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Hamadān[2] (pronounced [hæmædɒːn]) or Hamedān (Persian: همدان‎, Hamedān) (Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is the capital city of Hamadan Province
Hamadan Province
of Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 473,149, in 127,812 families.[3] Hamedan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities. It is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus, states that it was the capital of the Medes, around 700 BCE. Hamedan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand
Alvand
Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran. The city is 1,850 meters above sea level. The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360 kilometres (220 miles) southwest of Tehran. The main symbols of this city are the Ganj Nameh
Ganj Nameh
inscription, the Avicenna
Avicenna
monument and the Baba Taher
Baba Taher
monument. The majority of the population is Persian; however, there is a considerable Azerbaijani minority.[4][5][6]

Contents

1 History 2 Climate 3 Panoramic view 4 People 5 Culture 6 Gallery 7 Sport 8 Education 9 Famous Hamadanians 10 International relations

10.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 External links

History[edit] Further information: Ecbatana
Ecbatana
and Timeline of Hamadan

16th century map of Hamadan
Hamadan
by Matrakçı Nasuh

The Ganjnameh, a cuneiform inscription in Hamadan

Silver Drachma of Parthian king Mithridates II made in Ecbatan mint

According to Clifford Edmund Bosworth, " Hamadan
Hamadan
is a very old city. It may conceivably, but improbably, be mentioned in cuneiform texts from ca. 1100 BC, the time of Assyrian King Tiglath-pilesar I, but is certainly mentioned by Herodotus
Herodotus
(i.98) who says that the king of Media Diokes built the city of Agbatana or Ekbatana in the 7th century BC."[7] Hamadan
Hamadan
was established by the Medes. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. Hamadan
Hamadan
is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra as the place where a scroll was found giving the Jews
Jews
permission from King Darius to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. (Ezra 6:2). Its ancient name of Ecbatana
Ecbatana
is used in the Ezra text. Because it was a mile above sea level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents. During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
was the capital of the country, and Hamadan
Hamadan
the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 633 the battle of Nahavand
Nahavand
took place and Hamadan fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs. During the Buwayhids, the city suffered much damage. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad
Baghdad
to Hamadan. The city of Hamadan, its fortunes following the rise and fall of regional powers, was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasion. During the Safavid
Safavid
era, the city thrived. Thereafter, in the 18th century, Hamadan
Hamadan
was surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the work of Nader Shah e Afshar, Hamadan
Hamadan
was cleared of invaders and, as a result of a peace treaty between Iran
Iran
and the Ottomans, it was returned to Iran. Hamadan
Hamadan
stands on the Silk Road, and even in recent centuries the city enjoyed strong commerce and trade as a result of its location on the main road network in the western region of Persia and Iran. During World War I, the city was the scene of heavy fighting between Russian and Turko-German forces. It was occupied by both armies, and finally by the British, before it was returned to control of the Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918. Climate[edit]

Hamadan
Hamadan
spot (light blue in center) in Hamadan
Hamadan
province topography map

Hamadan
Hamadan
province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east of Zagros. The vast plains of the north and northeast of the province are influenced by strong winds, that almost last throughout the year. The various air currents of this region are: the north and north west winds of the spring and winter seasons, which are usually humid and bring rainfall. The west-east air currents that blow in the autumn, and the local winds that develop due to difference in air-pressure between the elevated areas and the plains, like the blind wind of the Asad Abad region. Hamadan
Hamadan
is in the vicinity of the Alvand
Alvand
mountains and has a dry summer continental climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
Dsa), in transition with a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk), with snowy winters. In fact, it is one of the coldest cities in Iran. The temperature may drop below −30 °C (−22 °F) on the coldest days. Heavy snowfall is common during winter and this can persist for periods of up to two months. During the short summer, the weather is mild, pleasant, and mostly sunny.

