Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American literary critic and
Sterling Professor of
Yale University. Since the
publication of his first book in 1959, Bloom has written more than
forty books, including twenty books of literary criticism, several
books discussing religion, and a novel. He has edited hundreds of
anthologies concerning numerous literary and philosophical figures for
Chelsea House publishing firm. Bloom's books have been
translated into more than 40 languages.
Bloom came to public attention in the United States as a commentator
during the literary canon wars of the early 1990s.
1 Early life
2 Teaching career
3 Personal life
4 Writing career
4.1 Defense of Romanticism
4.2 Influence theory
4.2.1 The Agon, Strong & Weak Misreadings
4.2.2 Addenda and Developments of his Theory
4.3 Novel experiment
4.4 Religious criticism
4.5 The Western Canon
4.6 Work on Shakespeare
6 Reception, criticism and controversy
7 Selected bibliography
8 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Bloom was born in New York City, the son of Paula (Lev) and William
Bloom. He lived in the
South Bronx at 1410 Grand Concourse. He
was raised as an
Orthodox Jew in a Yiddish-speaking household, where
he learned literary Hebrew; he learned English at the age of
six. Bloom's father, a garment worker, was born in
Odessa and his
mother, a homemaker, near
Brest Litovsk in what is today Belarus.
Harold had three older sisters and an older brother of whom he is the
As a boy, Bloom read Hart Crane's Collected Poems, a collection that
inspired his lifelong fascination with poetry. Bloom went to the
Bronx High School of Science
Bronx High School of Science (where his grades were poor but his
standardized-test scores were high), and subsequently received a
Cornell in 1951, where he was a student of
English literary critic M.H. Abrams, and a PhD from
Yale in 1955.
Bloom was a standout student at Yale, where he clashed with the
New Critics including William K. Wimsatt. Several years
later, Bloom dedicated his first major book, The Anxiety of Influence,
Bloom has been a member of the
Yale English Department since 1955. He
MacArthur Fellowship in 1985. From 1988 to 2004, Bloom was
Berg Professor of English at
New York University
New York University while maintaining his
position at Yale. In 2010, he became a founding patron of Ralston
College, a new institution in Savannah, Georgia, that focuses on
Bloom married Jeanne Gould in 1958. In a 2005 interview his wife
said that she regarded him and herself as both atheists while he
denied being an atheist saying "No, no I'm not an atheist. It's no fun
being an atheist."
Defense of Romanticism
Bloom began his career with a sequence of highly regarded monographs
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Percy Bysshe Shelley (Shelley's Myth-making,
Yale University Press,
originally Bloom's doctoral dissertation), W. B. Yeats, (Yeats, Oxford
University Press), and Wallace Stevens, (Wallace Stevens: The Poems of
Cornell University Press). In these, he defended the High
Romantics against neo-Christian critics influenced by such writers as
T. S. Eliot, who became a recurring intellectual foil. Bloom had a
contentious approach: his first book, Shelley's Myth-making, charged
many contemporary critics with sheer carelessness in their reading of
After a personal crisis in the late sixties, Bloom became deeply
interested in Emerson, Sigmund Freud, and the ancient mystic
traditions of Gnosticism, Kabbalah, and Hermeticism. In a 2003
interview with Bloom, Michael Pakenham, the book editor for The
Baltimore Sun, writes that Bloom has long referred to himself as a
"Jewish Gnostic". Bloom explains: "I am using Gnostic in a very broad
way. I am nothing if not Jewish... I really am a product of Yiddish
culture. But I can't understand a Yahweh, or a God, who could be
all-powerful and all knowing and would allow the Nazi death camps and
schizophrenia." Influenced by his reading, he began a series of
books that focused on the way in which poets struggled to create their
own individual poetic visions without being overcome by the influence
of the previous poets who inspired them to write.
The first of these books, Yeats, a magisterial examination of the
poet, challenged the conventional critical view of his poetic career.
In the introduction to this volume, Bloom set out the basic principles
of his new approach to criticism: "Poetic influence, as I conceive it,
is a variety of melancholy or the anxiety-principle." A new poet
becomes inspired to write because he has read and admired the poetry
of previous poets; but this admiration turns into resentment when the
new poet discovers that these poets whom he idolized have already said
everything he wishes to say. The poet becomes disappointed because he
Adam early in the morning. There have been too many Adams,
and they have named everything."
