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HANOVER or HANNOVER (/ˈhænoʊvər/ ; German : _Hannover_, pronounced (_ listen )), on the River Leine , is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen_), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover ). At the end of the Napoleonic Wars , the Electorate was enlarged to become a Kingdom with Hanover as its capital.

From 1868 to 1946 Hanover was the capital of the Prussian Province of Hanover and afterwards of the Hanover administrative region until that was abolished in 2005. It is now the capital of the _Land_ of Lower Saxony . Since 2001 it has been part of the Hanover district (_Region Hannover_), which is a municipal body made up of the former district (_Landkreis Hannover_) and city of Hanover (note: although both _Region_ and _Landkreis_ are translated as _district_ they are not the same).

With a population of 518,000, Hanover is a major centre of Northern Germany and the country's thirteenth largest city . Hanover hosts annual commercial trade fairs such as the Hanover Fair and the CeBIT . Every year Hanover hosts the Schützenfest Hannover , the world's largest marksmen's festival, and the Oktoberfest Hannover , the second largest festival of its kind in Germany . In 2000, Hanover hosted the world fair Expo 2000 . The Hanover fairground , due to numerous extensions, especially for the Expo 2000, is the largest in the world. Hanover is of national importance because of its universities and medical school, its international airport and its large zoo . The city is also a major crossing point of railway lines and highways (Autobahnen ), connecting European main lines in both the east-west ( Berlin Ruhr area ) and north-south ( Hamburg Munich , etc.) directions.

"Hanover" is the traditional English spelling. The German spelling (with a double n) is becoming more popular in English; recent editions of encyclopaedias prefer the German spelling, and the local government uses the German spelling on English websites. The English pronunciation /ˈhænoʊvər/ , with stress on the first syllable and a reduced second syllable, is applied to both the German and English spellings, which is different from German pronunciation , with stress on the second syllable and a long second vowel. The traditional English spelling is still used in historical contexts, especially when referring to the British House of Hanover .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 19th century * 1.2 Nazi Germany * 1.3 World War II * 1.4 Population development

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate

* 2.2 Subdivisions

* 2.2.1 Districts * 2.2.2 Quarters

* 3 Main sights

* 4 Society and culture

* 4.1 Museums and galleries * 4.2 Theatre, cabaret and musical

* 4.3 Music

* 4.3.1 Classical music * 4.3.2 Popular music

* 4.4 Sport * 4.5 Regular events

* 5 Transport

* 5.1 Rail * 5.2 Air * 5.3 Road * 5.4 Bus and light rail * 5.5 Bicycle

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 List of largest employers in Hanover * 6.2 Key figures

* 7 Business development * 8 Education * 9 People and residents of Hanover * 10 International relations * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Bibliography * 14 External links

HISTORY

Illustration of Hanover by Matthäus Merian , 1654 See also: Timeline of Hanover and History of Hanover (region)

Hanover was founded in medieval times on the east bank of the River Leine . Its original name _Honovere_ may mean "high (river)bank", though this is debated (cf. _das Hohe Ufer_). Hanover was a small village of ferrymen and fishermen that became a comparatively large town in the 13th century due to its position at a natural crossroads. As overland travel was relatively difficult, its position on the upper navigable reaches of the river helped it to grow by increasing trade. It was connected to the Hanseatic League city of Bremen by the Leine, and was situated near the southern edge of the wide North German Plain and north-west of the Harz mountains, so that east-west traffic such as mule trains passed through it. Hanover was thus a gateway to the Rhine , Ruhr and Saar river valleys, their industrial areas which grew up to the southwest and the plains regions to the east and north, for overland traffic skirting the Harz between the Low Countries and Saxony or Thuringia .

In the 14th century the main churches of Hanover were built, as well as a city wall with three city gates. The beginning of industrialization in Germany led to trade in iron and silver from the northern Harz Mountains , which increased the city's importance.

In 1636 George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg , ruler of the Brunswick-Lüneburg principality of Calenberg , moved his residence to Hanover. The Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg were elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor to the rank of Prince-Elector in 1692, and this elevation was confirmed by the Imperial Diet in 1708. Thus the principality was upgraded to the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg , colloquially known as the Electorate of Hanover after Calenberg's capital (see also: House of Hanover ). Its electors would later become monarchs of Great Britain (and from 1801, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland ). The first of these was George I Louis , who acceded to the British throne in 1714. The last British monarch who ruled in Hanover was William IV . Semi-Salic law , which required succession by the male line if possible, forbade the accession of Queen Victoria in Hanover. As a male-line descendant of George I, Queen Victoria was herself a member of the House of Hanover. Her descendants, however, bore her husband's titular name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha . Three kings of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom, were concurrently also Electoral Princes of Hanover.

During the time of the personal union of the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover (1714–1837), the monarchs rarely visited the city. In fact, during the reigns of the final three joint rulers (1760–1837), there was only one short visit, by George IV in 1821. From 1816 to 1837 Viceroy Adolphus represented the monarch in Hanover.

During the Seven Years\' War , the Battle of Hastenbeck was fought near the city on 26 July 1757. The French army defeated the Hanoverian Army of Observation , leading to the city's occupation as part of the Invasion of Hanover . It was recaptured by Anglo-German forces led by Ferdinand of Brunswick the following year.

19TH CENTURY

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Am Kröpcke , 1895 Schloss Herrenhausen , 1895

After Napoleon imposed the Convention of Artlenburg (Convention of the Elbe) on July 5, 1803, about 35,000 French soldiers occupied Hanover. The Convention also required disbanding the army of Hanover. However, George III did not recognize the Convention of the Elbe. This resulted in a great number of soldiers from Hanover eventually emigrating to Great Britain , where the King\'s German Legion was formed. It was only troops from Hanover and Brunswick that consistently opposed France throughout the entire Napoleonic wars. The Legion later played an important role in the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. The Congress of Vienna in 1815 elevated the electorate to the Kingdom of Hanover . The capital town Hanover expanded to the western bank of the Leine and since then has grown considerably.

