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Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries (3,400 years) of written records.[4] Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously.[5] The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic and many other writing systems. The Greek language
Greek language
holds an important place in the history of the Western world
Western world
and Christianity; the canon of ancient Greek literature includes works in the Western canon such as the epic poems Iliad
Iliad
and Odyssey. Greek is also the language in which many of the foundational texts in science, especially astronomy, mathematics and logic, and Western philosophy, such as the Platonic dialogues and the works of Aristotle, are composed; the New Testament
New Testament
of the Christian Bible
Bible
was written in Koiné Greek. Together with the Latin
Latin
texts and traditions of the Roman world, the study of the Greek texts and society of antiquity constitutes the discipline of Classics. During antiquity, Greek was a widely spoken lingua franca in the Mediterranean world and many places beyond. It would eventually become the official parlance of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and develop into Medieval Greek.[6] In its modern form, the Greek language
Greek language
is the official language in two countries, Greece
Greece
and Cyprus, a recognised minority language in seven other countries, and is one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. The language is spoken by at least 13.2 million people today in Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Albania, Turkey, and the Greek diaspora. Greek roots are often used to coin new words for other languages; Greek and Latin
Latin
are the predominant sources of international scientific vocabulary.

Idealised portrayal of Homer

Contents

1 History

1.1 Periods 1.2 Diglossia 1.3 Historical unity

2 Geographic distribution

2.1 Official status

3 Characteristics

3.1 Phonology 3.2 Morphology

3.2.1 Nouns and adjectives 3.2.2 Verbs

3.3 Syntax 3.4 Vocabulary 3.5 Greek loanwords in other languages

4 Classification 5 Writing system

5.1 Linear B 5.2 Cypriot syllabary 5.3 Greek alphabet

5.3.1 Diacritics 5.3.2 Punctuation

5.4 Latin
Latin
alphabet

6 See also 7 References

7.1 Sources

8 Further reading 9 External links

9.1 General background 9.2 Language learning 9.3 Dictionaries 9.4 Literature

History[edit] Main article: History of Greek Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC,[7] or possibly earlier.[8] The earliest written evidence is a Linear B
Linear B
clay tablet found in Messenia
Messenia
that dates to between 1450 and 1350 BC,[9] making Greek the world's oldest recorded living language. Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now extinct Anatolian languages. Periods[edit]

Proto-Greek-speaking area according to linguist Vladimir I. Georgiev

The Greek language
Greek language
is conventionally divided into the following periods:

Proto-Greek: the unrecorded but assumed last ancestor of all known varieties of Greek. The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic
Neolithic
era or the Bronze Age.[10] Mycenaean Greek: the language of the Mycenaean civilisation. It is recorded in the Linear B
Linear B
script on tablets dating from the 15th century BC onwards. Ancient Greek: in its various dialects, the language of the Archaic and Classical periods of the ancient Greek civilisation. It was widely known throughout the Roman Empire. Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
fell into disuse in western Europe in the Middle Ages, but remained officially in use in the Byzantine world and was reintroduced to the rest of Europe with the Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
and Greek migration to western Europe. Koine Greek: The fusion of Ionian with Attic, the dialect of Athens, began the process that resulted in the creation of the first common Greek dialect, which became a lingua franca across the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East. Koine Greek
Koine Greek
can be initially traced within the armies and conquered territories of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and after the Hellenistic colonisation of the known world, it was spoken from Egypt
Egypt
to the fringes of India. After the Roman conquest of Greece, an unofficial bilingualism of Greek and Latin
Latin
was established in the city of Rome
Rome
and Koine Greek
Koine Greek
became a first or second language in the Roman Empire. The origin of Christianity
Christianity
can also be traced through Koine Greek, because the Apostles used this form of the language to spread Christianity. It is also known as Hellenistic Greek, New Testament
New Testament
Greek, and sometimes Biblical Greek because it was the original language of the New Testament
New Testament
and the Old Testament was translated into the same language via the Septuagint.

