A guild /ɡɪld/ is an association of artisans or merchants who
oversee the practice of their craft in a particular town. The earliest
types of guild were formed as confraternities of tradesmen. They were
organized in a manner something between a professional association,
trade union, a cartel, and a secret society. They often depended on
grants of letters patent by a monarch or other authority to enforce
the flow of trade to their self-employed members, and to retain
ownership of tools and the supply of materials. A lasting legacy of
traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as meeting
Guild members who were found guilty of cheating on the public
would be fined or banned from the guild.
One of the legacies of the guilds, the elevated
Windsor Guildhall was
originally a meeting place for guilds, as well as magistrates' seat
and town hall.
An important result of the guild framework was the emergence of
universities at Bologna (established in 1088), Oxford (at least since
Paris (c. 1150); they originated as guilds of students as at
Bologna, or of masters as at Paris.
1 History of guilds
1.1 Early guild-like associations
1.2.2 Fall of the guilds
1.2.3 Influence of guilds
1.2.4 Economic consequences
1.2.5 Women in guilds
2.2 North America
2.4 Virtual world guilds
3 See also
6 Further reading
7 External links
History of guilds
Early guild-like associations
A type of guild was known in Roman times. Known as collegium, collegia
or corpus, these were organised groups of merchants who specialised in
a particular craft and whose membership of the group was voluntary.
One such example is the corpus naviculariorum, the college of
long-distance shippers based at Rome's La Ostia port. The Roman guilds
failed to survive the collapse of the Roman Empire. 
In medieval cities, craftsmen tended to form associations based on
their trades, confraternities of textile workers, masons, carpenters,
carvers, glass workers, each of whom controlled secrets of
traditionally imparted technology, the "arts" or "mysteries" of their
crafts. Usually the founders were free independent master craftsmen
who hired apprentices.
Traditional wrought-iron guild sign of a glazier — in Germany. These
signs can be found in many old European towns where guild members
marked their places of business. Many survived through time or staged
a comeback in industrial times. Today they are restored or even newly
created, especially in old town areas.
Coats of arms of guilds in a town in the
Czech Republic displaying
symbols of various European medieval trades and crafts
There were several types of guilds, including the two main categories
of merchant guilds and craft guilds but also the frith guild and
religious guild. Guilds arose beginning in the
High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages as
craftsmen united to protect their common interests. In the German city
of Augsburg craft guilds are being mentioned in the Towncharter of
The continental system of guilds and merchants arrived in England
after the Norman Conquest, with incorporated societies of merchants in
each town or city holding exclusive rights of doing business there. In
many cases they became the governing body of a town. For example,
Guildhall became the seat of the Court of Common Council of
City of London
City of London Corporation, the world’s oldest continuously
elected local government whose members to this day must be Freemen
of the City. The Freedom of the City, effective from the Middle
Ages until 1835, gave the right to trade, and was only bestowed upon
members of a
Guild or Livery.
Early egalitarian communities called "guilds" (for the gold deposited
in their common funds) were denounced by Catholic clergy for their
"conjurations"—the binding oaths sworn among the members to support
one another in adversity, kill specific enemies, and back one another
in feuds or in business ventures. The occasion for these oaths were
drunken banquets held on December 26, the pagan feast of Jul
(Yule)—in 858, West Francian Bishop
Hincmar sought vainly to
Christianise the guilds.
In the Early Middle Ages, most of the Roman craft organisations,
originally formed as religious confraternities, had disappeared, with
the apparent exceptions of stonecutters and perhaps glassmakers,
mostly the people that had local skills.
Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours tells a
miraculous tale of a builder whose art and techniques suddenly left
him, but were restored by an apparition of the Virgin Mary in a dream.
Michel Rouche remarks that the story speaks for the importance of
practically transmitted journeymanship.
In France, guilds were called corps de métiers. According to Viktor
Ivanovich Rutenburg, "Within the guild itself there was very little
division of labour, which tended to operate rather between the guilds.
