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v t e

The Greeks
Greeks
or Hellenes (/ˈhɛliːnz/; Greek: Έλληνες, Éllines [ˈelines]) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt
Egypt
and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.[43] Greek colonies
Greek colonies
and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language
Greek language
has been spoken since the Bronze Age.[44][45] Until the early 20th century, Greeks
Greeks
were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia
Asia
Minor, the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast, Cappadocia
Cappadocia
in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople.[45] Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization.[46] The cultural centers of the Greeks
Greeks
have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople
Constantinople
at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks
Greeks
live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide
Greek genocide
and population exchange between Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia
Asia
Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy
Italy
to the Caucasus and southern Russia
Russia
and Ukraine
Ukraine
and in the Greek diaspora
Greek diaspora
communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks
Greeks
are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
Church.[47] Greeks
Greeks
have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 Mycenaean 1.3 Classical 1.4 Hellenistic 1.5 Roman Empire 1.6 Byzantine Empire 1.7 Ottoman Empire 1.8 Modern

2 Identity

2.1 Names 2.2 Continuity 2.3 Demographics 2.4 Diaspora

2.4.1 Ancient 2.4.2 Modern

3 Culture

3.1 Language 3.2 Religion 3.3 Arts 3.4 Science 3.5 Symbols 3.6 Surnames and personal names 3.7 Sea

4 Genetics 5 Physical appearance 6 Timeline 7 See also 8 Notes 9 Citations 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

History Further information: History of Greece

A reconstruction of the 3rd millennium BC " Proto-Greek
Proto-Greek
area", by Vladimir I. Georgiev.[48]

The Greeks
Greeks
speak the Greek language, which forms its own unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic.[45] They are part of a group of classical ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an "archetypal diaspora people".[49][50] Origins Further information: Proto- Greek language
Greek language
and List of Ancient Greek tribes The Proto- Greeks
Greeks
probably arrived at the area now called Greece, in the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, at the end of the 3rd millennium BC.[51][52][note 1] The sequence of migrations into the Greek mainland during the 2nd millennium BC
2nd millennium BC
has to be reconstructed on the basis of the ancient Greek dialects, as they presented themselves centuries later and are therefore subject to some uncertainties. There were at least two migrations, the first being the Ionians
Ionians
and Aeolians, which resulted in Mycenaean Greece
Greece
by the 16th century BC,[56][57] and the second, the Dorian invasion, around the 11th century BC, displacing the Arcadocypriot dialects, which descended from the Mycenaean period. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and the Doric at the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse. An alternative hypothesis has been put forth by linguist Vladimir Georgiev, who places Proto-Greek
Proto-Greek
speakers in northwestern Greece
Greece
by the Early Helladic
Early Helladic
period (3rd millennium BC), i.e. towards the end of the European Neolithic.[58] Linguists Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson in a 2003 paper using computational methods on Swadesh lists have arrived at a somewhat earlier estimate, around 5000 BC for Greco-Armenian split and the emergence of Greek as a separate linguistic lineage around 4000 BC.[59] Mycenaean Main article: Mycenaean Greece In c. 1600 BC, the Mycenaean Greeks
Greeks
borrowed from the Minoan civilization its syllabic writing system (i.e. Linear A) and developed their own syllabic script known as Linear B,[60] providing the first and oldest written evidence of Greek.[60][61] The Mycenaeans
Mycenaeans
quickly penetrated the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
and, by the 15th century BC, had reached Rhodes, Crete, Cyprus
Cyprus
and the shores of Asia
Asia
Minor.[45][62] Around 1200 BC, the Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus.[63] Traditionally, historians have believed that the Dorian invasion
Dorian invasion
caused the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, but it is likely the main attack was made by seafaring raiders (Sea Peoples) who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean around 1180 BC.[64] The Dorian invasion
Dorian invasion
was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages, but by 800 BC the landscape of Archaic and Classical Greece
Greece
was discernible.[65] The Greeks
Greeks
of classical antiquity idealized their Mycenaean ancestors and the Mycenaean period as a glorious era of heroes, closeness of the gods and material wealth.[66] The Homeric Epics (i.e. Iliad
Iliad
and Odyssey) were especially and generally accepted as part of the Greek past and it was not until the 19th century that scholars began to question Homer's historicity.[65] As part of the Mycenaean heritage that survived, the names of the gods and goddesses of Mycenaean Greece (e.g. Zeus, Poseidon
Poseidon
and Hades) became major figures of the Olympian Pantheon of later antiquity.[67] Classical Main article: Classical Greece

Hoplites fighting. Detail from an Attic black-figure hydria, ca. 560 BC–550 BC. Louvre, Paris.

The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is linked to the development of Pan-Hellenism in the 8th century BC.[68] According to some scholars, the foundational event was the Olympic Games in 776 BC, when the idea of a common Hellenism among the Greek tribes was first translated into a shared cultural experience and Hellenism was primarily a matter of common culture.[43] The works of Homer
Homer
(i.e. Iliad
Iliad
and Odyssey) and Hesiod
Hesiod
(i.e. Theogony) were written in the 8th century BC, becoming the basis of the national religion, ethos, history and mythology.[69] The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was established in this period.[70] The classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC (some authors prefer to split this period into "Classical", from the end of the Greco-Persian Wars
Greco-Persian Wars
to the end of the Peloponnesian War, and "Fourth Century", up to the death of Alexander). It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in later eras.[71] The Classical period is also described as the "Golden Age" of Greek civilization, and its art, philosophy, architecture and literature would be instrumental in the formation and development of Western culture. While the Greeks
Greeks
of the classical era understood themselves to belong to a common Hellenic genos,[72] their first loyalty was to their city and they saw nothing incongruous about warring, often brutally, with other Greek city-states.[73] The Peloponnesian War, the large scale civil war between the two most powerful Greek city-states Athens
Athens
and Sparta
Sparta
and their allies, left both greatly weakened.[74]

Alexander the Great, whose conquests led to the Hellenistic Age.

Most of the feuding Greek city-states were, in some scholars' opinions, united under the banner of Philip's and Alexander the Great's Pan-Hellenic ideals, though others might generally opt, rather, for an explanation of "Macedonian conquest for the sake of conquest" or at least conquest for the sake of riches, glory and power and view the "ideal" as useful propaganda directed towards the city-states.[75] In any case, Alexander's toppling of the Achaemenid Empire, after his victories at the battles of the Granicus, Issus and Gaugamela, and his advance as far as modern-day Pakistan
Pakistan
and Tajikistan,[76] provided an important outlet for Greek culture, via the creation of colonies and trade routes along the way.[77] While the Alexandrian empire did not survive its creator's death intact, the cultural implications of the spread of Hellenism across much of the Middle East
Middle East
and Asia
Asia
were to prove long lived as Greek became the lingua franca, a position it retained even in Roman times.[78] Many Greeks
Greeks
settled in Hellenistic cities like Alexandria, Antioch
Antioch
and Seleucia.[79] Two thousand years later, there are still communities in Pakistan
Pakistan
and Afghanistan, like the Kalash, who claim to be descended from Greek settlers.[80] Hellenistic Main article: Hellenistic Greece

The major Hellenistic realms c. 300 BC; the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
(dark blue) and the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
(yellow).

Bust of Cleopatra VII. Altes Museum, Berlin.

The Hellenistic civilization
Hellenistic civilization
was the next period of Greek civilization, the beginnings of which are usually placed at Alexander's death.[81] This Hellenistic age, so called because it saw the partial Hellenization
Hellenization
of many non-Greek cultures,[82] lasted until the conquest of Egypt
Egypt
by Rome
Rome
in 30 BC.[81] This age saw the Greeks
Greeks
move towards larger cities and a reduction in the importance of the city-state. These larger cities were parts of the still larger Kingdoms of the Diadochi.[83][84] Greeks, however, remained aware of their past, chiefly through the study of the works of Homer
Homer
and the classical authors.[85] An important factor in maintaining Greek identity was contact with barbarian (non-Greek) peoples, which was deepened in the new cosmopolitan environment of the multi-ethnic Hellenistic kingdoms.[85] This led to a strong desire among Greeks
Greeks
to organize the transmission of the Hellenic paideia to the next generation.[85] Greek science, technology and mathematics are generally considered to have reached their peak during the Hellenistic period.[86] In the Indo-Greek and Greco-Bactrian kingdoms, Greco- Buddhism
Buddhism
was spreading and Greek missionaries would play an important role in propagating it to China.[87] Further east, the Greeks
Greeks
of Alexandria Eschate became known to the Chinese people
Chinese people
as the Dayuan.[88] Roman Empire Further information: Roman Greece, Greco-Roman relations, and Greco-Roman mysteries Following the time of the conquest of the last of the independent Greek city-states and Hellenistic (post-Alexandrine) kingdoms, almost all of the world's Greek speakers lived as citizens or subjects of the Roman Empire. Despite their military superiority, the Romans admired and became heavily influenced by the achievements of Greek culture, hence Horace's famous statement: Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit ("Greece, although captured, took its wild conqueror captive").[89] In the religious sphere, this was a period of profound change. The spiritual revolution that took place, saw a waning of the old Greek religion, whose decline beginning in the 3rd century BC continued with the introduction of new religious movements from the East.[43] The cults of deities like Isis
Isis
and Mithra
Mithra
were introduced into the Greek world.[84][90] Greek-speaking communities of the Hellenized East were instrumental in the spread of early Christianity
Christianity
in the 2nd and 3rd centuries,[91] and Christianity's early leaders and writers (notably Saint Paul) were generally Greek-speaking,[92] though none were from Greece. However, Greece
Greece
itself had a tendency to cling to paganism and was not one of the influential centers of early Christianity: in fact, some ancient Greek religious practices remained in vogue until the end of the 4th century,[93] with some areas such as the southeastern Peloponnese
Peloponnese
remaining pagan until well into the 10th century AD.[94] Byzantine Empire Main articles: Byzantine Greece
Greece
and Byzantine Greeks

Statues of Saints Cyril and Methodius, missionaries of Christianity among the Slavic peoples, Třebíč, Czech Republic.

Of the new eastern religions introduced into the Greek world, the most successful was Christianity. From the early centuries of the Common Era, the Greeks
Greeks
self-identified as Romans (Greek: Ῥωμαῖοι Rhōmaîoi).[95] By that time, the name Hellenes denoted pagans but was revived as an ethnonym in the 11th century.[96] While ethnic distinctions still existed in the Roman Empire, they became secondary to religious considerations and the renewed empire used Christianity as a tool to support its cohesion and promoted a robust Roman national identity.[97] There are three schools of thought regarding this Byzantine Roman identity in contemporary Byzantine scholarship: which could be regarded as preponderant in the field considers "Romanity" the mode of self-identification of the subjects of a multi-ethnic empire at least up to the 12th century, where the average subject identified as Roman; a perennialist approach, largely influenced by Greek nationalism, views Romanity as the medieval expression of a continuously existing Greek nation; while a view recently supported by Anthony Kaldellis considers the eastern Roman identity as a pre-modern national identity.[98]

Scenes of marriage and family life in Constantinople.

