monastery of St. Michael
St. Michael
was founded on the Heiligenberg inside the double rampart of the Celtic fortress. Around 1130, the Neuburg Monastery
Monastery
was founded in the Neckar
Neckar
valley. At the same time, the bishopric of Worms extended its influence into the valley, founding Schönau Abbey
Schönau Abbey
in 1142. Modern Heidelberg
Heidelberg
can trace its roots to this 12th-century monastery. The first reference to Heidelberg
Heidelberg
can be found in a document in Schönau Abbey
Schönau Abbey
dated to 1196. This is considered to be the town's founding date. In 1155, Heidelberg
Heidelberg
castle and its neighboring settlement were taken over by the house of Hohenstaufen. Conrad of Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
became Count Palatine of the Rhine
Rhine
(German: Pfalzgraf bei Rhein). In 1195, the Electorate of the Palatinate passed to the House of Welf
House of Welf
through marriage.

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Castle, here shown in a painting by Carl Blechen, was destroyed by the French during the war of succession of the Electorate of the Palatinate

View of castle from the Corn Market

In 1214, Ludwig I, Duke of Bavaria acquired the Palatinate, as a consequence of which the castle came under his control. By 1303, another castle had been constructed for defense. In 1356, the Counts Palatine were granted far-reaching rights in the Golden Bull, in addition to becoming Electors. In 1386, Heidelberg University
Heidelberg University
was founded by Rupert I, Elector Palatine. Modern history[edit] Heidelberg University
Heidelberg University
played a leading part in the era of humanism and the Reformation, and the conflict between Lutheranism
Lutheranism
and Calvinism, in the 15th and 16th centuries. Heidelberg's library, founded in 1421, is the oldest existing public library in Germany. In April 1518, a few months after proclaiming his 95 Theses, Martin Luther
Martin Luther
was received in Heidelberg, to defend them. In 1537, the castle located higher up the mountain was destroyed by a gunpowder explosion. The duke's palace was built at the site of the lower castle.

The siege of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
1622

Elector Frederick III, sovereign of the Electoral Palatinate
Electoral Palatinate
from 1559 to 1576, commissioned the composition of a new Catechism for his territory. While the catechism's introduction credits the "entire theological faculty here" (at the University of Heidelberg) and "all the superintendents and prominent servants of the church" for the composition of the catechism, Zacharius Ursinus is commonly regarded as the catechism's principal author. Caspar Olevianus
Caspar Olevianus
(1536–1587) was formerly asserted as a co-author of the document, though this theory has been largely discarded by modern scholarship. Johann Sylvan, Adam Neuser, Johannes Willing, Thomas Erastus, Michael Diller, Johannes Brunner, Tilemann Mumius, Petrus Macheropoeus, Johannes Eisenmenger, Immanuel Tremellius
Immanuel Tremellius
and Pierre Boquin
Pierre Boquin
are all likely to have contributed to the Catechism in some way. Frederick himself wrote the preface to the Catechism and closely oversaw its composition and publication. Frederick, who was officially Lutheran
Lutheran
but had strong Reformed leanings, wanted to even out the religious situation of his highly Lutheran
Lutheran
territory within the primarily Catholic Holy Roman Empire. The Council of Trent
Council of Trent
had just concluded with its conclusions and decrees against the Protestant faiths, and the Peace of Augsburg had only granted toleration for Lutheranism
Lutheranism
within the empire where the ruler was Lutheran. One of the aims of the catechism was to counteract the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
as well as Anabaptists and "strict" Gnesio-Lutherans
Gnesio-Lutherans
like Tilemann Heshusius
Tilemann Heshusius
and Matthias Flacius, who were resisting Frederick's Reformed influences, particularly on the matter of Eucharist (the Lord's Supper). The Catechism-based each of its statements on biblical proof-texts, and Frederick himself would defend it as biblical, not reformed, at the 1566 Diet of Augsburg
Augsburg
when he was called to answer to charges of violating the Peace of Augsburg. This was the Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Catechism, officially called the ″Catechism, or Christian Instruction, according to the Usages of the Churches and Schools of the Electoral Palatinate.″

Karlstor

Main street Heidelberg

In November 1619, the royal crown of Bohemia was offered to the Elector, Frederick V. (He was married to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of James VI and I
James VI and I
of Scotland and England, respectively.) Frederick became known as the "Winter King", as he reigned for only one winter before the Imperial House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
regained the crown by force. His overthrow in 1621 marked the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. In 1622, after a siege of two months, the armies of the Catholic League, commanded by Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, captured the town. Tilly gave the famous Bibliotheca Palatina
Bibliotheca Palatina
from the Church of the Holy Spirit to the Pope as a present. The Catholic Bavarian branch of the House of Wittelsbach gained control over the Palatinate and the title of Prince-Elector. In 1648, at the end of the war, Frederick V's son Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine, was able to recover his titles and lands. In late 1634 Imperialist forces attempted to take back the city, as the Swedish army had conquered it. They quickly took the city, but were unable to take the castle. As they prepared to blow up its fortifications with gunpowder the French army arrived, 30,000 men strong, led by Urbain de Maillé-Brézé, who had fought in many battles and participated in the Siege of La Rochelle
Siege of La Rochelle
(1627–1628), and Jacques-Nompar de Caumont, duc de La Force. They ended the siege and drove off the Catholic forces.[12]

Hotel zum Ritter St. Georg.

