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XIONG YAOHUA (7 June 1938 – 21 September 1985), better known by his pen name GU LONG, was a Taiwanese novelist, screenwriter, film producer and director. A graduate of Cheng Kung Senior High School and Tamkang University , Xiong is best known for writing wuxia novels and serials, which include Juedai Shuangjiao , Xiaoli Feidao Series , Chu Liuxiang Series , Lu Xiaofeng Series and Xiao Shiyilang. Some of these works have been adapted into films and television series for numerous times. In the 1980s, he started his own film studio, Bao Sian, to produce film adaptations of his works.

CONTENTS

* 1 Life * 2 Writing style

* 3 List of works

* 3.1 Standalone novels * 3.2 Xiaoli Feidao (小李飛刀系列) series * 3.3 Xiao Shiyilang series (蕭十一郎系列) * 3.4 Chu Liuxiang series (楚留香系列) * 3.5 Lu Xiaofeng series (陸小鳳系列) * 3.6 Qizhong Wuqi series (七種武器系列) * 3.7 Da Wuxia
Wuxia
Shidai series (大武俠時代) * 3.8 Jinghun Liuji series (驚魂六記系列)

* 4 Adaptations of works

* 4.1 Films * 4.2 Comics * 4.3 Games * 4.4 Television

* 5 Translations of works * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

LIFE

Xiong was born on 7 June 1938 in Hong Kong but his registered identity stated that he was born in 1941. His ancestral home was in Nanchang , Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Province , China, and he lived in Hankou
Hankou
in his childhood. He moved to Taipei
Taipei
, Taiwan
Taiwan
in 1952 with his parents, who divorced in 1956. With help from his friends and using the money he earned from part-time work to fund his education, Xiong graduated from the Foreign Language Department of Tamkang University . He found a job in the United States Army Advisory in Taipei
Taipei
later.

In 1960, Xiong published his first wuxia novel, Cangqiong Shenjian (蒼穹神劍), under the pen name "Gu Long". From 1960 to 1961, Xiong published eight novels but did not achieve the results he desired. He moved to Ruifang District (in New Taipei
Taipei
City ) and lived there for three years, after which he changed his perspective and adopted a new writing style. Between 1967 and the late 1970s, he rose to prominence in the genre of modern wuxia fiction for his works. As the sole representative of excellence in the wuxia genre from Taiwan
Taiwan
for an entire decade, Xiong was named along with Jin Yong
Jin Yong
and Liang Yusheng as the "Three Legs of the Tripod of Wuxia".

While he was still in university, Xiong lived with a dance hostess, Zheng Yuexia (鄭月霞), and had a son, Zheng Xiaolong (鄭小龍), with her. However, he started a relationship later with another dance hostess, Ye Xue (葉雪), who also bore him a son, Ye Yikuan (葉怡寬). Shortly after that, he met a senior middle school graduate, Mei Baozhu (梅寶珠), who became his first legal spouse and bore him his third son, Xiong Zhengda (熊正達). His extramarital affairs caused him to break up with Mei eventually.

In the later part of his life, Xiong suffered from depression and the quality of his works declined rapidly. He had to employ ghostwriters to co-write many of his later works because of his ailing health. He died on 21 September 1985 at the age of 48 due to illness wrought by alcoholism – namely cirrhosis and esophageal hemorrhage – at around 1800 hours. His friends brought him 48 bottles of XO Cognac at his funeral.

WRITING STYLE

Xiong was said to be influenced not only by wuxia fiction, but also by the works of Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
, Jack London
Jack London
, John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
and Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
. His novels are usually made up of short sentences and paragraphs, and mostly dialogues between characters – like a play script.

In contrast with Xiong, other writers such as Jin Yong
Jin Yong
and Liang Yusheng took an alternative route in writing wuxia fiction by incorporating Chinese history, culture and philosophical ideas in their works. Xiong initially intended to follow them but changed his decision after exposure to works such as the James Bond
James Bond
series and The Godfather novels. The influence of these works, which relied on the idiosyncrasies of human life, razor-sharp wit, poetic philosophies, mysterious plots and spine-tingling thrills to achieve success, enabled Xiong to come up with a unique way of writing.