Thus, according to Étienne Boileau's Book of Handicrafts, by the
mid-13th century there were no less than 100 guilds in Paris, a figure
which by the 14th century had risen to 350." There were different
guilds of metal-workers: the farriers, knife-makers, locksmiths,
chain-forgers, nail-makers, often formed separate and distinct
corporations; the armourers were divided into helmet-makers,
escutcheon-makers, harness-makers, harness-polishers, etc. In
Catalan towns, specially at Barcelona, guilds or gremis were a basic
agent in the society: a shoemakers' guild is recorded in 1208.
In England, specifically in the
City of London
City of London Corporation, more than
110 guilds, referred to as livery companies, survive today,
with the oldest more than a thousand years old. Other
groups, such as the Worshipful Company of Tax Advisers, have been
formed far more recently. Membership in a livery company is expected
for individuals participating in the governance of The City, as the
Lord Mayor and the Remembrancer.
Syndics of the Drapers' Guild
Syndics of the Drapers' Guild by Rembrandt, 1662.
The guild system reached a mature state in
Germany circa 1300 and held
on in German cities into the 19th century, with some special
privileges for certain occupations remaining today. In the 15th
century, Hamburg had 100 guilds, Cologne 80, and Lübeck 70. The
latest guilds to develop in Western
Europe were the gremios of Spain:
e.g., Valencia (1332) or Toledo (1426).
Not all city economies were controlled by guilds; some cities were
"free." Where guilds were in control, they shaped labor, production
and trade; they had strong controls over instructional capital, and
the modern concepts of a lifetime progression of apprentice to
craftsman, and then from journeyman eventually to widely recognized
master and grandmaster began to emerge. In order to become a Master, a
Journeyman would have to go on a three-year voyage called Journeyman
years. The practice of the
Journeyman years still exists in Germany
As production became more specialized, trade guilds were divided and
subdivided, eliciting the squabbles over jurisdiction that produced
the paperwork by which economic historians trace their development:
The metalworking guilds of Nuremberg were divided among dozens of
independent trades in the boom economy of the 13th century, and there
were 101 trades in
Paris by 1260. In Ghent, as in Florence, the
woolen textile industry developed as a congeries of specialized
guilds. The appearance of the European guilds was tied to the emergent
money economy, and to urbanization. Before this time it was not
possible to run a money-driven organization, as commodity money was
the normal way of doing business.
A center of urban government: the
Guildhall, London (engraving, ca
The guild was at the center of European handicraft organization into
the 16th century. In France, a resurgence of the guilds in the second
half of the 17th century is symptomatic of the monarchy's concerns to
impose unity, control production and reap the benefits of transparent
structure in the shape of more efficient taxation.
The guilds were identified with organizations enjoying certain
privileges (letters patent), usually issued by the king or state and
overseen by local town business authorities (some kind of chamber of
commerce). These were the predecessors of the modern patent and
trademark system. The guilds also maintained funds in order to support
infirm or elderly members, as well as widows and orphans of guild
members, funeral benefits, and a 'tramping' allowance for those
needing to travel to find work. As the guild system of the City of
London declined during the 17th century, the Livery Companies
transformed into mutual assistance fraternities along such lines.
European guilds imposed long standardized periods of apprenticeship,
and made it difficult for those lacking the capital to set up for
themselves or without the approval of their peers to gain access to
materials or knowledge, or to sell into certain markets, an area that
equally dominated the guilds' concerns. These are defining
characteristics of mercantilism in economics, which dominated most
European thinking about political economy until the rise of classical
The guild system survived the emergence of early capitalists, which
began to divide guild members into "haves" and dependent "have-nots".
The civil struggles that characterize the 14th-century towns and
cities were struggles in part between the greater guilds and the
lesser artisanal guilds, which depended on piecework. "In Florence,
they were openly distinguished: the Arti maggiori and the Arti
minori—already there was a popolo grasso and a popolo magro".