To strengthen his dynasty, Charles I Louis arranged the marriage of his daughter Liselotte to Philip I, Duke of Orléans, brother of Louis XIV, king of France. In 1685, after the death of Charles Louis' son, Elector Charles II, Louis XIV laid claim to his sister-in-law's inheritance. The Germans rejected the claim, in part because of religious differences between local Protestants and the French Catholics, as the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
had divided the peoples of Europe. The War of the Grand Alliance
War of the Grand Alliance
ensued. In 1689, French troops took the town and castle, bringing nearly total destruction to the area in 1693. As a result of the destruction due to repeated French invasions related to the War of the Palatinate Succession
War of the Palatinate Succession
coupled with severe winters, thousands of Protestant German Palatines emigrated from the lower Palatinate in the early 18th century. They fled to other European cities and especially to London
London
(where the refugees were called "the poor Palatines"). In sympathy for the Protestants, in 1709–1710, Queen Anne's government arranged transport for nearly 6,000 Palatines to New York. Others were transported to Pennsylvania, and to South Carolina. They worked their passage and later settled in the English colonies there. In 1720, after assigning a major church for exclusively Catholic use, religious conflicts with the mostly Protestant inhabitants of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
caused the Roman Catholic Prince-Elector Charles III Philip to transfer his residence to nearby Mannheim. The court remained there until the Elector Charles Theodore became Elector of Bavaria in 1777 and established his court in Munich. In 1742, Elector Charles Theodore began rebuilding the Palace. In 1764, a lightning bolt destroyed other palace buildings during reconstruction, causing the work to be discontinued. 1803 to 1933[edit] Heidelberg
Heidelberg
fell to the Grand Duchy of Baden
Grand Duchy of Baden
in 1803. Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden, re-founded the university, named "Ruperto-Carola" after its two founders. Notable scholars soon earned it a reputation as a "royal residence of the intellect". In the 18th century, the town was rebuilt in the Baroque
Baroque
style on the old medieval layout. In 1810, the French revolution
French revolution
refugee Count Charles Graimberg began to preserve the palace ruins and establish a historical collection. In 1815, the Emperor of Austria, the Emperor of Russia
Russia
and the King of Prussia
Prussia
formed the "Holy Alliance" in Heidelberg. In 1848, the German National Assembly was held there. In 1849, during the Palatinate-Baden rebellion of the 1848 Revolutions, Heidelberg
Heidelberg
was the headquarters of a revolutionary army. It was defeated by a Prussian army near Waghaeusel. The city was occupied by Prussian troops until 1850. Between 1920 and 1933, Heidelberg University
Heidelberg University
became a center of notable physicians Czerny, Erb, and Krehl; and humanists Rohde, Weber, and Gandolf. Nazism and the World War II-period[edit]

Old Bridge, Konrad Linck, 1788

Old Bridge Gate

During the Nazi period (1933–1945), Heidelberg
Heidelberg
was a stronghold of the NSDAP, (the National Socialist German Workers' Party) the strongest party in the elections before 1933 (the NSDAP
NSDAP
obtained 30% at the communal elections of 1930[13]). The NSDAP
NSDAP
received 45.9% of the votes in the German federal election of March 1933 (the national average was 43.9%).[14] Non-Aryan university staff were discriminated against. By 1939, one-third of the university's teaching staff had been forced out for racial and political reasons. The non-Aryan professors were ejected in 1933, within one month of Hitler's rise to power. The lists of those to be deported were prepared beforehand.[vague][citation needed] In 1934 and 1935, the Reichsarbeitsdienst (State Labor Service) and Heidelberg University
Heidelberg University
students built the huge Thingstätte amphitheatre on the Heiligenberg north of the town, for Nazi Party
Nazi Party
and SS events. A few months later, the inauguration of the huge Ehrenfriedhof memorial cemetery completed the second and last NSDAP project in Heidelberg. This cemetery is on the southern side of the old part of town, a little south of the Königstuhl hilltop, and faces west towards France. During World War II
World War II
and after, Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
soldiers were buried there.

Memorial stone marking the site of the synagogue in the Lauerstrasse

During the Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
on November 9, 1938, Nazis burned down synagogues at two locations in the city. The next day, they started the systematic deportation of Jews, sending 150 to Dachau concentration camp. On October 22, 1940, during the "Wagner Buerckel event", the Nazis deported 6000 local Jews, including 281 from Heidelberg, to Camp Gurs
Camp Gurs
concentration camp in France. Within a few months, as many as 1000 of them (201 from Heidelberg) died of hunger and disease.[15] Among the deportees from Heidelberg, the poet Alfred Mombert (1872–1942) left the camp in April 1941 thanks to the Swiss poet Hans Reinhart.[16] From 1942, the deportees who had survived internment in Gurs were deported to Eastern Europe, where most of them were murdered. On March 29, 1945, German troops left the city after destroying three arches of the old bridge, Heidelberg's treasured river crossing. They also destroyed the more modern bridge downstream. The U.S. Army
U.S. Army
(63rd Infantry, 7th Army) entered the town on March 30, 1945. The civilian population surrendered without resistance.[17] A popular belief is that Heidelberg
Heidelberg
escaped bombing in World War II because the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
wanted to use the city as a garrison after the war. As Heidelberg
Heidelberg
was neither an industrial center nor a transport hub, it did not present a target of opportunity. Other notable university towns, such as Tübingen
Tübingen
and Göttingen, were spared bombing as well. Allied air raids focused extensively on the nearby industrial cities of Mannheim
Mannheim
and Ludwigshafen.

US Army 289th Engineer Combat Battalion ferrying troops and vehicles over the Neckar
Neckar
at Heidelberg.

The U.S. Army
U.S. Army
may have chosen Heidelberg
Heidelberg
as a garrison base because of its excellent infrastructure, including the Heidelberg-Mannheim Autobahn
Autobahn
(motorway), which connected to the Mannheim-Darmstadt- Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Autobahn, and the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
installations in Mannheim
Mannheim
and Frankfurt. The intact rail infrastructure was more important in the late 1940s and early 1950s when most heavy loads were still carried by train, not by lorry. Heidelberg
Heidelberg
had the untouched Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
barracks, the "Grossdeutschland Kaserne" which the US Army occupied soon after, renaming it the Campbell Barracks. History after 1945[edit] In 1945, the university was reopened relatively quickly on the initiative of a small group of professors, among whom were the anti-Nazi economist Alfred Weber
Alfred Weber
and the philosopher Karl Jaspers.[18] The surgeon Karl Heinrich Bauer was nominated rector. On December 9, 1945, US Army General George S. Patton
George S. Patton
had a car accident in the adjacent city of Mannheim
Mannheim
and died in the Heidelberg US Army hospital on December 21, 1945. The funeral ceremony was held at the Heidelberg-Weststadt Christuskirche (Christ Church), and he was buried in the 3rd Army cemetery in Luxembourg.[19] During the post-war military occupation, the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
used the Thingsstätte for cultural and religious events. Civilian use started in the early to mid-1980s for occasional concerts and other cultural events. Today, the celebrations on Hexennacht ("Witches' Night"), also called Walpurgis Night), the night of April 30, are a regular "underground" fixture at the Thingstätte. Thousands of mostly young people congregate there to drum, to breathe fire, and to juggle. The event has gained fame throughout the region, as well as a certain notoriety due to the amount of litter left behind. Population[edit]

Population growth

The population of the city of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
exceeded 100,000 for the first time in 1946. It is a city with an international population, including one of the largest American communities outside North America, but this is not analysed in the Heidelberg
Heidelberg
population statistics. At the end of December 2011, the city had 149,633 inhabitants with an official primary residence in Heidelberg
Heidelberg
(not including the soldiers and employees of the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
and their dependents, a total of about 20,000 people), a historic high.[20] The following table shows the number of inhabitants within the boundaries of the city at the time. To 1833 they are mostly estimates, then census results or official updates of the statistical offices of the time or the city administration. The data refer from 1843 to the "local population", from 1925 to the resident population and since 1987 the "population at the site of their main dwelling." Prior to 1843 the population was determined by non-uniform collection procedures.

