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HAMADāN (pronounced ) or HAMEDāN (Persian : همدان‎‎, Hamadān) ( Old Persian : Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana ) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran
Iran
. At the 2006 census, its population was 473,149, in 127,812 families.

Hamadan
Hamadan
is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities. It is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus
Herodotus
, states that it was the capital of the Medes
Medes
, around 700 BCE.

Hamadan
Hamadan
has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran. The city is 1,850 meters above sea level .

The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360 kilometres (220 miles) southwest of Tehran
Tehran
.

The main symbols of this city are the Ganj Nameh inscription, the Avicenna
Avicenna
monument and the Baba Taher monument. The majority of the population is Persian ; however, there is a considerable Azerbaijani minority.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Climate * 3 Panoramic view * 4 People * 5 Culture * 6 Gallery * 7 Sport * 8 Education * 9 Famous Hamadanians

* 10 International relations

* 10.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

* 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Bibliography * 14 External links

HISTORY

Further information: Ecbatana and Timeline of Hamadan 16th century map of Hamadan
Hamadan
by Matrakçı Nasuh The Ganjnameh , a cuneiform inscription in Hamadan
Hamadan
Silver Drachma of Parthian king Mithridates II made in Ecbatan mint

According to Clifford Edmund Bosworth , " Hamadan
Hamadan
is a very old city. It may conceivably, but improbably, be mentioned in cuneiform texts from ca. 1100 BC, the time of Assyrian King Tiglath-pilesar I, but is certainly mentioned by Herodotus
Herodotus
(i.98) who says that the king of Media Diokes built the city of Agbatana or Ekbatana in the 7th century BC."

Hamadan
Hamadan
was established by the Medes
Medes
. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty
Achaemenid Dynasty
.

Hamadan
Hamadan
is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra as the place where a scroll was found giving the Jews
Jews
permission from King Darius to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. (Ezra 6:2). Its ancient name of Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text. Because it was a mile above sea level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents.

During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
was the capital of the country, and Hamadan
Hamadan
the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 633 the battle of Nahavand
Nahavand
took place and Hamadan fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs.

During the Buwayhids , the city suffered much damage. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad
Baghdad
to Hamadan. The city of Hamadan, its fortunes following the rise and fall of regional powers, was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasion. During the Safavid
Safavid
era, the city thrived. Thereafter, in the 18th century, Hamadan
Hamadan
was surrendered to the Ottomans
Ottomans
, but due to the work of Nader Shah e Afshar , Hamadan
Hamadan
was cleared of invaders and, as a result of a peace treaty between Iran
Iran
and the Ottomans, it was returned to Iran. Hamadan
Hamadan
stands on the Silk Road
Silk Road
, and even in recent centuries the city enjoyed strong commerce and trade as a result of its location on the main road network in the western region of Persia and Iran.

During World War I
World War I
, the city was the scene of heavy fighting between Russian and Turko-German forces. It was occupied by both armies, and finally by the British, before it was returned to control of the Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918.

CLIMATE

Hamadan
Hamadan
spot (light blue in center) in Hamadan
Hamadan
province topography map

Hamadan
Hamadan
province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east of Zagros . The vast plains of the north and northeast of the province are influenced by strong winds, that almost last throughout the year.

The various air currents of this region are: the north and north west winds of the spring and winter seasons, which are usually humid and bring rainfall. The west-east air currents that blow in the autumn, and the local winds that develop due to difference in air-pressure between the elevated areas and the plains, like the blind wind of the Asad Abad region.

Hamadan
Hamadan
is in the vicinity of the Alvand mountains and has a dry summer continental climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
Dsa), in transition with a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk), with snowy winters. In fact, it is one of the coldest cities in Iran. The temperature may drop below −30 °C (−22 °F) on the coldest days. Heavy snowfall is common during winter and this can persist for periods of up to two months. During the short summer, the weather is mild, pleasant, and mostly sunny.