Fiercer struggles were those between essentially conservative guilds
and the merchant class, which increasingly came to control the means
of production and the capital that could be ventured in expansive
schemes, often under the rules of guilds of their own. German social
historians trace the Zunftrevolution, the urban revolution of
guildmembers against a controlling urban patriciate, sometimes reading
into them, however, perceived foretastes of the class struggles of the
In the countryside, where guild rules did not operate, there was
freedom for the entrepreneur with capital to organize cottage
industry, a network of cottagers who spun and wove in their own
premises on his account, provided with their raw materials, perhaps
even their looms, by the capitalist who took a share of the profits.
Such a dispersed system could not so easily be controlled where there
was a vigorous local market for the raw materials: wool was easily
available in sheep-rearing regions, whereas silk was not.
In Florence, Italy, there were seven to 12 "greater guilds" and 14
"lesser guilds" the most important of the greater guilds was that for
judges and notaries, who handled the legal business of all the other
guilds and often served as an arbitrator of disputes. Other greater
guilds include the wool, silk, and the money changers' guilds. They
prided themselves on a reputation for very high quality work, which
was rewarded with premium prices. The guilds fined members who
deviated from standards. Other greater guilds included those of
doctors, druggists, and furriers. Among the lesser guilds, were those
for bakers, saddle makers, ironworkers and other artisans. They had a
sizable membership, but lacked the political and social standing
necessary to influence city affairs.
The guild was made up by experienced and confirmed experts in their
field of handicraft. They were called master craftsmen. Before a new
employee could rise to the level of mastery, he had to go through a
schooling period during which he was first called an apprentice. After
this period he could rise to the level of journeyman. Apprentices
would typically not learn more than the most basic techniques until
they were trusted by their peers to keep the guild's or company's
Like journey, the distance that could be travelled in a day, the title
'journeyman' derives from the French words for 'day' (jour and
journée) from which came the middle English word journei. Journeymen
were able to work for other masters, unlike apprentices, and generally
paid by the day and were thus day labourers. After being employed by a
master for several years, and after producing a qualifying piece of
work, the apprentice was granted the rank of journeyman and was given
documents (letters or certificates from his master and/or the guild
itself) which certified him as a journeyman and entitled him to travel
to other towns and countries to learn the art from other masters.
These journeys could span large parts of
Europe and were an unofficial
way of communicating new methods and techniques, though by no means
all journeymen made such travels — they were most common in Germany
and Italy, and in other countries journeymen from small cities would
often visit the capital.
The Haarlem Painter's
Guild in 1675, by Jan de Bray.
After this journey and several years of experience, a journeyman could
be received as master craftsman, though in some guilds this step could
be made straight from apprentice. This would typically require the
approval of all masters of a guild, a donation of money and other
goods (often omitted for sons of existing members), and the production
of a so-called "masterpiece,' which would illustrate the abilities of
the aspiring master craftsman; this was often retained by the
The medieval guild was established by charters or letters patent or
similar authority by the city or the ruler and normally held a
monopoly on trade in its craft within the city in which it operated:
handicraft workers were forbidden by law to run any business if they
were not members of a guild, and only masters were allowed to be
members of a guild. Before these privileges were legislated, these
groups of handicraft workers were simply called 'handicraft
The town authorities might be represented in the guild meetings and
thus had a means of controlling the handicraft activities. This was
important since towns very often depended on a good reputation for
export of a narrow range of products, on which not only the guild's,
but the town's, reputation depended. Controls on the association of
physical locations to well-known exported products, e.g. wine from the
Bordeaux regions of France, tin-glazed earthenwares from
certain cities in Holland, lace from Chantilly, etc., helped to
establish a town's place in global commerce — this led to modern
In many German and Italian cities, the more powerful guilds often had
considerable political influence, and sometimes attempted to control
the city authorities. In the 14th century, this led to numerous bloody
uprisings, during which the guilds dissolved town councils and
detained patricians in an attempt to increase their influence. In
fourteenth-century north-east Germany, people of Wendish, i.e. Slavic,
origin were not allowed to join some guilds. According to Wilhelm
Raabe, "down into the eighteenth century no German guild accepted a
Fall of the guilds
An example of the last of the British Guilds meeting rooms c. 1820
As Ogilvie (2004) shows, the guilds negatively affected quality,
skills, and innovation. Through what economists now call
"rent-seeking" they imposed deadweight losses on the economy. Ogilvie
says they generated no demonstrable positive externalities and notes
that industry began to flourish only after the guilds faded away.