Year Population

1439 5,200

1588 6,300

1717 4,800

1784 10,754

1810 10,312

1812 9,826

1830 13,345

3 December 1852 ¹ 14,564

3 December 1858 ¹ 15,600

3 December 1861 ¹ 16,300

3 December 1864 ¹ 17,666

3 December 1867 ¹ 18,300

1 December 1871 ¹ 19,983

1 December 1875 ¹ 22,334

Year Population

1 December 1880 ¹ 24,417

1 December 1885 ¹ 26,900

1 December 1890 ¹ 31,739

2 December 1895 ¹ 35,190

1 December 1900 ¹ 40,121

11 December 1905 ¹ 49,527

1 December 1910 ¹ 56,016

1 December 1916 ¹ 47,554

5 December 1917 ¹ 47,483

8 October 1919 ¹ 60,831

16 June 1925 ¹ 73,034

16 June 1933 ¹ 84,641

17 May 1939 ¹ 86,467

31 December 1945 95,811

Year Population

29 October 1946 ¹ 111,488

13 September 1950 ¹ 116,488

25 September 1956 ¹ 121,910

6 June 1961 ¹ 125,264

31 December 1965 125,507

27 May 1970 ¹ 129,656

31 December 1975 129,368

31 December 1980 133,227

31 December 1985 134,724

25 May 1987 ¹ 127,768

31 December 1990 136,796

31 December 1995 138,781

31 December 2000 140,259

31 December 2005 142,933

Year Population

31 December 2010 147,312

31 December 2011 149,633

31 December 2012 150,335

31 December 2014 154,715

¹ Census results With a fertility rate of 1.1 children per woman in the Stadtkreis (county), Heidelberg
Heidelberg
had the lowest fertility rate in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
in 2008. Politics[edit]

Election 2004[21] 2009 2014[22]

Party Votes Seats Votes Seats Votes Seats

CDU 25.9% 11 20.1% 9 20.81% 10

SPD 21.6% 9 16.8% 7 17.26% 8

Greens – – 15.1% 6 19.67% 10

Green Alternative List 21.4% 9 10.2% 4 4.37% 2

FDP 6.8% 3 9.1% 4 4.36% 2

Heidelberger 10.6% 4 8.6% 3 8.10% 4

generation.hd 3.2% 1 5.8% 2 5.05% 2

FWV 4.5% 2 5.8% 2 3.34% 2

Bunte Linke 3.1% 1 5.4% 2 3.75% 2

HD P. u. E. – – 3.1% 1 2.72% 1

The Left – – – – 4.08% 2

AfD – – – – 3.84% 2

Pirates – – – – 2.64% 1

Others 2.8% 0 0% 0 0% 0

Turnout 50.5% 48.8% 51.29%

Since 2006, the Oberbürgermeister (lord mayor) of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
has been the independent Eckart Würzner. From 1990 to 2006, the mayor was Beate Weber (SPD). The council consists of 40 volunteer members with the mayor as chairman. The council is directly elected for a term of five years. The task of the council is to decide with the mayor presiding all the affairs of the city. The council controls the city administration and oversees the enforcement of its decisions. Heidelberg
Heidelberg
has always been a stronghold of the Greens. For the municipal elections in 2009, they split into the Green Alternative List and Alliance 90/The Greens and each ran their own lists. Together they gained 10 seats to become the strongest force for the first time. After the election, the deputies of the Alliance 90/The Greens formed a coalition with generation.HD. In September 2011 two members of the GAL Group joined the Alliance 90/The Greens, so now with generation.HD, they form the largest group in the council. Cityscape[edit] The old town[edit]

The marketplace, with Town Hall on the right

Heidelberg's old city centre from the castle above

Heidelberg Castle
Heidelberg Castle
with the Old Bridge in foreground, 2010

View from the castle during winter, 2014

The "old town" (German: Altstadt), on the south bank of the Neckar, is long and narrow. It is dominated by the ruins of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Castle, 80 metres above the Neckar
Neckar
on the steep wooded slopes of the Königstuhl (King's chair or throne) hill.

The Main Street (Hauptstrasse), a mile-long pedestrian street, running the length of the old town. The old stone bridge was erected 1786–1788. A medieval bridge gate is on the side of the old town, and was originally part of the town wall. Baroque
Baroque
tower helmets were added as part of the erection of the stone bridge in 1788. The Church of the Holy Spirit (Heiliggeistkirche), a late Gothic church in the marketplace of the old town. The Karls‘ gate (Karlstor) is a triumphal arch in honour of the Prince Elector Karl Theodor, located at Heidelberg's east side. It was built 1775–1781 and designed by Nicolas de Pigage. The house Zum Ritter Sankt Georg (Knight St. George) is one of the few buildings to survive the War of Succession. Standing across from the Church of the Holy Spirit, it was built in the style of the late Renaissance. It is named after the sculpture at the top. The Marstall (Stables), a 16th-century building on the Neckar
Neckar
that has served several purposes through its history. It is now a cafeteria for the university.