Climate data for Hamedan

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 17.0 (62.6) 19.0 (66.2) 25.0 (77) 28.0 (82.4) 33.0 (91.4) 39.0 (102.2) 40.6 (105.1) 39.4 (102.9) 36.4 (97.5) 30.0 (86) 23.0 (73.4) 18.8 (65.8) 40.6 (105.1)

Average high °C (°F) 2.0 (35.6) 4.3 (39.7) 11.5 (52.7) 18.1 (64.6) 23.9 (75) 30.9 (87.6) 34.9 (94.8) 34.2 (93.6) 29.8 (85.6) 21.9 (71.4) 13.7 (56.7) 5.9 (42.6) 19.26 (66.66)

Daily mean °C (°F) −4.6 (23.7) −2.2 (28) 4.5 (40.1) 10.4 (50.7) 15.5 (59.9) 21.3 (70.3) 25.3 (77.5) 24.3 (75.7) 19.0 (66.2) 12.1 (53.8) 5.3 (41.5) −0.9 (30.4) 10.83 (51.48)

Average low °C (°F) −10.5 (13.1) −8.2 (17.2) −2.1 (28.2) 2.7 (36.9) 6.4 (43.5) 9.8 (49.6) 13.9 (57) 12.8 (55) 7.0 (44.6) 2.5 (36.5) −2.1 (28.2) −6.6 (20.1) 2.13 (35.83)

Record low °C (°F) −34 (−29) −33.0 (−27.4) −21 (−6) −12.0 (10.4) −3.0 (26.6) 2.0 (35.6) 7.0 (44.6) 4.0 (39.2) −4.0 (24.8) −7.0 (19.4) −14.5 (5.9) −29 (−20) −34 (−29)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 46.3 (1.823) 43.6 (1.717) 49.4 (1.945) 49.8 (1.961) 37.8 (1.488) 3.7 (0.146) 2.0 (0.079) 1.8 (0.071) 0.8 (0.031) 20.7 (0.815) 26.9 (1.059) 40.9 (1.61) 323.7 (12.745)

Average rainy days 11.6 11.1 12.4 12.1 9.5 2.0 1.3 1.6 1.0 5.6 6.8 10.1 85.1

Average snowy days 8.8 8.2 4.2 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.9 6.9 29.8

Average relative humidity (%) 76 73 64 56 50 36 31 31 34 48 61 73 52.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 131.8 137.1 174.5 199.6 258.5 341.8 342.7 322.2 295.6 234.3 183.1 135.3 2,756.5

Source: NOAA (1961-1990)[8]

[[File:Hamedan.Heydareh.jpg center300pxHeydare, Hamadan]]

Alvand
Alvand
Mountain

Mishan, a plain of Alvand
Alvand
Mountain

Panoramic view[edit]

Hamadan
Hamadan
at night. Hamadan
Hamadan
was redesigned in 1928 by German architects and urban planners to resemble the spokes of a hexagram.[9]

People[edit] According to the survey of 1997, the population of the province of Hamadan
Hamadan
was 1,677,957.[10] Based on official statistics of 1997, the population of Hamadan
Hamadan
county was 563,444 people. The majority of population are Persians with a sizeable minority of Azeris,[11] and a small group of Persian Jews.[12] Culture[edit]

The Saint Mary Church of Hamadan

The Stone Lion

Hamadan
Hamadan
is home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is also said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. Hamadan
Hamadan
has always been well known for handicrafts like leather, ceramic, and carpets. Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization
Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization
lists 207 sites of historical and cultural significance in the city of Hamadan
Hamadan
alone. A tomb believed by some to hold the remains of tomb the biblical Esther
Esther
and her uncle Mordechai
Mordechai
is located in Hamadan. The scientist and writer known in the west as Avicenna
Avicenna
(Abu Ali Sina) is buried in Hamadan, where a Mausoleum was built in his honor in 1952. The 11th-century Iranian poet Baba Taher
Baba Taher
is also interred in Hamadan. This city is also the birthplace of Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadani, author of the Maqamat. Gallery[edit]