CLIMATE DATA FOR HAMEDAN

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 17.0 (62.6) 19.0 (66.2) 25.0 (77) 28.0 (82.4) 33.0 (91.4) 39.0 (102.2) 40.6 (105.1) 39.4 (102.9) 36.4 (97.5) 30.0 (86) 23.0 (73.4) 18.8 (65.8) 40.6 (105.1)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 2.0 (35.6) 4.3 (39.7) 11.5 (52.7) 18.1 (64.6) 23.9 (75) 30.9 (87.6) 34.9 (94.8) 34.2 (93.6) 29.8 (85.6) 21.9 (71.4) 13.7 (56.7) 5.9 (42.6) 19.26 (66.66)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −4.6 (23.7) −2.2 (28) 4.5 (40.1) 10.4 (50.7) 15.5 (59.9) 21.3 (70.3) 25.3 (77.5) 24.3 (75.7) 19.0 (66.2) 12.1 (53.8) 5.3 (41.5) −0.9 (30.4) 10.83 (51.48)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −10.5 (13.1) −8.2 (17.2) −2.1 (28.2) 2.7 (36.9) 6.4 (43.5) 9.8 (49.6) 13.9 (57) 12.8 (55) 7.0 (44.6) 2.5 (36.5) −2.1 (28.2) −6.6 (20.1) 2.13 (35.83)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −34 (−29) −33.0 (−27.4) −21 (−6) −12.0 (10.4) −3.0 (26.6) 2.0 (35.6) 7.0 (44.6) 4.0 (39.2) −4.0 (24.8) −7.0 (19.4) −14.5 (5.9) −29 (−20) −34 (−29)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 46.3 (1.823) 43.6 (1.717) 49.4 (1.945) 49.8 (1.961) 37.8 (1.488) 3.7 (0.146) 2.0 (0.079) 1.8 (0.071) 0.8 (0.031) 20.7 (0.815) 26.9 (1.059) 40.9 (1.61) 323.7 (12.745)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 11.6 11.1 12.4 12.1 9.5 2.0 1.3 1.6 1.0 5.6 6.8 10.1 85.1

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 8.8 8.2 4.2 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.9 6.9 29.8

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 76 73 64 56 50 36 31 31 34 48 61 73 52.8

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 131.8 137.1 174.5 199.6 258.5 341.8 342.7 322.2 295.6 234.3 183.1 135.3 2,756.5

Source: NOAA (1961-1990)

Heydare, Hamadan
Hamadan
Alvand Mountain Mishan, a plain of Alvand Mountain

PANORAMIC VIEW

Hamadan
Hamadan
at night

PEOPLE

According to the survey of 1997, the population of the province of Hamadan
Hamadan
was 1,677,957. Based on official statistics of 1997, the population of Hamadan
Hamadan
county was 563,444 people. The majority of population are Persians with a sizeable minority of Azeris , and a small group of Jews
Jews
.

CULTURE

The Saint Mary Church of Hamadan
Hamadan
The Stone Lion

Hamadan
Hamadan
is home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is also said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.

Hamadan
Hamadan
has always been well known for handicrafts like leather, ceramic, and carpets.

Iran\'s Cultural Heritage Organization lists 207 sites of historical and cultural significance in the city of Hamadan
Hamadan
alone.

A tomb believed by some to hold the remains of tomb the biblical Esther
Esther
and her uncle Mordechai is located in Hamadan.

The scientist and writer known in the west as Avicenna
Avicenna
(Abu Ali Sina) is buried in Hamadan. The 11th-century Iranian poet Baba Taher is also interred in Hamadan.

This city is also the birthplace of Badi\' al-Zaman al-Hamadani , author of the Maqamat .

GALLERY

*

Tomb of Baba Taher *

Inside the tomb of Baba Taher *

The Tomb of Avicenna
Avicenna
*

The handwriting of Canon of Medicine in the Tomb of Avicenna
Avicenna
*

Tomb of Esther and Mordechai , a tomb believed by some to hold the remains of Esther
Esther
and Mordechai *

Inside the structure alleged by some to be the Tomb of Esther
Esther
and Mordechai *

Emamzade Abdollah Mosque *

Dome of Alavian (related with Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani *

Qorban Tower *

Ganj Nameh *

Ali-Sadr Cave

SPORT

PAS Hamedan F.C. were founded on June 9, 2007 after the dissolution of PAS Tehran
Tehran
F.C. . The team, along with Alvand Hamedan F.C. , currently participates in the Azadegan League .

Some sport complexes in this city include: Qods Stadium , Shahid Mofatteh Stadium , Takhti Sport Complex and the National Stadium of Hamadan.

EDUCATION

Hamadan
Hamadan
University of Technology, in Hamadan
Hamadan

Before the Persian Constitutional Revolution , education in Hamadan was limited to some Maktab Houses and theological schools. Fakhrie Mozafari School was the first modern school of Hamadan, which was built after that revolution. Alliance and Lazarist were also the first modern schools founded by foreign institutions in Hamadan.