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Castle[edit] Main article: Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Castle

Historic map of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Castle

Heidelberg Castle
Heidelberg Castle
at night

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Fortress

Monastery
Monastery
of St. Michael

Statue of Bishop in Altstadt

The castle is a mix of styles from Gothic to Renaissance. Prince Elector Ruprecht III (1398–1410) erected the first building in the inner courtyard as a royal residence. The building was divided into a ground floor made of stone and framework upper levels. Another royal building is located opposite the Ruprecht Building: the Fountain Hall. Prince Elector Philipp (1476–1508) is said to have arranged the transfer of the hall's columns from a decayed palace of Charlemagne from Ingelheim
Ingelheim
to Heidelberg. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Prince Electors added two palace buildings and turned the fortress into a castle. The two dominant buildings at the eastern and northern side of the courtyard were erected during the rule of Ottheinrich (1556–1559) and Friedrich IV (1583–1610). Under Friedrich V (1613–1619), the main building of the west side was erected, the so-called "English Building". The castle and its garden were destroyed several times during the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
and the Palatine War of Succession. As Prince Elector Karl Theodor tried to restore the castle, lightning struck in 1764, and ended all attempts at rebuilding. Later on, the castle was misused as a quarry; stones from the castle were taken to build new houses in Heidelberg. This was stopped in 1800 by Count Charles de Graimberg, who then began the process of preserving the castle. Although the interior is in Gothic style, the King's Hall was not built until 1934. Today, the hall is used for festivities, e.g. dinner banquets, balls and theatre performances. During the Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Castle Festival in the summer, the courtyard is the site of open air musicals, operas, theatre performances, and classical concerts performed by the Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Philharmonics. The castle is surrounded by a park, where the famous poet Johann von Goethe once walked. The Heidelberger Bergbahn
Heidelberger Bergbahn
funicular railway runs from Kornmakt to the summit of the Königstuhl via the castle. Philosophers' Walk[edit] On the northern side of the Neckar
Neckar
is located the Heiligenberg (Saints' Mountain), along the side of which runs the Philosophers' Walk (German: Philosophenweg), with scenic views of the old town and castle. Traditionally, Heidelberg's philosophers and university professors would walk and talk along the pathway. Farther up the mountain lie the ruined 11th-century Monastery
Monastery
of St. Michael, the smaller Monastery
Monastery
of St. Stephen, a Nazi-era amphitheater, the so-called Pagan's hole and the remains of an earthen Celtic hill fort from the 4th century BC.

View from the so-called "Philosophers' Walk" (German: Philosophenweg) towards the Old Town, with Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Castle, Heiliggeist Church and the Old Bridge

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
churches[edit] There are many historical churches in Heidelberg
Heidelberg
and its surroundings. The Church of the Holy Spirit has been shared over the centuries since the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
by both Catholics and Protestants. It is one of the few buildings to survive the many wars during the past centuries. It was rebuilt after the French set fire to it in 1709 during the War of the Palatinian Succession. The church has remains of the tombs and epitaphs of the past Palatinate electors. This Church stands in the Marktplatz next to the seat of local government. In 1720, Karl III Philip, Elector Palatine
Karl III Philip, Elector Palatine
came into conflict with the town's Protestants as a result of giving the Church of the Holy Spirit exclusively to the Catholics for their use. It had previously been split by a partition and used by both congregations. Due to pressure by the mostly Protestant powers of Prussia, Holland, and Sweden, Prince Karl III Philip gave way and repartitioned the church for joint use. In 1936 the separating wall was removed. The church is now exclusively used by Protestants. Furthermore, there is the Catholic Church of the Jesuits. Its construction began in 1712. It was completed with the addition of a bell tower from 1866–1872. The church is also home to the Museum für sakrale Kunst und Liturgie (Museum of Ecclesiastical
Ecclesiastical
Arts). The oldest church in Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is the St. Peter's Church (now Lutheran). It was built some time during the 12th century.

Church of the Holy Spirit tower and old bridge monument

The Church of the Jesuits

St. Peter's Church

St. Bonifatius Church

Education[edit] Universities and academia[edit] Main articles: Heidelberg University
Heidelberg University
and List of University of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
people

Old university hall

The university library

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is known for its institutions of higher education. The most famous of those is Heidelberg
Heidelberg
University. Founded in 1386, it is one of Europe's oldest institutions. In fact, Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is the oldest university town of today's Germany. Among the prominent thinkers associated with the institution are Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Karl Jaspers, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Jürgen Habermas, Karl-Otto Apel and Hannah Arendt. The campus is situated in two urban areas and several buildings. In numerous historical buildings in the old town there are the Faculties of the Humanities, the Social Science
Science
and the Faculty of Law. The school of applied sciences is located in the Science
Science
Tower in Wieblingen. The Faculties of Medicine and Natural Science
Science
are settled on the Neuenheimer Feld Campus. Since 1904 there has been a College of Educational Science, the Pädagogische Hochschule Heidelberg; since 1979 there has been a college of Jewish Studies, the Hochschule für Jüdische Studien Heidelberg. It comprises nine branches specializing on both religion and Jewish culture. The Schiller International University, a private American university is also represented with a campus in Heidelberg offering several undergraduate and graduate programs in the fields of International Business and International Relations and Diplomacy. Research[edit]

Buildings of European Molecular Biology Laboratory
European Molecular Biology Laboratory
in Heidelberg, including the new Advanced Training Centre

Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory

In addition to the research centers and institutes of the university, there are numerous research institutions situated in the city of Heidelberg. Among them are the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO), the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law. Schools[edit]

SRH Hochschule Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is one of the oldest and largest private universities in Germany

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is home to 23 elementary schools. There are several institutions of secondary education, both public and private, representing all levels of the German school system. There are 14 Gymnasiums, with six of them private. With 52% of secondary students attending a Gymnasium, Heidelberg
Heidelberg
sits above the German average, perhaps because a large number of academics live in Heidelberg
Heidelberg
and its environs. They include the Kurfürst-Friedrich-Gymnasium (German), Bunsen-Gymnasium (German), the Helmholtz-Gymnasium (German Wikipedia), the Hölderlin-Gymnasium and the Elisabeth-von-Thadden-Schule. Then there are seven Realschule, ten Hauptschule
Hauptschule
and nine vocational schools (the so-called Berufsschule). In addition, there are several folk high schools with different specialisations.[23] Heidelberg International School serves the local expatriate community. Economy[edit] Tourism[edit] In 2004, 81.8% of people worked for service industries, including tourism. As a relic of the period of Romanticism, Heidelberg
Heidelberg
has been labeled a "Romantic town". This is used to attract more than 3.5 million visitors every year. Many events are organized to attract visitors. Industry[edit] Only 18% of employment is provided by industry. Printing and publishing are important enterprises; nearby Walldorf
Walldorf
is a center of the IT industry and SAP World Headquarters. Noted pen manufacturer Lamy
Lamy
has its headquarters and factory in Heidelberg-Wieblingen. Heidelberger Druckmaschinen
Heidelberger Druckmaschinen
has its headquarters here; its factory is located in Walldorf. Soft-drink company Wild-Werke, manufacturer of the Capri-Sonne
Capri-Sonne
( Capri-Sun
Capri-Sun
in the U.S.) is located nearby in Eppelheim. Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is also home to the headquarters of HeidelbergCement, the world's second largest cement producer. The Company has its roots in the suburb of Leimen where one of its cement plants is still located. With its long Hauptstrasse, Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is a shopping destination for people from the surrounding smaller towns.