Tomb of Baba Taher

Inside the tomb of Baba Taher

The Tomb of Avicenna

The handwriting of Canon of Medicine
Canon of Medicine
in the Tomb of Avicenna

Tomb of Esther
Esther
and Mordechai, a tomb believed by some to hold the remains of Esther
Esther
and Mordechai

Inside the structure alleged by some to be the Tomb of Esther
Esther
and Mordechai

Emamzade Abdollah Mosque

Dome of Alavian related with Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani

Qorban Tower

Ganj Nameh

Ali-Sadr Cave

Sport[edit] PAS Hamedan F.C.
PAS Hamedan F.C.
were founded on June 9, 2007 after the dissolution of PAS Tehran
Tehran
F.C.. The team, along with Alvand
Alvand
Hamedan F.C., currently participates in the Azadegan League. Some sport complexes in this city include: Qods Stadium, Shahid Mofatteh Stadium, Takhti Sport Complex and the National Stadium of Hamadan. Education[edit]

Hamadan
Hamadan
University of Technology, in Hamadan

Before the Persian Constitutional Revolution, education in Hamadan
Hamadan
was limited to some Maktab
Maktab
Houses and theological schools. Fakhrie Mozafari School was the first modern school of Hamadan, which was built after that revolution. Alliance and Lazarist were also the first modern schools founded by foreign institutions in Hamadan. Some of the popular universities in Hamadan
Hamadan
include:

Bu-Ali Sina University Hamadan
Hamadan
Medical University Islamic Azad University of Hamadan Hamadan
Hamadan
University of Technology

Famous Hamadanians[edit]

Shirin Ebadi

Fazlollah Zahedi
Fazlollah Zahedi
and his family

Abolhassan Banisadr, economist, politician, and the first post-revolutionary elected president of the Islamic Republic of Iran Amir Nosrat'ollah Balakhanlou, born in Tehran
Tehran
— two-time mayor and MP for Hamadan
Hamadan
City (1950s and early 1960s) Amir-Shahab Razavian, film director, writer and producer Baba-Taher-e Oryan, a famous Poet (1100 A.c) Ein-Alqozat Hamadani, a great philosopher and sufist (1100 A.C) Ehsan Yarshater, historian, scientists, and founder of Encyclopædia Iranica Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi, celebrated poet (1300 A.C) Fazlollah Zahedi, military general Fereydoun Moshiri, contemporary poet (originally from Hamadan, but born in Tehran) Hanieh Tavassoli, actress Joseph Emin, a major activist in the attempts to liberate Armenia during the 18th century Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, poet and scholar Mirzadeh Eshghi, a celebrated nationalist poet Moshfegh Hamadani, writer, journalist and translator Parviz Parastouei, acclaimed actor Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Persian statesman, historian and physician of the 13th-14th centuries Shirin Ebadi, lawyer and the 2003 Nobel Peace Laureate Samuel Rahbar, scientist Viguen, known as the king of Persian pop and jazz music

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Iran Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Hamadan
Hamadan
is twinned with:

Kulyab, Tajikistan Bukhara, Uzbekistan[13] Isparta, Turkey Yekaterinburg, Russia

See also[edit]

Iran
Iran
portal

Ganj Nameh Baba Taher
Baba Taher
Orian Ali Sadr Cave Hamadan
Hamadan
Airport Wojtek (soldier bear)

References[edit]