LIST OF WORKS

Some of these works were co-written with other writers.

STANDALONE NOVELS

* Cangqiong Shenjian (蒼穹神劍) * Jiandu Meixiang (劍毒梅香) * Yueyi Xingxie (月異星邪) * Xiangfei Jian (湘妃劍) * Guxing Zhuan (孤星傳) * Shihun Yin (失魂引) * Youxia Lu (遊俠錄) * Huhua Ling (護花鈴) * Caihuan Qu (彩環曲) * Canjin Queyu (殘金缺玉) * Piaoxiang Jianyu (飄香劍雨) * Jianxuan Lu (劍玄錄) * Xiake Xing (劍客行) * Wanhua Xijian Lu (浣花洗劍錄) * Qingren Jian (情人箭) * Daqi Yingxiong Zhuan (大旗英雄傳) * Wulin Waishi (武林外史) * Mingjian Fengliu (名劍風流) * Juedai Shuangjiao (絕代雙驕) * Huanle Yingxiong (歡樂英雄) * Da Renwu (大人物) * Liuxing Hudie Jian (流星‧蝴蝶‧劍) * Qi Shashou (七殺手) * San Shaoye De Jian (三少爺的劍) * Baiyu Laohu (白玉老虎) * Baiyu Diaolong (白玉雕龍) * Dadi Feiying (大地飛鷹) * Yuanyue Wandao (圓月彎刀) * Yingxiong Wulei (英雄無淚) * Qixing Longwang (七星龍王) * Fengling Zhong De Daosheng (風鈴中的刀聲) * Nujian Kuanghua (怒劍狂花) * Na Yijian De Fengqing (那一劍的風情) * Bixue Xi Yinqiang (碧血洗銀槍) * Juhua De Ci (菊花的刺) * Tiejian Hongyan (鐵劍紅顏) * Fennu De Xiaoma (憤怒的小馬)

XIAOLI FEIDAO (小李飛刀系列) SERIES

* Duoqing Jianke Wuqing Jian (多情劍客無情劍) * Biancheng Langzi (邊城浪子) * Jiuyue Feiying (九月鷹飛) * Tianya Mingyue Dao (天涯‧明月‧刀) * Feidao Youjian Feidao (飛刀,又見飛刀)

XIAO SHIYILANG SERIES (蕭十一郎系列)

* Xiao Shiyilang (蕭十一郎) * Huobing Xiao Shiyilang (火併蕭十一郎)

CHU LIUXIANG SERIES (楚留香系列)

* Xuehai Piaoxiang (血海飄香) * Da Shamo (大沙漠) * Huameiniao (畫眉鳥) * Bianfu Chuanqi (蝙蝠傳奇) * Guilian Xiaqing (鬼戀俠情) * Taohua Chuanqi (桃花傳奇) * Xinyue Chuanqi (新月傳奇) * Wuye Lanhua (午夜蘭花)

LU XIAOFENG SERIES (陸小鳳系列)

* Lu Xiaofeng Chuanqi (陸小鳳傳奇) * Xiuhua Dadao (繡花大盜) * Juezhan Qianhou (決戰前後) * Yingou Dufang (銀鈎賭坊) * Youling Shanzhuang (幽靈山莊) * Fengwu Jiutian (鳳舞九天) * Jianshen Yixiao (劍神一笑)

QIZHONG WUQI SERIES (七種武器系列)

* Changsheng Jian (長生劍) * Kongque Ling (孔雀翎) * Biyu Dao (碧玉刀) * Duoqing Huan (多情環) * Bawang Qiang (霸王槍) * Libie Gou (離別鉤)

DA WUXIA SHIDAI SERIES (大武俠時代)

* Duju Langya Zhuisha (賭局、狼牙、追殺) * Ziyan Qunhu (紫煙、群狐) * Yindiao Haishen (銀雕、海神)

JINGHUN LIUJI SERIES (驚魂六記系列)