The Agon, Strong & Weak Misreadings
In order to evade this psychological obstacle, the new poet must
convince himself that previous poets have gone wrong somewhere and
failed in their vision, thus leaving open the possibility that he may
have something to add to the tradition after all. The new poet's love
for his heroes turns into antagonism towards them: "Initial love for
the precursor's poetry is transformed rapidly enough into revisionary
strife, without which individuation is not possible." The book
that followed Yeats, The Anxiety of Influence, which Bloom had started
writing in 1967, drew upon the example of Walter Jackson Bate's The
Burden of the Past and The English Poet and recast in systematic
psychoanalytic form Bate's historicized account of the despair felt by
seventeenth- and eighteenth-century poets about their ability to match
the achievements of their predecessors. Bloom attempted to trace the
psychological process by which a poet broke free from his precursors
to achieve his own poetic vision. He drew a sharp distinction between
"strong poets" who perform "strong misreadings" of their precursors,
and "weak poets" who simply repeat the ideas of their precursors as
though following a kind of doctrine. He described this process in
terms of a sequence of "revisionary ratios," through which each strong
poet passes in the course of his career.
Addenda and Developments of his Theory
A Map of Misreading picked up where
The Anxiety of Influence left off,
making several adjustments to Bloom's system of revisionary ratios.
Kabbalah and Criticism attempted to invoke the esoteric interpretive
system of the Lurianic Kabbalah, as explicated by scholar Gershom
Scholem, as an alternate system of mapping the path of poetic
influence. Figures of Capable Imagination collected odd pieces Bloom
had written in the process of composing his 'influence' books.
Bloom continued to write about influence theory throughout the
seventies and eighties, and he has written little since that does not
invoke his ideas about influence.
Bloom's fascination with the fantasy novel
A Voyage to Arcturus
A Voyage to Arcturus by
David Lindsay led him to take a brief break from criticism in order to
compose a sequel to Lindsay's novel. This novel, The Flight to
Lucifer, remains Bloom's only work of fiction.
Bloom then entered a phase of what he called "religious criticism",
beginning in 1989 with Ruin the Sacred Truths: Poetry and Belief from
the Bible to the Present.
In The Book of J (1990), he and
David Rosenberg (who translated the
Biblical texts) portrayed one of the posited ancient documents that
formed the basis of the first five books of the bible (see documentary
hypothesis) as the work of a great literary artist who had no
intention of composing a dogmatically religious work (see Jahwist).
They further envisaged this anonymous writer as a woman attached to
the court of the successors of the Israelite kings
Solomon—a piece of speculation which drew much attention. Later,
Bloom said that the speculations didn't go far enough, and perhaps he
should have identified J with the Biblical Bathsheba. In Jesus and
Yahweh: The Names Divine (2004), he revisits some of the territory he
covered in The Book of J in discussing the significance of Yahweh and
Jesus of Nazareth
Jesus of Nazareth as literary characters, while casting a critical eye
on historical approaches and asserting the fundamental incompatibility
Christianity and Judaism.
The American Religion (1992), Bloom surveyed the major varieties of
Protestant and post-
Protestant religious faiths that originated in the
United States and argued that, in terms of their psychological hold on
their adherents, most shared more in common with gnosticism than with
historical Christianity. The exception was the Jehovah's Witnesses,
whom Bloom regards as non-Gnostic. He elsewhere predicted that the
Pentecostal strains of American
Christianity would overtake
Protestant divisions in popularity in the next few decades.
In Omens of Millennium (1996), Bloom identifies these American
religious elements as on the periphery of an old – and not
inherently Christian – gnostic, religious tradition which invokes a
complex of ideas and experiences concerning angelology, interpretation
of dreams as prophecy, near-death experiences, and millennialism.
In his essay in The Gospel of Thomas, Bloom states that none of
Thomas' Aramaic sayings have survived to this day in the original
Marvin Meyer generally agreed and further confirmed that
the earlier versions of that text were likely written in either
Aramaic or Greek. Meyer ends his introduction with an endorsement
of much of Bloom's essay. Bloom notes the other-worldliness of the
Jesus in the Thomas sayings by making reference to "the paradox also
of the American Jesus."
The Western Canon
In 1994, Bloom published The Western Canon, a survey of the major
literary works of Europe and the Americas since the 14th century,
focusing on 26 works he considered sublime and representative of their
nations and of the Western canon. Besides analyses of the
canon's various representative works, the major concern of the volume
is reclaiming literature from those he refers to as the "School of
Resentment", the mostly academic critics who espouse a social purpose
in reading. Bloom believes that the goals of reading must be solitary
aesthetic pleasure and self-insight rather than the goal held by
"forces of resentment" of improving one's society, which he casts as
an absurd aim, writing: "The idea that you benefit the insulted and
injured by reading someone of their own origins rather than reading
Shakespeare is one of the oddest illusions ever promoted by or in our
schools." His position is that politics have no place in literary
criticism: a feminist or
Marxist reading of
Hamlet would tell us
something about feminism and Marxism, he says, but probably nothing
In addition to considering how much influence a writer has had on
later writers, Bloom proposed the concept of "canonical strangeness"
(cf. uncanny) as a benchmark of a literary work's merit. The Western
Canon also included a list—which aroused more widespread interest
than anything else in the volume—of all the Western works from
antiquity to the present that Bloom considered either permanent
members of the canon of literary classics, or (among more recent
works) candidates for that status. Bloom has said that he made the
list off the top of his head at his editor's request, and that he does
not stand by it.