^ "معارفه سرپرست شهرداري همدان". Municipality.hamadan.ir (in Persian). Hamedan Municipality. Retrieved 18 February 2017.  ^ Multiple Authors (April 18, 2012). "HAMADĀN". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 18 April 2015.  ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11.  ^ Introduction: Hamedan Province ^ Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Peter McDonald, Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi, "The Fertility Transition in Iran: Revolution and Reproduction", Springer, 2009. pp 100-101: "The first category is 'Central' where the majority of people are Persian speaking ethnic Fars (provinces of Fars, Hamedan, Isfahan, Markazi, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Yazd
Yazd
and Tehran..." ^ (Parviz Aḏkāʾi and EIr, HAMADĀN i. GEOGRAPHY in Encyclopædia Iranica:"Languages spoken. Hamedān has been a crossroads of civilizations for millennia and a mosaic of cultures and dialects live there side by side. The main language spoken, especially in the provincial capital and its surroundings, is Persian, which is also the lingua franca in other regions. In the northern parts of the province, however, the language mostly spoken is Azeri Turkish, while in the northwest and west, near the provinces of Kurdistan and Kermānšāhān, people mostly speak Kurdish, while in some other cities such as Malāyer, Nehāvand, and Sāmen most people speak Lori and Lak (Faraji, p. 1296)." ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2008). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 151. ISBN 978-90-04-15388-2.  ^ "Hamedan Nozheh Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 28, 2012.  ^ Subani, Hamad (2013). The Secret History of Iran. Lulu.com. p. 19. ISBN 9781304082893.  ^ Official statistics from 1997 (1375) - Hamadan
Hamadan
provinces - Population and ethnicites - "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved 2010-02-22. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) accessed on March 12, 2006. Replaced with Archive link on Feb 22, 2010. ^ Hamadan
Hamadan
(Iran) - Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Hamadan
Hamadan
- LookLex Encyclopaedia ^ در ششمین همایش بوعلی سینا در بخارا؛ «بخارا» زادگاه و «همدان» مدفن بوعلی‌سینا خواهرخوانده می‌شوند

Bibliography[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Hamadan

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hamadan.

Hamadan
Hamadan
Medical University Ecbatana, Photos from Iran, Livius. Gandj Nameh, Photos from Iran, Livius. The Bisotun inscription, Photos from Iran, Livius. Photos from Hamadan
Hamadan
City Hamadan
Hamadan
City Hamadan: Older than history Hamadan; Capital of Median Empire Iconos satellite photo (January, 2005) Google Satellite Picture Hamedan Cultural Heritage Organization (in Persian) Hegmataneh Official Website Hamadān entries in the

Preceded by - Capital of Median Empire As "Ecbatana" 678–549 BCE Succeeded by -

Preceded by - Capital of Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(Persia) As "Ecbatana" Served as Summer Capital 550–330 BCE Succeeded by -

Preceded by Isfahan Capital of Seljuq Empire
Seljuq Empire
(Persia) (Western capital) 1118–1194 Succeeded by -

Preceded by Isfahan Capital of Iran
Iran
(Persia) 1118–1194 Succeeded by Gurganj

v t e

Hamadan
Hamadan
Province

Capital

Hamadan

Counties and cities

Asadabad County

Asadabad

Bahar County

Bahar Lalejin Mohajeran Salehabad

Famenin
Famenin
County

Famenin

Hamadan
Hamadan
County

Hamadan Juraqan Maryanaj Qahavand

Kabudarahang
Kabudarahang
County

Kabudarahang Gol Tappeh Shirin Su

Malayer
Malayer
County

Malayer Azandarian Jowkar Samen Zangeneh

Nahavand
Nahavand
County

Nahavand Barzul Firuzan Giyan

Razan
Razan
County

Razan Damaq Qorveh-e Darjazin

Tuyserkan
Tuyserkan
County

Tuyserkan Farasfaj Sarkan

Sights

Ganjnameh Shrine of Habakkuk, Toyserkan Hamedan Stone Lion Ali Sadr Cave Hamedan Museum of Natural History Noshijan fire temple,Malayer Shrine of Esther
Esther
and Mordechai, Hamedan Baba Taher
Baba Taher
Mausleum, Hamedan Avicenna
Avicenna
mausoleum, Hamedan Emamzadeh Yahya,Hamedan Alvand
Alvand
ski resort Pirsolayman lagoon Median capital of Hegmataneh, Hamedan Ecbatan dam Geyan lagoon Baba-pireh shrine Ecbatana