Distribution of varieties of Greek in Anatolia, 1910. Demotic in yellow. Pontic in orange. Cappadocian Greek
Cappadocian Greek
in green, with green dots indicating individual Cappadocian Greek
Cappadocian Greek
villages.[11]

Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek: the continuation of Koine Greek, up to the demise of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in the 15th century. Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
is a cover phrase for a whole continuum of different speech and writing styles, ranging from vernacular continuations of spoken Koine that were already approaching Modern Greek in many respects, to highly learned forms imitating classical Attic. Much of the written Greek that was used as the official language of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was an eclectic middle-ground variety based on the tradition of written Koine. Modern Greek
Modern Greek
(Neo-Hellenic):[12] Stemming from Medieval Greek, Modern Greek usages can be traced in the Byzantine period, as early as the 11th century. It is the language used by the modern Greeks, and, apart from Standard Modern Greek, there are several dialects of it.

Diglossia[edit] Main article: Greek language
Greek language
question In the modern era, the Greek language
Greek language
entered a state of diglossia: the coexistence of vernacular and archaizing written forms of the language. What came to be known as the Greek language question
Greek language question
was a polarization between two competing varieties of Modern Greek: Dimotiki, the vernacular form of Modern Greek
Modern Greek
proper, and Katharevousa, meaning 'purified', a compromise between Dimotiki and Ancient Greek, which was developed in the early 19th century and was used for literary and official purposes in the newly formed Greek state. In 1976, Dimotiki was declared the official language of Greece, having incorporated features of Katharevousa and giving birth to Standard Modern Greek, which is used today for all official purposes and in education.[13] Historical unity[edit]

The distribution of major modern Greek dialect areas

The historical unity and continuing identity between the various stages of the Greek language
Greek language
is often emphasised. Although Greek has undergone morphological and phonological changes comparable to those seen in other languages, never since classical antiquity has its cultural, literary, and orthographic tradition been interrupted to the extent that one can speak of a new language emerging. Greek speakers today still tend to regard literary works of ancient Greek as part of their own rather than a foreign language.[14] It is also often stated that the historical changes have been relatively slight compared with some other languages. According to one estimation, " Homeric Greek is probably closer to demotic than 12-century Middle English is to modern spoken English."[15] Geographic distribution[edit] Further information: Greeks
Greeks
and Greek diaspora

Greek language
Greek language
road sign, A27 Motorway, Greece

Spread of Greek in the United States

Greek is spoken by about 13 million people, mainly in Greece, Albania and Cyprus, but also worldwide by the large Greek diaspora. There are traditional Greek-speaking settlements and regions in the neighbouring countries of Albania, Bulgaria, and Turkey, as well as in several countries in the Black Sea
Black Sea
area, such as Ukraine, Russia, Romania, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, and around the Mediterranean Sea, Southern Italy, Syria, Israel, Egypt, Lebanon, Libya
Libya
and ancient coastal towns along the Levant. The language is also spoken by Greek emigrant communities in many countries in Western Europe, especially the United Kingdom and Germany, Canada, the United States, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, South Africa
South Africa
and others. Official status[edit] Greek is the official language of Greece, where it is spoken by almost the entire population.[16] It is also the official language of Cyprus (nominally alongside Turkish).[17] Because of the membership of Greece and Cyprus
Cyprus
in the European Union, Greek is one of the organization's 24 official languages.[18] Furthermore, Greek is officially recognised as a minority language in parts of Italy
Italy
and official in Dropull
Dropull
and Himara
Himara
(Albania) and as a minority language all over Albania,[19] as well as in Armenia, Romania, and Ukraine
Ukraine
as a regional or minority language in the framework of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[2] Greeks
Greeks
are also a recognised ethnic minority in Hungary. Characteristics[edit] See also: Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
grammar, Koine Greek
Koine Greek
grammar, and Modern Greek grammar The phonology, morphology, syntax and vocabulary of the language show both conservative and innovative tendencies across the entire attestation of the language from the ancient to the modern period. The division into conventional periods is, as with all such periodisations, relatively arbitrary, especially because at all periods, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
has enjoyed high prestige, and the literate borrowed heavily from it. Phonology[edit] See also: Modern Greek
Modern Greek
phonology

