HAMADāN (pronounced ) or HAMEDāN (Persian : همدان,
Old Persian : Haŋgmetana,
Ecbatana ) is the capital city
Hamadan Province of
Iran . At the 2006 census, its population was
473,149, in 127,812 families.
Hamadan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities. It is
possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the
Ancient Greek historian,
Herodotus , states that it was the capital of
Medes , around 700 BCE.
Hamadan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the
Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran. The city is
1,850 meters above sea level .
The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract
tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360
kilometres (220 miles) southwest of
The main symbols of this city are the
Ganj Nameh inscription, the
Avicenna monument and the
Baba Taher monument. The majority of the
population is Persian ; however, there is a considerable Azerbaijani
* 1 History
* 2 Climate
* 3 Panoramic view
* 4 People
* 5 Culture
* 6 Gallery
* 7 Sport
* 8 Education
* 9 Famous Hamadanians
* 10 International relations
* 10.1 Twin towns – Sister cities
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 13 Bibliography
* 14 External links
Timeline of Hamadan 16th
century map of
Matrakçı Nasuh The
Ganjnameh , a
cuneiform inscription in
Hamadan Silver Drachma of Parthian
king Mithridates II made in Ecbatan mint
Clifford Edmund Bosworth , "
Hamadan is a very old city.
It may conceivably, but improbably, be mentioned in cuneiform texts
from ca. 1100 BC, the time of Assyrian King Tiglath-pilesar I, but is
certainly mentioned by
Herodotus (i.98) who says that the king of
Media Diokes built the city of Agbatana or Ekbatana in the 7th century
Hamadan was established by the
Medes . It then became one of several
capital cities of the
Achaemenid Dynasty .
Hamadan is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra as the place where
a scroll was found giving the
Jews permission from King Darius to
rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. (Ezra 6:2). Its ancient name of
Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text. Because it was a mile above sea
level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents.
During the Parthian era,
Ctesiphon was the capital of the country,
Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers.
After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in
Hamadan. In the year 633 the battle of
Nahavand took place and Hamadan
fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs.
Buwayhids , the city suffered much damage. In the 11th
Seljuks shifted their capital from
Baghdad to Hamadan.
The city of Hamadan, its fortunes following the rise and fall of
regional powers, was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasion.
Safavid era, the city thrived. Thereafter, in the 18th
Hamadan was surrendered to the
Ottomans , but due to the work
of Nader Shah e Afshar ,
Hamadan was cleared of invaders and, as a
result of a peace treaty between
Iran and the Ottomans, it was
returned to Iran.
Hamadan stands on the
Silk Road , and even in recent
centuries the city enjoyed strong commerce and trade as a result of
its location on the main road network in the western region of Persia
World War I
World War I , the city was the scene of heavy fighting between
Russian and Turko-German forces. It was occupied by both armies, and
finally by the British, before it was returned to control of the
Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918.
Hamadan spot (light blue in center) in
Hamadan province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east
Zagros . The vast plains of the north and northeast of the province
are influenced by strong winds, that almost last throughout the year.
The various air currents of this region are: the north and north west
winds of the spring and winter seasons, which are usually humid and
bring rainfall. The west-east air currents that blow in the autumn,
and the local winds that develop due to difference in air-pressure
between the elevated areas and the plains, like the blind wind of the
Asad Abad region.
Hamadan is in the vicinity of the
Alvand mountains and has a dry
summer continental climate (
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification Dsa), in
transition with a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate
classification BSk), with snowy winters. In fact, it is one of the
coldest cities in Iran. The temperature may drop below −30 °C
(−22 °F) on the coldest days. Heavy snowfall is common during
winter and this can persist for periods of up to two months. During
the short summer, the weather is mild, pleasant, and mostly sunny.
CLIMATE DATA FOR HAMEDAN
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source: NOAA (1961-1990)
Mishan, a plain of
Hamadan at night
According to the survey of 1997, the population of the province of
Hamadan was 1,677,957. Based on official statistics of 1997, the
Hamadan county was 563,444 people. The majority of
population are Persians with a sizeable minority of
Azeris , and a
small group of
The Saint Mary Church of
Hamadan The Stone Lion
Hamadan is home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is
also said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited
Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like leather,
ceramic, and carpets.
Iran\'s Cultural Heritage Organization lists 207 sites of historical
and cultural significance in the city of
A tomb believed by some to hold the remains of tomb the biblical
Esther and her uncle
Mordechai is located in Hamadan.
The scientist and writer known in the west as
Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina)
is buried in Hamadan. The 11th-century Iranian poet
Baba Taher is also
interred in Hamadan.
This city is also the birthplace of Badi\' al-Zaman al-Hamadani ,
author of the Maqamat .