Guilds persisted over the centuries because they redistributed
resources to politically powerful merchants. On the other hand,
Ogilvie agrees, guilds created "social capital" of shared norms,
common information, mutual sanctions, and collective political action.
This social capital benefited guild members, even as it hurt
The guild system became a target of much criticism towards the end of
the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century. They were
believed to oppose free trade and hinder technological innovation,
technology transfer and business development. According to several
accounts of this time, guilds became increasingly involved in simple
territorial struggles against each other and against free
practitioners of their arts.
Two of the most outspoken critics of the guild system were
Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Smith, and all over
Europe a tendency
to oppose government control over trades in favour of laissez-faire
free market systems was growing rapidly and making its way into the
political and legal system. The
French Revolution saw guilds as a last
remnant of feudalism. The
Le Chapelier Law of 1791 abolished the
guilds in France. Smith wrote in
The Wealth of Nations
The Wealth of Nations (Book I,
Chapter X, paragraph 72):
It is to prevent this reduction of price, and consequently of wages
and profit, by restraining that free competition which would most
certainly occasion it, that all corporations, and the greater part of
corporation laws, have been established. (...) and when any particular
class of artificers or traders thought proper to act as a corporation
without a charter, such adulterine guilds, as they were called, were
not always disfranchised upon that account, but obliged to fine
annually to the king for permission to exercise their usurped
Karl Marx in his Communist Manifesto also criticized the guild system
for its rigid gradation of social rank and the relation of
oppressor/oppressed entailed by this system. From this time comes the
low regard in which some people hold the guilds to this day. In part
due to their own inability to control unruly corporate behavior, the
tide turned against the guilds.
Because of industrialization and modernization of the trade and
industry, and the rise of powerful nation-states that could directly
issue patent and copyright protections — often revealing the trade
secrets — the guilds' power faded. After the
French Revolution they
fell in most European nations through the 19th century, as the guild
system was disbanded and replaced by free trade laws. By that time,
many former handicraft workers had been forced to seek employment in
the emerging manufacturing industries, using not closely guarded
techniques but standardized methods controlled by corporations.
Influence of guilds
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Guilds are sometimes said to be the precursors of modern trade unions.
Guilds, however, can also be seen as a set of self-employed skilled
craftsmen with ownership and control over the materials and tools they
needed to produce their goods. Guilds were more like cartels than they
were like trade unions (Olson 1982). However, the journeymen
organizations, which were at the time illegal, may have been
The exclusive privilege of a guild to produce certain goods or provide
certain services was similar in spirit and character with the original
patent systems that surfaced in England in 1624. These systems played
a role in ending the guilds' dominance, as trade secret methods were
superseded by modern firms directly revealing their techniques, and
counting on the state to enforce their legal monopoly.
Some guild traditions still remain in a few handicrafts, in Europe
especially among shoemakers and barbers. Some ritual traditions of the
guilds were conserved in order organisations such as the Freemasons,
allegedly deriving from the Masons Guild, and the Oddfellows,
allegedly derived from various smaller guilds. These are, however, not
very important economically except as reminders of the
responsibilities of some trades toward the public.
Modern antitrust law could be said to derive in some ways from the
original statutes by which the guilds were abolished in Europe.
The economic consequences of guilds have led to heated debates among
economic historians. On the one side, scholars say that since merchant
guilds persisted over long periods they must have been efficient
institutions (since inefficient institutions die out). Others say they
persisted not because they benefited the entire economy but because
they benefited the owners, who used political power to protect them.