Concurrently, the secular, urban civilization of Late Antiquity survived in the Eastern Mediterranean along with the Greco-Roman educational system; the Byzantines' essential values were drawn from both Christianity
Christianity
and the Homeric tradition of ancient Greece.[99][100] The Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(today conventionally named the Byzantine Empire, a name not used during its own time[101]) became increasingly influenced by Greek culture after the 7th century when Emperor Heraclius
Heraclius
(r.  610–641 AD) decided to make Greek the empire's official language.[102][103] Certainly from then on, but likely earlier, the Greek and Roman cultures were virtually fused into a single Greco-Roman world. Although the Latin
Latin
West recognized the Eastern Empire's claim to the Roman legacy for several centuries, after Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, king of the Franks, as the "Roman Emperor" on 25 December 800, an act which eventually led to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire, the Latin
Latin
West started to favour the Franks
Franks
and began to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
largely as the Empire of the Greeks
Greeks
(Imperium Graecorum).[104][105] In the eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
the use of the Latinizing term Graikoí (Γραικοί, "Greeks") was uncommon and nonexistent in official Byzantine political correspondence, prior to the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
of 1204.[106] While this Latin
Latin
term for the ancient Hellenes could be used neutrally, its use by Westerners from the 9th century onwards in order to challenge Byzantine claims to ancient Roman heritage rendered it a derogatory exonym for the Byzantines who barely used it, mostly in contexts relating to the West, such as texts relating to the Council of Florence, to present the Western viewpoint.[107][108]

"Much of what we know of antiquity – especially of Hellenic and Roman literature and of Roman law — would have been lost for ever but for the scholars and scribes and copyists of Constantinople."

John J. Norwich[109]

These Byzantine Greeks
Byzantine Greeks
were largely responsible for the preservation of the literature of the classical era.[100][109][110] Byzantine grammarians were those principally responsible for carrying, in person and in writing, ancient Greek grammatical and literary studies to the West during the 15th century, giving the Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
a major boost.[111][112] The Aristotelian philosophical tradition was nearly unbroken in the Greek world for almost two thousand years, until the Fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1453.[113] To the Slavic world, the Byzantine Greeks
Byzantine Greeks
contributed by the dissemination of literacy and Christianity. The most notable example of the later was the work of the two Byzantine Greek brothers, the monks Saints Cyril and Methodius
Saints Cyril and Methodius
from the port city of Thessalonica, capital of the theme of Thessalonica, who are credited today with formalizing the first Slavic alphabet.[114]

Gemistus Pletho

In the classicizing tropes of Byzantine writings, the Byzantines customarily called themselves Ausones, the ancient Greek name for the inhabitants of Italy.[115] From the 12th century onwards, however, Byzantine Roman writers started to disassociate themselves from the Empire's pre-Constantinenan Latin
Latin
past, regarding henceforth the transfer of the Roman capital to Constantinople
Constantinople
by Constantine as their founding moment and reappraised the normative value of the pagan Hellenes, though the latter were still viewed as a group distinct from the Byzantines.[116] A distinct Greek identity re-emerged in the 11th century in educated circles and became more forceful after the fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
in 1204.[117] In the Empire of Nicaea, a small circle of the elite used the term "Hellene" as a term of self-identification.[118] After the Byzantines recaptured Constantinople, however, in 1261, Rhomaioi became again dominant as a term for self-description and there are few traces of Hellene (Έλληνας), such as in the writings of George Gemistos Plethon,[119] who abandoned Christianity
Christianity
and in whose writings culminated the secular tendency in the interest in the classical past.[117] However, it was the combination of Orthodox Christianity with a specifically Greek identity that shaped the Greeks' notion of themselves in the empire's twilight years.[117] These largely rhetorical expressions of Hellenic identity were confined in a very small circle and had no impact on the people, but were continued by Byzantine intellectuals who participated in the Italian Renaissance.[120] The interest in the Classical Greek heritage was complemented by a renewed emphasis on Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
identity, which was reinforced in the late Medieval and Ottoman Greeks' links with their fellow Orthodox Christians in the Russian Empire. These were further strengthened following the fall of the Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
in 1461, after which and until the second Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29 hundreds of thousands of Pontic Greeks
Pontic Greeks
fled or migrated from the Pontic Alps
Pontic Alps
and Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands
to southern Russia
Russia
and the Russian South Caucasus
South Caucasus
(see also Greeks
Greeks
in Russia, Greeks
Greeks
in Armenia, Greeks in Georgia, and Caucasian Greeks).[121]

Ottoman Empire Main article: Ottoman Greeks

Engraving of a Greek merchant by Cesare Vecellio
Cesare Vecellio
(16th century).

Following the Fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
on 29 May 1453, many Greeks sought better employment and education opportunities by leaving for the West, particularly Italy, Central Europe, Germany
Germany
and Russia.[111] Greeks
Greeks
are greatly credited for the European cultural revolution, later called, the Renaissance. In Greek-inhabited territory itself, Greeks
Greeks
came to play a leading role in the Ottoman Empire, due in part to the fact that the central hub of the empire, politically, culturally, and socially, was based on Western Thrace
Western Thrace
and Greek Macedonia, both in Northern Greece, and of course was centred on the mainly Greek-populated, former Byzantine capital, Constantinople. As a direct consequence of this situation, Greek-speakers came to play a hugely important role in the Ottoman trading and diplomatic establishment, as well as in the church. Added to this, in the first half of the Ottoman period men of Greek origin made up a significant proportion of the Ottoman army, navy, and state bureaucracy, having been levied as adolescents (along with especially Albanians
Albanians
and Serbs) into Ottoman service through the devshirme. Many Ottomans of Greek (or Albanian or Serb) origin were therefore to be found within the Ottoman forces which governed the provinces, from Ottoman Egypt, to Ottomans occupied Yemen
Yemen
and Algeria, frequently as provincial governors. For those that remained under the Ottoman Empire's millet system, religion was the defining characteristic of national groups (milletler), so the exonym "Greeks" (Rumlar from the name Rhomaioi) was applied by the Ottomans to all members of the Orthodox Church, regardless of their language or ethnic origin.[122] The Greek speakers were the only ethnic group to actually call themselves Romioi,[123] (as opposed to being so named by others) and, at least those educated, considered their ethnicity (genos) to be Hellenic.[124] There were, however, many Greeks
Greeks
who escaped the second-class status of Christians inherent in the Ottoman millet system, according to which Muslims were explicitly awarded senior status and preferential treatment. These Greeks
Greeks
either emigrated, particularly to their fellow Greek Orthodox protector, the Russian Empire, or simply converted to Islam, often only very superficially and whilst remaining crypto-Christian. The most notable examples of large-scale conversion to Turkish Islam among those today defined as Greek Muslims—excluding those who had to convert as a matter of course on being recruited through the devshirme—were to be found in Crete
Crete
(Cretan Turks), Greek Macedonia (for example among the Vallahades
Vallahades
of western Macedonia), and among Pontic Greeks
Pontic Greeks
in the Pontic Alps
Pontic Alps
and Armenian Highlands. Several Ottoman sultans and princes were also of part Greek origin, with mothers who were either Greek concubines or princesses from Byzantine noble families, one famous example being sultan Selim the Grim (r.  1517–1520), whose mother Gülbahar Hatun
Gülbahar Hatun
was a Pontic Greek.

Adamantios Korais, leading figure of the Greek enlightenment

The roots of Greek success in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
can be traced to the Greek tradition of education and commerce exemplified in the Phanariotes.[125] It was the wealth of the extensive merchant class that provided the material basis for the intellectual revival that was the prominent feature of Greek life in the half century and more leading to the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
in 1821.[126] Not coincidentally, on the eve of 1821, the three most important centres of Greek learning were situated in Chios, Smyrna
Smyrna
and Aivali, all three major centres of Greek commerce.[126] Greek success was also favoured by Greek domination of the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
church. Modern See also: Modern Greek Enlightenment
Modern Greek Enlightenment
and Greek War of Independence

The cover of Hermes o Logios, a Greek literary publication of the late 18th and early 19th century with major contribution to the Modern Greek Enlightenment.

The relationship between ethnic Greek identity and Greek Orthodox religion continued after the creation of the modern Greek nation-state in 1830. According to the second article of the first Greek constitution of 1822, a Greek was defined as any native Christian resident of the Kingdom of Greece, a clause removed by 1840.[127] A century later, when the Treaty of Lausanne
Treaty of Lausanne
was signed between Greece and Turkey
Turkey
in 1923, the two countries agreed to use religion as the determinant for ethnic identity for the purposes of population exchange, although most of the Greeks
Greeks
displaced (over a million of the total 1.5 million) had already been driven out by the time the agreement was signed.[note 2][128] The Greek genocide, in particular the harsh removal of Pontian Greeks
Pontian Greeks
from the southern shore area of the Black Sea, contemporaneous with and following the failed Greek Asia Minor
Asia Minor
Campaign, was part of this process of Turkification
Turkification
of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the placement of its economy and trade, then largely in Greek hands under ethnic Turkish control.[129] Identity

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Northern Greeks: Thracians
Thracians
(Constantinopolitans) · Macedonians · Thessalians · Epirotes Southern Greeks: Peloponnesians (Maniots, Tsakonians) · Roumeliotes Eastern Greeks: Micrasiates (Smyrna, Aeolis, Ionia, Doris, Bithynia) Pontic (Caucasus, Crimea) Cappadocians/Karamanlides Islanders: Cretans · Eptanesians · Cycladites · Dodecanesians · Samiotes · Ikariotes · Chiotes · Lemniotes · Lesvians Cypriots Other groups: Antiochians · Arvanites
Arvanites
(Souliotes) · Egyptiotes · Grecanici Northern Epirotes · Romaniotes Sarakatsani · Slavophones Urums

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Greek Orthodox
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Languages and dialects

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History of Greece

v t e

The terms used to define Greekness have varied throughout history but were never limited or completely identified with membership to a Greek state.[130] Herodotus
Herodotus
gave a famous account of what defined Greek (Hellenic) ethnic identity in his day, enumerating

shared descent (ὅμαιμον - homaimon, "of the same blood"),[131] shared language (ὁμόγλωσσον - homoglōsson, "speaking the same language")[132] shared sanctuaries and sacrifices (Greek: θεῶν ἱδρύματά τε κοινὰ καὶ θυσίαι - theōn hidrumata te koina kai thusiai)[133] shared customs (Greek: ἤθεα ὁμότροπα - ēthea homotropa, "customs of like fashion").[134][135][136]

By Western standards, the term Greeks
Greeks
has traditionally referred to any native speakers of the Greek language, whether Mycenaean, Byzantine or modern Greek.[122][137] Byzantine Greeks
Byzantine Greeks
self-identified as Romaioi ("Romans"), Graikoi ("Greeks") and Christianoi ("Christians") since they were the political heirs of imperial Rome, the descendants of their classical Greek forebears and followers of the Apostles;[138] during the mid-to-late Byzantine period (11th–13th century), a growing number of Byzantine Greek intellectuals deemed themselves Hellenes although for most Greek-speakers, "Hellene" still meant pagan.[96][139] On the eve of the Fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
the Last Emperor urged his soldiers to remember that they were the descendants of Greeks
Greeks
and Romans.[140] Before the establishment of the modern Greek nation-state, the link between ancient and modern Greeks
Greeks
was emphasized by the scholars of Greek Enlightenment especially by Rigas Feraios. In his "Political Constitution", he addresses to the nation as "the people descendant of the Greeks".[141] The modern Greek state was created in 1829, when the Greeks
Greeks
liberated a part of their historic homelands, Peloponnese, from the Ottoman Empire.[142] The large Greek diaspora
Greek diaspora
and merchant class were instrumental in transmitting the ideas of western romantic nationalism and philhellenism,[126] which together with the conception of Hellenism, formulated during the last centuries of the Byzantine Empire, formed the basis of the Diafotismos
Diafotismos
and the current conception of Hellenism.[117][122][143] The Greeks
Greeks
today are a nation in the meaning of an ethnos, defined by possessing Greek culture and having a Greek mother tongue, not by citizenship, race, and religion or by being subjects of any particular state.[144] In ancient and medieval times and to a lesser extent today the Greek term was genos, which also indicates a common ancestry.[145][146] Names Main articles: Achaeans (Homer)
Achaeans (Homer)
and Names of the Greeks

Map showing the major regions of mainland ancient Greece, and adjacent "barbarian" lands.