Work on Shakespeare
Bloom has a deep appreciation for Shakespeare and considers him to
be the supreme center of the Western canon. The first edition of
The Anxiety of Influence almost completely avoided Shakespeare, whom
Bloom considered, at the time, barely touched by the psychological
drama of anxiety. The second edition, published in 1997, adds a long
preface that mostly expounds on Shakespeare's debt to
Chaucer, and his agon with his contemporary Christopher Marlowe, who
set the stage for him by breaking free of ecclesiastical and
In his 1998 survey, Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human, Bloom
provides an analysis of each of Shakespeare's 38 plays, "twenty-four
of which are masterpieces." Written as a companion to the general
reader and theatergoer, Bloom declares that bardolatry "ought to be
even more a secular religion than it already is." He also contends
in the work (as in the title) that
Shakespeare "invented" humanity, in
that he prescribed the now-common practice of "overhearing" ourselves,
which drives our changes. The two paragons of his theory are Sir John
Falstaff of Henry IV and Hamlet, whom Bloom sees as representing
self-satisfaction and self-loathing, respectively. Throughout
Shakespeare, characters from disparate plays are imagined alongside
and interacting with each other; this has been decried by numerous
contemporary academics and critics as hearkening back to the out of
fashion character criticism of
A. C. Bradley
A. C. Bradley and others, who happen to
gather explicit praise in the book. As in The Western Canon, Bloom
criticizes what he calls the "School of Resentment" for its failure to
live up to the challenge of Shakespeare's universality and instead
balkanizing the study of literature through various multicultural and
historicist departments. Asserting Shakespeare's singular popularity
throughout the world, Bloom proclaims him as the only multicultural
author, and rather than the "social energies" historicists ascribe
Shakespeare's authorship to, Bloom pronounces his modern academic foes
– and indeed, all of society – to be "a parody of Shakespearian
Bloom consolidated his work on the western canon with the publication
of How to Read and Why in 2000 and Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred
Exemplary Creative Minds in 2003. In the same year, Hamlet: Poem
Unlimited was published, an amendment to Shakespeare: Invention of the
Human written after he decided the chapter on
Hamlet in that earlier
book had been too focused on the textual question of the Ur-
cover his most central thoughts on the play itself. Some elements of
religious criticism were combined with his secular criticism in Where
Shall Wisdom Be Found (2004), and a more complete return to religious
criticism was marked by the publication of Jesus and Yahweh: The Names
Divine in 2005. Throughout the decade he also compiled, edited and
introduced several major anthologies of poetry.
In 2006, Bloom took part in the documentary, the Apparition of the
Eternal Church, made by Paul Festa. This documentary centered on many
individuals's reactions to hearing, for the first time, the renowned
piece for organ, the Apparition de l'église éternelle, of Olivier
Bloom began a book under the working title of Living Labyrinth,
Shakespeare and Whitman, which was published in 2011 as
The Anatomy of Influence: Literature as a Way of Life.
In July 2011, after the publication of The Anatomy of Influence and
after finishing work on The Shadow of a Great Rock, Bloom was working
on three further projects:
Achievement in the Evening Land from Emerson to Faulkner, a history of
American literature following the canonical model, which ultimately
developed into his 2015 book The Daemon Knows: Literary Greatness and
the American Sublime.
The Hum of Thoughts Evaded in the Mind: A Literary Memoir.
a play with the working title Walt Whitman: A Musical Pageant. By
November 2011, Bloom had changed the title of the play to To You
Whoever You Are: A Pageant Celebrating Walt Whitman.
In 1986, Bloom credited
Northrop Frye as his nearest precursor. He
Imre Salusinszky in 1986: "In terms of my own
theorizations ... the precursor proper has to be Northrop Frye. I
purchased and read Fearful Symmetry a week or two after it had come
out and reached the bookstore in Ithaca, New York. It ravished my
heart away. I have tried to find an alternative father in Mr. Kenneth
Burke, who is a charming fellow and a very powerful critic, but I
don't come from Burke, I come out of Frye."
However, in his 2011 Anatomy of Influence, he wrote "I no longer have
the patience to read anything by Frye" and nominated Angus Fletcher
among his living contemporaries as his "critical guide and conscience"
and elsewhere that year recommended Fletcher's Colors of the Mind and
The Mirror and the Lamp by M. H. Abrams. In this latter phase of his
career, Bloom has also emphasized the tradition of earlier critics
such as William Hazlitt, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walter Pater, A. C.