In 1837, the personal union of the United Kingdom and Hanover ended because William IV\'s heir in the United Kingdom was female (Queen Victoria ). Hanover could be inherited only by male heirs. Thus, Hanover passed to William IV's brother, Ernest Augustus , and remained a kingdom until 1866, when it was annexed by Prussia during the Austro-Prussian war . Despite Hanover being expected to defeat Prussia at the Battle of Langensalza , Prussia employed Moltke the Elder\'s Kesselschlacht order of battle to instead destroy the Hanoverian army. The city of Hanover became the capital of the Prussian Province of Hanover . After the annexation, the people of Hanover generally opposed the Prussian government.

To Hanover's industry, however, the new connection with Prussia meant an improvement in business. The introduction of free trade promoted economic growth, and led to the recovery of the Gründerzeit (the founders' era). Between 1879 and 1902 Hanover's population grew from 87,600 to 313,940.

In 1842 the first horse railway was inaugurated, and from 1893 an electric tram was installed. In 1887 Hanover's Emile Berliner invented the record and the gramophone . The Synagogue

NAZI GERMANY

After 1937 the Lord Mayor and the state commissioners of Hanover were members of the NSDAP (Nazi party). A large Jewish population then existed in Hanover. In October 1938, 484 Hanoverian Jews of Polish origin were expelled to Poland , including the Grynszpan family . However, Poland refused to accept them, leaving them stranded at the border with thousands of other Polish-Jewish deportees, fed only intermittently by the Polish Red Cross and Jewish welfare organisations. The Grynszpan's son Herschel Grynszpan was in Paris at the time. When he learned of what was happening, he drove to the German embassy in Paris and shot the German diplomat Eduard Ernst vom Rath , who died shortly afterwards.

The Nazis took this act as a pretext to stage a nationwide pogrom known as Kristallnacht . It was in Hanover on 9 November 1938 that the synagogue , designed in 1870 by Edwin Oppler in neo-romantic style, was burnt by the Nazis.

In September 1941, through the "Action Lauterbacher" plan, a ghettoisation of the remaining Hanoverian Jewish families began. Even before the Wannsee Conference , on 15 December 1941, the first Jews from Hanover were deported to Riga . A total of 2,400 people were deported, and very few survived. During the war seven concentration camps were constructed in Hanover, in which many Jews were confined. Of the approximately 4,800 Jews who had lived in Hannover in 1938, fewer than 100 were still in the city when troops of the United States Army arrived on 10 April 1945 to occupy Hanover at the end of the war. Today, a memorial at the Opera Square is a reminder of the persecution of the Jews in Hanover. After the war a large group of Orthodox Jewish survivors of the nearby Bergen-Belsen concentration camp settled in Hanover. The Aegidienkirche was not rebuilt and its ruins were kept as a WWII memorial.

WORLD WAR II

WWII map of Hanover in 1943 Main article: Bombing of Hanover in World War II

As an important railroad and road junction and production center, Hanover was a major target for strategic bombing during World War II , including the Oil Campaign . Targets included the AFA (Stöcken ), the Deurag-Nerag refinery (Misburg ), the Continental plants (Vahrenwald and Limmer ), the United light metal works (VLW) in Ricklingen and Laatzen (today Hanover fairground ), the Hanover/Limmer rubber reclamation plant , the Hanomag factory (Linden ) and the tank factory _M.N.H. Maschinenfabrik Niedersachsen_ (Badenstedt). Forced labourers were sometimes used from the Hannover-Misburg subcamp of the Neuengamme concentration camp . Residential areas were also targeted, and more than 6,000 civilians were killed by the Allied bombing raids. More than 90% of the city center was destroyed in a total of 88 bombing raids. After the war, the Aegidienkirche was not rebuilt and its ruins were left as a war memorial.

The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Hanover in April 1945. The US 84th Infantry Division captured the city on 10 April 1945.

Hanover was in the British zone of occupation of Germany, and became part of the new state (Land) of Lower Saxony in 1946.

Today Hanover is a Vice-President City of Mayors for Peace , an international mayoral organisation mobilising cities and citizens worldwide to abolish and eliminate nuclear weapons by the year 2020.

POPULATION DEVELOPMENT

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1190 1,500 —

1435 5,000 +233.3%

1811 16,816 +236.3%

1836 23,898 +42.1%

1855 33,148 +38.7%

1875 106,667 +221.8%

1895 209,535 +96.4%

1905 250,632 +19.6%

1919 321,200 +28.2%

1939 477,100 +48.5%

1945 325,841 −31.7%

1965 555,228 +70.4%

1985 508,298 −8.5%

2005 515,729 +1.5%

2010 522,686 +1.3%

2012 514,137 −1.6%

2013 518,386 +0.8%

2014 523,642 +1.0%

2015 532,163 +1.6%

GEOGRAPHY

CLIMATE

Hanover experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification _Cfb_).