* Xue Yingwu (血鸚鵡) * Tianmo Dao (天魔刀) * Hei Xiyi (黑蜥蜴) * Shuijing Ren (水晶人) * Fen Kulou (粉骷髏) * Luocha Nü (羅剎女) * Wuyi Bianfu (無翼蝙蝠)

ADAPTATIONS OF WORKS

FILMS

* The Jade Faced Assassin 玉面俠 (1971), Juedai Shuangjiao * Killer Clans 流星·蝴蝶·劍 (1976), Liuxing Hudie Jian * Clans of Intrigue 楚留香 (1977), Chu Liuxiang Series * Jade Tiger 白玉老虎 (1977), Bai Yu Lao Hu * Death Duel 三少爺的劍 (1977) * To Kill with Intrigue 劍·花·煙雨·江南 (1977) * Sentimental Swordsman 多情劍客無情劍 (1977), Xiaoli Feidao Series * Legend of the Bat 楚留香之二蝙蝠傳奇 (1978), Chu Liuxiang Series * Clan of Amazons 陸小鳳之绣花大盗 (1978), Lu Xiaofeng Series * The Last Duel 英雄對英雄 (1978), Lu Xiaofeng Series * The Legend of Broken Sword 折劍傳奇 (1979), Chu Liuxiang Series * The Proud Twins 绝代雙驕 (1979), ' * Chu Liu Hsiang and Hu Tieh Hua 楚留香與胡鐵花 (1980), Chu Liuxiang Series * Everlasting Chivalry 俠影留香 (1980), Chu Liuxiang Series * The Sun Moon Legend 新月传奇 (1980), Chu Liuxiang Series * Middle Kingdom\'s Mark of Blood 中原一點红 (1980), Chu Liuxiang Series * Heroes Shed No Tears 英雄無淚 (1980) * A Sword Named Revenge 名劍風流 (1981) * Bloody Parrot 血鸚鵡 (1981) * The Duel of the Century
The Duel of the Century
陸小鳳之决戰前後 (1981), Lu Xiaofeng Series * The Spirit of the Sword 浣花洗劍錄 (1982), Wanhua Xijian Lu * Perils of the Sentimental Swordsman 楚留香之幽靈山莊 (1982), Chu Liuxiang Series * Demon Fighter
Demon Fighter
午夜蘭花 (1983) * The Denouncement of Chu Liu Hsiang
The Denouncement of Chu Liu Hsiang
楚留香大結局 (1983), Chu Liuxiang Series * Handsome Siblings
Handsome Siblings
絕代雙驕 (1992), Juedai Shuangjiao * Butterfly and Sword 流星蝴蝶劍 (1993), Liuxing Hudie Jian * Legend of the Liquid Sword 笑俠楚留香 (1993), Chu Liuxiang Series * The Duel 决戰紫禁之巓 (2000), Lu Xiaofeng Series * Kung Fu Divas (2014 Philippines movie ), film parody of Juedai Shuangjiao film by Onat Diaz . * Sword Master (film) (2016)

COMICS

* Ying Xiong Wu Lei

GAMES

* New Gulong Online, developed by Zealot Digital International Corp and released by IAH in Southeast Asia.