Bradley, and Samuel Johnson, describing Johnson in The Western Canon
as "unmatched by any critic in any nation before or after him". In his
2012 Foreword to the book The Fourth Dimension of a Poem (WW Norton,
2012), Bloom indicated the influence which
M. H. Abrams
M. H. Abrams had upon him
in his years at
Bloom's theory of poetic influence regards the development of Western
literature as a process of borrowing and misreading. Writers find
their creative inspiration in previous writers and begin by imitating
those writers in order to develop a poetic voice of their own;
however, they must make their own work different from that of their
precursors. As a result, Bloom argues, authors of real power must
inevitably "misread" their precursors' works in order to make room for
Observers often identified Bloom with deconstruction in the past, but
he himself never admitted to sharing more than a few ideas with the
deconstructionists. He told Robert Moynihan in 1983, "What I think I
have in common with the school of deconstruction is the mode of
negative thinking or negative awareness, in the technical,
philosophical sense of the negative, but which comes to me through
negative theology ... There is no escape, there is simply the
given, and there is nothing that we can do."
Bloom's association with the
Western canon has provoked a substantial
interest in his opinion concerning the relative importance of
contemporary writers. In the late 1980s, Bloom told an interviewer:
"Probably the most powerful living Western writer is Samuel Beckett.
He's certainly the most authentic."
After Beckett's death in 1989, Bloom has pointed towards other authors
as the new main figures of the Western literary canon.
Concerning British writers: "
Geoffrey Hill is the strongest British
poet now active", and "no other contemporary British novelist seems to
me to be of Iris Murdoch's eminence". Since Murdoch's death, Bloom has
expressed admiration for novelists such as Peter Ackroyd, Will Self,
John Banville, and A. S. Byatt.
In his 2003 book, Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred Exemplary Creative
Minds, he named the Portuguese writer and Nobel Prize winner José
Saramago as "the most gifted novelist alive in the world today", and
as "one of the last titans of an expiring literary genre".
Of American novelists, he declared in 2003 that "there are four living
American novelists I know of who are still at work and who deserve our
praise". He claimed that "they write the Style of our Age, each
has composed canonical works," and he identified them as Thomas
Pynchon, Philip Roth, Cormac McCarthy, and Don DeLillo. He named their
strongest works as, respectively, Gravity's Rainbow, The Crying of Lot
49 and Mason & Dixon;
American Pastoral and Sabbath's Theater;
Blood Meridian; and Underworld. He has added to this estimate the work
of John Crowley, with special interest in his
Aegypt Sequence and
Little, Big saying that "only a handful of living writers in
English can equal him as a stylist, and most of them are
poets ... only
Philip Roth consistently writes on Crowley's
Kabbalah and Criticism (1975), Bloom identified Robert Penn Warren,
James Merrill, John Ashbery, and
Elizabeth Bishop as the most
important living American poets. By the 1990s, he regularly named A.R.
Ammons along with Ashbery and Merrill, and he has lately come to
Henri Cole as the crucial American poet of the generation
following those three. He has expressed great admiration for the
Canadian poets Anne Carson, particularly her verse novel Autobiography
of Red, and A. F. Moritz, whom Bloom calls "a true poet." Bloom
also lists Jay Wright as one of only a handful of major living
Bloom's introduction to Modern Critical Interpretations: Thomas
Gravity's Rainbow (1986) features his canon of the
"twentieth-century American Sublime", the greatest works of American
art produced in the 20th century. Playwright
Tony Kushner sees Bloom
as an important influence on his work.
Reception, criticism and controversy
For many years, indeed decades, Bloom's writings have been able to
effectively polarize opinion, among even established literary
scholars. Bloom has been called "probably the most celebrated literary
critic in the United States" and "America's best-known man of
New York Times
New York Times article in 1994 said that many younger
critics understand Bloom as an "outdated oddity," whereas a 1998
New York Times
New York Times article called him "one of the most gifted of
James Wood has described Bloom as "Vatic, repetitious, imprecisely
reverential, though never without a peculiar charm of his own—a kind
of campiness, in fact—Bloom as a literary critic in the last few
years has been largely unimportant." Bloom responded to questions
about Wood in an interview by saying: "There are period pieces in
criticism as there are period pieces in the novel and in poetry. The
wind blows and they will go away ... There's nothing to the
man ... I don't want to talk about him".