CLIMATE DATA FOR HANNOVER, GERMANY FOR 1981–2010, EXTREMES 1936-2015 (SOURCE: DWD)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 15.7 (60.3) 18.3 (64.9) 24.4 (75.9) 29.7 (85.5) 32.2 (90) 33.9 (93) 36.4 (97.5) 38.1 (100.6) 33.0 (91.4) 26.7 (80.1) 20.6 (69.1) 16.3 (61.3) 38.1 (100.6)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 4.0 (39.2) 4.9 (40.8) 8.9 (48) 13.9 (57) 18.5 (65.3) 20.9 (69.6) 23.5 (74.3) 23.2 (73.8) 18.9 (66) 13.7 (56.7) 8.1 (46.6) 4.5 (40.1) 13.6 (56.5)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 1.6 (34.9) 1.9 (35.4) 5.0 (41) 8.9 (48) 13.4 (56.1) 16.0 (60.8) 18.4 (65.1) 17.9 (64.2) 14.2 (57.6) 9.9 (49.8) 5.5 (41.9) 2.3 (36.1) 9.6 (49.3)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −1.1 (30) −1.1 (30) 1.2 (34.2) 3.8 (38.8) 7.8 (46) 10.8 (51.4) 13.1 (55.6) 12.9 (55.2) 9.9 (49.8) 6.4 (43.5) 2.8 (37) −0.2 (31.6) 5.5 (41.9)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −22.4 (−8.3) −24.3 (−11.7) −18.3 (−0.9) −7.4 (18.7) −3.2 (26.2) 0.3 (32.5) 3.3 (37.9) 3.3 (37.9) −1.3 (29.7) −7.9 (17.8) −17.1 (1.2) −20.9 (−5.6) −24.3 (−11.7)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 55.9 (2.201) 41.1 (1.618) 54.8 (2.157) 39.6 (1.559) 56.1 (2.209) 59.2 (2.331) 61.0 (2.402) 68.7 (2.705) 57.2 (2.252) 52.8 (2.079) 54.7 (2.154) 60.2 (2.37) 661.3 (26.035)

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 50.0 71.4 108.1 166.2 216.4 204.5 213.4 199.5 144.4 107.2 52.7 38.9 1,566

Source: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst

SUBDIVISIONS

Hanover, seen from the International Space Station

Boroughs of Hanover

Hanover Region

Districts

* Mitte * Vahrenwald-List * Bothfeld-Vahrenheide * Buchholz-Kleefeld * Misburg-Anderten * Kirchrode-Bemerode-Wülferode * Südstadt-Bult * Döhren-Wülfel * Ricklingen * Linden-Limmer * Ahlem-Badenstedt-Davenstedt * Herrenhausen-Stöcken * Nord

Quarters

* Nordstadt * Südstadt * Oststadt * Zoo (for the zoo itself, see Hanover Zoo ) * Herrenhausen * Kronsberg

LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS

NATIONALITY POPULATION (2015)

Turkey 28,415

Poland 10,200

Greece 7,192

Ukraine 6,935

Russia 5,004

Italy 4,229

Serbia 4,178

Bulgaria 3,872

Romania 3,126

Iraq 2,995

Syria 2,783

Iran 2,232

Croatia 2,057

Spain 1,845

China 1,722

MAIN SIGHTS

_ Panoramic view from the viewing platform at the New Town Hall Ernst August memorial, central railway station The Staatsoper Hanover ("state opera") is housed in its classical 19th century opera house. Maschsee seen from the new city hall Market Church in Hanover Old Town Hall Leine River At Hanover City Waterloo Column_ in Hanover Anzeiger Tower Block

One of the most famous sights is the _Royal Gardens of Herrenhausen _:

The _Great Garden_ is an important European baroque garden. The palace itself, however, was largely destroyed by Allied bombing but is currently under reconstruction. Some points of interest are the _Grotto_ (the interior was designed by the French artist Niki de Saint-Phalle ), the _Gallery Building_, the _Orangerie_ and the two pavilions by Remy de la Fosse. The Great Garden consists of several parts. The most popular ones are the _Great Ground_ and the _Nouveau Jardin_. At the centre of the Nouveau Jardin is Europe's highest garden fountain. The historic _Garden Theatre_ _inter alia_ hosted the musicals of the German rock musician Heinz Rudolf Kunze .

The _Berggarten_ is an important European botanical garden. Some points of interest are the _Tropical House_, the _Cactus House_, the _Canary House_ and the _Orchid House_, which hosts one of the world's biggest collection of orchids, and free-flying birds and butterflies. Near the entrance to the Berggarten is the historic _Library Pavillon_. The _Mausoleum_ of the Guelphs is also located in the Berggarten. Like the Great Garden, the Berggarten also consists of several parts, for example the _Paradies_ and the _Prairie Garden_. There is also the _Sea Life Centre Hanover_, which is the first tropical aquarium in Germany.

The _ Georgengarten _ is an English landscape garden. The _Leibniz Temple_ and the _Georgen Palace_ are two points of interest there.

The landmark of Hanover is the New Town Hall (_Neues Rathaus_). Inside the building are four scale models of the city. A worldwide unique diagonal/arch elevator goes up the large dome at a 17 degree angle to an observation deck.

The _ Hanover Zoo _ is one of the most spectacular and best zoos in Europe. The zoo received the Park Scout Award for the fourth year running in 2009/10, placing it among the best zoos in Germany. The zoo consists of several theme areas: Sambesi, Meyers Farm, Gorilla-Mountain, Jungle-Palace, and Mullewapp. Some smaller areas are Australia, the wooded area for wolves, and the so-called swimming area with many seabirds. There is also a tropical house, a jungle house, and a show arena. The new Canadian-themed area, Yukon Bay, opened in 2010. In 2010 the Hanover Zoo had over 1.6 million visitors.

Another point of interest is the _Old Town_. In the centre are the large Marktkirche (Church St. Georgii et Jacobi, preaching venue of the bishop of the Lutheran Landeskirche Hannovers ) and the _Old Town Hall_. Nearby are the _Leibniz House_, the _Nolte House_, and the _Beguine Tower_. A very nice quarter of the Old Town is the _Kreuz-Church-Quarter_ around the _Kreuz Church_ with many nice little lanes. Nearby is the old royal sports hall, now called the _Ballhof_ theatre. On the edge of the Old Town are the _Market Hall_, the _Leine Palace_, and the ruin of the _Aegidien Church_ which is now a monument to the victims of war and violence. Through the _Marstall Gate_ you arrive at the bank of the river _Leine_, where the world-famous _Nanas_ of Niki de Saint-Phalle are located. They are part of the _Mile of Sculptures_, which starts from Trammplatz, leads along the river bank, crosses Königsworther Square, and ends at the entrance of the Georgengarten. Near the Old Town is the district of Calenberger Neustadt where the Catholic Basilica Minor of _St. Clemens_, the _Reformed Church_ and the Lutheran Neustädter Hof- und Stadtkirche St. Johannis are located.