populated places

List of cities, towns and villages in Hamadan
Hamadan
Province

v t e

Hamadan
Hamadan
County

Capital

Hamadan

Districts

Central

Cities

Hamadan Juraqan Maryanaj

Rural Districts and villages

Abaru

Abaru Chashin Cheshmeh Malek Khaku Silvar Simin-e Abaru

Alvandkuh-e Gharbi (West Alvandkuh)

Ansar ol Emam Cheshmeh Qassaban Hamadan
Hamadan
Garrison Heydareh-ye Posht-e Shahr Mehdiabad Muijin Solulan Tui Jin Vafr-e Jin Yekanabad

Alvandkuh-e Sharqi (East Alvandkuh)

Aliabad-e Varkaneh Arzan Fud Sadd-e Ekbatan Shamsabad Tafrijan Tokmeh Dash Varkaneh Yalfan

Gonbad

Ab Hendu Aq Tappeh Baraband Gonbad Hajjiabad Heyran Kur Kahriz Maruf Neshar Qoli Kandi Rahimabad Sar Darreh Siah Kamar

Hegmataneh

Aliabad-e Aq Hesar Aliabad-e Posht Shahr Amzajerd Bahramabad Buli Industrial Estate Deh Piaz Gara Choqa Hasanabad-e Sheverin Nahran Owliai Qasemabad Qeshlaq-e Gomar Robat-e Sheverin

Sangestan

Abshineh Aghjeh-ye Seyyedan Aq Dash Arablu Baghcheh Deh Dalian Dingeleh Kahriz Gur Gaz Ivak Konjineh Kord Bolagh Mahbar Marta Bolagh Pahnabad Pol Shekasteh Sabzabad Sangestan Sheverin Shirabad Sorkhabad Yeganeh Zia ol Din

Shara

Cities

Qahavand

Rural Districts and villages

Chah Dasht

Boyukabad Bozineh Jerd Hajji Maqsud Hameh Kasi Hasanabad Idahlu Milajerd Now Deh Qepchaq Qerkhlar Samavak Yeserlu

Jeyhun Dasht

Ahmadabad Amirabad-e Kord Aq Darreh Barakatabad Buyaqchi Dashteh Dizaj Emamzadeh Pir Nahan Gonbad Chay Hizaj Jeyhunabad Razaj Shirinabad Tahunabad Yekleh

Shur Dasht

Ab Anbar Abdol Rahim Ahmadabad-e Tappeh Dowlatabad Firuzabad Kheyrabad Khomajin Kowzareh Mohajarabad Moslemabad Qeshlaq-e Olya Qeshlaq-e Sofla Quzlijeh Rahjerd Varkesh

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Iran 2016 census

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Tehran

Mashhad 1 Tehran Tehran 8,693,706 11 Rasht Gilan 679,995

Isfahan

Karaj

2 Mashhad Razavi Khorasan 3,001,184 12 Zahedan Sistan and Baluchestan 587,730

3 Isfahan Isfahan 1,961,260 13 Hamadan Hamadan 554,406

4 Karaj Alborz 1,592,492 14 Kerman Kerman 537,718

5 Shiraz Fars 1,565,572 15 Yazd Yazd 529,673

6 Tabriz East Azarbaijan 1,558,693 16 Ardabil Ardabil 529,374

7 Qom Qom 1,201,158 17 Bandar Abbas Hormozgan 526,648

8 Ahwaz Khuzestan 1,184,788 18 Arak Markazi 520,944

9 Kermanshah Kermanshah 946,651 19 Eslamshahr Tehran 448,129

10 Urmia West Azarbaijan 736,224 20 Zanjan Zanjan 430,871

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 127856259 GND: 4094589-3 BNF:

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