In the early 21st century, Bloom has often found himself at the center
of literary controversy after criticizing popular writers such as
Adrienne Rich, Maya Angelou, and
David Foster Wallace. In
the pages of the Paris Review, he criticized the populist-leaning
poetry slam, saying: "It is the death of art." When Doris Lessing
was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, he bemoaned the "pure
political correctness" of the award to an author of "fourth-rate
In 2004 author
Naomi Wolf wrote an article for New York Magazine
Harold Bloom of a sexual "encroachment" more than two decades
earlier, by touching her thigh. She said that what she alleged Bloom
did was not harassment, either legally or emotionally, and she did not
think herself a "victim", but that she had harbored this secret for 21
years. Explaining why she had finally gone public with the charges,
Wolf wrote, "I began, nearly a year ago, to try—privately—to start
a conversation with my alma mater that would reassure me that steps
had been taken in the ensuing years to ensure that unwanted sexual
advances of this sort weren't still occurring. I expected
Yale to be
responsive. After nine months and many calls and e-mails, I was
shocked to conclude that the atmosphere of collusion that had helped
to keep me quiet twenty years ago was still intact—as secretive as a
Masonic lodge." When asked about the allegations in 2015, Bloom
stated, "I refuse to even use the name of this person. I call her
Dracula's daughter, because her father was a Dracula scholar. I have
never in my life been indoors with Dracula's daughter. When she came
to the door of my house unbidden, my youngest son turned her away.
Once, I was walking up to campus, and she fell in with me and said,
'May I walk with you, Professor Bloom?' I said nothing."
MormonVoices, a group associated with Foundation for Apologetic
Information & Research, included Bloom on its Top Ten Anti-Mormon
Statements of 2011 list for stating "The current head of the Mormon
Church, Thomas S. Monson, known to his followers as 'prophet, seer and
revelator,' is indistinguishable from the secular plutocratic
oligarchs who exercise power in our supposed democracy".
Shelley's Mythmaking. New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1959.
The Visionary Company: A Reading of English Romantic Poetry. Garden
City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1961. Rev. and enlarged ed. Ithaca: Cornell
University Press, 1971.
Blake's Apocalypse: A Study in Poetic Argument. Anchor Books: New
York: Doubleday and Co., 1963.
The Literary Criticism of John Ruskin.; Edited with introduction. New
York: DoubleDay, 1965.
Walter Pater: Marius the Epicurean; edition with introduction. New
York: New American Library, 1970.
Romanticism and Consciousness: Essays in Criticism.; Edited with
introduction. New York: Norton, 1970.
Yeats. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.
The Ringers in the Tower: Studies in Romantic Tradition. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1971.
The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1973; 2d ed., 1997. ISBN 0-19-511221-0
The Selected Writings of Walter Pater; edition with introduction and
notes. New York: New American Library, 1974.
A Map of Misreading. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.
Kabbalah and Criticism. New York : Seabury Press, 1975.
Poetry and Repression: Revisionism from Blake to Stevens. New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1976.
Figures of Capable Imagination. New York: Seabury Press, 1976.
Wallace Stevens: The Poems of our Climate. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell
University Press, 1977.
Deconstruction and Criticism. New York: Seabury Press, 1980.
The Flight to Lucifer: Gnostic Fantasy. New York: Vintage Books, 1980.
Agon: Towards a Theory of Revisionism. New York : Oxford
University Press, 1982.
The Breaking of the Vessels. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
The Poetics of Influence: New and Selected Criticism. New Haven: Henry
R. Schwab, 1988.
Ruin the Sacred Truths: Poetry and Belief from the Bible to the
Present. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989.
The Book of J: Translated from the
Interpreted by Harold Bloom. New York: Grove Press, 1990
The Gospel of Thomas: The Hidden Sayings of Jesus; translation with
introduction, critical edition of the Coptic text and notes by Marvin
Meyer, with an interpretation by Harold Bloom. San Francisco:
The American Religion: The Emergence of the Post-Christian Nation;
Touchstone Books; ISBN 0-671-86737-7 (1992; August 1993)
The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages. New York:
Harcourt Brace, 1994.
Omens of Millennium: The Gnosis of Angels, Dreams, and Resurrection.
New York: Riverhead Books, 1996.
Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human. New York: 1998.
How to Read and Why. New York: 2000. ISBN 0-684-85906-8
Stories and Poems for Extremely Intelligent Children of All Ages. New
El futur de la imaginació (The Future of the Imagination). Barcelona:
Anagrama / Empúries, 2002. ISBN 84-7596-927-5
Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred Exemplary Creative Minds. New York:
2003. ISBN 0-446-52717-3
Hamlet: Poem Unlimited. New York: 2003.
The Best Poems of the English Language: From Chaucer Through Frost.
New York: 2004. ISBN 0-06-054041-9
Where Shall Wisdom Be Found? New York: 2004. ISBN 1-57322-284-4
Jesus and Yahweh: The Names Divine 2005. ISBN 1-57322-322-0
American Religious Poems: An Anthology By
Harold Bloom 2006.
Fallen Angels, illustrated by Mark Podwal.
Yale University Press,
2007. ISBN 0-300-12348-5
Till I End My Song: A Gathering of Last Poems Harper, 2010.