Print Media Academy

Roads[edit] The A 5 autobahn runs through the western outskirts of Heidelberg, connecting the region to Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main in the north and Karlsruhe to the south. The A 656 commences just west of the city, connecting Heidelberg
Heidelberg
with Mannheim. Both highways meet at Heidelberg
Heidelberg
autobahn intersection in the city of Heidelberg, and the A 656 connects to the A 6 at the Mannheim
Mannheim
autobahn intersection, which connects to the east towards Stuttgart. Furthermore, the B 3 (Frankfurt–Karlsruhe) runs north–south through the town, and the B 37 (Mannheim–Eberbach) runs east–west. Both meet in the city center at the Bismarckplatz. The B 535 begin in the south of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
and runs to Schwetzingen. Tourist roads[edit] Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is located on four tourist roads: Bergstraße, Bertha Benz Memorial Route, Castle Road, and Straße der Demokratie (Road of Democracy). Railways[edit] Heidelberg Central Station
Heidelberg Central Station
(Hauptbahnhof) is on the Rhine
Rhine
Valley Railway and is served by Intercity-Express, Euro City trains. This station is served by the Rhein Neckar
Neckar
S-Bahn. There is also a station for intercity bus services outside the central station.[24] Public transport[edit]

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
tramway network

Terminus of the funicular at Königstuhl

The main transport hub of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is the Bismarckplatz. Several main thoroughfares of the city intersect here and one of the longest pedestrian streets in Europe, the Hauptstraße (main street) runs from here through the entire old town of Heidelberg. Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Central Station was nearby for many years, which was a combined terminal and through station. In 1955, it was moved about 1.5 km further to the west, which removed the necessity for trains continuing to the south or from the south to the north to reverse. The new central station became the second major transport hub of Heidelberg. Heidelberg
Heidelberg
has had a public transport service since 1883, when horse-drawn trams were established. Due to the rapidly rising patronage it was decided on 20 December 1901 to convert the Heidelberg tramway network to electrical operation. On 16 March 1902, the first electric tram ran on Rohrbacher Straße, sharing use of the suburban tracks built by the Deutsche Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft in 1901 between Heidelberg
Heidelberg
and Wiesloch. Until the 1950s, the tram network was expanded a bit at a time. The rapidly growing popularity of car transport presented the operator of the trams with increasingly difficult problems and the tram network was gradually dismantled. It was not until 10 December 2006 that the network was extended again with the opening of a new tram line from Kirchheim. Tram and bus services are now operated by Rhein-Neckar-Verkehr (RNV). Since 1989, all fares are set under a uniform scheme by the Verkehrsverbund Rhein- Neckar
Neckar
(Rhine- Neckar
Neckar
Transport Association, VRN). Carsharing increasingly provides a complement to public transport. More than 50 car-sharing stations are available to users in 12 of the 14 districts of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
offering a total of more than 100 cars.

Line 24 tram in Rohrbach

Since 14 December 2003, Heidelberg
Heidelberg
has been connected to the network of the Rhine- Neckar
Neckar
S-Bahn, which opens up the entire Rhine-Neckar region, with lines connecting with the Palatinate, the Saarland
Saarland
and southern Hesse. The Heidelberger Bergbahn
Heidelberger Bergbahn
( Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Mountain Railway) has run since 2005 with new cars on the lower part from Kornmarkt to Molkenkur and historic cars built in 1907 on the upper section of the funicular from Molkenkur to Königstuhl. It is one of the most popular means to reach Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Castle. The first plans for the funicular were drawn up in 1873. Due to a lack of funds was the first section of the funicular was not opened until 1890. In 2004, the upper section of the funicular was listed as part of the heritage of the state of Baden-Württemberg. United States
United States
military installations[edit] See also: United States Army
United States Army
Garrison Heidelberg During World War II, Heidelberg
Heidelberg
was one of the few major cities in Germany
Germany
not significantly damaged by Allied bombing. Situated in the American Zone of Germany, Heidelberg
Heidelberg
became the headquarters of the American forces in Europe. Several military installations remain, including Campbell Barracks, the former Wehrmacht Grossdeutschland-Kaserne, where headquarters for several units are located. These include US Army, Europe (USAREUR) and NATO's Component Command-Land Headquarters. (Until 2004, this was designated Joint Headquarters Centre, and before that, LANDCENT).

Behördenzentrum Heidelberg

New city district of Heidelberg, Bahnstadt, is one of the biggest passive house settlements in the world

Campbell Barracks
Campbell Barracks
and Mark Twain Village
Mark Twain Village
are both in Südstadt; Patton Barracks is in nearby Kirchheim. Nachrichten Kaserne in Rohrbach is home to the former Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Army Hospital, now designated the Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Health Center. Patrick Henry Village, the largest U.S. military housing area in the Heidelberg
Heidelberg
area, is west of Kirchheim. These installations, including Tompkins Barracks and Kilbourne Kaserne in nearby Schwetzingen, plus the Germersheim Depot, used to make up the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
Garrison Heidelberg. Tompkins Barracks is home to U.S. Army Installation Management Command Europe Region. The Heidelberg U.S. Army
U.S. Army
Air Field ( Heidelberg
Heidelberg
AAF) was converted to an heliport (mostly Blackhawk Helicopters) after the NATO
NATO
Kosovo campaign. The children of United States Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
employees based in Heidelberg
Heidelberg
tend to attend on-base schools operated by the DODDS-E (Department of Defense Dependents Schools – Europe). There are three schools of this kind: Heidelberg High School in Mark Twain Village ( Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Elementary School closed at the completion of the 2010–2011 school year), and Heidelberg Middle School and Patrick Henry Elementary in Patrick Henry Village.[25] On October 19, 2009, the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
announced that it would be building new headquarters for USAREUR
USAREUR
in Wiesbaden. The move from Heidelberg took place in 2012 and 2013, with scheduled completion in 2014.[26] By 2015 all United States
United States
forces will have moved out of Heidelberg. The barracks and the housing areas will be handed over to the German state for conversion to civilian use. Culture[edit] Events[edit]