Spoken Modern Greek

Across its history, the syllabic structure of Greek has varied little: Greek shows a mixed syllable structure, permitting complex syllabic onsets but very restricted codas. It has only oral vowels and a fairly stable set of consonantal contrasts. The main phonological changes occurred during the Hellenistic and Roman period (see Koine Greek phonology for details):

replacement of the pitch accent with a stress accent. simplification of the system of vowels and diphthongs: loss of vowel length distinction, monophthongisation of most diphthongs and several steps in a chain shift of vowels towards /i/ (iotacism). development of the voiceless aspirated plosives /pʰ/ and /tʰ/ to the voiceless fricatives /f/ and /θ/, respectively; the similar development of /kʰ/ to /x/ may have taken place later (the phonological changes are not reflected in the orthography, and both earlier and later phonemes are written with φ, θ, and χ). development of the voiced plosives /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ to their voiced fricative counterparts /β/ (later /v/), /ð/, and /ɣ/.

Morphology[edit] In all its stages, the morphology of Greek shows an extensive set of productive derivational affixes, a limited but productive system of compounding[20] and a rich inflectional system. Although its morphological categories have been fairly stable over time, morphological changes are present throughout, particularly in the nominal and verbal systems. The major change in the nominal morphology since the classical stage was the disuse of the dative case (its functions being largely taken over by the genitive). The verbal system has lost the infinitive, the synthetically-formed future and perfect tenses and the optative mood. Many have been replaced by periphrastic (analytical) forms. Nouns and adjectives[edit] Pronouns show distinctions in person (1st, 2nd, and 3rd), number (singular, dual, and plural in the ancient language; singular and plural alone in later stages), and gender (masculine, feminine, and neuter) and decline for case (from six cases in the earliest forms attested to four in the modern language).[21] Nouns, articles and adjectives show all the distinctions except for person. Both attributive and predicative adjectives agree with the noun. Verbs[edit] The inflectional categories of the Greek verb have likewise remained largely the same over the course of the language's history but with significant changes in the number of distinctions within each category and their morphological expression. Greek verbs have synthetic inflectional forms for:

Ancient Greek Modern Greek

Person first, second and third also second person formal

Number singular, dual and plural singular and plural

tense present, past and future past and non-past (future is expressed by a periphrastic construction)

aspect imperfective, perfective (traditionally called aorist) and perfect (sometimes also called perfective; see note about terminology) imperfective and perfective/aorist (perfect is expressed by a periphrastic construction)

mood indicative, subjunctive, imperative and optative indicative, subjunctive,[22] and imperative (other modal functions are expressed by periphrastic constructions)

