HEARST COMMUNICATIONS INC., often referred to as simply HEARST, is an American mass media and business information conglomerate . It owns a wide variety of newspapers , magazines , television channels , and television stations , including the _ San Francisco Chronicle _, the _ Houston Chronicle _, _Cosmopolitan _, _Esquire _, 50% of broadcasting firm A a precautionary measure by Hearst in case the films didn't do well, to minimize the impact of any flop on said comic's popularity.
Hearst established Cosmopolitan Pictures in the 1920s, distributing his films under the newly created Metro Goldwyn Mayer . In 1929, Hearst and MGM created the Hearst Metrotone newsreels.
In order to spare serious cutbacks at San Simeon , Hearst merged _Hearst's International_ magazine with _Cosmopolitan_ effective March 1925, calling it _Hearst's International combined with Cosmopolitan_. The _Cosmopolitan_ title on the cover remained at a typeface of 84 points , over a 20-year time span, while the typeface of the _Hearst's International_ decreased from 36 points to a barely legible 12 points. Hearst died in 1951, and the _Hearst's International_ disappeared from the magazine cover altogether in April 1952.
THE GOLDEN ERA
An ad asking automakers to place ads in Hearst chain, noting their circulation.
In the 1920s and 1930s, Hearst owned the biggest media conglomerate in the world. Apart from having highly circulated magazines and owning 28 newspapers in 18 major cities from coast to coast (many of them under either the _American_ or _Examiner_ banners), read by one out of four Americans each day, Hearst also began acquiring radio stations to complement his papers.
After purchasing the _ Atlanta Georgian _ in 1912 along with the _San Francisco Call _ and the _San Francisco Post_ in 1913, Hearst acquired the _ Boston Advertiser _ and the _Washington Times_ (unrelated to the present-day paper) in 1917, followed by the _Chicago Herald _ in 1918 (resulting in the _Herald-Examiner_) and the _ Washington Herald _ in 1922. Beginning in 1921, the company extended its reach, establishing or acquiring the _ Detroit Times _, the _Boston Record_ (turning the _Advertiser_ into a tabloid), the _Milwaukee Telegram_ and _Wisconsin News_, the _ Seattle Post-Intelligencer _ (1921), the _Albany Times-Union _, the _Rochester Journal_ and _American_, the _Syracuse Telegram _ and _American_, the _ Los Angeles Herald _ (1922), the _ Baltimore News _ and _American_, the _Rochester Post-Express_ (1923), the _ San Antonio Light _ and the _ New York Mirror _ (1924). In 1924 he also merged his Milwaukee operations with the Pfister family, owners of _ The Milwaukee Sentinel _. Hearst owned the evening _Wisconsin News_ while the Pfisters kept the _Sentinel_ adding Hearst's features from the now-folded _Telegram_.
In 1925, Hearst sold the _Syracuse Telegram_ to the owners of the _ Syracuse Journal _, while selling the _New York Mirror_ in 1928. However, he kept overseeing both papers' operations, eventually buying back the _Daily Mirror_ in 1932. In 1927, Hearst acquired the _ Pittsburgh Post-Gazette _, which he switched with associate Paul Block in exchange for the _ Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph _. That same year he also acquired the _ Omaha Bee _ and _News_. In 1929, Hearst closed the _Boston Advertiser_ (becoming the name for the Sunday _American_ until 1972) and acquired the _San Francisco Bulletin_ merging it with the _Call thus, evening papers were more affected than those published in the morning, whose circulation remained stable while their afternoon counterparts' sales plummeted. Another major blow was the fact that beginning in the 1950s, football and baseball games were being played later in the afternoon and now stretched through early in the evening, preventing afternoon papers from publishing all the results.
In 1947, Hearst produced an early television newscast for the DuMont Television Network : _ I.N.S. Telenews _, and in 1948 he became the owner of one of the first television stations in the country, WBAL-TV in Baltimore .