The Anatomy of Influence: Literature as a Way of Life-
Press, 2011. ISBN 0-300-16760-1
The Shadow of a Great Rock: A Literary Appreciation of The King James
Yale University Press, 2011. ISBN 0-300-16683-4
The Daemon Knows: Literary Greatness and the American Sublime. Spiegel
& Grau, 2015. ISBN 0-812-99782-4
Falstaff: Give Me Life. Scribner, 2017. ISBN 978-1-5011-6413-2
"On Extended Wings"; Wallace Stevens' Longer Poems. By Helen Hennessy
Vendler, (Review), The New York Times, October 5, 1969.
"Poets' meeting in the heyday of their youth; A Single Summer With
Lord Byron", The New York Times, February 15, 1970.
"An angel's spirit in a decaying (and active) body", The New York
Times, November 22, 1970.
"The Use of Poetry", The New York Times, November 12, 1975.
Northrop Frye exalting the designs of romance; The Secular
Scripture", The New York Times, April 18, 1976.
"On Solitude in America", The New York Times, August 4, 1977.
"The Critic/Poet", The New York Times, February 5, 1978.
"A Fusion of Traditions; Rosenberg", The New York Times, July 22,
"Straight Forth Out of Self", The New York Times, June 22, 1980.
"The Heavy Burden of the Past; Poets", The New York Times, January 4,
"The Pictures of the Poet; The Painting and Drawings of William Blake,
by Martin Butlin. Vol. I, Text. Vol. II, Plates", (Review) The New
York Times, January 3, 1982.
"A Novelist's Bible; The Story of the Stories, The Chosen People and
Its God. By Dan Jacobson", (Review) The New York Times, October 17,
"Isaac Bashevis Singer's Jeremiad; The Penitent, By Isaac Bashevis
Singer", (Review) The New York Times, September 25, 1983.
"Domestic Derangements; A Late Divorce, By A. B. Yehoshua Translated
by Hillel Halkin", (Review) The New York Times, February 19, 1984.
"War Within the Walls; In the Freud Archives, By Janet Malcolm",
(Review) The New York Times, May 27, 1984.
"His Long Ordeal by Laughter; Zuckerman Bound, A Trilogy and Epilogue.
By Philip Roth", (Review) The New York Times, May 19, 1985.
"A Comedy of Worldly Salvation; The Good Apprentice, By Iris Murdoch",
(Review) The New York Times, January 12, 1986.
"Freud, the Greatest Modern Writer" (Review) The New York Times, March
"Passionate Beholder of America in Trouble; Look Homeward, A Life of
Thomas Wolfe. By
David Herbert Donald", (Review) The New York Times,
February 8, 1987.
"The Book of the Father; The Messiah of Stockholm, By Cynthia Ozick",
(Review) The New York Times, March 22, 1987.
"Still Haunted by Covenant", (Review) The New York Times, January 31,
"New Heyday of Gnostic Heresies", The New York Times, April 26, 1992.
"A Jew Among the Cossacks; The first English translation of Isaac
Babel's journal about his service with the Russian cavalry. 1920
Diary, By Isaac Babel", (Review) The New York Times, June 4, 1995.
"Kaddish; By Leon Wieseltier", (Review) The New York Times, October 4,
"View; On First Looking into Gates's Crichton", The New York Times,
June 4, 2000.
"What Ho, Malvolio!'; The election, as
Shakespeare might have seen
it", The New York Times, December 6, 2000.
"Macbush", (play) Vanity Fair, April 2004.
"The Lost Jewish Culture"
The New York Review of Books
The New York Review of Books 54/11 (June 28,
2007) : 44–47 [reviews The Dreams of the Poem:
from Muslim and Christian Spain, 950–1492, translated, edited, and
with an introduction by Peter Cole
"The Glories of Yiddish"
The New York Review of Books
The New York Review of Books 55/17 (November
6, 2008) [reviews History of the
Yiddish Language, by Max Weinreich,
edited by Paul Glasser, translated from the
Yiddish by Shlomo Noble
with the assistance of Joshua A. Fishman]
"Yahweh Meets R. Crumb", The New York Review of Books, 56/19 (December
3, 2009) [reviews The Book of Genesis, illustrated by R. Crumb]
"Will This Election Be the
Mormon Breakthrough?", The New York Times,
November 12, 2011.
"Richard III: Victim or Monster? Asks Harold Bloom", Newsweek,
February 11, 2013.
Introduction to The Invention of Influence by Peter Cole, Talbet,
January 21, 2014.
List of thinkers influenced by deconstruction
School of resentment
^ "Faculty - English". english.yale.edu. Retrieved March 27,
2018. line feed character in title= at position 8 (help)
^ Miller, Mary Alice. "How
Harold Bloom Selected His Top 12 American
Authors". vanityfair.com. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
^ Romano, Carlin (April 24, 2011). "
Harold Bloom by the Numbers –
The Chronicle Review – The Chronicle of Higher Education".
Chronicle.com. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
^ "Colossus Among Critics: Harold Bloom". The New York Times.
^ Marc Redfield (2003). "Literature, Incorporated". In Peter C.