Greeks
Greeks
and Greek-speakers have used different names to refer to themselves collectively. The term Achaeans (Ἀχαιοί) is one of the collective names for the Greeks
Greeks
in Homer's Iliad
Iliad
and Odyssey
Odyssey
(the Homeric "long-haired Achaeans" would have been a part of the Mycenaean civilization that dominated Greece
Greece
from c. 1600 BC until 1100 BC). The other common names are Danaans (Δαναοί) and Argives (Ἀργεῖοι) while Panhellenes (Πανέλληνες) and Hellenes (Ἕλληνες) both appear only once in the Iliad;[147] all of these terms were used, synonymously, to denote a common Greek identity.[148][149] In the historical period, Herodotus
Herodotus
identified the Achaeans of the northern Peloponnese
Peloponnese
as descendants of the earlier, Homeric Achaeans.[150] Homer
Homer
refers to the "Hellenes" (/ˈhɛliːnz/) as a relatively small tribe settled in Thessalic Phthia, with its warriors under the command of Achilleus.[151] The Parian Chronicle
Parian Chronicle
says that Phthia was the homeland of the Hellenes and that this name was given to those previously called Greeks
Greeks
(Γραικοί).[152] In Greek mythology, Hellen, the patriarch of the Hellenes who ruled around Phthia, was the son of Pyrrha
Pyrrha
and Deucalion, the only survivors after the Great Deluge.[153] The Greek philosopher Aristotle
Aristotle
names ancient Hellas as an area in Epirus
Epirus
between Dodona
Dodona
and the Achelous
Achelous
river, the location of the Great Deluge of Deucalion, a land occupied by the Selloi and the "Greeks" who later came to be known as "Hellenes".[154] In the Homeric tradition, the Selloi were the priests of Dodonian Zeus.[155] In the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, Graecus is presented as the son of Zeus
Zeus
and Pandora II, sister of Hellen
Hellen
the patriarch of the Hellenes.[156] According to the Parian Chronicle, when Deucalion became king of Phthia, the Graikoi (Γραικοί) were named Hellenes.[152] Aristotle
Aristotle
notes in his Meteorologica that the Hellenes were related to the Graikoi.[154] Continuity

Family group on a funerary stele from Athens, National Archaeological Museum, Athens.

The most obvious link between modern and ancient Greeks
Greeks
is their language, which has a documented tradition from at least the 14th century BC to the present day, albeit with a break during the Greek Dark Ages (lasting from the 11th to the 8th century BC).[157] Scholars compare its continuity of tradition to Chinese alone.[157][158] Since its inception, Hellenism was primarily a matter of common culture and the national continuity of the Greek world is a lot more certain than its demographic.[43][159] Yet, Hellenism also embodied an ancestral dimension through aspects of Athenian literature that developed and influenced ideas of descent based on autochthony.[160] During the later years of the Eastern Roman Empire, areas such as Ionia
Ionia
and Constantinople
Constantinople
experienced a Hellenic revival in language, philosophy, and literature and on classical models of thought and scholarship.[159] This revival provided a powerful impetus to the sense of cultural affinity with ancient Greece
Greece
and its classical heritage.[159] Throughout their history, the Greeks
Greeks
have retained their language and alphabet, certain values and cultural traditions, customs, a sense of religious and cultural difference and exclusion (the word barbarian was used by 12th-century historian Anna Komnene to describe non-Greek speakers),[161] a sense of Greek identity and common sense of ethnicity despite the undeniable socio-political changes of the past two millennia.[159] In recent anthropological studies, both ancient and modern Greek osteological samples were analyzed demonstrating a bio-genetic affinity and continuity shared between both groups.[162][163] Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Greece
Greece
and Demographics of Cyprus Today, Greeks
Greeks
are the majority ethnic group in the Hellenic Republic,[164] where they constitute 93% of the country's population,[165] and the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
where they make up 78% of the island's population (excluding Turkish settlers in the occupied part of the country).[166] Greek populations have not traditionally exhibited high rates of growth; a large percentage of Greek population growth since Greece's foundation in 1832 was attributed to annexation of new territories, as well as the influx of 1.5 million Greek refugees after the 1923 population exchange between Greece
Greece
and Turkey.[167] About 80% of the population of Greece
Greece
is urban, with 28% concentrated in the city of Athens.[168] Greeks
Greeks
from Cyprus
Cyprus
have a similar history of emigration, usually to the English-speaking world because of the island's colonization by the British Empire. Waves of emigration followed the Turkish invasion of Cyprus
Cyprus
in 1974, while the population decreased between mid-1974 and 1977 as a result of emigration, war losses, and a temporary decline in fertility.[169] After the ethnic cleansing of a third of the Greek population of the island in 1974,[170][171] there was also an increase in the number of Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
leaving, especially for the Middle East, which contributed to a decrease in population that tapered off in the 1990s.[169] Today more than two-thirds of the Greek population in Cyprus
Cyprus
is urban.[169] There is a sizeable Greek minority of approximately 200,000 people in Albania.[14] The Greek minority of Turkey, which numbered upwards of 200,000 people after the 1923 exchange, has now dwindled to a few thousand, after the 1955 Constantinople
Constantinople
Pogrom and other state sponsored violence and discrimination.[172] This effectively ended, though not entirely, the three-thousand-year-old presence of Hellenism in Asia
Asia
Minor.[173][174] There are smaller Greek minorities in the rest of the Balkan countries, the Levant
Levant
and the Black Sea
Black Sea
states, remnants of the Old Greek Diaspora
Greek Diaspora
(pre-19th century).[175] Diaspora Main article: Greek diaspora

Zach Galifianakis, American stand-up comedian and actor of Greek ancestry.

The total number of Greeks
Greeks
living outside Greece
Greece
and Cyprus
Cyprus
today is a contentious issue. Where Census figures are available, they show around 3 million Greeks
Greeks
outside Greece
Greece
and Cyprus. Estimates provided by the SAE - World Council of Hellenes Abroad
SAE - World Council of Hellenes Abroad
put the figure at around 7 million worldwide.[176] According to George Prevelakis of Sorbonne University, the number is closer to just below 5 million.[175] Integration, intermarriage, and loss of the Greek language
Greek language
influence the self-identification of the Omogeneia. Important centres of the New Greek Diaspora
Greek Diaspora
today are London, New York, Melbourne and Toronto.[175] In 2010, the Hellenic Parliament
Hellenic Parliament
introduced a law that enables Diaspora Greeks
Greeks
in Greece
Greece
to vote in the elections of the Greek state.[177] This law was later repealed in early 2014.[178] Ancient See also: Colonies in antiquity

Greek colonization in antiquity.

In ancient times, the trading and colonizing activities of the Greek tribes and city states spread the Greek culture, religion and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea
Black Sea
basins, especially in Sicily and southern Italy
Italy
(also known as Magna Grecia), Spain, the south of France
France
and the Black sea coasts.[179] Under Alexander the Great's empire and successor states, Greek and Hellenizing ruling classes were established in the Middle East, India and in Egypt.[179] The Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
is characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization that established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia
Asia
and Africa.[180] Under the Roman Empire, easier movement of people spread Greeks
Greeks
across the Empire and in the eastern territories, Greek became the lingua franca rather than Latin.[102] The modern-day Griko community of southern Italy, numbering about 60,000,[18][19] may represent a living remnant of the ancient Greek populations of Italy. Modern

Distribution of ethnic groups in 1918, National Geographic

Greek Diaspora
Greek Diaspora
(20th century).

During and after the Greek War of Independence, Greeks
Greeks
of the diaspora were important in establishing the fledgling state, raising funds and awareness abroad.[181] Greek merchant families already had contacts in other countries and during the disturbances many set up home around the Mediterranean (notably Marseilles in France, Livorno in Italy, Alexandria
Alexandria
in Egypt), Russia
Russia
( Odessa
Odessa
and Saint Petersburg), and Britain (London and Liverpool) from where they traded, typically in textiles and grain.[182] Businesses frequently comprised the extended family, and with them they brought schools teaching Greek and the Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
Church.[182] As markets changed and they became more established, some families grew their operations to become shippers, financed through the local Greek community, notably with the aid of the Ralli or Vagliano Brothers.[183] With economic success, the Diaspora expanded further across the Levant, North Africa, India and the USA.[183][184] In the 20th century, many Greeks
Greeks
left their traditional homelands for economic reasons resulting in large migrations from Greece
Greece
and Cyprus to the United States, Great Britain, Australia, Canada, Germany, and South Africa, especially after the Second World War
Second World War
(1939–1945), the Greek Civil War
Greek Civil War
(1946–1949), and the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus
Cyprus
in 1974.[185] While official figures remain scarce, polls and anecdotal evidence point to renewed Greek emigration as a result of the Greek financial crisis.[186] According to data published by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany
Germany
in 2011, 23,800 Greeks
Greeks
emigrated to Germany, a significant increase over the previous year. By comparison, about 9,000 Greeks
Greeks
emigrated to Germany
Germany
in 2009 and 12,000 in 2010.[187][188] Culture Main article: Culture
Culture
of Greece Greek culture has evolved over thousands of years, with its beginning in the Mycenaean civilization, continuing through the classical era, the Hellenistic period, the Roman and Byzantine periods and was profoundly affected by Christianity, which it in turn influenced and shaped.[189] Ottoman Greeks
Ottoman Greeks
had to endure through several centuries of adversity that culminated in genocide in the 20th century.[190][191] The Diafotismos
Diafotismos
is credited with revitalizing Greek culture and giving birth to the synthesis of ancient and medieval elements that characterize it today.[117][122] Language Main article: Greek language

Ancient Greek Ostracon
Ostracon
bearing the name of Cimon. Museum of the Ancient Agora, Athens.

Most Greeks
Greeks
speak the Greek language, an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, with its closest relations possibly being Armenian (see Graeco-Armenian) or the Indo-Iranian languages
Indo-Iranian languages
(see Graeco-Aryan).[157] It has the longest documented history of any living language and Greek literature
Greek literature
has a continuous history of over 2,500 years.[192] Several notable literary works, including the Homeric epics, Euclid's Elements
Euclid's Elements
and the New Testament, were originally written in Greek. Greek demonstrates several linguistic features that are shared with other Balkan languages, such as Albanian, Bulgarian and Eastern Romance languages
Romance languages
(see Balkan sprachbund), and has absorbed many foreign words, primarily of Western European and Turkish origin.[193] Because of the movements of Philhellenism
Philhellenism
and the Diafotismos
Diafotismos
in the 19th century, which emphasized the modern Greeks' ancient heritage, these foreign influences were excluded from official use via the creation of Katharevousa, a somewhat artificial form of Greek purged of all foreign influence and words, as the official language of the Greek state. In 1976, however, the Hellenic Parliament
Hellenic Parliament
voted to make the spoken Dimotiki the official language, making Katharevousa obsolete.[194] Modern Greek
Modern Greek
has, in addition to Standard Modern Greek
Modern Greek
or Dimotiki, a wide variety of dialects of varying levels of mutual intelligibility, including Cypriot, Pontic, Cappadocian, Griko and Tsakonian (the only surviving representative of ancient Doric Greek).[195] Yevanic is the language of the Romaniotes, and survives in small communities in Greece, New York and Israel. In addition to Greek, many Greeks
Greeks
in Greece
Greece
and the Diaspora are bilingual in other languages or dialects such as English, Arvanitika/Albanian, Aromanian, Macedonian Slavic, Russian and Turkish.[157][196] Religion Main articles: Religion in ancient Greece
Greece
and Orthodox Church Most Greeks
Greeks
are Christians, belonging to the Greek Orthodox Church.[197] During the first centuries after Jesus
Jesus
Christ, the New Testament was originally written in Koine Greek, which remains the liturgical language of the Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
Church, and most of the early Christians and Church Fathers were Greek-speaking.[189] There are small groups of ethnic Greeks
Greeks
adhering to other Christian denominations like Greek Catholics, Greek Evangelicals, Pentecostals, and groups adhering to other religions including Romaniot and Sephardic Jews
Sephardic Jews
and Greek Muslims. About 2,000 Greeks
Greeks
are members of Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism
Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism
congregations.[198][199][200] Greek-speaking Muslims live mainly outside Greece
Greece
in the contemporary era. There are both Christian
Christian
and Muslim Greek-speaking communities in Lebanon and Syria, while in the Pontus region of Turkey
Turkey
there is a large community of indeterminate size who were spared from the population exchange because of their religious affiliation.[201] Arts See also: Greek art, Music
Music
of Greece, Ancient Greek theatre, Modern Greek theatre, and Cinema of Greece