The earnings of Hearst's three morning papers, the _San Francisco Examiner _, the _ Los Angeles Examiner _, and _The Milwaukee Sentinel _, had to finance the company's money-losing afternoon publications, among those the _Los Angeles Herald-Express_, the _New York Journal-American _, and the _ Chicago American _. The latter paper was sold in 1956 to the _ Chicago Tribune '_s owners (who continued and later changed it to the tabloid-size _Chicago Today_ in 1969, and closed it in 1974). Hearst also sold the _Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph_ (merged with the _ Pittsburgh Post-Gazette _) and the _Detroit Times_ (merged with the _Detroit News_) in 1960 and the _Milwaukee Sentinel_ (which merged with the afternoon _ Milwaukee Journal _) in 1962 after a lengthy strike, the same year Hearst's L.A. papers - the morning _Examiner_ and the afternoon _Herald-Express_ - were merged into the evening _ Los Angeles Herald-Examiner _. The 1962-63 New York City newspaper strike left Manhattan with no papers for many months, which affected the _Journal-American_. The _Boston Record_ and the _Evening American_ were merged in 1961 as the _Record-American_. In 1964, the _ Baltimore News-Post_ became the _ Baltimore News-American_.
In 1958, Hearst's International News Service merged with E.W. Scripps' United Press , forming United Press International as a response to the growth of the Associated Press and Reuters . The following year Scripps-Howard's _San Francisco News_ merged with Hearst's afternoon _San Francisco Call-Bulletin_.
Beginning in 1965, the Hearst Corporation began recurring Joint Operating Agreements ("JOA"s); the first reached with the DeYoung family, proprietors of the afternoon _ San Francisco Chronicle _, which began to produce a joint Sunday edition with the _Examiner_, which turned into an evening publication, folding the _News-Call-Bulletin_. The following year, the _Journal-American_ reached another JOA with another two landmark New York City papers: the _Herald-Tribune _ and Scripps-Howard 's _World-Telegram and Sun _, thus forming the _New York World Journal Tribune _ (recalling the names of the city's mid-market dailies), which collapsed after only a few months.
The 1962 merger of the Los Angeles papers had led to the sacking of many journalists who went on to stage a 10-year strike in 1967, which ended up accelerating the pace of the company's sinking.
In 1982, the company sold the _ Boston Herald American _ (the result of the 1972 merger of Hearst's _Record-American & Advertiser_ with the _Herald-Traveler_), to Rupert Murdoch 's News Corporation , which promptly renamed the paper as _The Boston Herald _, competing to this day with the _ Boston Globe _).
In 1986, Hearst bought the _ Houston Chronicle _ and that year closed the 213-year-old _ Baltimore News-American _ after a failed attempt to obtain a JOA with the family publishers of _The Baltimore Sun _ - A.S. Abell Company - which coincidentally sold its paper several days later to the Times-Mirror syndicate of the Chandlers' _ Los Angeles Times _, also competitor to the evening _ Los Angeles Herald-Examiner _, which folded in 1989.
In 1993, the _San Antonio Light_ was shut down after Hearst purchased its rival, the _San Antonio Express-News_ from Murdoch.
On November 8, 1990, Hearst Corporation acquired the remaining 20% stake of ESPN, Inc. from RJR Nabisco for a price estimated between $165 million and $175 million. The other 80% has been owned by The Walt Disney Company since 1996. Over the last 25 years, the ESPN investment is said to have accounted for at least 50% of total Hearst Corp profits and is worth at least $13bn
In 2000, the Hearst Corp. pulled another "switcheroo" by selling its flagship and "Monarch of the Dailies", the afternoon _San Francisco Examiner_, and acquiring the long-time competing but now larger morning paper, the _ San Francisco Chronicle _ from the Charles de Young family. The _San Francisco Examiner_ is now published as a daily freesheet.
In December 2003, Marvel Entertainment acquired _Cover Concepts_ from Hearst, to extend Marvel's demographic reach among public school children.