Herman. Historicizing Theory. Suny Press. p. 210.
^ Collins, Glenn (January 16, 2006). "New Bronx Library Meets Old
Need". The New York Times. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
Harold Bloom Biography - eNotes.com". eNotes. Retrieved March 27,
^ a b c "Harold Bloom: The Shadow of a Great Rock". Bookworm.
^ Collins, Glenn (January 16, 2006). "New Bronx Library Meets Old
Need". The New York Times.
^ Bloom, Harold (2004). The Best Poems of the English Language: From
Chaucer Through Robert Frost. HarperCollins. p. 1942.
Harold Bloom facts, information, pictures - Encyclopedia.com
articles about Harold Bloom". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved March
^ International Who's Who of Authors and Writers 2004 (19th ed.).
London: Europa Publications. 2003. p. 60.
^ Tanenhaus, Sam (20 May 2011). "Harold Bloom: An Uncommon Reader".
New York Times. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
^ "Collegium Ralstonianum apud Savannenses – Home".
^ Fish, Stanley (November 8, 2010). "The Woe-Is-Us Books". The New
^ "The Grand Comedian Visits the Bible by
Harold Bloom The New York
Review of Books". Nybooks.com. February 23, 2012. Retrieved June 25,
^ Harold, Quinney, Laura, Bloom,. "Quinney, "An Interview with Harold
Bloom"". www.rc.umd.edu. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
^ Pakenham, Michael (March 23, 2003). "In Full Bloom: Guerrilla In Our
Midst". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
^ Map of Misreading p. 10
The Flight to Lucifer review". Retrieved 5 September 2012.
^ Bloom, Harold, The Western Canon. The Books and Schools of the Ages,
Harcourt Brace & Company, New York 1994, p. 5.
^ Bloom (1996), p. 5.
^ Bloom, Harold. "A Reading" The Gospel of Thomas: The Hidden Sayings
of Jesus. English translation and critical edition of the Coptic text
by Marvin W. Meyer. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco. 1992. p 115and
^ Mayer, Marvin. "Introduction". The Gospel of Thomas. San Francisco:
HarperSanFrancisco, 1992. p 9.
^ Meyer, op. cit., p 19.
^ Meyer, op. cit., p. 119.
^ Bloom 1994, pg. 2
^ Bloom 1994, pg. 11
Harold Bloom VICE United States; Archived October 14, 2013, at the
^ Bloom 1994, pp. 2–3
^ Bloom 1994, pp. 24–5
^ Bloom, Harold. Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human. New York:
Riverhead, 1998, p. xix.
^ "Harold Bloom: On the Playing Field of Poetry - Open Source with
Christopher Lydon". www.radioopensource.org. Retrieved March 27,
^ "Will This Election Be the
Mormon Breakthrough?", The New York
Times, November 12, 2011.
^ "Presidential Lectures: Harold Bloom: Interviews".
prelectur.stanford.edu. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
^ M.H. Abrams. The Fourth Dimension of a Poem (WW Norton, 2012).
^ Antonio Weiss (Spring 1991). "Harold Bloom, The Art of Criticism No.
1". Paris Review.
^ Paul Fry, "Engl 300: Introduction To Theory Of Literature". Lecture
14 – Influence. Open
Yale lectures on the influence of Bloom and
^ "INTERVIEWS WITH HAROLD BLOOM". Stanford Presidential Lectures in
Humanities and Arts. Stanford University. Retrieved March 15,
2014. Excerpted from "Interview:
Harold Bloom interviewed by
Robert Moynihan" Diacritics : A Review of Contemporary Criticism
v13 , #3 (Fall, 1983) PAGES 57–68.
^ "Candidates for Survival: A talk with Harold Bloom" Boston Review
February, 1989; Archived March 15, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Bloom, Harold (2002). Genius : a mosaic of one hundred
exemplary creative minds. New York: Warner Books. p. 648.
ISBN 0-446-69129-1. There are a few affinities, except perhaps
with the admirable Antonia Byatt, in the generation after: novelists I
also now admire, like Will Self, Peter Ackroyd, and John
^ "Dumbing Down American Readers" "Boston Globe" 9/24/2003 Archived
June 17, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Bloom, Harold (2003). "Preface". Snake's-hands : the fiction of
John Crowley. [Canton, OH]: Cosmos Books. p. 10.
^ Hollander, John (2002), "Enriching Shadow: A. F. Moritz's Early
Poems", in Moritz, A. F., Early Poems, Toronto: Insomniac Press,
^ Modern Critical Interpretations: Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow.
Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1986.
^ Kermode, Frank (October 12, 2002). "Review: Genius by Harold Bloom".
The Guardian. London.
^ a b Books, Used, New, and Out of Print Books - We Buy and Sell -
Powell's. "Powell's Books - The World's Largest Independent
Bookstore". www.powells.com. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
Adam (September 24, 1994). "Review: Colossus Among Critics:
Harold Bloom". The New York Times. New York.