Some other popular sights are the _Waterloo Column_, the _Laves House_, the _Wangenheim Palace_, the _ Lower Saxony State Archives_, the _ Hanover Playhouse_, the _ Kröpcke Clock_, the _Anzeiger Tower Block_, the _Administration Building of the NORD/LB_, the _Cupola Hall_ of the Congress Centre, the _ Lower Saxony Stock_, the _Ministry of Finance_, the _Garten Church_, the _Luther Church_, the _Gehry Tower_ (designed by the American architect Frank O. Gehry ), the specially designed _ Bus Stops_, the _Opera House_, _the Central Station_, the _Maschsee_ lake and the city forest _Eilenriede_, which is one of the largest of its kind in Europe. With around 40 parks, forests and gardens, a couple of lakes, two rivers and one canal, Hanover offers a large variety of leisure activities.

Since 2007 the historic _Leibniz Letters_, which can be viewed in the _ Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library_, are on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register .

Outside the city centre is the _EXPO-Park_, the former site of EXPO 2000 . Some points of interest are the _Planet M._, the former _German Pavillon_, some nations' vacant pavilions, the _Expowale_, the _EXPO-Plaza_ and the _EXPO-Gardens_ (Parc Agricole, EXPO-Park South and the Gardens of change). The fairground can be reached by the _Exponale_, one of the largest pedestrian bridges in Europe.

The _ Hanover fairground_ is the largest Exhibition Centre in the world. It provides 496,000 square metres of covered indoor space, 58,000 square metres of open-air space, 27 halls and pavilions. Many of the Exhibition Centre's halls are architectural highlights. Furthermore, it offers the Convention Center with its 35 function rooms, glassed-in areas between halls, grassy park-like recreation zones and its own heliport.

Two important sights on the fairground are the _Hermes Tower_ (88.8 metres high) and the _EXPO Roof_, the largest wooden roof in the world.

In the district of Anderten is the _European Cheese Centre_, the only Cheese Experience Centre in Europe. Another tourist sight in Anderten is the _Hindenburg Lock_, which was the biggest lock in Europe at the time of its construction in 1928. The _Tiergarten_ (literally the "animals' garden") in the district of Kirchrode is a large forest originally used for deer and other game for the king's table.

In the district of Groß-Buchholz the 282-metre-high _ Telemax _ is located, which is the tallest building in Lower Saxony and the highest television tower in Northern Germany. Some other notable towers are the _VW-Tower_ in the city centre and the old towers of the former middle-age defence belt: _Döhrener Tower_, _Lister Tower_ and the _Horse Tower_.

The 36 most important sights of the city centre are connected with a 4.2 kilometres (3 mi)-long red line, which is painted on the pavement. This so-called _Red Thread_ marks out a walk that starts at the Tourist Information Office and ends on the Ernst-August-Square in front of the central station. There is also a guided sightseeing-bus tour through the city.

SOCIETY AND CULTURE

MUSEUMS AND GALLERIES

Hannover from sky

The _Historic Museum_ describes the history of Hanover, from the medieval settlement "Honovere" to the world-famous Exhibition City of today. The museum focuses on the period from 1714 to 1834 when Hanover had a strong relationship with the British royal house.

With more than 4,000 members, the _ Kestnergesellschaft _ is the largest art society in Germany. The museum hosts exhibitions from classical modernist art to contemporary art. One big focus is put on film, video, contemporary music and architecture, room installments and big presentations of contemporary paintings, sculptures and video art.

The _ Kestner-Museum _ is located in the _House of 5.000 windows_. The museum is named after August Kestner and exhibits 6,000 years of applied art in four areas: Ancient cultures, ancient Egypt, applied art and a valuable collection of historic coins.

The _KUBUS_ is a forum for contemporary art. It features mostly exhibitions and projects of famous and important artists from Hanover.

The _Kunstverein Hannover_ (Art Society Hanover) shows contemporary art and was established in 1832 as one of the first art societies in Germany. It is located in the _Künstlerhaus_ (House of artists). There are around 7 international monografic and thematic Exhibitions in one year.

The _ Lower Saxony State Museum _ is the largest museum in Hanover. The _State Gallery_ shows the European Art from the 11th to the 20th century, the _Nature Department_ shows the zoology, geology, botanic, geology and a _Vivarium_ with fishes, insects, reptiles and amphibians. The _Primeval Department_ shows the primeval history of Lower Saxony and the _Folklore Department_ shows the cultures from all over the world.

The _ Sprengel Museum _ shows the art of the 20th century. It is one of the most notable art museums in Germany. The focus is put on the classical modernist art with the collection of _Kurt Schwitters_, works of German expressionism, and French cubism, the cabinet of abstracts, the graphics and the department of photography and media. Furthermore, the museum shows the famous works of the French artist Niki de Saint-Phalle.

The _Theatre Museum_ shows an exhibition of the history of the theatre in Hanover from the 17th century up to now: opera, concert, drama and ballet. The museum also hosts several touring exhibitions during the year.

The _ Wilhelm Busch Museum _ is the _German Museum of Caricature and Critical Graphic Arts_. The collection of the works of Wilhelm Busch and the extensive collection of cartoons and critical graphics is this museum unique in Germany. Furthermore, the museum hosts several exhibitions of national and international artists during the year.