Ogilvie (2011) says they regulated trade for their own benefit, were
monopolies, distorted markets, fixed prices, and restricted entrance
into the guild. Ogilvie (2008) argues that their long
apprenticeships were unnecessary to acquire skills, and their
conservatism reduced the rate of innovation and made the society
poorer. She says their main goal was rent seeking, that is, to shift
money to the membership at the expense of the entire economy.
Epstein and Prak's book (2008) rejects Ogilvie's conclusions.
Specifically, Epstein argues that guilds were cost-sharing rather than
rent-seeking institutions. They located and matched masters and likely
apprentices through monitored learning. Whereas the acquisition of
craft skills required experience-based learning, he argues that this
process necessitated many years in apprenticeship.
The extent to which guilds were able to monopolize markets is also
Women in guilds
For the most part, medieval guilds limited women's participation, and
usually only the widows and daughters of known masters were allowed
in. Even if a woman entered a guild, she was excluded from guild
offices. It's important to note that while this was the overarching
practice, there were guilds and professions that did allow women's
participation, and that the
Medieval era was an ever-changing, mutable
society—especially considering that it spanned hundreds of years and
many different cultures. There were multiple accounts of women's
participation in guilds in England and the Continent. In a study of
London silkwomen of the 15th century by Marian K. Dale, she notes that
medieval women could inherit property, belong to guilds, manage
estates, and run the family business if widowed. The Livre des
Paris (Book of Trades of Paris) was compiled by Étienne
Boileau, the Grand Provost of
Paris under King Louis IX. It documents
that 5 out of 110 Parisian guilds were female monopolies, and that
only a few guilds systematically excluded women. Boileau notes that
some professions were also open to women: surgeons, glass-blowers,
chain-mail forgers. Entertainment guilds also had a significant number
of women members.
John, Duke of Berry
John, Duke of Berry documents payments to female
musicians from Le Puy, Lyons, and Paris.
Women did have problems with entering healers' guilds, as opposed to
their relative freedom in trade or craft guilds. Their status in
healers' guilds were often challenged. The idea that medicine should
only be practice by men was supported by the Catholic Church, royal
heads, and secular authorities at the time. It is believed that the
Inquisition and witch hunts throughout the ages contributed to the
lack of women in medical guilds.
Scholars from the history of ideas have noticed that consultants play
a part similar to that of the journeymen of the guild systems: they
often travel a lot, work at many companies and spread new practices
and knowledge between companies and corporations.
Professional organizations replicate guild structure and
operation. Professions such as architecture, engineering, geology,
and land surveying require varying lengths of apprenticeships before
one can gain a "professional" certification. These certifications hold
great legal weight: most states make them a prerequisite to practicing
Thomas W. Malone
Thomas W. Malone champions a modern variant of the guild structure for
modern "e-lancers", professionals who do mostly telework for multiple
Insurance including any professional liability,
intellectual capital protections, an ethical code perhaps enforced by
peer pressure and software, and other benefits of a strong association
of producers of knowledge, benefit from economies of scale, and may
prevent cut-throat competition that leads to inferior services
undercutting prices. And, as with historical guilds,
such a structure will resist foreign competition. The free software
community has from time to time explored a guild-like structure to
unite against competition from Microsoft, e.g.
journeyer and master ranks to those committing to work only or mostly
on free software.
In many European countries guilds have experienced a revival as local
organizations for craftsmen, primarily in traditional skills. They may
function as forums for developing competence and are often the local
units of a national employer's organisation.
In the City of London, the ancient guilds survive as Livery Companies,
all of which play a ceremonial role in the City's many customs. The
City of London
City of London
Livery Companies maintain strong links with their
respective trade, craft or profession, some still retain regulatory,
inspection or enforcement roles. The senior members of the City of
Livery Companies (known as Liverymen) elect the Sheriffs and
approve the candidates for the office of
Lord Mayor of London. Guilds
also survive in many other towns and cities the UK including in
Preston, Lancashire, as the
Merchant where among other
celebrations descendants of Burgesses are still admitted into
membership. With the
City of London
City of London
Livery Companies the UK have over
300 extant guilds and growing.