Theater & Orchester Heidelberg

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
with the Old Bridge illuminated

Throughout the year there are different regular festivals and events hosted and organized in Heidelberg. In February, the Ball der Vampire (Ball of the Vampires)[27] is arranged and Fasching, the equivalent of Mardis Gras or Carnival in some German regions, with a giant vampire-themed costume party at the local castle or city hall is celebrated. In March or April the Heidelberger Frühling (Heidelberg Spring), the Classic Music Festival and the international Easter egg market are conducted. During the last weekend of April there is an annually organized half marathon. In the summertime there are the Frühlingsmesse on the Messeplatz (May) and Illumination of the castle and bridge with lights and fireworks take place. In September, on the last Saturday the Old Town Autumn Festival is held.[28] It includes a Medieval Market, an arts and crafts market, a flea market, and music from Samba to Rock. During October or November there are the Heidelberger Theater Days and the Enjoy Jazz
Enjoy Jazz
festival. Every year in November the International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg
International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg
take place in the city, too. The festival presents arthouse films of international newcomer directors and is held jointly by both of the cities.[29] During Christmas there is a Christmas market throughout the oldest part of the city. A famous gift is the chocolate called Heidelberger Studentenkuss (student kiss). Cinemas[edit] The new modern multiplex "Luxor Filmpalast" in Bahnstadt is opened partly with six cinemas on 23 November 2017. Further halls and an open-air cinema hall should follow in 2018. Cinema show Blockbuster movies in German as well as in English language. New modern cinema has 450,000-liter aquarium, which is placed in the middle of the cinema and underground car parking with 180 parking spaces. [30]"The Karlstorkino" offers an arthouse program, rare classics and feature films. Here, most films are shown in original version. The Harmonie Lux has had a rather mainstream Hollywood program before its closing in 2014, whilst the small independent cinemas "Gloria & Gloriette". Museums and exhibitions[edit] Among the most prominent museums of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
are for instance the Carl Bosch
Carl Bosch
Museum which shows life and work of chemist and Nobel Prize-winner Carl Bosch. Then there is the Documentation and Culture Centre of German Sinti
Sinti
and Roma (Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sini und Roma) describing the Nazi genocide of the Sinti
Sinti
and Roma peoples. The German Packing Museum (Deutsches Verpackungsmuseum) gives an overview on the history of packing and wrapping goods whereas the German Pharmacy Museum (Deutsches Apothekenmuseum) which is located in the castle illustrates the story of Pharmacy in Germany. The Kurpfälzisches Museum
Kurpfälzisches Museum
(Palatinate Museum) offers a great art collection and some Roman archeological artifacts from the region. In the honour of Friedrich Ebert
Friedrich Ebert
one established the President Friedrich Ebert Memorial which remembers the life of Germany's first democratic head of state. Besides, there are guided tours in most of the historical monuments of Heidelberg, as well as organized tourist tours through the city available in several languages. Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Romanticism[edit]

Romantic view of Heidelberg Castle
Heidelberg Castle
ruins

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
was the centre of the epoch of Romantik (Romanticism) in Germany. The phase after Jena
Jena
Romanticism
Romanticism
is often called Heidelberg Romanticism
Romanticism
(see also Berlin
Berlin
Romanticism). There was a famous circle of poets (the Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Romantics), such as Joseph von Eichendorff, Johann Joseph von Görres, Ludwig Achim von Arnim, and Clemens Brentano. A relic of Romanticism
Romanticism
is the Philosophers' Walk (German: Philosophenweg), a scenic walking path on the nearby Heiligenberg, overlooking Heidelberg. The Romantik epoch of German philosophy and literature, was described as a movement against classical and realistic theories of literature, a contrast to the rationality of the Age of Enlightenment. It elevated medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived to be from the medieval period. It also emphasized folk art, nature and an epistemology based on nature, which included human activity conditioned by nature in the form of language, custom and usage. Old Heidelberg[edit] Further information: Alt Heidelberg
Heidelberg
(play) In 1901 Wilhelm Meyer-Förster wrote the play Old Heidelberg
Heidelberg
which was followed by a large number of film adaptations. It was the basis for Sigmund Romberg's 1924 operetta The Student Prince which was itself turned into a film of the same title. I Lost My Heart in Heidelberg[edit] Further information: I Lost My Heart in Heidelberg
Heidelberg
(song) The 1925 song "I Lost My Heart in Heidelberg" composed by Fred Raymond was a major hit and inspired a stage musical and two films. It remains the theme song of Heidelberg. Sport[edit] Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is one of the centres of Rugby union in Germany, along with Hanover. In 2008–09, four out of nine clubs in the Rugby-Bundesliga were from Heidelberg, these being RG Heidelberg, SC Neuenheim, Heidelberger RK
Heidelberger RK
and TSV Handschuhsheim. Heidelberger TV
Heidelberger TV
has a rugby department. Rugby League Deutschland has two teams based in Heidelberg, Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Sharks formed in 2005 and Rohrbach Hornets formed in 2007. The city is also home to the USC Heidelberg, which won 9 German Basketball Championships and remains the second most successful team in the history of German professional basketball. Today, the club plays in Germany's second division ProA. It is primarily known for its youth department which developed several members of Germany's senior national basketball team. Further, Germany's oldest tennis club, which was founded in the year 1890, is located in Heidelberg. International relations[edit] Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is twinned (städtepartnerschaft) with:[31]

Cambridge, England, since 1965[32] Montpellier, France, since 1961[31] Palo Alto, California, since 2017[31] Hangzhou, China, since 2017[31] Rehovot, Israel, since 1983[31] Simferopol, Ukraine, since 1991[31]

Bautzen, Saxony, since 1991[31] Kumamoto, Japan, since 1992[31]