In 2009, A"> In 2010, Hearst acquired digital marketing agency iCrossing.
In 2011, Hearst absorbed more than 100 magazine titles from the Lagardere group for more than $700 million and became a challenger of Time Inc ahead of Condé Nast . In December 2012, Hearst Corporation partnered again with NBCUniversal to launch Esquire Network .
On February 20, 2014, Hearst Magazines International appointed Gary Ellis to the new position, Chief Digital Officer. That December, DreamWorks Animation sold a 25% stake in AwesomenessTV for $81.25 million to Hearst.
In January 2017, Hearst announced that it had acquired a majority stake in Litton Entertainment . Its CEO, Dave Morgan, was a former employee of Hearst.
On January 23, 2017, Hearst announced that it has acquired the business operations of The Pioneer Group from fourth-generation family owners Jack and John Batdorff. The Pioneer Group was a Michigan-based communications network that circulates print and digital news to local communities across the state. In addition to daily newspapers, _The Pioneer_ and _Manistee News Advocate_, Pioneer published three weekly papers and four local shopper publications, and operates a digital marketing services business. The acquisition brought Hearst Newspapers to publishing 19 daily and 61 weekly papers.
CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
* In 1880, George Hearst entered the newspaper business, acquiring the _San Francisco Daily Examiner ._ * On March 4, 1887, he turned the _Examiner_ over to his son, 23-year-old William Randolph Hearst , who was named editor and publisher. William Hearst died in 1951, at age 88. * In 1951, Richard E. Berlin, who had served as president of the company since 1943, succeeded William Hearst as chief executive officer. Berlin retired in 1973. William Randolph Hearst, Jr. claimed in 1991 that Berlin had suffered from Alzheimer\'s disease starting in the mid-1960s and that caused him to shut down several Hearst newspapers without just cause. * From 1973-1975, Frank Massi, a longtime Hearst financial officer, served as president, during which time he carried out a financial reorganization followed by an expansion program in the late 1970s. * From 1975 to 1979, John R. Miller was Hearst president and chief executive officer.
Main article: List of assets owned by Hearst Communications
A non-exhaustive list of its current properties and investments includes:
* _ Car and Driver _ * _Cosmopolitan _ * _ Country Living _ * _Dr. Oz THE GOOD LIFE _ * _ELLE _ (US and UK) * _ Elle Decor _ * _Esquire _ * _Food Network Magazine _ * _ Good Housekeeping _ * _Harper\'s Bazaar _ * _ House Beautiful _ * _ Marie Claire _ * Nat Mags * _O, The Oprah Magazine _ * _ Popular Mechanics _ * _Red _ * _ Redbook _ * _ Road & Track _ * _Seventeen _ * _Town -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">
* _ San Francisco Chronicle _ (San Francisco, California) * _ The News-Times _ (Danbury, Connecticut) * _Greenwich Time _ (Greenwich, Connecticut) * _The Advocate _ (Stamford, Connecticut) * _ Connecticut Post _ (Bridgeport, Connecticut) * _ Edwardsville Intelligencer _ (Edwardsville, Illinois) * _ Huron Daily Tribune _ (Bad Axe, Michigan) * _Pioneer _ (Big Rapids, Michigan) * _Manistee News Advocate _ (Manistee, Michigan) * _ Midland Daily News _ (Midland, Michigan) * _Times Union _ (Albany, New York) * _ Beaumont Enterprise _ (Beaumont, Texas) * _ Houston Chronicle _ (Houston, Texas) * _ Laredo Morning Times _ (Laredo, Texas) * _ Midland Reporter-Telegram _ (Midland, Texas) * _ Plainview Daily Herald _ (Plainview, Texas) * _ San Antonio Express-News _ (San Antonio, Texas) * _ Seattle Post-Intelligencer _ (Seattle, Washington)