Dominikos Theotokopoulos

Maria Callas

Constantine P. Cavafy

Nikos Kazantzakis

Mikis Theodorakis

Odysseas Elytis

Vangelis
Vangelis
Papathanasiou

Greek art
Greek art
has a long and varied history. Greeks
Greeks
have contributed to the visual, literary and performing arts.[202] In the West, classical Greek art
Greek art
was influential in shaping the Roman and later the modern Western artistic heritage. Following the Renaissance
Renaissance
in Europe, the humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art inspired generations of European artists.[202] Well into the 19th century, the classical tradition derived from Greece
Greece
played an important role in the art of the Western world.[203] In the East, Alexander the Great's conquests initiated several centuries of exchange between Greek, Central Asian and Indian cultures, resulting in Greco-Buddhist art, whose influence reached as far as Japan.[204] Byzantine Greek art, which grew from classical art and adapted the pagan motifs in the service of Christianity, provided a stimulus to the art of many nations.[205] Its influences can be traced from Venice in the West to Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
in the East.[205][206] In turn, Greek art was influenced by eastern civilizations (i.e. Egypt, Persia, etc.) during various periods of its history.[207] Notable modern Greek artists include Renaissance
Renaissance
painter Dominikos Theotokopoulos (El Greco), Panagiotis Doxaras, Nikolaos Gyzis, Nikiphoros Lytras, Yannis Tsarouchis, Nikos Engonopoulos, Constantine Andreou, Jannis Kounellis, sculptors such as Leonidas Drosis, Georgios Bonanos, Yannoulis Chalepas
Yannoulis Chalepas
and Joannis Avramidis, conductor Dimitri Mitropoulos, soprano Maria Callas, composers such as Mikis Theodorakis, Nikos Skalkottas, Iannis Xenakis, Manos Hatzidakis, Eleni Karaindrou, Yanni
Yanni
and Vangelis, one of the best-selling singers worldwide Nana Mouskouri
Nana Mouskouri
and poets such as Kostis Palamas, Dionysios Solomos, Angelos Sikelianos
Angelos Sikelianos
and Yannis Ritsos. Alexandrian Constantine P. Cavafy and Nobel laureates Giorgos Seferis
Giorgos Seferis
and Odysseas Elytis
Odysseas Elytis
are among the most important poets of the 20th century. Novel is also represented by Alexandros Papadiamantis
Alexandros Papadiamantis
and Nikos Kazantzakis. Notable Greek actors include Marika Kotopouli, Melina Mercouri, Ellie Lambeti, Academy Award
Academy Award
winner Katina Paxinou, Dimitris Horn, Manos Katrakis and Irene Papas. Alekos Sakellarios, Michael Cacoyannis
Michael Cacoyannis
and Theo Angelopoulos
Theo Angelopoulos
are among the most important directors. Science See also: Greek mathematics, Ancient Greek medicine, Byzantine science, Greek scholars in the Renaissance, and List of Greek inventions and discoveries

Aristarchus of Samos
Samos
was the first known individual to propose a heliocentric system, in the 3rd century BC

The Greeks
Greeks
of the Classical and Hellenistic eras made seminal contributions to science and philosophy, laying the foundations of several western scientific traditions, such as astronomy, geography, historiography, mathematics, medicine and philosophy. The scholarly tradition of the Greek academies was maintained during Roman times with several academic institutions in Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria
Alexandria
and other centers of Greek learning, while Byzantine science was essentially a continuation of classical science.[208] Greeks
Greeks
have a long tradition of valuing and investing in paideia (education).[85] Paideia
Paideia
was one of the highest societal values in the Greek and Hellenistic world
Hellenistic world
while the first European institution described as a university was founded in 5th century Constantinople and operated in various incarnations until the city's fall to the Ottomans in 1453.[209] The University of Constantinople
Constantinople
was Christian Europe's first secular institution of higher learning since no theological subjects were taught,[210] and considering the original meaning of the world university as a corporation of students, the world's first university as well.[209]

George Papanicolaou

As of 2007, Greece
Greece
had the eighth highest percentage of tertiary enrollment in the world (with the percentages for female students being higher than for male) while Greeks
Greeks
of the Diaspora are equally active in the field of education.[168] Hundreds of thousands of Greek students attend western universities every year while the faculty lists of leading Western universities contain a striking number of Greek names.[211] Notable modern Greek scientists of modern times include Dimitrios Galanos, Georgios Papanikolaou
Georgios Papanikolaou
(inventor of the Pap test), Nicholas Negroponte, Constantin Carathéodory, Manolis Andronikos, Michael Dertouzos, John Argyris, Panagiotis Kondylis, John Iliopoulos (2007 Dirac Prize for his contributions on the physics of the charm quark, a major contribution to the birth of the Standard Model, the modern theory of Elementary Particles), Joseph Sifakis (2007 Turing Award, the "Nobel Prize" of Computer Science), Christos Papadimitriou (2002 Knuth Prize, 2012 Gödel Prize), Mihalis Yannakakis (2005 Knuth Prize) and Dimitri Nanopoulos. Symbols See also: Flag of Greece

The flag of the Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church
is based on the coat of arms of the Palaiologoi, the last dynasty of the Byzantine Empire.

Traditional Greek flag.

The most widely used symbol is the flag of Greece, which features nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white representing the nine syllables of the Greek national motto Eleftheria i Thanatos (Freedom or Death), which was the motto of the Greek War of Independence.[212] The blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bears a white cross, which represents Greek Orthodoxy. The Greek flag is widely used by the Greek Cypriots, although Cyprus
Cyprus
has officially adopted a neutral flag to ease ethnic tensions with the Turkish Cypriot minority (see flag of Cyprus).[213] The pre-1978 (and first) flag of Greece, which features a Greek cross (crux immissa quadrata) on a blue background, is widely used as an alternative to the official flag, and they are often flown together. The national emblem of Greece
Greece
features a blue escutcheon with a white cross surrounded by two laurel branches. A common design involves the current flag of Greece
Greece
and the pre-1978 flag of Greece
Greece
with crossed flagpoles and the national emblem placed in front.[214] Another highly recognizable and popular Greek symbol is the double-headed eagle, the imperial emblem of the last dynasty of the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and a common symbol in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and, later, Eastern Europe.[215] It is not part of the modern Greek flag or coat-of-arms, although it is officially the insignia of the Greek Army and the flag of the Church of Greece. It had been incorporated in the Greek coat of arms between 1925 and 1926.[216] Surnames and personal names See also: Greek name and Ancient Greek personal names Greek surnames began to appear in the 9th and 10th century, at first among ruling families, eventually supplanting the ancient tradition of using the father's name as disambiguator.[217][218] Nevertheless, Greek surnames are most commonly patronymics,[217] such those ending in the suffix -opoulos or -ides, while others derive from trade professions, physical characteristics, or a location such as a town, village, or monastery.[218] Commonly, Greek male surnames end in -s, which is the common ending for Greek masculine proper nouns in the nominative case. Occasionally (especially in Cyprus), some surnames end in -ou, indicating the genitive case of a patronymic name.[219] Many surnames end in suffixes that are associated with a particular region, such as -akis (Crete), -eas or -akos (Mani Peninsula), -atos (island of Cephalonia), and so forth.[218] In addition to a Greek origin, some surnames have Turkish or Latin/Italian origin, especially among Greeks
Greeks
from Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the Ionian Islands, respectively.[220] Female surnames end in a vowel and are usually the genitive form of the corresponding males surname, although this usage is not followed in the diaspora, where the male version of the surname is generally used. With respect to personal names, the two main influences are Christianity
Christianity
and classical Hellenism; ancient Greek nomenclatures were never forgotten but have become more widely bestowed from the 18th century onwards.[218] As in antiquity, children are customarily named after their grandparents, with the first born male child named after the paternal grandfather, the second male child after the maternal grandfather, and similarly for female children.[221] Personal names are often familiarized by a diminutive suffix, such as -akis for male names and -itsa or -oula for female names.[218] Greeks
Greeks
generally do not use middle names, instead using the genitive of the father's first name as a middle name. This usage has been passed on to the Russians and other East Slavs
East Slavs
(otchestvo). Sea Main article: Greek shipping

Aristotle
Aristotle
Onassis, the best known Greek shipping
Greek shipping
magnate.

The traditional Greek homelands have been the Greek peninsula
Greek peninsula
and the Aegean Sea, Southern Italy
Italy
(Magna Graecia), the Black Sea, the Ionian coasts of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the islands of Cyprus
Cyprus
and Sicily. In Plato's Phaidon, Socrates remarks, "we (Greeks) live around a sea like frogs around a pond" when describing to his friends the Greek cities of the Aegean.[222][223] This image is attested by the map of the Old Greek Diaspora, which corresponded to the Greek world until the creation of the Greek state in 1832. The sea and trade were natural outlets for Greeks
Greeks
since the Greek peninsula
Greek peninsula
is rocky and does not offer good prospects for agriculture.[43] Notable Greek seafarers include people such as Pytheas
Pytheas
of Marseilles, Scylax of Caryanda who sailed to Iberia and beyond, Nearchus, the 6th century merchant and later monk Cosmas Indicopleustes
Cosmas Indicopleustes
(Cosmas who Sailed to India) and the explorer of the Northwestern Passage, Apostolos Valerianos also known as Juan de Fuca.[224] In later times, the Byzantine Greeks
Byzantine Greeks
plied the sea-lanes of the Mediterranean and controlled trade until an embargo imposed by the Byzantine emperor
Byzantine emperor
on trade with the Caliphate
Caliphate
opened the door for the later Italian pre-eminence in trade.[225] The Greek shipping
Greek shipping
tradition recovered during Ottoman rule when a substantial merchant middle class developed, which played an important part in the Greek War of Independence.[117] Today, Greek shipping continues to prosper to the extent that Greece
Greece
has the largest merchant fleet in the world, while many more ships under Greek ownership fly flags of convenience.[168] The most notable shipping magnate of the 20th century was Aristotle
Aristotle
Onassis, others being Yiannis Latsis, George Livanos, and Stavros Niarchos.[226][227] Genetics

Gene flow within West Eurasia is shown by lines linking the best-matching donor group to the sources of admixture with recipient clusters (arrowhead).

Pan-Euorpean autosomal plot. Below: genetic distance map of European peoples.

Admixture analysis of autosomal SNPs of the Balkan region in a global context on the resolution level of 7 assumed ancestral populations: African (brown), South/West European (light blue), Asian (yellow), Middle Eastern (green), North/East European (dark blue) and Caucasian/Anatolian component (beige).

Factor Correspondence Analysis Comparing Different Individuals from European Ancestry Groups.