In 1878 the London Livery companies established the City and Guilds of
London Institute the forerunner of the engineering school (still
called City and Guilds college) at Imperial College London. The aim of
City and Guilds of London Institute
City and Guilds of London Institute was the Advancement of
Technical Education. As of 2013[update] "City and Guilds" operates as
an examining and accreditation body for vocational, managerial and
engineering qualifications from entry-level craft and trade skills up
to post-doctoral achievement. A separate organisation, the City
and Guilds of London Art School has also close ties with the London
livery companies, and is involved in the training of master
craftworkers in stone and wood carving, as well as fine artists.
Germany there are no longer any Zünfte (or Gilden - the terms used
were rather different from town to town), nor any restriction of a
craft to a privileged corporation. However, under one other of their
old names albeit a less frequent one, Innungen, guilds continue to
exist as private member clubs with membership limited to practitioners
of particular trades or activities. These clubs are corporations under
public law, albeit the membership is voluntary; the president normally
comes from the ranks of master-craftsmen and is called Obermeister
("Master-in-chief"). Journeymen elect their own representative bodies,
with their president having the traditional title of Altgesell (Senior
There are also "Craft Chambers" (Handwerkskammern), which have less
resemblance to ancient guilds in that they are organized for all
crafts in a certain region, not just one. In them membership is
mandatory, and they serve to establish self-governance of the crafts.
United States guilds exist in several fields.
In the film and television industry, guild membership is generally a
prerequisite for working on major productions in certain capacities.
The Screen Actors Guild, Directors
Guild of America, Writers
Writers Guild of America, West
Writers Guild of America, West and other
profession-specific guilds have the ability to exercise strong control
in the cinema of the
United States as a result of a rigid system of
intellectual-property rights and a history of power-brokers also
holding guild membership (e.g.,
DreamWorks founder Steven Spielberg
was, and is, a DGA member). These guilds maintain their own contracts
with production companies to ensure a certain number of their members
are hired for roles in each film or television production, and that
their members are paid a minimum of guild "scale," along with other
labor protections. These guilds set high standards for membership, and
exclude professional actors, writers, etc. who do not abide by the
strict rules for competing within the film and television industry in
The Newspaper Guild
The Newspaper Guild is a labor union for journalists and other
newspaper workers, with over 30,000 members in North America.
Real-estate brokerage offers an example of a modern American guild
system. Signs of guild behavior in real-estate brokerage include:
standard pricing (6% of the home price), strong affiliation among all
practitioners, self-regulation (see National Association of Realtors),
strong cultural identity (see realtor), little price variation with
quality differences, and traditional methods in use by all
practitioners. In September 2005 the U.S. Department of Justice filed
an antitrust lawsuit against the National Association of Realtors,
challenging NAR practices that (the DOJ asserted) prevent competition
from practitioners who use different methods. The DOJ and the Federal
Trade Commission in 2005 advocated against state laws, supported by
NAR, that disadvantage new kinds of brokers. U.S. v. National
Assoc. of Realtors, Civil Action No. 05C-5140 (N.D. Ill. Sept. 7,
The practice of law in the
United States also exemplifies modern
guilds at work. Every state maintains its own bar association,
supervised by that state's highest court. The court decides the
criteria for entering and staying in the legal profession. In most
states, every attorney must become a member of that state's bar
association in order to practice law. State laws forbid any person
from engaging in the unauthorized practice of law and practicing
attorneys are subject to rules of professional conduct that are
enforced by the state's high court.