TELEVISION

* Luk Siu-fung 陆小凤 (1976), Lu Xiaofeng Series * Juedai Shuangjiao 绝代双骄 (1977), Juedai Shuangjiao * The Romantic Swordsman 小李飞刀 (1978), Xiaoli Feidao Series * Reincarnated 天蚕变 (1979) * Chor Lau-heung 楚留香 (1979), Chu Liuxiang Series * The Twins 绝代双骄 (1979), Juedai Shuangjiao * Wan Fa Sai Kim Luk (1979), Wanhua Xijian Lu * The New Adventures of Chor Lau-heung 楚留香之蝙蝠传奇 (1984), Chu Liuxiang Series * Chor Lau-heung 楚留香新传 (1985), Chu Liuxiang Series * Xin Juedai Shuangjiao 新绝代双骄 (1986), Juedai Shuangjiao * The Return of Luk Siu-fung 陆小凤之凤舞九天 (1986), Lu Xiaofeng Series * Two Most Honorable Knights 绝代双骄 (1988), Juedai Shuangjiao * Against the Blade of Honour 圆月弯刀 (1994), Yuanyue Wandao * Chor Lau-heung 香帅传奇 (1995), Chu Liuxiang Series * The Romantic Swordsman 小李飞刀 (1995), Xiaoli Feidao Series * Master Swordsman Lu Xiaofeng 陆小凤之决战前后 (2001), Lu Xiaofeng Series * Master Swordsman Lu Xiaofeng 2 陆小凤之凤舞九天 (2001), Lu Xiaofeng Series * The New Adventures of Chor Lau-heung 新楚留香 (2001), Chu Liuxiang Series * The Legendary Siblings , 绝代双骄 (2002), Juedai Shuangjiao * The Legendary Siblings 2 绝世双骄 (2002), Juedai Shuangjiao * Treasure Raiders (2002), 蕭十一郎 (Xiao Shi Yi Lang) * Flying Daggers 飞刀又见飞刀 (2003), Xiaoli Feidao Series * The Proud Twins 小鱼儿与花无缺 (2005), Juedai Shuangjiao * The Legend of Lu Xiaofeng 陆小凤传奇 (2006), Lu Xiaofeng Series * The Legend of Chu Liuxiang 楚留香传奇 (2007), Chu Liuxiang Series * The Banner Heroes (2007), Da Qi Ying Xiong Zhuan * The Spirit of the Sword (2007), Wanhua Xijian Lu * The Legend of Brown Sugar Chivalries 黑糖瑪奇朵 (2008) * Meteor, Butterfly, Sword (2010 CCTV-1 TV series) 流星‧蝴蝶‧劍 (Liu Xing, Hu Die, Jian) * The Legend of Chu Liuxiang 楚留香新传 (2012), Chu Liuxiang Series * The Magic Blade (2012 Hunan TV series) 天涯‧明月‧刀 (Tianya Mingyue Dao - Horizon, Bright Moon, Sabre), Xiaoli Feidao Series (Fu Hong Xue)

TRANSLATIONS OF WORKS

Xiong's works have been translated into many languages such as French, English and Vietnamese:

* The Eleventh Son, English translation of Xiao Shiyilang, ISBN 1-931907-16-1 . * Les quatre brigands du Huabei, French translation of Huanle Yingxiong, ISBN 2-87730-371-3

SEE ALSO

* Jin Yong
Jin Yong
* Liang Yusheng

REFERENCES

* ^ A B "古龍". * ^ "Life / Gu Long / Authors / Wuxiapedia – The comprehensive wuxia knowledge base". Archived from the original on 30 December 2006.

* ^ New Gulong Online confirmed for Southeast Asia By Jonathan Toyad, February 4, 2013 10:38PM PST

FURTHER READING

* Stateless Subjects: Chinese Martial Arts Literature and Postcolonial History, Chapter 5. Petrus Liu. (Cornell University, 2011) * 《傲世鬼才一古龙:古龙与武侠小说国际学术研讨会论文集》林保淳 (学生书局出版,2006)

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Gu Long on IMDb
IMDb
* Gu Long Reading Room – A webpage of fan translations. * Wuxia
Wuxia
Translations Forum – Wuxia
Wuxia
translations forum by fans. * Wuxiapedia – English translations of Gu Long novels, collection of excerpts, and information about his life. * WuxiaSociety – The only English wuxia portal with focus on discussion forum, dedicated to Gu Long, society of wuxia fans around the world, formerly known as wuxiamania forum * Qiqi.com – Gu Long's works in Chinese

* v * t * e

Gu Long

STANDALONE NOVELS

* Juedai Shuangjiao * Liuxing Hudie Jian

SERIES

* Xiaoli Feidao * Chu Liuxiang * Lu Xiaofeng

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 61584706 * LCCN : n81025920 * ISNI : 0000 0000 7976 3684 * SUDOC : 030037433 * BNF : cb12153508h (data) * NDL : 00716769 * IATH

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