* A+E Networks (owns 50%; shared joint venture with The Walt Disney Company ) * Cosmopolitan TV (owns 33%; joint venture with Corus Entertainment )
* ESPN, Inc. (owns 20%; also shared with Disney, which owns the other 80%)
* CTV Specialty Television (owns 4% through its co-ownership of ESPN; shared joint venture with Bell Media , which owns 80%)
* Verizon Hearst Media Partners (50% in partnership with Verizon Communications) * Esquire Network (joint venture with NBCUniversal , replaced Style Network on September 23, 2013) * Hearst Television (owns 100%; owner of 29 local television stations and two local radio stations) * Cosmopolitan FM radio (owns 50%; shared joint venture with MRA Media Group )
* Answerology * AwesomenessTV (24.5%; shared joint venture with DreamWorks Animation (which owns 51%) and Verizon Communications (which owns 24.5%)) * caranddriver.com (_ Car and Driver _) * Delish.com * Digital Spy * eCrush * Hearst Interactive Media * Kaboodle * Manilla.com * ratedred.com * RealAge * RealBeauty.com * seattlepi.com (_ Seattle Post-Intelligencer _) * BestProducts.com
* Black Book (National Auto Research) * CDS Global * First DataBank * Fitch Ratings (80% owned with the other 20% owned by FIMALAC) * iCrossing * Jumpstart Automotive Group] * King Features Syndicate * KUBRA * LocalEdge (Buffalo, New York) * Map of Medicine * Zynx Health
* Business and economics portal
* ^ "Annual Review 2015". * ^ "IfM - The Hearst Corporation". Retrieved July 23, 2016. * ^ "Hearst". _ Forbes _. Retrieved January 27, 2014. * ^ Maza, Erik (April 1, 2013). "Hearst’s New CEO Steve Swartz Talks Business, Succession". Retrieved July 23, 2016. * ^ Kelly, Keith J. (2016-01-06). "Hearst enjoys record profits, eyes more acquisitions". _New York Post_. Retrieved 2016-11-04. * ^ Landers, James (2010). _The Improbable First Century of Cosmopolitan Magazine_. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press . pp. 169–213. ISBN 978-0-8262-1906-0 . * ^ GERALDINE FABRIKANT (November 9, 1990). "Hearst to Buy 20% ESPN Stake From RJ". Nytimes.com. Retrieved July 26, 2013. * ^ "Is the world’s first media group now the best?". _Flashes & Flames_. * ^ "Marvel Acquires Cover Concepts to Extend Demographic Reach; Acquisition Extends Reach of Marvel\'s Publishing Operations to 30 Million Public School Children". _BNet_. December 18, 2003. Retrieved May 14, 2008. * ^ "A&E Acquires Lifetime]". _Variety.com_. August 27, 2009. * ^ "A&E Networks, Lifetime Merger Completed". _Broadcasting & Cable_. August 27, 2009. * ^ Elliott, Stuart (June 3, 2010). "Google and Hearst Make Digital Acquisitions". _Media Decoder_. * ^ Steigrad, Alexandra (February 20, 2014). "Hearst Magazines International Makes Digital Hire". WWD. Retrieved February 24, 2014. * ^ Verrier, Richard (December 11, 2014). "Hearst Corp. buys 25% stake in AwesomenessTV". _Los Angeles Times_. Los Angeles Times Media Group. Retrieved December 16, 2014. * ^ "Hearst Invests in Media Entertainment Production Company". _TVSpy_. Retrieved 9 January 2017. * ^ "Hearst Acquires Majority Stake in Independent Distributor Litton Entertainment". _Variety_. Retrieved 9 January 2017. * ^ Hearst, Jr. William Randolph and Jack Casserly. _The Hearsts: Father and Son_. New York: Roberts Rinehart, 1991. * ^ "A brief history of the Hearst Corporation" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 28, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
* ^ "Company Profile: Hearst Interactive Media". _Hoovers.com_.