A cabinet of coins is the _Münzkabinett der TUI-AG_. The _Polizeigeschichtliche Sammlung Niedersachsen_ is the largest police museum in Germany. Textiles from all over the world can be visited in the _Museum for textile art_. The _EXPOseeum_ is the museum of the world-exhibition "EXPO 2000 Hannover". Carpets and objects from the orient can be visited in the _Oriental Carpet Museum_. The _Blind Man Museum_ is a rarity in Germany, another one is only in Berlin. The _Museum of veterinary medicine_ is unique in Germany. The _Museum for Energy History_ describes the 150 years old history of the application of energy. The _Home Museum Ahlem_ shows the history of the district of Ahlem. The _Mahn- und Gedenkstätte Ahlem_ describes the history of the Jewish people in Hanover and the _Stiftung Ahlers Pro Arte / Kestner Pro Arte_ shows modern art. Modern art is also the main topic of the _Kunsthalle Faust_, the _Nord/LB Art Gellery_ and of the _Foro Artistico / Eisfabrik_.

Some leading art events in Hanover are the _Long Night of the museums_ and the _Zinnober Kunstvolkslauf_ which features all the galleries in Hanover.

People who are interested in astronomy should visit the _Observatory Geschwister Herrschel_ on the Lindener Mountain or the small planetarium inside of the Bismarck School.

THEATRE, CABARET AND MUSICAL

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Around 40 theatres are located in Hanover. The _Opera House_, the _Schauspielhaus_ (Play House), the _Ballhofeins_, the _Ballhofzwei_ and the _Cumberlandsche Galerie_ belong to the _ Lower Saxony State Theatre_. The _Theater am Aegi_ is Hanover's big theatre for musicals, shows and guest performances. The _Neues Theater_ (New Theatre) is the Boulevard Theatre of Hanover. The _Theater für Niedersachsen_ is another big theatre in Hanover, which also has an own Musical-Company. Some of the most important Musical-Productions are the rock musicals of the German rock musician Heinz Rudolph Kunze, which take place at the _Garden-Theatre_ in the Great Garden.

Some important theatre-events are the _Tanztheater International_, the _Long Night of the Theatres_, the _Festival Theaterformen_ and the _International Competition for Choreographs_.

Hanover's leading cabaret-stage is the _GOP Variety theatre_ which is located in the _Georgs Palace_. Some other famous cabaret-stages are the _Variety Marlene_, the _Uhu-Theatre_. the theatre _Die Hinterbühne_, the _Rampenlich Variety_ and the revue-stage _TAK_. The most important Cabaret-Event is the _Kleines Fest im Großen Garten_ (Little Festival in the Great Garden) which is the most successful Cabaret Festival in Germany. It features artists from around the world. Some other important events are the _Calenberger Cabaret Weeks_, the _ Hanover Cabaret Festival_ and the _Wintervariety_.

MUSIC

Classical Music

Hanover has two symphony orchestras: The Lower Saxon State Orchestra Hanover and the NDR Radiophilharmonie (North German Radio Philharmonic Orchestra). Two notable choirs have their homes in Hanover: the Girls Choir Hanover (Mädchenchor Hannover) and the Knabenchor Hannover (Boys Choir Hanover).

There are/were two big international competitions for classical music in Hanover:

* Hanover International Violin Competition (since 1991) * Classica Nova International Music Competition (1997) (Non profit association Classica Nova exists in Hanover with the aim of continuing the Classica Nova competition).

Popular Music

Hanover's own band, Scorpions

The rock bands Scorpions and Fury in the Slaughterhouse are originally from Hanover. Acclaimed DJ Mousse T also has his main recording studio in the area. Rick J. Jordan , member of the band Scooter was born here in 1968. Eurovision Song Contest winner of 2010, Lena ( Lena Meyer-Landrut ), is also from Hanover.

SPORT

Hannover 96 (nickname _Die Roten_ or 'The Reds') is the top local football team that played in the Bundesliga top division until being relegated to the 2. Bundesliga after the 2015-2016 season. Home games are played at the HDI-Arena , which hosted matches in the 1974 and 2006 World Cups and the Euro 1988 . Their reserve team _Hannover 96 II_ plays in the fourth league. Their home games were played in the traditional _Eilenriedestadium_ till they moved to the HDI Arena due to DFL directives. _ Arminia Hannover _ is another very traditional soccer team in Hanover that has played in the first league for years and plays now in the _Niedersachsen-West Liga_ ( Lower Saxony League West). Home matches are played in the _Rudolf-Kalweit-Stadium_.

The Hannover Indians are the local ice hockey team. They play in the third tier. Their home games are played at the traditional Eisstadion am Pferdeturm . The Hannover Scorpions played in Hanover in Germany's top league until 2013 when they sold their license and moved to Langenhagen .

Hanover was one of the Rugby union capitals in Germany. The first German Rugby team was founded in Hanover in 1878. Hanover-based teams dominated the German Rugby scene for a long time. _ DRC Hannover _ plays in the first division , and _SV Odin von 1905_ as well as _SG 78/08 Hannover_ play in the second division.

The first German Fencing Club was founded in Hanover in 1862. Today there are three more Fencing Clubs in Hanover.

The Hannover Korbjäger are the city's top basketball team. They play their home games at the _IGS Linden_.

Hanover is a centre for Water sports . Thanks to the lake _Maschsee_, the rivers _Ihme_ and _Leine_ and to the channel _Mittellandkanal_ Hanover hosts sailing schools, yacht schools, waterski clubs, rowing clubs, canoe clubs and paddle clubs. The water polo team _WASPO W98_ plays in the first division.

The _Hannover Regents_ play in the third Bundesliga (baseball) division.

The _Hannover Grizzlies_ are the local American Football Team.

The _Hannover Marathon _ is the biggest running event in Hanover with more than 11.000 participants and usually around 200.000 spectators. Some other important running events are the _Gilde Stadtstaffel_ (relay), the _Sport-Check Nachtlauf_ (night-running), the _Herrenhäuser Team-Challenge_, the _Hannoversche Firmenlauf_ (company running) and the _Silvesterlauf_ (sylvester running).