Genetic studies using multiple autosomal gene markers, Y chromosomal DNA haplogroup analysis and mitochondrial gene markers (mtDNA) show that Greeks
Greeks
share similar backgrounds as the rest of the Europeans and especially southern Europeans ( Italians
Italians
and southern Balkan populations). According to the studies using multiple autosomal gene markers, Greeks
Greeks
are some of the earliest contributors of genetic material to the rest of the Europeans as they are one of the oldest populations in Europe.[228] A study in 2008 showed that Greeks
Greeks
are genetically closest to Italians
Italians
and Romanians[229] and another 2008 study showed that they are close to Italians, Albanians, Romanians
Romanians
and southern Balkan Slavs.[230] A 2003 study showed that Greeks
Greeks
cluster with other South European (mainly Italians) and North-European populations and are close to the Basques,[231] and FST distances showed that they group with other European and Mediterranean populations,[228][232] especially with Italians
Italians
(−0.0001) and Tuscans (0.0005).[233] A 2017 study showed that Southern Italian populations appear genetically closer to Greek islands than to continental Greece.[234] Y DNA
Y DNA
studies show that Greeks
Greeks
cluster with other Europeans[235][236][237][238][239] and that they carry some of the oldest Y haplogroups in Europe, in particular the J2 haplogroup (and other J subhaplogroups) and E haplogroups, which are genetic markers denoting early farmers.[235][239][240][241] The Y-chromosome lineage E-V13
E-V13
appears to have originated in Greece
Greece
or the southern Balkans
Balkans
and is high in Greeks
Greeks
as well as in Albanians, southern Italians
Italians
and southern Slavs. E-V13
E-V13
is also found in Corsicans and Provencals, where an admixture analysis estimated that 17% of the Y-chromosomes of Provence
Provence
may be attributed to Greek colonization, and is also found at low frequencies on the Anatolian mainland. These results suggest that E-V13
E-V13
may trace the demographic and socio-cultural impact of Greek colonization in Mediterranean Europe, a contribution that appears to be considerably larger than that of a Neolithic
Neolithic
pioneer colonization.[242][243][244] A study in 2008 showed that Greek regional samples from the mainland cluster with those from the Balkans while Cretan Greeks
Greeks
cluster with the central Mediterranean and Eastern Mediterranean samples.[236] Greek signature DNA influence can be seen in Southern Italy
Italy
and Sicily, where the genetic contribution of Greek chromosomes to the Sicilian gene pool is estimated to be about 37%, and the Southern Balkans.[239][240] Studies using mitochondrial DNA gene markers (mtDNA) showed that Greeks
Greeks
group with other Mediterranean European populations[245][246][247] and principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the low genetic distance between Greeks
Greeks
and Italians[248] and also revealed a cline of genes with highest frequencies in the Balkans
Balkans
and Southern Italy, spreading to lowest levels in Britain and the Basque country, which Cavalli-Sforza associates it with "the Greek expansion, which reached its peak in historical times around 1000 and 500 BC but which certainly began earlier".[249] A 2017 study on the genetic origins of the Minoans
Minoans
and Mycenaeans showed that modern Greeks
Greeks
resemble the Mycenaeans, but with some additional dilution of the early neolithic ancestry. The results of the study support the idea of genetic continuity between these civilizations and modern Greeks
Greeks
but not isolation in the history of populations of the Aegean, before and after the time of its earliest civilizations.[250][251][252] In an interview, the study's author, Harvard University
Harvard University
geneticist Iosif Lazaridis, precised "that all three Bronze Age
Bronze Age
groups (Minoans, Mycenaeans, and Bronze Age southwestern Anatolians) trace most of their ancestry from the earlier Neolithic
Neolithic
populations that were very similar in Greece
Greece
and western Anatolia. But, they also had some ancestry from the 'east', related to populations of the Caucasus and Iran", and argues that "some had theorized that the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations were influenced both culturally and genetically by the old civilizations of the Levant and Egypt, but there is no quantifiable genetic influence".[253] Physical appearance A study from 2013 for prediction of hair and eye colour from DNA of the Greek people showed that the self-reported phenotype frequencies according to hair and eye colour categories was as follows: 119 individuals – hair colour, 11 blond, 45 dark blond/light brown, 49 dark brown, 3 brown red/auburn and 11 had black hair; eye colour, 13 with blue, 15 with intermediate (green, heterochromia) and 91 had brown eye colour.[254] Another study from 2012 included 150 dental school students from the University of Athens, and the results of the study showed that light hair colour (blonde/light ash brown) was predominant in 10.7% of the students. 36% had medium hair colour (light brown/medium darkest brown), 32% had darkest brown and 21% black (15.3 off black, 6% midnight black). In conclusion, the hair colour of young Greeks
Greeks
are mostly brown, ranging from light to dark brown with significant minorities having black and blonde hair. The same study also showed that the eye colour of the students was 14.6% blue/green, 28% medium (light brown) and 57.4% dark brown.[255] Timeline The history of the Greek people is closely associated with the history of Greece, Cyprus, Constantinople, Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the Black Sea. During the Ottoman rule of Greece, a number of Greek enclaves around the Mediterranean were cut off from the core, notably in Southern Italy, the Caucasus, Syria
Syria
and Egypt. By the early 20th century, over half of the overall Greek-speaking population was settled in Asia Minor (now Turkey), while later that century a huge wave of migration to the United States, Australia, Canada
Canada
and elsewhere created the modern Greek diaspora.

Time Events

c. 3rd millennium BC Proto-Greek
Proto-Greek
tribes from around the Southern Balkans/Aegean are generally thought to have arrived in the Greek mainland.

16th century BC Decline of the Minoan civilization, possibly because of the eruption of Thera. Emergence of the Achaeans and formation of the Mycenaean civilization, the first Greek-speaking civilization.

13th century BC First colonies established in Asia
Asia
Minor.

11th century BC The Mycenaean civilization
Mycenaean civilization
ends in the presumed Dorian invasion. The Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
begin. Dorians
Dorians
move into peninsular Greece. Achaeans flee to Aegean Islands, Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and Cyprus.

9th century BC Major colonization of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and Cyprus
Cyprus
by the Greek tribes.

8th century BC First major colonies established in Sicily
Sicily
and Southern Italy. The first Pan-Hellenic festival, the Olympic games, is held in 776 BC. The emergence of Pan-Hellenism marks the ethnogenesis of the Greek nation.

6th century BC Colonies established across the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and the Black Sea.

5th century BC Defeat of the Persians and emergence of the Delian League
Delian League
in Ionia, the Black Sea
Black Sea
and Aegean perimeter culminates in Athenian Empire
Athenian Empire
and the Classical Age of Greece; ends with Athens
Athens
defeat by Sparta
Sparta
at the close of the Peloponnesian War

4th century BC Rise of Theban power and defeat of the Spartans; Rise of Macedon; Campaign of Alexander the Great; Greek colonies
Greek colonies
established in newly founded cities of Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
and Asia.

2nd century BC Conquest of Greece
Greece
by the Roman Empire. Migrations of Greeks
Greeks
to Rome.

4th century AD Eastern Roman Empire. Migrations of Greeks
Greeks
throughout the Empire, mainly towards Constantinople.

7th century Slavic conquest of several parts of Greece, Greek migrations to Southern Italy, Roman emperors capture main Slavic bodies and transfer them to Cappadocia. The Bosphorus
Bosphorus
is re-populated by Macedonian and Cypriot Greeks.

8th century Roman dissolution of surviving Slavic settlements in Greece
Greece
and full recovery of the Greek peninsula.

9th century Retro-migrations of Greeks
Greeks
from all parts of the Empire (mainly from Southern Italy
Italy
and Sicily) into parts of Greece
Greece
that were depopulated by the Slavic Invasions (mainly western Peloponnesus and Thessaly).

13th century Roman Empire
Roman Empire
dissolves, Constantinople
Constantinople
taken by the Fourth Crusade; becoming the capital of the Latin
Latin
Empire. Liberated after a long struggle by the Empire of Nicaea, but fragments remain separated. Migrations between Asia
Asia
Minor, Constantinople
Constantinople
and mainland Greece
Greece
take place.

15th century         – 19th century Conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
by the Ottoman Empire. Greek diaspora
Greek diaspora
into Europe
Europe
begins. Ottoman settlements in Greece. Phanariot
Phanariot
Greeks
Greeks
occupy high posts in Eastern European millets.

1830s Creation of the Modern Greek
Modern Greek
State. Immigration to the New World begins. Large-scale migrations from Constantinople
Constantinople
and Asia Minor
Asia Minor
to Greece
Greece
take place.

Time Events

1913 European Ottoman lands partitioned; unorganized migrations of Greeks, Bulgarians
Bulgarians
and Turks towards their respective states.

1914–1923 Greek genocide; hundreds of thousands of Ottoman Greeks
Ottoman Greeks
are estimated to have died during this period.[256]

1919 Treaty of Neuilly; Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
exchange populations, with some exceptions.

1922 The Destruction of Smyrna
Smyrna
(modern-day Izmir) more than 40 thousand Greeks
Greeks
killed; end of significant Greek presence in Asia
Asia
Minor.

1923 Treaty of Lausanne; Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
agree to exchange populations with limited exceptions of the Greeks
Greeks
in Constantinople, Imbros, Tenedos
Tenedos
and the Muslim minority of Western Thrace. 1.5 million of Asia Minor and Pontic Greeks
Pontic Greeks
settle in Greece, and some 450 thousands of Muslims settle in Turkey.

1940s Hundred of thousands Greeks
Greeks
died from starvation during the Axis Occupation of Greece

1947 Communist
Communist
regime in Romania
Romania
begins evictions of the Greek community, approx. 75,000 migrate.

1948 Greek Civil War. Tens of thousands of Greek communists and their families flee into Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
nations. Thousands settle in Tashkent.

1950s Massive emigration of Greeks
Greeks
to West Germany, the United States, Australia, Canada, and other countries.

1955 Istanbul Pogrom
Istanbul Pogrom
against Greeks. Exodus of Greeks
Greeks
from the city accelerates; less than 2,000 remain today.

1958 Large Greek community in Alexandria
Alexandria
flees Nasser's regime in Egypt.

1960s Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
created as an independent state under Greek, Turkish and British protection. Economic emigration continues.

1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Almost all Greeks
Greeks
living in Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
flee to the south and the United Kingdom.

1980s Many civil war refugees were allowed to re-emigrate to Greece. Retro-migration of Greeks
Greeks
from Germany
Germany
begins.

1990s Collapse of Soviet Union. Approximately 340,000 ethnic Greeks
Greeks
migrate from Georgia, Armenia, southern Russia, and Albania
Albania
to Greece.

early 2000s Some statistics show the beginning of a trend of reverse migration of Greeks
Greeks
from the United States
United States
and Australia.

2010s Over 200,000 people,[257] particularly young skilled individuals,[258] emigrate to other EU states due to high unemployment (see also Greek government-debt crisis).[259]

See also

Antiochian Greeks Arvanites Cappadocian Greeks Caucasian Greeks Greek Cypriots

Greek Diaspora Griko people Macedonians (Greeks) Maniots Greek Muslims

Northern Epirotes Pelasgians Pontic Greeks Romaniotes Sarakatsani

List of ancient Greeks List of Greeks List of Greek Americans

Ancient Greece
Greece
portal Greece
Greece
portal

Notes

^ Though there is a range of interpretations; Carl Blegen
Carl Blegen
dates the arrival of the Greeks
Greeks
around 1900 BC, John Caskey believes that there were two waves of immigrants and Robert Drews places the event as late as 1600 BC.[53][54] A variety of more theories has also been supported,[55] but there is a general consensus that the coming of the Greek tribes occurred around 2100 BC. ^ While Greek authorities signed the agreement legalizing the population exchange this was done on the insistence of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and after a million Greeks
Greeks
had already been expelled from Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(Gilbar 1997, p. 8).