Voice active, middle, and passive active and medio-passive

Syntax[edit] Many aspects of the syntax of Greek have remained constant: verbs agree with their subject only, the use of the surviving cases is largely intact (nominative for subjects and predicates, accusative for objects of most verbs and many prepositions, genitive for possessors), articles precede nouns, adpositions are largely prepositional, relative clauses follow the noun they modify and relative pronouns are clause-initial. However, the morphological changes also have their counterparts in the syntax, and there are also significant differences between the syntax of the ancient and that of the modern form of the language. Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
made great use of participial constructions and of constructions involving the infinitive, and the modern variety lacks the infinitive entirely (instead having a raft of new periphrastic constructions) and uses participles more restrictively. The loss of the dative led to a rise of prepositional indirect objects (and the use of the genitive to directly mark these as well). Ancient Greek tended to be verb-final, but neutral word order in the modern language is VSO or SVO. Vocabulary[edit] Modern Greek
Modern Greek
inherits most of its vocabulary from Ancient Greek, which in turn is an Indo-European language, but also includes a number of borrowings from the languages of the populations that inhabited Greece before the arrival of Proto-Greeks,[23] some documented in Mycenaean texts; they include a large number of Greek toponyms. The form and meaning of many words has evolved. Loanwords (words of foreign origin) have entered the language mainly from Latin, Venetian, and Turkish. During the older periods of Greek, loanwords into Greek acquired Greek inflections, thus leaving only a foreign root word. Modern borrowings (from the 20th century on), especially from French and English, are typically not inflected. Greek loanwords in other languages[edit] Further information: Greek and Latin
Latin
roots in English Greek words have been widely borrowed into other languages, including English: mathematics, physics, astronomy, democracy, philosophy, athletics, theatre, rhetoric, baptism, evangelist, etc. Moreover, Greek words and word elements continue to be productive as a basis for coinages: anthropology, photography, telephony, isomer, biomechanics, cinematography, etc. and form, with Latin
Latin
words, the foundation of international scientific and technical vocabulary like all words ending with –logy ("discourse"). There are many English words of Greek origin.[24] Classification[edit] Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European language family. The ancient language most closely related to it may be ancient Macedonian,[25] which many scholars suggest may have been a dialect of Greek itself, but it is so poorly attested that it is difficult to conclude anything about it.[26] Independently of the Macedonian question, some scholars have grouped Greek into Graeco-Phrygian, as Greek and the extinct Phrygian share features that are not found in other Indo-European languages.[27] Among living languages, some Indo-Europeanists suggest that Greek may be most closely related to Armenian (see Graeco-Armenian) or the Indo-Iranian languages
Indo-Iranian languages
(see Graeco-Aryan), but little definitive evidence has been found for grouping the living branches of the family.[28] In addition, Albanian has also been considered somewhat related to Greek and Armenian by some linguists. If proven and recognised, the three languages would form a new Balkan sub-branch with other dead European languages.[29] Writing system[edit]

Greek alphabet

Αα Alpha Νν Nu

Ββ Beta Ξξ Xi

Γγ Gamma Οο Omicron

Δδ Delta Ππ Pi

Εε Epsilon Ρρ Rho

Ζζ Zeta Σσς Sigma

Ηη Eta Ττ Tau

Θθ Theta Υυ Upsilon

Ιι Iota Φφ Phi

Κκ Kappa Χχ Chi

Λλ Lambda Ψψ Psi

Μμ Mu Ωω Omega

History

Archaic local variants

Diacritics Ligatures

Numerals

ϛ (6) ϟ (90) ϡ (900)

Use in other languages

Bactrian Coptic Albanian

Related topics

Use as scientific symbols

Book Category

Commons

v t e

See also: Greek Braille Linear B[edit] Main article: Linear B Linear B, attested as early as the late 15th century BC, was the first script used to write Greek.[30] It is basically a syllabary, which was finally deciphered by Michael Ventris
Michael Ventris
and John Chadwick in the 1950s (its precursor, Linear A, has not been deciphered to this day).[30] The language of the Linear B
Linear B
texts, Mycenaean Greek, is the earliest known form of Greek.[30] Cypriot syllabary[edit] Main article: Cypriot syllabary

Greek inscription in Cypriot syllabic script

Another similar system used to write the Greek language
Greek language
was the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
(also a descendant of Linear A
Linear A
via the intermediate Cypro-Minoan syllabary), which is closely related to Linear B
Linear B
but uses somewhat different syllabic conventions to represent phoneme sequences. The Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
is attested in Cyprus
Cyprus
from the 11th century BC until its gradual abandonment in the late Classical period, in favor of the standard Greek alphabet.[31] Greek alphabet[edit] Main articles: Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
and Greek orthography

Ancient epichoric variants of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
from Euboea, Ionia, Athens, and Corinth comparing to modern Greek