Hanover hosts also an important international cycle race : The _Nacht von Hannover_ (night of Hanover). The race takes place around the Market Hall.

The lake _Maschsee_ hosts the _International Dragon Boat Races_ and the _ Canoe Polo -Tournament_. Many regattas take place during the year. _Head of the river Leine_ on the river _Leine_ is one of the biggest rowing regattas in Hanover.

One of Germany's most successful dragon boat teams, the All Sports Team Hannover , which has won since its foundation in year 2000 more than 100 medals on national and international competitions, is doing practising on the Maschsee in the heart of Hannover. The All Sports Team has received the award "Team of the Year 2013" in Lower Saxony

Some other important sport events are the _ Lower Saxony Beach Volleyball Tournament_, the international horse show _German Classics_ and the international ice hockey tournament _Nations Cup_.

REGULAR EVENTS

CeBIT 2008 conference centre in Hanover

Hanover is one of the leading Exhibition Cities in the world. Each year Hanover hosts more than 60 international and national exhibitions. The most popular ones are the _ CeBIT _, the _Hanover Fair_, the _Domotex_, the _Ligna_, the _IAA Nutzfahrzeuge_ and the _Agritechnica_. Hanover also hosts a huge number of congresses and symposiums like _International Symposium on Society and Resource Management_

But Hanover is not only one of the most important Exhibition Cities in the world, it is also one of the German capitals for marksmen. The _Schützenfest Hannover_ is the largest Marksmen's Fun Fair in the world and takes place once a year (late June to early July) (2014 - July 4th to the 13th). It consists of more than 260 rides and inns, five large beer tents and a big entertainment programme. The highlight of this fun fair is the 12 kilometres (7 mi) long _Parade of the Marksmen_ with more than 12.000 participants from all over the world, among them around 5.000 marksmen, 128 bands and more than 70 wagons, carriages and big festival vehicles. It is the longest procession in Europe. Around 2 million people visit this fun fair every year. The landmark of this Fun Fair is the biggest transportable Ferris Wheel in the world (60 m or 197 ft high). The origins of this fun fair is located in the year 1529.

Hanover also hosts one of the two largest Spring Festivals in Europe with around 180 rides and inns, 2 large beer tents and around 1.5 million visitors each year. The Oktoberfest Hannover is the second largest Oktoberfest in the world with around 160 rides and inns, two large beer tents and around 1 million visitors each year.

The _Maschsee Festival_ takes place around the Maschsee Lake. Each year around 2 million visitors come to enjoy live music, comedy, cabaret and much more. It is the largest Volksfest of its kind in Northern Germany.

The Great Garden hosts every year the _International Fireworks Competition_, and the _International Festival Weeks Herrenhausen_ with lots of music and cabaret.

The _Carnival Procession_ is around 3 kilometres (2 mi) long and consists of 3.000 participants, around 30 festival vehicles and around 20 bands and takes place every year.

Some more festivals are for example the Festival _Feuer und Flamme_ (Fire and Flames), the _Gartenfestival_ (Garden Festival), the _Herbstfestival_ (Autumn Festival), the _Harley Days_, the _Steintor Festival_ (Steintor is a party area in the city centre) and the _Lister-Meile-Festival_ (Lister Meile is a large pedestrian area).

Hanover also hosts Food Festivals, for example the _Wine Festival_ and the _Gourmet Festival_.

Furthermore, Hanover hosts some special markets. The _Old Town Flea Market_ is the oldest flea market in Germanyand the _Market for Art and Trade_ has a high reputation. Some other big markets are of course the _Christmas Markets of the City of Hanover_ in the Old Town and city centre and the Lister Meile.

TRANSPORT

Hannover Hauptbahnhof Citaro G natural gas bus designed by James Irvine TW 2000 tram designed by Herbert Lindinger and Jasper Morrison TUI AG headquarters in Hanover

RAIL

The city's central station, Hannover Hauptbahnhof , is a hub of the German high-speed ICE network. It is the starting point of the Hanover- Würzburg high-speed rail line and also the central hub for the Hanover S-Bahn . It offers many international and national connections.

AIR

Hanover and its area is served by Hanover/ Langenhagen International Airport ( IATA code : HAJ; ICAO code : EDDV)

ROAD

Hanover is also an important hub of Germany's Autobahn network; the junction of two major autobahns, the A2 and A7 is at _Kreuz Hannover-Ost_, at the northeastern edge of the city.

Local autobahns are A 352 (a short cut between A7 and A2 , also known as the _airport autobahn_ because it passes _ Hanover Airport_) and the A 37 .

The Schnellweg _(en: expressway )_ system, a number of Bundesstraße roads, forms a structure loosely resembling a large ring road together with A2 and A7. The roads are B 3 , B 6 and Bundesstraße 65B 65, called Westschnellweg (B6 on the northern part, B3 on the southern part), Messeschnellweg (B3, becomes A37 near Burgdorf , crosses A2, becomes B3 again, changes to B6 at _Seelhorster Kreuz_, then passes the Hanover fairground as B6 and becomes A37 again before merging into A7) and Südschnellweg (starts out as B65, becomes B3/B6/B65 upon crossing _Westschnellweg_, then becomes B65 again at _Seelhorster Kreuz_).

BUS AND LIGHT RAIL

Main article: Hanover Stadtbahn

Hanover has an extensive Stadtbahn and bus system, operated by üstra . The city is famous for its designer buses and tramways, the TW 6000 and TW 2000 trams being the most well-known examples.

BICYCLE

Cycle paths are very common in the city centre. At off-peak hours you are allowed to take your bike on a tram or bus.