Medical associations comparable to guilds include the state Medical
Boards, the American Medical Association, and the American Dental
Association. Medical licensing in most states requires specific
training, tests and years of low-paid apprenticeship (internship and
residency) under harsh working conditions. Even qualified
international or out-of-state doctors may not practice without
acceptance by the local medical guild (Medical board). Similarly,
nurses and physicians' practitioners have their own guilds. A doctor
cannot work as a physician's assistant unless (s)he separately trains,
tests and apprentices as one.
Australia is home to
The Pharmacy Guild of Australia (the peak
association in the pharmacy industry) and the
Guild of Commercial
Filmmakers (an association of makers of commercial, short and feature
films). Australia's fine jewellery industry has
members of the Gold and Silversmith's
Guild of Australia (GSGA) who
practice their manufacturing locally.
Virtual world guilds
Main article: Clan (video gaming)
Groups called guilds exist in online communities such as massively
multiplayer online games.
These guilds usually represent a group of individuals that share the
same interests and goals. While they may be organized around in-game
economic production, they generally do not control production. Guilds
in online games can range in size from a small group of a few players
to massive guilds that have players from around the world.
Organized labour portal
Catholic Police Guild
Guild of Saint Luke
Guild of Saint Luke — Painter's Guilds
Guild of St. Bernulphus
List of guilds in the United Kingdom
Trade Guilds of South India
Jāti -guilds (of mediaeval origin) in India
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^ Braudel 1992, p. 316
^ Magill, Frank N. (1972). Great Events from History: Ancient and
Medieval Series: 951–1500. 3. Salem. pp. 1303–7.
^ a b Ogilvie 2011
^ Prak 2006
^ "The Situation with the Sorbs in the Past and Present" (PDF).
Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-13.
^ Raabe, p. 189.
^ Ogilvie, Sheilagh (May 2004). "Guilds, efficiency, and social
capital: evidence from German proto-industry". Economic History
Review. 57 (2): 286–333. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.2004.00279.x.
^ Vardi, Liana (1988). "The abolition of the guilds during the French
Revolution". French Historical Studies. 15 (4): 704–717.
^ Bakliwal, V.K. (March 18, 2011). Production and Operation
Management. Pinnacle Technology, 2011. ISBN 9788189472733.
^ Ogilvie, Sheilagh C. (February 2008). "Rehabilitating the Guilds: A
Reply". Economic History Review. 61 (1): 175–182.
^ Epstein & Prak 2008
^ Epstein, Stephan R. (September 1998). "Craft Guilds, Apprenticeship,
and Technological Change in Preindustrial Europe". Journal of Economic
History. 58: 684–713. doi:10.1017/S0022050700021124.
^ Richardson G. (June 2001). "A Tale of Two Theories: Monopolies and
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^ a b "GUILDS, WOMEN IN" in "Women in the Middle Ages", Greenwood
Press 2004, pp. 384-85
^ Sarfatti Larson, Magali (1979). The Rise of Professionalism: A
Sociological Analysis. Campus. 233. Berkeley:
University of California
Press. p. 15. ISBN 9780520039506. [...] a cognitive basis of
any kind had to be at least approximately defined before the rising
modern professions could negotiate cognitive exclusiveness — that
is, before they could convincingly establish a teaching monopoly on
their specific tools and techniques, while claiming absolute
superiority for them. The proved institutional mechanisms for this
negotiation were the license, the qualifying examination, the diploma,
and formal training in a common curriculum. The typical institutions
that administered these devices were, first, the guild-like
professional association, and later the professional school, which
superseded the association in effectiveness. [...] Obviously, none of
this was in itself an organizational invention. The guilds of
merchants that sprang up in eleventh-century
Europe were also
voluntary associations tending towards the monopolistic control of a
new form of trade.[...]
^ "What We Do - vocational qualifications City & Guilds".
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coats of arms of Guilds.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Agarwal, Ankit (2012). "Development of Economic Organizations and
their Role in Human Empowerment during the Gupta Period". History
Today. New Delhi. 13. ISSN 2249-748X. [permanent dead link]
St. Eloy's Hospice The last
Guild House in Utrecht
"Gilds". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.