Greek has been written in the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
since approximately the 9th century BC. It was created by modifying the Phoenician alphabet, with the innovation of adopting certain letters to represent the vowels. The variant of the alphabet in use today is essentially the late Ionic variant, introduced for writing classical Attic in 403 BC. In classical Greek, as in classical Latin, only upper-case letters existed. The lower-case Greek letters were developed much later by medieval scribes to permit a faster, more convenient cursive writing style with the use of ink and quill. The Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
consists of 24 letters, each with an uppercase (majuscule) and lowercase (minuscule) form. The letter sigma has an additional lowercase form (ς) used in the final position:

upper case

Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

lower case

α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ ς τ υ φ χ ψ ω

Diacritics[edit] Main article: Greek diacritics In addition to the letters, the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
features a number of diacritical signs: three different accent marks (acute, grave, and circumflex), originally denoting different shapes of pitch accent on the stressed vowel; the so-called breathing marks (rough and smooth breathing), originally used to signal presence or absence of word-initial /h/; and the diaeresis, used to mark full syllabic value of a vowel that would otherwise be read as part of a diphthong. These marks were introduced during the course of the Hellenistic period. Actual usage of the grave in handwriting saw a rapid decline in favor of uniform usage of the acute during the late 20th century, and it has only been retained in typography. After the writing reform of 1982, most diacritics are no longer used. Since then, Greek has been written mostly in the simplified monotonic orthography (or monotonic system), which employs only the acute accent and the diaeresis. The traditional system, now called the polytonic orthography (or polytonic system), is still used internationally for the writing of Ancient Greek. Punctuation[edit] In Greek, the question mark is written as the English semicolon, while the functions of the colon and semicolon are performed by a raised point (•), known as the ano teleia (άνω τελεία). In Greek the comma also functions as a silent letter in a handful of Greek words, principally distinguishing ό,τι (ó,ti, "whatever") from ότι (óti, "that").[32] Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
texts often used scriptio continua ('continuous writing'), which means that ancient authors and scribes would write word after word with no spaces or punctuation between words to differentiate or mark boundaries.[33] Latin
Latin
alphabet[edit] Greek has occasionally been written in the Latin
Latin
script, especially in areas under Venetian rule or by Greek Catholics. The term Frankolevantinika / Φραγκολεβαντίνικα applies when the Latin script
Latin script
is used to write Greek in the cultural ambit of Catholicism (because Frankos / Φράγκος is an older Greek term for Roman Catholic). Frankochiotika / Φραγκοχιώτικα (meaning "Catholic Chiot") alludes to the significant presence of Catholic missionaries based on the island of Chios. Additionally the term Greeklish is often used when the Greek language
Greek language
is written in a Latin script
Latin script
in online communications.[34] See also[edit]

Greece
Greece
portal Language portal

Modern Greek Varieties of Modern Greek Medieval Greek Ancient Greek Hellenic languages List of Greek and Latin
Latin
roots in English List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes

References[edit]