ECONOMY

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Various industrial businesses are located in Hannover. The Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Transporter (VWN) factory at Hannover-Stöcken is the biggest employer in the region and operates a huge plant at the northern edge of town adjoining the Mittellandkanal and Motorway A2. Jointly with a factory of German tire and automobile parts manufacturer Continental AG , they have a coal-burning power plant. Continental AG, founded in Hanover in 1871, is one of the city's major companies, as is Sennheiser . Since 2008 a take-over is in progress: the Schaeffler Group from Herzogenaurach ( Bavaria ) holds the majority of the stock but were required due to the financial crisis to deposit the options as securities at banks. TUI AG has its HQ in Hanover. Hanover is home to many insurance companies, many of which operate only in Germany. One major global reinsurance company is Hannover Re , whose headquarters are east of the city centre.

LIST OF LARGEST EMPLOYERS IN HANOVER

Employer EST. HANOVER LOCATED EMPLOYEES

Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles (VWN) 1956 14.500

Klinikum Region Hannover 2005 8.500

Hannover Medical School 1961 7.600

Continental 1871 7.500

Deutsche Bahn 1994 6.000

TUI 2002 4.600

DHL 1969 4.400

Nord/LB 1970 4.000

Talanx 1996 4.000

WABCO 2007 2.600

KEY FIGURES

In 2012, the city generated a GDP of €29,5 billion which is equivalent to €74,822 per employee. The Gross value of production in 2012 was €26,4 billion which is equivalent to €66,822 per employee.

Around 300,000 employees were counted in 2014. 189,000 of these had their primary residence in Hanover while 164,892 commute into the city every day.

In 2014 the city was home to 34,198 businesses, of which 9,342 were registered in the German Trade Register and 24,856 counted as small businesses . Hence, more than half of the metropolitan area's businesses in the German Trade Register are located in Hanover (17,485 total).

BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

Hannoverimpuls GMBH is a joint business development company from the city and region of Hannover . The company was founded in 2003 and supports the start-up, growth and relocation of businesses in the Hannover Region. The focus is on seven sectors, which stand for sustainable economic growth: Automotive , Energy Solutions , Information and Communications Technology , Life Sciences , Optical Technologies , Creative Industries and Production Engineering .

A range of programmes supports companies from the key industries in their expansion plans in Hannover or abroad. Three regional centres specifically promote international economic relations with Russia , India and Turkey .

EDUCATION

The Leibniz University Hannover is the largest funded institution in Hanover for providing higher education to the students from around the world. Below are the names of the universities and some of the important schools including newly opened Hannover Medical Research School in 2003 for attracting the students from biology background from around the world.

There are several universities in Hanover:

* Leibniz University Hannover , host institution to the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics * Hochschule für Musik, Theater und Medien Hannover * Hannover Medical School * School of Veterinary Medicine Hanover (_Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover_) * GISMA Business School , part of the for-profit education company Global University Systems .

There is one University of Applied Science and Arts in Hanover:

* Hochschule Hannover (the former Fachhochschule )

The _Schulbiologiezentrum Hannover_ maintains practical biology schools in four locations ( Botanischer Schulgarten Burg , Freiluftschule Burg, Zooschule Hannover, and Botanischer Schulgarten Linden). The University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover also maintains its own botanical garden specializing in medicinal and poisonous plants, the Heil- und Giftpflanzengarten der Tierärztlichen Hochschule Hannover .

PEOPLE AND RESIDENTS OF HANOVER

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Wilhelm Busch

Gerhard Schröder

The following is a selection of famous Hanover-natives, personalities connected with the city and honorary citizens:

* Hannah Arendt (1906–1975), German-born American political theorist * Rudolf Augstein (1923–2003), German journalist, founder of the weekly journal Der Spiegel * Hermann Bahlsen (1859–1919), businessman, inventor of the Leibniz-Keks * Rudolf von Bennigsen (1824–1902), liberal politician * Emil Berliner (1851–1929), inventor of the phonograph * Walter Bruch (1908–1990), inventor of the PAL color television system * Wilhelm Busch (1832–1908), caricaturist, painter and poet * Niki de Saint Phalle (1930–2002), sculptor, painter and film maker * Fury in the Slaughterhouse , rock band * George I , King of Great Britain and Ireland, prince elector of Hanover * George II , King of Great Britain and Ireland, prince elector of Hanover * George III , King of Great Britain and Ireland, prince elector of Hanover * Georg Friedrich Grotefend (1775–1853), epigraphist and philologist * Conrad Wilhelm Hase , (1818–1902), architect, founder of the Hanover school of architecture * Caroline Herschel and William Herschel (1738–1822), astronomers * Manfred Kohrs (born 1957), tattooist, conceptual artist and Master of Economics * Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves (1788–1864), architect * Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716), philosopher * Per Mertesacker (born 1984), German football player for Arsenal F.C. and Germany * Otto Fritz Meyerhof (1884–1951), recipient of the Nobel prize in medicine, 1922 * Lena Meyer-Landrut (born 1991), winner of the Eurovision Song Contest 2010 * Reiner E. Moritz (born 1938), German film director and producer * Gerhard Schröder (born 1944), German politician (SPD) (former Chancellor of Germany ) * Christian Wulff (born 1959), politician (CDU), former President of Germany * Kurt Schumacher (1895–1952), politician, re-organiser of the SPD after World War II * Kurt Schwitters (1887–1948), artist * Wyn Hoop (born 1936), singer * Uli Stein (artist) (born 1954), artist, cartoonist * Scorpions (band) (formed in 1965), rock band * Dieter Roth (1930–1998), artist, print-maker, author, poet, world renowned composer

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany

Hanover is twinned with:

CITY COUNTRY

Bristol United Kingdom

Perpignan France

Rouen France

Blantyre Malawi

Poznań Poland

Hiroshima Japan

Leipzig Germany

SEE ALSO

* Lower Saxony portal

* CeBIT ( CeBIT Computer Messe) * Expo 2000 * Hanover Fair (Hannover Messe) * Metropolitan region Hannover-Braunschweig-Göttingen- Wolfsburg * Schützenfest Hannover