Citations

^ Maratou-Alipranti 2013, p. 196: "The Greek diaspora
Greek diaspora
remains large, consisting of up to 4 million people globally." ^ Clogg 2013, p. 228: " Greeks
Greeks
of the diaspora, settled in some 141 countries, were held to number 7 million although it is not clear how this figure was arrived at or what criteria were used to define Greek ethnicity, while the population of the homeland, according to the 1991 census, amounted to some 10.25 million." ^ "2011 Population and Housing Census" (PDF). Hellenic Statistical Authority. 12 September 2014. The Resident Population of Greece
Greece
is 10.816.286, of which 5.303.223 male (49,0%) and 5.513.063 female (51,0%) ... The total number of permanent residents of Greece with foreign citizenship during the Census was 912.000. [See Graph 6: Resident Population by Citizenship]  ^ "Statistical Data on Immigrants in Greece: An Analytic Study of Available Data and Recommendations for Conformity with European Union Standards" (PDF). Archive of European Integration (AEI). University of Pittsburgh. 15 November 2004. Retrieved 18 May 2016. [p. 5] The Census recorded 762.191 persons normally resident in Greece
Greece
and without Greek citizenship, constituting around 7% of total population. Of these, 48.560 are EU or EFTA nationals; there are also 17.426 Cypriots with privileged status.  ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2011–2013 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". American FactFinder. U.S. Department of Commerce: United States
United States
Census Bureau. 2013.  ^ "U.S. Relations with Greece". United States
United States
Department of State. 10 March 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016. Today, an estimated three million Americans resident in the United States
United States
claim Greek descent. This large, well-organized community cultivates close political and cultural ties with Greece.  ^ Statistical Service (2003–2016). "Preliminary Results of the Census of Population, 2011". Republic of Cyprus, Ministry of Finance, Statistical Service.  ^ Cole 2011, Yiannis Papadakis, "Cypriots, Greek", pp. 92–95 ^ "Where are the Greek communities of the world?". themanews.com. Protothemanews.com. 2013.  ^ "United Kingdom: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. There are between 40 and 45 thousand Greeks
Greeks
residing permanently in the UK, and the Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church
has a strong presence in the Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain ... There is a significant Greek presence of Greek students in tertiary education in the UK. A large Cypriot community – numbering 250–300 thousand – rallies round the National Federation of Cypriots in Great Britain and the Association of Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
Communities of Great Britain.  ^ "Statistical Yearbook Germany
Germany
Extract Chapter 2: Population, Families and Living Arrangements in Germany". Statistisches Bundesamt. 14 March 2013. p. 21.  ^ "2071.0 - Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2014.  ^ "Ethnic Origin (264), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3), Generation Status (4), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey". Statistics Canada. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2016.  ^ a b Jeffries 2002, p. 69: "It is difficult to know how many ethnic Greeks
Greeks
there are in Albania. The Greek government, it is typically claimed, says there are around 300,000 ethnic Greeks
Greeks
in Albania, but most Western estimates are around the 200,000 mark ..." ^ "Ukraine: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 February 2011. There is a significant Greek presence in southern and eastern Ukraine, which can be traced back to ancient Greek and Byzantine settlers. Ukrainian citizens of Greek descent amount to 91,000 people, although their number is estimated to be much higher by the Federation of Greek communities of Mariupol.  ^ "Итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года в отношении демографических и социально-экономических характеристик отдельных национальностей".  ^ "Italy: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. The Greek Italian community numbers some 30,000 and is concentrated mainly in central Italy. The age-old presence in Italy
Italy
of Italians
Italians
of Greek descent – dating back to Byzantine and Classical times – is attested to by the Griko dialect, which is still spoken in the Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
region. This historically Greek-speaking villages are Condofuri, Galliciano, Roccaforte del Greco, Roghudi, Bova and Bova Marina, which are in the Calabria region (the capital of which is Reggio). The Grecanic region, including Reggio, has a population of some 200,000, while speakers of the Griko dialect number fewer that 1,000 persons.  ^ a b "Grecia Salentina" (in Italian). Unione dei Comuni della Grecìa Salentina. 2016. La popolazione complessiva dell'Unione è di 54278 residenti così distribuiti (Dati Istat al 31° dicembre 2005. Comune Popolazione Calimera 7351 Carpignano Salentino 3868 Castrignano dei Greci 4164 Corigliano d'Otranto 5762 Cutrofiano 9250 Martano 9588 Martignano 1784 Melpignano 2234 Soleto 5551 Sternatia 2583 Zollino 2143 Totale 54278).  ^ a b Bellinello 1998, p. 53: "Le attuali colonie Greche calabresi; La Grecìa calabrese si inscrive nel massiccio aspromontano e si concentra nell'ampia e frastagliata valle dell'Amendolea e nelle balze più a oriente, dove sorgono le fiumare dette di S. Pasquale, di Palizzi e Sidèroni e che costituiscono la Bovesia vera e propria. Compresa nei territori di cinque comuni (Bova Superiore, Bova Marina, Roccaforte del Greco, Roghudi, Condofuri), la Grecia si estende per circa 233 kmq. La popolazione anagrafica complessiva è di circa 14.000 unità." ^ "South Africa: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 February 2011. It is difficult to determine the precise number of Greeks
Greeks
due to constant comings and goings, although the estimated figure is above 45,000.  ^ "The Greek Community". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007.  ^ "France: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. Some 15,000 Greeks
Greeks
reside in the wider region of Paris, Lille and Lyon. In the region of Southern France, the Greek community numbers some 20,000.  ^ "Argentina: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. It is estimated that some 20,000 to 30,000 persons of Greek origin currently reside in Argentina, and there are Greek communities in the wider region of Buenos Aires.  ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs (PDF). 9 March 2011 http://cizinci.cz/repository/2240/file/Rekove2.pdf.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "Belgium: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 28 January 2011. Some 35,000 Greeks
Greeks
reside in Belgium. Official Belgian data numbers Greeks
Greeks
in the country at 17,000, but does not take into account Greeks
Greeks
who have taken Belgian citizenship or work for international organizations and enterprises.  ^ "Georgia: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 31 January 2011. The Greek community of Georgia is currently estimated at 15,000 people, mostly elderly people living in the Tsalkas area.  ^ "Sweden: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 February 2011. The Greek community in Sweden
Sweden
consists of approximately 12,000 – 15,000 Greeks
Greeks
who are permanent inhabitants, included in Swedish society and active in various sectors: science, arts, literature, culture, media, education, business, and politics.  ^ "Kazakhstan: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 3 February 2011. There are between 10,000 and 12,000 ethnic Greeks
Greeks
living in Kazakhstan, organized in several communities.  ^ "Switzerland: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 10 December 2015. The Greek community in Switzerland
Switzerland
is estimated to number some 11,000 persons (of a total of 1.5 million foreigners residing in the country.  ^ " Greeks
Greeks
in Uzbekistan". Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst. The Central Asia-Caucasus Institute. 21 June 2000. Currently there are about 9,500 Greeks
Greeks
living in Uzbekistan, with 6,500 living in Tashkent.  ^ "Romania: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 6 December 2013. The Greek Romanian community numbers some 10,000, and there are many Greeks working in established Greek enterprises in Romania.  ^ Asatryan & Arakelova 2002, p. 8. ^ "Mexico: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. There are about 1,500 families of Greek origin living in Mexico
Mexico
and they are organised in three Greek associations, in Mexico
Mexico
City, Guadalajaras, and Sinaloa. Greece
Greece
has Honorary Consulates in Merida and Monterey.  ^ "Austria: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 28 January 2011. Today, the Greeks
Greeks
residing permanently in Austria
Austria
are graduates of Austrian universities and number some 5,000, half of whom are Greek citizens.  ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Turkey: Rum Orthodox Christians". Minority Rights Group (MRG). 2005. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.  ^ "Pontic". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International. 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016.  ^ "Hungary: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 31 January 2011. There are some 5,000 Greek Hungarians in Hungary, and they have received official minority recognition.  ^ "Bulgaria: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 28 January 2011. There are some 28,500 persons of Greek origin and citizenship residing in Bulgaria. This number includes approximately 15,000 Sarakatsani, 2,500 former political refugees, 8,000 "old Greeks", 2,000 university students and 1,000 professionals and their families.  ^ "Poland: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 February 2011. The Greek Polish community is approximately 3,000 strong, with half living in the city of Wroclaw in south east Poland.  ^ "2013 Census ethnic group profiles: Greek". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 9 December 2015.  ^ "Syria: VI. The Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. December 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May 2007. There are about 1,500 people of Greek descent, most of whom have Syrian nationality, and live mainly in Aleppo Syria's main trade and financial centre and Damascus.  ^ "Chile: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. There is a very energetic, albeit small Greek community in Chile, numbering some 1,500 people.  ^ a b c d e Roberts 2007, pp. 171–172, 222. ^ Latacz 2004, pp. 159, 165–166. ^ a b c d Sutton 1996. ^ Beaton 1996, pp. 1–25. ^ CIA World Factbook
CIA World Factbook
on Greece: Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. ^ Georgiev 1981, p. 156: "The Proto-Greek
Proto-Greek
region included Epirus, approximately up to Αυλών in the north including Paravaia, Tymphaia, Athamania, Dolopia, Amphilochia, and Acarnania), west and north Thessaly
Thessaly
(Hestiaiotis, Perrhaibia, Tripolis, and Pieria), i.e. more or less the territory of contemporary northwestern Greece)." ^ Guibernau & Hutchinson 2004, p. 23: "Indeed, Smith emphasizes that the myth of divine election sustains the continuity of cultural identity, and, in that regard, has enabled certain pre-modern communities such as the Jews, Armenians, and Greeks
Greeks
to survive and persist over centuries and millennia (Smith 1993: 15–20)." ^ Smith 1999, p. 21: "It emphasizes the role of myths, memories and symbols of ethnic chosenness, trauma, and the 'golden age' of saints, sages, and heroes in the rise of modern nationalism among the Jews, Armenians, and Greeks—the archetypal diaspora peoples." ^ Bryce 2006, p. 91 ^ Cadogan & Langdon Caskey 1986, p. 125 ^ Bryce 2006, p. 92 ^ Drews 1994, p. 21 ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 243 ^ "The Greeks". Encyclopædia Britannica. US: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2008. Online Edition.  ^ Chadwick, John (1976). The Mycenaean world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN 0-521-29037-6.  ^ Vladimir I. Georgiev, for example, placed Proto-Greek
Proto-Greek
in northwestern Greece
Greece
during the Late Neolithic
Neolithic
period. (Georgiev 1981, p. 192: "Late Neolithic
Neolithic
Period: in northwestern Greece
Greece
the Proto-Greek language had already been formed: this is the original home of the Greeks.") ^ Gray & Atkinson 2003, pp. 437–438; Atkinson & Gray 2006, p. 102. ^ a b " Linear A
Linear A
and Linear B". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 3 March 2016.  ^ Castleden 2005, p. 228. ^ Tartaron 2013, p. 28; Schofield 2006, pp. 71–72; Panayotou 2007, pp. 417–426. ^ Hall 2014, p. 43. ^ Chadwick 1976, p. 176. ^ a b Castleden 2005, p. 2. ^ Hansen 2004, p. 7; Podzuweit 1982, pp. 65–88. ^ Castleden 2005, p. 235; Dietrich 1974, p. 156. ^ Burckhardt 1999, p. 168: "The establishment of these Panhellenic sites, which yet remained exclusively Hellenic, was a very important element in the growth and self-consciousness of Hellenic nationalism; it was uniquely decisive in breaking down enmity between tribes, and remained the most powerful obstacle to fragmentation into mutually hostile poleis." ^ Zuwiyya 2011, pp. 142–143; Budin 2009, pp. 66–67. ^ Morgan 1990, pp. 1–25, 148–190. ^ "Ancient Greek Civilization". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 18 February 2016. Online Edition.  ^ Konstan 2001, pp. 29–50. ^ Steinberger 2000, p. 17; Burger 2008, pp. 57–58. ^ Burger 2008, pp. 57–58: "Poleis continued to go to war with each other. The Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
(431–404 BC) made this painfully clear. The war (really two wars punctuated by a peace) was a duel between Greece's two leading cities, Athens
Athens
and Sparta. Most other poleis, however, got sucked into the conflict as allies of one side or the other ... The fact that Greeks
Greeks
were willing to fight for their cities against other Greeks
Greeks
in conflicts like the Peloponnesian War showed the limits of the pull of Hellas compared with that of the polis." ^ Fox, Robin Lane (2004). "Riding with Alexander". Archaeology. The Archaeological Institute of America. Alexander inherited the idea of an invasion of the Persian Empire from his father Philip whose advance-force was already out in Asia
Asia
in 336 BC. Philips campaign had the slogan of "freeing the Greeks" in Asia
Asia
and "punishing the Persians" for their past sacrileges during their own invasion (a century and a half earlier) of Greece. No doubt, Philip wanted glory and plunder.  ^ Brice 2012, pp. 281–286. ^ "Alexander the Great". Columbia Encyclopedia. United States: Columbia University Press. 2008. Online Edition.  ^ Green 2008, p. xiii. ^ Morris, Ian (December 2005). "Growth of the Greek Colonies in the First Millennium BC" (PDF). Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics. Princeton/Stanford University.  ^ Wood 2001, p. 8. ^ a b Boardman, Griffin & Murray 1991, p. 364 ^ Arun, Neil (7 August 2007). "Alexander's Gulf outpost uncovered". BBC News.  ^ Grant 1990, Introduction. ^ a b "Hellenistic age". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 27 May 2015. Online Edition.  ^ a b c d Harris 1991, pp. 137–138. ^ Lucore 2009, p. 51: "The Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
is commonly portrayed as the great age of Greek scientific discovery, above all in mathematics and astronomy." ^ Foltz 2010, pp. 43–46. ^ Burton 1993, pp. 244–245. ^ Zoch 2000, p. 136. ^ "Hellenistic religion". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 13 May 2015. Online Edition.  ^ Ferguson 2003, pp. 617–618. ^ Dunstan 2011, p. 500. ^ Milburn 1988, p. 158. ^ Makrides 2009, p. 206. ^ Howatson 1989, p. 264: "From the fourth century AD onwards the Greeks
Greeks