In popular culture[edit] Heidelberg
Heidelberg
features in the 1968 film The Girl on a Motorcycle, the university being the ultimate destination of Marianne Faithfull's character. Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is the home of a professional Quidditch
Quidditch
team operating within the fictional Harry Potter universe: the Heidelberg Harriers have been described as “fiercer than a dragon and twice as clever”.[33] Heidelberg
Heidelberg
is the residence of fictional character Nina Fortner/Anna Liebert in the anime/manga series Monster, by Naoki Urasawa. Further, its castle forms the setting for the beginning of Mark Twain's story The Awful German Language. Most of David Lodge's novel Out of the shelter takes place in Heidelberg
Heidelberg
in 1951 during the American occupation after World War II. The city also features during a mission in the Electronic Arts
Electronic Arts
strategy game Red Alert 3. Heidelberg also features in Somerset Maugham's Of Human Bondage
Of Human Bondage
and its film versions. Also, "Morris from America" takes places in Heidelberg. Notable inhabitants[edit]

Friedrich Ebert
Friedrich Ebert
first President of Germany
Germany
from 1919 until his death in office in 1925.

Actor Michael Fassbender
Michael Fassbender
was born in Heidelberg, Michael at the premiere of 12 Years a Slave, 2013 Toronto
Toronto
Film Festival.

Ernst Albrecht (1930–2014), politician (CDU), Minister-president of Lower Saxony, father of Ursula von der Leyen Jill Asemota, German-Nigerian model Jackson Browne
Jackson Browne
(born 1948), singer-songwriter and musician born here Petar Beron (1799–1871), Bulgarian educator Robert Bunsen
Robert Bunsen
(1811–1899), German chemist Antje Duvekot
Antje Duvekot
(born 1976), singer-songwriter Hans-Georg Gadamer
Hans-Georg Gadamer
(1900–2002), German philosopher Michael Fassbender
Michael Fassbender
(born 1977), German-Irish actor born here Ian Harding (born 1986), German actor Harald zur Hausen
Harald zur Hausen
(born 1936), virologist, Nobel Laureate Dietmar Hopp
Dietmar Hopp
(born 1940), software entrepreneur SAP Muhammad Iqbal
Muhammad Iqbal
(1877–1938), Pakistani poet, philosopher Wolfgang Ketterle
Wolfgang Ketterle
(born 1957), physicist, professor at MIT, Nobel Laureate Paul Kirchhof
Paul Kirchhof
(born 1943), former Judge in the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany
Germany
(Bundesverfassungsgericht) Hans Kroh
Hans Kroh
(1907–1967), German officer in Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
and Bundeswehr Karl A. Lamers
Karl A. Lamers
(born 1951), politician, former President of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly Ananda Mahidol
Ananda Mahidol
(1925–1946), King of Thailand Heinrich Neal (1870–1940), German composer, directed the Heidelberg Conservatory of Music Nelson Piquet, Jr.
Nelson Piquet, Jr.
(born 1985), Brazilian race car driver and former Formula One
Formula One
driver born here Vasil Radoslavov
Vasil Radoslavov
(1854–1929), Bulgarian Prime Minister José Rizal
José Rizal
(1861–1896), national hero of the Philippines Khalid Robinson
Khalid Robinson
(born 1998), American singer Christiane Schmidtmer (1939–2003), Hollywood actress and model Bernd Schmitt (born 1957), marketing professor at Columbia University Klaus Schütz
Klaus Schütz
(1926–2012), German politician (SPD) Silvia Renate Sommerlath
Silvia Renate Sommerlath
(born 1943), Queen of Sweden Albert Speer
Albert Speer
(1905–1981), German architect and Third Reich minister Ferdinand Thomas (1913–1944), resistance fighter Ernst Jünger
Ernst Jünger
(1895–1998), German author, officer, botanist and entomologist, famous for his World War I memoir Storm of Steel

Notable people who died in Heidelberg[edit]

Robert Bunsen
Robert Bunsen
(1811–1899), German chemist Alexandru Ioan Cuza
Alexandru Ioan Cuza
(3 May 1873), Prince of Moldavia, Prince of Wallachia
Wallachia
and later domnitor (ruler) of the Romanian Principalities Walther Dahl, (1916–1985), German Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
ace Konstantin Hierl, leader of the Reichsarbeitsdienst (24 February 1875 – 23 September 1955) George S. Patton
George S. Patton
(1885–1945), U.S. Army
U.S. Army
general Christiane Schmidtmer (1939–2003), German actress Felix Heinrich Wankel
Felix Heinrich Wankel
(1902–1988), mechanical engineer and inventor of the Wankel engine Daniel Hudson Burnham
Daniel Hudson Burnham
(1846–1912), American architect, among others of the Flatiron Building

Gallery[edit]

Karlstor city gate from East 

Heidelberg Castle
Heidelberg Castle
as seen from the bridge 

Interior courtyard of the castle 

The "Old Bridge", seen from the castle 

The "Old Bridge", seen from the town 

"Old Bridge" gate seen from the bridge 

The "Old Bridge" gate seen from the town 

The "bridge mandrill" next to the gate 

Church of the Holy Spirit 

Hotel Ritter, building constructed in 1592 

The "Untere Straße" (lower street) in the Old Town 

Catholic Jesuitenkirche 

Justitia 

University Library 

Lock in Heidelberg
Heidelberg
on river Neckar 

See also[edit]

Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
portal Germany
Germany
portal

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Center for American Studies Heidelberg
Heidelberg
University Schiller International University

Notes[edit]