Some of the popular universities in Hamadan
Hamadan
include:

* Bu-Ali Sina University * Hamadan
Hamadan
Medical University * Islamic Azad University of Hamadan * Hamadan
Hamadan
University of Technology

FAMOUS HAMADANIANS

Shirin Ebadi Fazlollah Zahedi
Fazlollah Zahedi
and his family

* Abolhassan Banisadr , economist, politician, and the first post-revolutionary elected president of the Islamic Republic of Iran * Amir Nosrat\'ollah Balakhanlou , born in Tehran
Tehran
— two-time mayor and MP for Hamadan
Hamadan
City (1950s and early 1960s) * Amir-Shahab Razavian , film director, writer and producer * Baba-Taher-e Oryan , a famous Poet (1100 A.c) * Ein-Alqozat Hamadani , a great philosopher and sufist (1100 A.C) * Ehsan Yarshater , historian, scientists, and founder of Encyclopædia Iranica * Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi , celebrated poet (1300 A.C) * Fazlollah Zahedi
Fazlollah Zahedi
, military general * Fereydoun Moshiri , contemporary poet (originally from Hamadan, but born in Tehran) * Hanieh Tavassoli
Hanieh Tavassoli
, actress * Joseph Emin
Joseph Emin
, a major activist in the attempts to liberate Armenia during the 18th century * Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani , poet and scholar * Mirzadeh Eshghi
Mirzadeh Eshghi
, a celebrated nationalist poet * Moshfegh Hamadani , writer, journalist and translator * Parviz Parastouei , acclaimed actor * Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
, Persian statesman, historian and physician of the 13th-14th centuries * Shirin Ebadi , lawyer and the 2003 Nobel Peace Laureate * Samuel Rahbar , scientist * Viguen , known as the king of Persian pop and jazz music * Wojtek (bear) , Bear purchased by Polish army in Second World War.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Iran
Iran

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

Hamadan
Hamadan
is twinned with:

* Kulyab , Tajikistan
Tajikistan
* Bukhara
Bukhara
, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
* Isparta , Turkey
Turkey
* Yekaterinburg , Russia

SEE ALSO

* Iran
Iran
portal

* Ganj Nameh * Baba Taher Orian * Ali Sadr Cave * Hamadan Airport * Wojtek (soldier bear)

REFERENCES

* ^ "معارفه سرپرست شهرداري همدان". Municipality.hamedan.ir (in Persian). Hamedan Municipality. Retrieved 18 February 2017. * ^ Multiple Authors (April 18, 2012). "HAMADĀN". Encyclopædia Iranica . Retrieved 18 April 2015. * ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" . Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11. * ^ Introduction: Hamedan Province * ^ Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Peter McDonald, Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi, "The Fertility Transition in Iran: Revolution and Reproduction", Springer, 2009. pp 100-101: "The first category is 'Central' where the majority of people are Persian speaking ethnic Fars (provinces of Fars, Hamedan, Isfahan, Markazi, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Yazd and Tehran..." * ^ (Parviz Aḏkāʾi and EIr, HAMADĀN i. GEOGRAPHY in Encyclopædia Iranica:"Languages spoken. Hamadān has been a crossroads of civilizations for millennia and a mosaic of cultures and dialects live there side by side. The main language spoken, ESPECIALLY IN THE PROVINCIAL CAPITAL and its surroundings, is Persian, which is also the lingua franca in other regions. In the northern parts of the province, however, the language mostly spoken is Azeri Turkish, while in the northwest and west, near the provinces of Kurdistan and Kermānšāhān, people mostly speak Kurdish, while in some other cities such as Malāyer, Nehāvand, and Sāmen most people speak Lori and Lak (Faraji, p. 1296)." * ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2008). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 151. ISBN 978-90-04-15388-2 . * ^ "Hamedan Nozheh Climate Normals 1961-1990" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved December 28, 2012. * ^ Official statistics from 1997 (1375) - Hamadan
Hamadan
provinces - Population and ethnicites - "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved 2010-02-22. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) accessed on March 12, 2006. Replaced with Archive link on Feb 22, 2010. * ^ Hamadan
Hamadan
(Iran) - Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ Hamadan
Hamadan
- LookLex Encyclopaedia * ^ در ششمین همایش بوعلی سینا در بخارا؛ «بخارا» زادگاه و «همدان» مدفن بوعلی‌سینا خواهرخوانده می‌شوند

BIBLIOGRAPHY

See also: Bibliography of the history of Hamadan
Hamadan

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to HAMADAN .

* Hamadan
Hamadan
Medical University * Ecbatana, Photos from Iran, Livius. * Gandj Nameh, Photos from Iran, Livius. * The Bisotun

.