of the eastern Roman empire called themselves Rhomaioi ('Romans') ..." ^ a b Cameron 2009, p. 7. ^ Kaldellis 2008, pp. 35–40. ^ Stouraitis 2014, pp. 176, 177. ^ Finkelberg 2012, p. 20. ^ a b Burstein 1988, pp. 47–49. ^ "Byzantine Empire". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 23 December 2015. Online Edition.  ^ a b Haldon 1997, p. 50. ^ Shahid 1972, pp. 295–296, 305. ^ Klein 2004, p. 290 (Note #39); Annales Fuldenses, 389: "Mense lanuario c. epiphaniam Basilii, Graecorum imperatoris, legati cum muneribus et epistolis ad Hludowicum regem Radasbonam venerunt ...". ^ Fouracre & Gerberding 1996, p. 345: "The Frankish court no longer regarded the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
as holding valid claims of universality; instead it was now termed the 'Empire of the Greeks'." ^ Angelov 2007, p. 96 (including footnote #67); Makrides 2009, p. 74; Magdalino 1991, Chapter XIV: "Hellenism and Nationalism in Byzantium", p. 10. ^ Page 2008, pp. 66, 87, 256 ^ Kaplanis 2014, pp. 86–7 ^ a b Norwich 1998, p. xxi. ^ Harris 1999, Part II Medieval Libraries: Chapter 6 Byzantine and Moslem Libraries, pp. 71–88 ^ a b "Renaissance". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 30 March 2016. Online Edition.  ^ Robins 1993, p. 8. ^ "Aristotelianism". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2016. Online Edition.  ^ "Cyril and Methodius, Saints". The Columbia Encyclopedia. United States: Columbia University Press. 2016. Online Edition.  ^ Kaldellis 2007, p. 66 ^ Malatras 2011, pp. 425–7 ^ a b c d e f " Greece
Greece
during the Byzantine period (c. AD 300–c. 1453), Population and languages, Emerging Greek identity". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2008. Online Edition.  ^ Angold 1975, p. 65, Page 2008, p. 127. ^ Kaplanis 2014, p. 92. ^ Mango 1965, p. 33. ^ See for example Anthony Bryer, 'The Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
and the Pontus' (Variourum, 1980), and his 'Migration and Settlement in the Caucasus and Anatolia' (Variourum, 1988), and other works listed in Caucasian Greeks
Caucasian Greeks
and Pontic Greeks. ^ a b c d Mazower 2002, pp. 105–107. ^ "History of Europe, The Romans". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2008. Online Edition.  ^ Mavrocordatos, Nicholaos (1800). Philotheou Parerga. Grēgorios Kōnstantas (Original from Harvard University
Harvard University
Library). Γένος μεν ημίν των άγαν Ελλήνων  ^ "Phanariote". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2016. Online Edition.  ^ a b c "History of Greece, Ottoman Empire, The merchant middle class". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2008. Online Edition.  ^ "Greek Constitution of 1822 (Epidaurus)" (PDF) (in Greek). 1822.  ^ Barutciski 2003, p. 28; Clark 2006, pp. xi–xv; Hershlag 1980, p. 177; Özkırımlı & Sofos 2008, pp. 116–117. ^ Üngör 2008, pp. 15–39. ^ Broome 1996, "Greek Identity", pp. 22–27 ^ ὅμαιμος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ ὁμόγλωσσος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ I. Polinskaya, "Shared sanctuaries and the gods of others: On the meaning Of 'common' in Herodotus
Herodotus
8.144", in: R. Rosen & I. Sluiter (eds.), Valuing others in Classical Antiquity (LEiden: Brill, 2010), 43-70. ^ ὁμότροπος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus) ^ Herodotus, 8.144.2: "The kinship of all Greeks
Greeks
in blood and speech, and the shrines of gods and the sacrifices that we have in common, and the likeness of our way of life." ^ Athena S. Leoussi, Steven Grosby, Nationalism and Ethnosymbolism: History, Culture
Culture
and Ethnicity in the Formation of Nations, Edinburgh University Press, 2006, p. 115 ^ Adrados 2005, p. xii. ^ Finkelberg 2012, p. 20; Harrison 2002, p. 268; Kazhdan & Constable 1982, p. 12; Runciman 1970, p. 14. ^ Ševčenko 2002, p. 284. ^ Sphrantzes, George (1477). The Chronicle of the Fall.  ^ Feraios, Rigas. New Political Constitution of the Inhabitants of Rumeli, Asia
Asia
Minor, the Islands of the Aegean, and the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. ^ Koliopoulos & Veremis 2002, p. 277. ^ Smith 2003, p. 98: "After the Ottoman conquest in 1453, recognition by the Turks of the Greek millet under its Patriarch and Church helped to ensure the persistence of a separate ethnic identity, which, even if it did not produce a "precocious nationalism" among the Greeks, provided the later Greek enlighteners and nationalists with a cultural constituency fed by political dreams and apocalyptic prophecies of the recapture of Constantinople
Constantinople
and the restoration of Greek Byzantium and its Orthodox emperor in all his glory." ^ Tonkin, Chapman & McDonald 1989. ^ Patterson 1998, pp. 18–19. ^ Psellos, Michael (1994). Michaelis Pselli Orationes Panegyricae. Stuttgart/Leipzig: Walter de Gruyter. p. 33. ISBN 0-297-82057-5.  ^ See Iliad, II.2.530 for "Panhellenes" and Iliad
Iliad
II.2.653 for "Hellenes". ^ Cartledge 2011, Chapter 4: Argos, p. 23: "The Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
in Greece
Greece
is also called conventionally 'Mycenaean', as we saw in the last chapter. But it might in principle have been called 'Argive', 'Achaean', or 'Danaan', since the three names that Homer
Homer
does apply to Greeks
Greeks
collectively were 'Argives', 'Achaeans', and 'Danaans'." ^ Nagy 2014, Texts and Commentaries – Introduction #2: "Panhellenism is the least common denominator of ancient Greek civilization ... The impulse of Panhellenism is already at work in Homeric and Hesiodic poetry. In the Iliad, the names "Achaeans" and "Danaans" and "Argives" are used synonymously in the sense of Panhellenes = "all Hellenes" = "all Greeks."" ^ Herodotus. Histories, 7.94 and 8.73. ^ Homer. Iliad, 2.681–685 ^ a b The Parian Marble, Entry #6: "From when Hellen
Hellen
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in Southern Russia, 1775–1861. Lanham and Oxford: Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0245-1.  Kazhdan, Alexander Petrovich; Constable, Giles (1982). People and Power in Byzantium: An Introduction to Modern Byzantine Studies. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 0-88402-103-3.  Kenyon, Sherrilyn (2005). The Writer's Digest Character Naming Sourcebook. Cincinnati, OH: Writer's Digest Books. ISBN 1-58297-295-8.  Klein, Holgen A. (2004). "Eastern Objects and Western Desires: Relics and Reliquaries between Byzantium and the West". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. 58: 283–314. doi:10.2307/3591389. JSTOR 3591389.  Koliopoulos, John S.; Veremis, Thanos M. (2002). Greece: The Modern Sequel: From 1831 to the Present. New York, NY: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-4767-1.  Koliopoulos, Giannes (1987). Brigands with a Cause: Brigandage and Irredentism in Modern Greece, 1821–1912. Oxford: Clarendon.  Konstan, David (2001). "To Hellenikon Ethnos: Ethnicity and the Construction of Ancient Greek Identity". In Malkin, Irad. Ancient Perceptions of Greek Ethnicity. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies, Trustees for Harvard University. pp. 29–50. ISBN 0-674-00662-3.  Mango, Cyril (1965). "Byzantinism and Romantic Hellenism". Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. 28: 29–43. doi:10.2307/750662.  Lagouvardos, Panagiotis E.; Tsamali, Ioana; Papadopoulou, Christine; Polyzois, Gregory (2012). "Tooth, Skin, Hair and Eye Colour Interrelationships in Greek Young Adults". Odontology. The Society of The Nippon Dental University. 101: 75–83. doi:10.1007/s10266-012-0058-1.  Laliotou, Ioanna (2004). "Greek Diaspora". In Ember, Melvin; Ember, Carol R.; Skoggard, Ian. Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume II: Diaspora Communities. New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. ISBN 0-306-48321-1.  Latacz, Joachim (2004). Troy and Homer: Towards a Solution of an Old Mystery. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926308-0.  Levene, Mark (1998). "Creating a Modern "Zone of Genocide": The Impact of Nation- and State-Formation on Eastern Anatolia, 1878–1923". Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 12 (3): 393–433. doi:10.1093/hgs/12.3.393.  Lucore, Sandra K. (2009). "Archimedes, the North Baths at Morgantina, and Early Developments in Vaulted Construction". In Kosso, Cynthia; Scott, Anne. The Nature and Function of Water, Baths, Bathing and Hygiene from Antiquity through the Renaissance. Leiden and Boston: BRILL. pp. 43–60. ISBN 90-04-17357-9.  Mackridge, Peter (1990). " Katharevousa (c. 1800–1974): An Obituary for an Official Language". In Sarafis, Marion; Eve, Marion. Background to Contemporary Greece
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Christian
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Greece
and Turkey. London: Hurst Publishers Limited. ISBN 1-85065-899-4.  Page, Gill (2008). Being Byzantine: Greek Identity Before the Ottomans, 1200–1420. Cambridge University Press.  Panayotou, A. (2007). "4 Arcado-Cypriot". In Christidis, A.-F.; Arapopoulou, Maria; Chritē, Maria. A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 786–791.  Papadakis, Yiannis (1995). "4. Nationalist Imaginings of War in Cyprus". In Hinde, Robert A.; Watson, Helen. War, a Cruel Necessity?: The Bases of Institutionalized Violence. London and New York: I.B. Tauris. pp. 54–67. ISBN 1-85043-824-2.  Papadakis, Yiannis; Peristianis, Nicos; Welz, Gisela (2006). "Introduction – Modernity, History, and Conflict in Divided Cyprus: An Overview". In Papadakis, Nicos; Peristianis, Yiannis; Welz, Gisela. Divided Cyprus: Modernity, History, and an Island in Conflict. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 1–29. ISBN 0-253-21851-9.  Papagrigorakis, M.J.; Kousoulis, A.A.; Synodinos, P.N. (2014). "Craniofacial Morphology in Ancient and Modern Greeks
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Harvard University
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Christian
(1982). "Die mykenische Welt und Troja". In Hänsel, B. Südosteuropa zwischen 1600 und 1000 v. Chr (in German). Berlin: Prahistorische Archäologie in Sudosteuropa. pp. 65–88.  Pollitt, Jerome Jordan (1972). Art and Experience in Classical Greece. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-09662-6.  Postan, Michael Moïssey; Miller, Edward; Postan, Cynthia (1987). The Cambridge Economic History of Europe
Europe
(Volume 2). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-08709-0.  Puri, Baij Nath (1987). Buddhism
Buddhism
in Central Asia. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0372-8.  Renfrew, Colin (2003). "Time Depth, Convergence Theory, and Innovation in Proto-Indo-European: 'Old Europe' as a PIE Linguistic Area". In Bammesberger, Alfred; Vennemann, Theo. Languages in Prehistoric Europe. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter GmBH. pp. 17–48. ISBN 978-3-8253-1449-1.  Rezun, Miron (2001). Europe's Nightmare: The Struggle for Kosovo. London and Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-97072-8.  Roberts, J.M. (2007). The New Penguin History of the World. London and New York: Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 0-14-103042-9.  Robins, Robert Henry (1993). The Byzantine Grammarians: Their Place in History. Berlin
Berlin
and New York: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-013574-4.  Runciman, Steven (1970). The Last Byzantine Renaissance. London and New York: Cambridge University Press.  Schaller, Dominik J.; Zimmerer, Jürgen (2008). "Late Ottoman Genocides: The Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Young Turkish Population and Extermination Policies - Introduction". Journal of Genocide Research. 10 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1080/14623520801950820.  Schofield, Louise (2006). The Mycenaeans. Los Angeles, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum. ISBN 978-0-89236-867-9.  Ševčenko, Ihor (2002). "11 Palaiologan Learning". In Mango, Cyril. The Oxford History of Byzantium. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 284–293. ISBN 0-19-814098-3.  Shahid, Irfan (1972). "The Iranian Factor in Byzantium during the Reign of Heraclius". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University. 26: 293–320. doi:10.2307/1291324. JSTOR 1291324.  Smith, Anthony D. (1991). National Identity. Reno: University of Nevada Press. ISBN 0-87417-204-7.  Smith, Anthony D. (2003). Chosen Peoples: Sacred Sources of National Identity. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-210017-3.  Smith, Anthony D. (1999). Myths and Memories of the Nation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-829534-0.  Sutton, Susan (1996). "Greeks". Encyclopedia of World Cultures. The Gale Group, Inc.  Sofos, Spyros A.; Özkırımlı, Umut (2008). Tormented by History: Nationalism in Greece
Greece
and Turkey. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-70052-8.  Stansbury-O'Donnell, Mark D. (2015). A History of Greek Art. Malden and Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4443-5014-2.  Steinberger, Peter J. (2000). Readings in Classical Political Thought. Indianapolis and Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-87220-512-3.  Tarbell, Frank Bigelow (1907) [1896]. A History of Greek Art. London: MacMillan and Company, Limited.  Tatakes, Vasileios N.; Moutafakis, Nicholas J. (2003). Byzantine Philosophy. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett. ISBN 0-87220-563-0.  Tatz, Colin (2003). With Intent to Destroy: Reflections on Genocide. London and New York: Verso. ISBN 978-1-85984-550-9.  Tartaron, Thomas F. (2013). Maritime Networks in the Mycenaean World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-06713-4.  Tomić, Olga Mišeska (2006). Balkan Sprachbund Morpho-Syntactic Features. Dordrecht: Springer. ISBN 1-4020-4487-9.  Tonkin, Elizabeth; Chapman, Malcolm Kenneth; McDonald, Maryon (1989). History and Ethnicity. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00056-4.  Üngör, Uğur Ümit (March 2008). "On Young Turk Social Engineering in Eastern Turkey
Turkey
from 1913 to 1950". Journal of Genocide Research. 10 (1): 15–39. doi:10.1080/14623520701850278.  van der Horst, Pieter Willem (1998). Hellenism-Judaism-Christianity: Essays on Their Interaction. Leuven: Peeters Publishers. ISBN 90-429-0578-6.  Voegelin, Eric; Moulakis, Athanasios (1997). History of Political Ideas: Hellenism, Rome, and Early Christianity. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 0-8262-1126-7.  Vryonis, Speros (2005). The Mechanism of Catastrophe: The Turkish Pogrom of September 6–7, 1955, and the Destruction of the Greek Community of Istanbul. New York: Greekworks.com. ISBN 978-0-9747660-3-4.  Walsh, Susan et. al. (January 2013). "The HIrisPlex System for Simultaneous Prediction of Hair and Eye Colour from DNA". Forensic Science
Science
International: Genetics. 7 (1): 98–115. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2012.07.005.  Wickham, Chris (2005). Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe
Europe
and the Mediterranean 400-800. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926449-X.  Withey, Lynne (1989) [1987]. Voyages of Discovery: Captain Cook and the Exploration of the Pacific. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06564-6.  Winford, Donald (2003). An Introduction to Contact Linguistics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-21251-5.  Winstedt, Eric Otto (1909). The Christian
Christian
Topography of Cosmas Indicopleustes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Wood, Michael (2001) [1997]. In the Footsteps of Alexander The Great: A Journey from Greece
Greece
to Asia. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23192-9.  Yotopoulos-Marangopoulos, Alice (2001). "Non-governmental Organizations and Human Rights in Today's World". In Sicilianos, Linos-Alexandre. The Marangopoulos Foundation for Human Rights: Twenty Years of Activity. Athens
Athens
and Komotini: Ant. N. Sakkoulas Publishers. pp. 21–38. ISBN 90-411-1672-9.  Zoch, Paul (2000). Ancient Rome: An Introductory History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3287-7.  Zuwiyya, David (2011). A Companion to Alexander Literature
Literature
in the Middle Ages. Leiden and Boston: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-18345-2. 