Inside the tomb of
The Tomb of
The handwriting of
Canon of Medicine in the Tomb of
Tomb of Esther and Mordechai , a tomb believed by some to hold the
Inside the structure alleged by some to be the Tomb of
Emamzade Abdollah Mosque
Dome of Alavian (related with
Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani
PAS Hamedan F.C. were founded on June 9, 2007 after the dissolution
Tehran F.C. . The team, along with
Alvand Hamedan F.C. ,
currently participates in the
Azadegan League .
Some sport complexes in this city include: Qods Stadium , Shahid
Mofatteh Stadium , Takhti Sport Complex and the National Stadium of
Hamadan University of Technology, in
Persian Constitutional Revolution , education in Hamadan
was limited to some
Maktab Houses and theological schools. Fakhrie
Mozafari School was the first modern school of Hamadan, which was
built after that revolution. Alliance and Lazarist were also the first
modern schools founded by foreign institutions in Hamadan.
Some of the popular universities in
* Bu-Ali Sina University
Hamadan Medical University
* Islamic Azad University of Hamadan
Hamadan University of Technology
Fazlollah Zahedi and his family
Abolhassan Banisadr , economist, politician, and the first
post-revolutionary elected president of the Islamic Republic of Iran
* Amir Nosrat\'ollah Balakhanlou , born in
Tehran — two-time mayor
and MP for
Hamadan City (1950s and early 1960s)
* Amir-Shahab Razavian , film director, writer and producer
Baba-Taher-e Oryan , a famous Poet (1100 A.c)
Ein-Alqozat Hamadani , a great philosopher and sufist (1100 A.C)
Ehsan Yarshater , historian, scientists, and founder of
Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi , celebrated poet (1300 A.C)
Fazlollah Zahedi , military general
Fereydoun Moshiri , contemporary poet (originally from Hamadan,
but born in Tehran)
Hanieh Tavassoli , actress
Joseph Emin , a major activist in the attempts to liberate Armenia
during the 18th century
Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani , poet and scholar
Mirzadeh Eshghi , a celebrated nationalist poet
Moshfegh Hamadani , writer, journalist and translator
Parviz Parastouei , acclaimed actor
Rashid-al-Din Hamadani , Persian statesman, historian and
physician of the 13th-14th centuries
Shirin Ebadi , lawyer and the 2003 Nobel Peace Laureate
Samuel Rahbar , scientist
* Viguen , known as the king of Persian pop and jazz music
Wojtek (bear) , Bear purchased by Polish army in Second World War.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
Hamadan is twinned with:
Yekaterinburg , Russia
Baba Taher Orian
Ali Sadr Cave
Wojtek (soldier bear)
* ^ "معارفه سرپرست شهرداري همدان".
Municipality.hamedan.ir (in Persian). Hamedan Municipality. Retrieved
18 February 2017.
* ^ Multiple Authors (April 18, 2012). "HAMADĀN". Encyclopædia
Iranica . Retrieved 18 April 2015.
* ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" . Islamic
Iran . Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11.
* ^ Introduction: Hamedan Province
* ^ Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Peter McDonald, Meimanat
Hosseini-Chavoshi, "The Fertility Transition in Iran: Revolution and
Reproduction", Springer, 2009. pp 100-101: "The first category is
'Central' where the majority of people are Persian speaking ethnic
Fars (provinces of Fars, Hamedan, Isfahan, Markazi, Qazvin, Qom,
Semnan, Yazd and Tehran..."
* ^ (Parviz Aḏkāʾi and EIr, HAMADĀN i. GEOGRAPHY in
Encyclopædia Iranica:"Languages spoken. Hamadān has been a
crossroads of civilizations for millennia and a mosaic of cultures and
dialects live there side by side. The main language spoken, ESPECIALLY
IN THE PROVINCIAL CAPITAL and its surroundings, is Persian, which is
also the lingua franca in other regions. In the northern parts of the
province, however, the language mostly spoken is Azeri Turkish, while
in the northwest and west, near the provinces of Kurdistan and
Kermānšāhān, people mostly speak Kurdish, while in some other
cities such as Malāyer, Nehāvand, and Sāmen most people speak Lori
and Lak (Faraji, p. 1296)."
* ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2008). Historic Cities of the
Islamic World. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 151. ISBN
* ^ "Hamedan Nozheh Climate Normals 1961-1990" . National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved December 28, 2012.
* ^ Official statistics from 1997 (1375) -
Hamadan provinces -
Population and ethnicites - "Archived copy". Archived from the
original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved 2010-02-22. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link ) accessed on March 12, 2006.
Replaced with Archive link on Feb 22, 2010.
Hamadan (Iran) - Encyclopædia Britannica
Hamadan - LookLex Encyclopaedia
* ^ در ششمین همایش بوعلی سینا در
بخارا؛ «بخارا» زادگاه و «همدان» مدفن
بوعلیسینا خواهرخوانده میشوند
See also: Bibliography of the history of
Wikimedia Commons has media related to HAMADAN .
Hamadan Medical University
* Ecbatana, Photos from Iran, Livius.
* Gandj Nameh, Photos from Iran, Livius.
* The Bisotun