^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland nach Fläche, Bevölkerung und Postleitzahl am 30.09.2016". Statistisches Bundesamt
Statistisches Bundesamt
(in German). 2016.  ^ Albers, Jürgen. "Daten und Fakten – Studierende und Wissenschaftlicher Nachwuchs – Universität Heidelberg". www.uni-heidelberg.de. Retrieved 2017-01-12.  ^ Its latest overall ranking positions range from 5th to 18th in Europe; the peer review scores, reflecting academic esteem, are usually higher. It was never ranked outside Europe's top 20 by any major university ranking. See rankings. ^ Stiefel, Catherine. "Non-University Research Institutions – Heidelberg
Heidelberg
University". www.uni-heidelberg.de. Retrieved 2017-01-11.  ^ "Heidelberg-Rohrbach: Wein, Reben und Winzer". Hilfe-hd.de. Retrieved 2012-11-08.  ^ Stefanie Wegener: Verbreitung und Arealnutzung der Halsbandsittiche (Psittacula krameri) in Heidelberg, published by: Ornithologische Gesellschaft Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
e. V., Ornithol. Jh. Bad.-Württ. 23: 39–55 (2007) Archived July 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Mechthild Henneke: Wetterextreme in Deutschland 2009. In: Südkurier, 28. April 2010 ^ Kreisbeschreibung Bd. 1, S. 54ff ^ www.klimadiagramme.de ^ " Heidelberg
Heidelberg
historic weather averages". Intellicast. Retrieved October 21, 2009.  ^ " Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
– weather and climate, 1981–2010". Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved February 21, 2015.  ^ Helfferich, Tryntje, The Thirty Years War: A Documentary History (Cambridge, 2009), pp. 289–90. ^ Cser 2007, pp. 209–10) ^ Cser 2007, p. 229) ^ Cser 2007, pp. 246–8 ^ "Alfred Mombert". Badische Landesbibliothek (in German). Archived from the original on August 18, 2010.  ^ Fink, Oliver (2005). Kleine Heidelberger Stadtgeschichte. ISBN 978-3-7917-1971-9.  ^ Remy 2002, p. 240 ^ George S. Patton#Accident and death ^ "Population of city of Heidelberg" (in German). Statistical office of the state of Baden-Württemberg. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2012.  ^ After the 2004 election, there were several changes the parties/groups Heidelberg ^ "Ergebnis Gemeinderatswahl 2014". Stadt Heidelberg. Retrieved 23 June 2014.  ^ [1] Archived September 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Heidelberg: Stations". Travelinho.  ^ Our Districts and Schools Archived August 14, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Dependents Schools Europe website, accessed: April 19, 2009 ^ Heidelberg, Mannheim
Mannheim
to close by 2015 Archived March 30, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., HeraldPost Vol. 35 No. 38, accessed: October 22, 2011. ^ [2] Archived October 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Veranstaltungen in Heidelberg: Heidelberg
Heidelberg
aktuell – Home". Heidelberg-aktuell.de. Retrieved 2012-11-08.  http://www.heidelberg-event.com/events/heidelberger-herbst/?lang=en.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "Internationales FilmFestival Mannheim- Heidelberg
Heidelberg
". Mannheim-filmfestival.com. 2012-10-18. Retrieved 2012-11-08.  ^ heidelberg-bahnstadt-teileroeffnung-vom-kino-luxor-filmpalast-am-23-november-9388433.html ^ a b c d e f g h "Partnerstädte" (official website) (in German). Heidelberg, Germany: Stadt Heidelberg. Retrieved 2015-02-04.  ^ heidelberg.de – Cambridge ^ Whisp, Kennilworthy (2001). Quidditch
Quidditch
Through the Ages. WhizzHard Books. pp. 31–46. ISBN 1-55192-454-4. 

References[edit]

Cser, Andreas (2007). Kleine Geschichte der Stadt Heidelberg
Heidelberg
und ihrer Universität [Short history of the city of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
and its University] (in German). Karlsruhe: Verlag G. Braun. ISBN 978-3-7650-8337-2.  Remy, Steven P. (2002). The Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Myth: The Nazification and Denazification of a German University. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00933-9. 

Further reading[edit]

"Heidelberg", The Rhine
Rhine
from Rotterdam to Constance, Leipsic: Karl Baedeker, 1882, OCLC 7416969  "Heidelberg", The Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424  "Heidelberg", The Rhine, including the Black Forest & the Vosges, Leipzig: Karl Baedeker, 1911, OCLC 21888483 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Heidelberg.

Heidelberg
Heidelberg
travel guide from Wikivoyage  "Heidelberg". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13 (11th ed.). 1911.  Official site of Heidelberg, a small English section is available Audio Tour in the Castle of Heidelberg U.S. Army
U.S. Army
Garrison Heidelberg
Heidelberg
homepage Heidelberg
Heidelberg
American High School, The official site of Heidelberg American High School

Places adjacent to Heidelberg

Mannheim Darmstadt, Frankfurt Aschaffenburg, Würzburg

Kaiserslautern

Heidelberg

Odenwald

Speyer, Landau Karlsruhe, Stuttgart Heilbronn, Schwäbisch Hall

v t e

Cities in Germany
Germany
by population

1,000,000+

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich

500,000+

Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart

200,000+

Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal

100,000+

Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Summer Paralympic Games
Summer Paralympic Games
host cities

1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Tel Aviv 1972: Heidelberg 1976: Toronto

1980: Arnhem 1984: New York City
New York City
/ Stoke Mandeville 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona
Barcelona
/ Madrid 1996: Atlanta

2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London

2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

v t e

Important cities and tourist sites in Germany: Greater region of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
/ Rhine-Neckar–Palatinate

Major cities

Heidelberg Kaiserslautern Ludwigshafen Mannheim Neustadt Speyer Worms

Other touristic sites

Bad Dürkheim Bad Rappenau Buchen Eberbach Edenkoben Ladenburg Lorsch Mosbach Neckargemünd Sinsheim Weinheim Walldürn

Landscapes

German Wine Route Kurpfalz Neckar
Neckar
river Odenwald Palatinate Forest Rhine
Rhine
river

Neighboring areas

Germany

Frankfurt Heidelberg Karlsruhe Saarbrücken Stuttgart Trier Würzburg

France

Alsace Lorraine Wissembourg

v t e

Regions, and urban and rural districts in the state of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
in Germany
Germany

Regions

Freiburg Karlsruhe Stuttgart Tübingen

Urban districts

Baden-Baden Freiburg Heidelberg Heilbronn Karlsruhe Mannheim Pforzheim Stuttgart Ulm

Rural districts

Alb-Donau Biberach Bodensee Böblingen Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald Calw Emmendingen Enz Esslingen Freudenstadt Göppingen Heidenheim Heilbronn Hohenlohe Karlsruhe Konstanz Lörrach Ludwigsburg Main-Tauber Neckar-Odenwald Ortenau Ostalbkreis Rastatt Ravensburg Rems-Murr Reutlingen Rhein-Neckar Rottweil Schwarzwald-Baar Schwäbisch Hall Sigmaringen Tübingen Tuttlingen Waldshut Zollernalb

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 144258029 LCCN: n81096075 GND: 40239

.