REFERENCES

* ^ "Schostok zieht ins Rathaus" (in German). Hannoversche Allgemeine. 6 October 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-14. * ^ Landesbetrieb für Statistik und Kommunikationstechnologie Niedersachsen, 102 Bevölkerung - Basis Zensus 2011, Stand 31. Dezember 2015 (Tabelle K1020014) * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica uses "Hannover". It says "_English_ Hanover" but uses "Hannover" in the prose. * ^ Microsoft Encarta gives the primary spelling as "Hannover". * ^ "Official Website of the City and Region of Hannover". Hannover.de. 2009-10-27. Retrieved 2011-04-07. * ^ Schwab, Gerald (1990). _The Day the Holocaust Began: The Odyssey of Herschel Grynszpan_. Praeger. p. 14. * ^ "Kristallnacht: A Nationwide Pogrom, November 9–10, 1938". _Holocaust Encyclopedia_. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 30 June 2015. * ^ Meyer, Michael (2000). _Deutsch-jüdische Geschichte der Neuzeit. Band IV_ (in German). Munich: C.H. Beck. ISBN 3-406-39705-0 .

* ^ Fröbe, Rainer (1989). _Konzentrationslager in Hannover - KZ-Arbeit und Rüstungsindustrie in der Spätphase des Zweiten Weltkriegs_. Hildesheim: August Lax. ISBN 3-7848-2422-6 . * ^ Mlynek, Klaus (2009). _'Stadtlexikon Hannover: Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart'_ (in German). Hannover: Schlütersche. p. 17. * ^ "History of Hanover 1866-1945, official web site of the city (German)". Hannover.de. Retrieved 2011-04-07. * ^ _Video: Allies Overrun Germany Etc. (1945)_. Universal Newsreel . 1945. Retrieved February 21, 2012. * ^ Stanton, Shelby, _World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939-1946_ (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 156. * ^ "Mayors for Peace". 2020visioncampaign.org. Retrieved 2011-04-07. * ^ "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte". * ^ "Ausgewählte Daten zur Struktur der Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund in der Landeshauptstadt Hannover". 2015: 10. * ^ https://storki.wordpress.com/2014/05/09/the-old-new-town-hall-rathaus-in-hannover-germany/ * ^ _A_ _B_ "Hannover hat den "Besten Zoo" Aktuelle Nachricht Erlebnis-Zoo Hannover - Top Freizeitziel und Sehenswürdigkeit Niedersachsen" (in German). Zoo-hannover.de. Retrieved 2011-04-07. * ^ "Exhibition Grounds - Deutsche Messe AG, Hannover - Germany". Messe.de. 2005-04-20. Retrieved 2011-04-07. * ^ Natterer, Julius. "Roof of the Main Hall for EXPO 2000 in Hanover, Germany," in _Structural Engineering International_, August 2000, n. 3 v. 10 * ^ "Classica Nova Competition Cycle". Brainin.org. Retrieved 2011-04-07. * ^ _Voting for Athletes on the Year 2013 in Lower Saxony_ * ^ "ISSRM 2014 Hannover". Eventegg. * ^ HANNOVER.DE - Portal der Landeshauptstadt und der Region Hannover * ^ "Transport of bicycles and animals". _www.uestra.de_. 2016-04-29. Retrieved 2016-04-29. * ^ Profile of Continental AG, retrieved on 10 September 2009. * ^ "Contact TUI Group." TUI AG . Retrieved on 29 May 2009. * ^ "Die 10 größten Arbeitgeber in Hannover". _Jobs-hannover.org_. Retrieved 11 February 2016. * ^ "Hannovers Wirtschaft in Zahlen: Volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnung" (in German). Stadt Hannover. 2015-09-10. Retrieved 2015-09-13. * ^ "Alles im Blick: Trends und Fakten 2015" (PDF). _Wirtschaftsförderung Hannover_ (in German). Landeshauptstadt Hannover, Region Hannover, hannoverimpuls GmbH. Retrieved 2015-09-13. * ^ "IHK Hannover: Anzahl der Betriebe in den Gemeinden per 01.01.2014" (PDF) (in German). IHK Hannover . Retrieved 2015-09-13. * ^ "IHK Hannover: Im Handelsregister eingetragene Betriebe per 1.1.2014" (PDF) (in German). IHK Hannover . Retrieved 2015-09-13. * ^ "hannoverimpuls.com". hannoverimpuls.com. Retrieved 2011-04-07.

* ^ "HMT-Hannover.de". HMT-Hannover.de. Retrieved 2011-04-07. * ^ "MH-hannover.de". MH-hannover.de. Retrieved 2011-04-07. * ^ "hs-hannover.de". hs-hannover.de. Retrieved 2013-07-16. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ " Hanover - Twin Towns" (official website). V.i.S.d.P. Presse- und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit der Landeshauptstadt Hannover. Retrieved 2015-12-07. * ^ " Bristol City - Town twinning". Bristol City Council. Retrieved 2009-07-17. * ^ " Poznań - Miasta partnerskie". _1998–2013 Urząd Miasta Poznania_ (in Polish). City of Poznań. Archived from the original on 2013-09-23. Retrieved 2013-12-11. * ^ " Poznań Official Website - Twin Towns". Urząd Miasta Poznania. Retrieved 2008-11-29. * ^ "広島市の姉妹・友好都市". City.hiroshima.jp. Retrieved 2009-07-17. * ^ " Leipzig - International Relations". 2009 Leipzig City Council, Office for European and International Affairs. Retrieved 2009-07-17.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

_See also: Bibliography of the history of Hanover _

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to HANNOVER _.

* _ Hanover travel guide from Wikivoyage * City\'s own website * Official website for tourism, holiday and leisure in Lower

.