Further reading

Mycenaean Greeks

Dickinson, Oliver (1977). The Origins of Mycenaean Civilization. Götenberg: Paul Aströms Förlag.  Dickinson, Oliver (December 1999). Invasion, Migration and the Shaft Graves. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies. 43. pp. 97–107. doi:10.1111/j.2041-5370.1999.tb00480.x.  Dickinson, Oliver (2006). The Aegean from Bronze Age
Bronze Age
to Iron Age: Continuity and Change between the Twelfth and Eighth Centuries BC. New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-96836-9.  Forsén, Jeannette (1992). The Twilight of the Early Helladics. Partille, Sweden: Paul Aströms Förlag. ISBN 91-7081-031-1.  Mallory, James; Adams, Douglas (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. New York: Routledge. ISBN 1-884964-98-2.  Mylonas, George Emmanuel (1966). Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.  Tandy, David W. (2001). Prehistory and History: Ethnicity, Class and Political Economy. Montréal, Québec, Canada: Black Rose Books Limited. ISBN 1-55164-188-7. 

Classical Greeks

Burkert, Walter (1987) [1985]. Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical. Oxford and Malden: Blackwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1-118-72499-6.  Cartledge, Paul (2011). Ancient Greece: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-960134-9.  Cartledge, Paul (2002). The Greeks: A Portrait of Self and Others. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280388-3.  Freeman, Charles (2014). Egypt, Greece
Greece
and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-965192-4.  Finkelberg, Margalit (2006). Greeks
Greeks
and Pre-Greeks: Aegean Prehistory and Greek Heroic Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-44836-9.  Hall, Jonathan M. (2002). Hellenicity: Between Ethnicity and Culture. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-31329-8.  Hall, Jonathan M. (2000). Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78999-0.  MacKendrick, Paul Lachlan (1981). The Greek Stones Speak: The Story of Archaeology in Greek Lands. New York and London: W.W. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-30111-7.  Malkin, Irad (1998). The Returns of Odysseus: Colonization and Ethnicity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21185-5.  Walbank, Frank W. (1985). Selected Papers: Studies in Greek and Roman History and Historiography. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-30752-X. 

Hellenistic Greeks

Chamoux, François (2002). Hellenistic Civilization. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-22241-3.  Bilde, P.; Engberg-Pedersen, T.; Hannestad, L.; Zahle, J., eds. (1997). Conventional Values of the Hellenistic Greeks
Greeks
(Studies in Hellenistic Civilization 8). Aarhus: Aarhus University Press. ISBN 87-7288-555-6. 

Byzantine Greeks

Ahrweiler, Hélène; Laiou, Angeliki E. (1998). Studies on the Internal Diaspora of the Byzantine Empire. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. ISBN 0-88402-247-1.  Ahrweiler, Hélène (1975). L'idéologie politique de l'Empire byzantin. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.  Harris, Jonathan (2007). Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium (Hambledon Continuum). London: Hambledon & London. ISBN 1-84725-179-X.  Kazhdan, Alexander Petrovich, ed. (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504652-8.  Runciman, Steven (1966). Byzantine Civilisation. London: Edward Arnold Limited. ISBN 1-56619-574-8.  Toynbee, Arnold J. (1973). Constantine Porphyrogenitus and His World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-215253-X. 

Ottoman Greeks

Davis, Jack E.; Zarinebaf, Fariba; Bennet, John (2005). A Historical and Economic Geography
Geography
of Ottoman Greece: The Southwestern Morea in the 18th Century. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens. ISBN 0-87661-534-5.  Davis, Jack E.; Davies, Siriol (2007). Between Venice
Venice
and Istanbul: Colonial Landscapes in Early Modern Greece. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens. ISBN 0-87661-540-X.  Gondicas, Dimitri; Issawi, Charles Philip (1999). Ottoman Greeks
Ottoman Greeks
in the Age of Nationalism: Politics, Economy, and Society in the Nineteenth Century. Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press. ISBN 0-87850-096-0.  Lampe, John R.; Jackson, Marvin R. (1982). Balkan Economic History, 1550–1950: From Imperial Borderlands to Developing Nations. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-30368-0. 

Modern Greeks

Herzfeld, Michael (1982). Ours Once More: Folklore, Ideology, and the Making of Modern Greece. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-76018-3.  Holden, David (1972). Greece
Greece
without Columns: The Making of the Modern Greeks. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-397-00779-5.  Karakasidou, Anastasia N. (1997). Fields of Wheat, Hills of Blood: Passages to Nationhood in Greek Macedonia, 1870–1990. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-42494-4.  Mackridge, Peter; Yannakakis, Eleni (1997). Ourselves and Others: The Development of a Greek Macedonian Cultural Identity since 1912. Oxford, United Kingdom: Berg Publishers. ISBN 1-85973-138-4.  Mazower, Mark, ed. (2000). After The War Was Over: Reconstructing the Family, Nation and State in Greece, 1943–1960. Priceton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05842-3.  Toynbee, Arnold Joseph (1981). The Greeks
Greeks
and Their Heritages. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.  Trudgill, Peter (2002). Sociolinguistic Variation and Change. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1515-6.  Zacharia, Katerina (2008). Hellenisms: Culture, Identity, and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity. Surrey, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing, Limited. ISBN 978-0-7546-6525-0. 

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