^ Shapiro, James (November 1, 1998). "Soul of the Age". The New York
Times. New York.
^ Pearson, Jesse (December 2, 2008). "Harold Bloom". VICE United
States. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
Maya Angelou cannot write her way out of a paper bag!" Kenton
Robinson, "Foe To Those Who Would Shape Literature To Their Own End
Dissent in Bloom"
Hartford Courant October 4, 1994 E.1
^ Koski, Lorna (April 26, 2011). "The Full Harold Bloom". Women's Wear
Daily. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
^ Sfetcu, Nicolae. "Slam Poetry". languageisavirus.com. Retrieved
March 27, 2018.
^ "U.K.'s Lessing wins Nobel Prize in literature". msn.com. October
11, 2007. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
^ Wolf, Naomi (March 1, 2004). "The Silent Treatment". New York.
Retrieved May 19, 2010.
^ D'addario, Daniel (May 11, 2015). "10 Questions with Harold lBloom".
^ Walker, Joseph (January 8, 2012). "Group lists Top Ten Anti-Mormon
Statements of 2011". Deseret News.
Allen, Graham (1994). Harold Bloom: Poetics of Conflict. New York, NY:
Basbanes, Nicholas A.
Basbanes, Nicholas A. (2005). Every Book Its Reader: The Power of the
Printed Word to Stir the World. New York: HarperCollins.
Bielik-Robson, Agata (2011). The Saving Lie:
Harold Bloom and
Deconstruction. Northwestern. ISBN 0-8101-2728-8.
Bloom, Harold (May 24, 2003). "The sage of Concord". The
Bloom, Harold. "Article on Ralph Waldo Emerson". Guardian
Bloom, Harold. "Excerpts from various Bloom interviews". The Stanford
Presidential Lecture Series.
Bloom, Harold (September 24, 2003). "Dumbing down American readers".
The Boston Globe.
Bloom, Harold (July 11, 2000). "Can 35 Million Book Buyers Be Wrong?
Yes". The Wall Street Journal. His famous criticism of the Harry
Bloom, Harold (October 12, 2008). "Out of Panic, Self-Reliance". The
New York Times.
Bloom, Harold. "List of Bloom's contributions to The New York Review
of Books". The New York Times.
Harold Bloom 1930–". Contemporary Literary Criticism. Contemporary
Literary Criticism Series. 24. Detroit: Gale. 1983. pp. 70–83.
De Bolla, Peter (1988). Harold Bloom: Toward Historical Rhetorics. New
York, NY: Routledge.
"Modern American Critics since 1955". Dictionary of Literary
Biography. Gale. 67. 1988.
David (1985). Harold Bloom: The Rhetoric of Romantic Vision.
Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
Moynihan, Robert (1986). A Recent Imagining: Interviews with Harold
Bloom, Geoffrey Hartman, J. Hillis Miller, Paul De Man. Archon.
Saurberg, Lars Ole (1997). Versions of the Past—Visions of the
Future: The Canonical in the Criticism of T.S. Eliot, F.R. Leavis,
Northrop Frye, and Harold Bloom. New York, NY: St. Martin's
Scherr, Barry J. (1995). D. H. Lawrence's Response to Plato: A
Bloomian Interpretation. New York, NY: P. Lang.
Sellars, Roy; Allen, Graham, eds. (2007). The Salt Companion to Harold
Bloom. Salt Publishing. ISBN 9781876857202.
"Interview with Bloom on NPR, regarding his book Jesus and Yahweh: The
Names Divine". NPR.
"Interview with Bloom regarding his book How to Read and Why". The
NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. 2000.
"God and Harold at Yale". Claremont Review. April 2014. Archived from
the original on October 8, 2006.
Lesinska, Ieva (October 26, 2004). "Interview regarding Breakfast with
Lydon, Christopher (September 3, 2003). "Radio interview". Harvard Law
Rothenberg, Jennie (July 16, 2003). "Interview with Jennie
Rothenberg". The Atlantic.
Wood, James (May 1, 2006). "The Misreader". The New Republic.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Harold Bloom
Official website at
Harold Bloom on Charlie Rose
Appearances on C-SPAN
Epstein, Joseph I. (May 4, 2003). "In Depth with Harold Bloom".
Works by or about
Harold Bloom in libraries (
Harold Bloom collected news and commentary". The New York
Harold Bloom at Stanford Presidential Lectures
Lamb, Brian (Sep 3, 2000). "How to Read and Why". Interview.
Oventile, Robert Savino (Aug 8, 2015). "Anarchic Transports: A Review
of Harold Bloom's The Daemon Knows: Literary Greatness and the
American Sublime". Review. Sobriquet Magazine.
ISNI: 0000 0003 8550 5720
BNF: cb120275556 (data)