^ Greek at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Cappadocian Greek
Cappadocian Greek
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Pontic at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Tsakonian at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) (Additional references under 'Language codes' in the information box) ^ a b "List of Declarations Made with Respect to Treaty No. 148". Council of Europe. Retrieved 8 December 2008.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Greek". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ "Greek language". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 29 April 2014.  ^ 1922-, Adrados, Francisco Rodríguez, (2005). A history of the Greek language : from its origins to the present. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004128354. OCLC 59712402.  ^ Manuel, Germaine Catherine (1989). A study of the preservation of the classical tradition in the education, language, and literature of the Byzantine Empire. HVD ALEPH.  ^ Renfrew 2003, p. 35; Georgiev 1981, p. 192. ^ Gray & Atkinson 2003, pp. 437–438; Atkinson & Gray 2006, p. 102. ^ "Ancient Tablet Found: Oldest Readable Writing in Europe". National Geographic Society. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2013.  ^ A comprehensive overview in J.T. Hooker's Mycenaean Greece
Greece
(Hooker 1976, Chapter 2: "Before the Mycenaean Age", pp. 11–33 and passim); for a different hypothesis excluding massive migrations and favoring an autochthonous scenario, see Colin Renfrew's "Problems in the General Correlation of Archaeological and Linguistic Strata in Prehistoric Greece: The Model of Autochthonous Origin" (Renfrew 1973, pp. 263–276, especially p. 267) in Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Migrations by R.A. Crossland and A. Birchall, eds. (1973). ^ Dawkins & Halliday 1916. ^ Ethnologue ^ Peter., Mackridge, (1985). The modern Greek language : a descriptive analysis of standard modern Greek. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198157700. OCLC 11134463.  ^ Browning 1983. ^ Alexiou 1982, pp. 156–192. ^ "Greece". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 23 January 2010.  ^ "The Constitution of Cyprus, App. D., Part 1, Art. 3". Archived from the original on 7 April 2012.  states that The official languages of the Republic are Greek and Turkish. However, the official status of Turkish is only nominal in the Greek-dominated Republic of Cyprus; in practice, outside Turkish-dominated Northern Cyprus, Turkish is little used; see A. Arvaniti (2006): Erasure as a Means of Maintaining Diglossia
Diglossia
in Cyprus, San Diego Linguistics Papers 2: pp. 25–38, page 27. ^ "The EU at a Glance – Languages in the EU". Europa. European Union. Retrieved 30 July 2010.  ^ "Greek". Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Archived from the original on 18 November 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2008.  ^ Ralli 2001, pp. 164–203. ^ The four cases that are found in all stages of Greek are the nominative, genitive, accusative and vocative. The dative/locative of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
disappeared in the late Hellenistic period, and the instrumental case of Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
disappeared in the Archaic period. ^ There is no particular morphological form that can be identified as 'subjunctive' in the modern language, but the term is sometimes encountered in descriptions even if the most complete modern grammar (Holton et al. 1997) does not use it and calls certain traditionally-'subjunctive' forms 'dependent'. Most Greek linguists advocate abandoning the traditional terminology (Anna Roussou and Tasos Tsangalidis 2009, in Meletes gia tin Elliniki Glossa, Thessaloniki, Anastasia Giannakidou 2009 "Temporal semantics and polarity: The dependency of the subjunctive revisited", Lingua); see Modern Greek
Modern Greek
grammar for explanation. ^ Beekes 2009. ^ Scheler 1977. ^ Hamp 2013, pp. 8–10, 13. ^ Babiniotis 1992, pp. 29–40; Dosuna 2012, pp. 65–78. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Graeco-Phrygian". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Renfrew 1990; Gamkrelidze & Ivanov 1990, pp. 110–116; Renfrew 2003, pp. 17–48; Gray & Atkinson 2003, pp. 435–439. ^ Holm 2008, pp. 628–636. ^ a b c T., Hooker, J. (1980). Linear B : an introduction. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 9780906515693. OCLC 7326206.  ^ "HarvardKey Login". academic.eb.com.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2017-08-01.  ^ Nicolas, Nick (2005). "Greek Unicode
Unicode
Issues: Punctuation". Archived from the original on 6 August 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2014.  ^ Hugoe),, Matthews, P. H. (Peter. The concise Oxford dictionary of linguistics. Oxford University Press. (Third ed.). [Oxford]. ISBN 9780199675128. OCLC 881847972.  ^ Androutsopoulos 2009, pp. 221–249.

Sources[edit]

Alexiou, Margaret (1982). " Diglossia
Diglossia
in Greece". In Haas, William. Standard Languages: Spoken and Written. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 156–192. ISBN 978-0-389-20291-2.  Androutsopoulos, Jannis (2009). "'Greeklish': Transliteration Practice and Discourse in a Setting of Computer-Mediated Digraphia". In Georgakopoulou, Alexandra; Silk, Michael. Standard Languages and Language Standards: Greek, Past and Present (PDF). Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited. pp. 221–249. [permanent dead link] Atkinson, Quentin D.; Gray, Russel D. (2006). "Chapter 8: How Old is the Indo-European Language Family? Illumination or More Moths to the Flame?". In Forster, Peter; Renfrew, Colin. Phylogenetic Methods and the Prehistory of Languages. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research. pp. 91–109. ISBN 978-1-902937-33-5.  Babiniotis, George (1992). "The Question of Mediae in Ancient Macedonian Greek Reconsidered". In Brogyanyi, Bela; Lipp, Reiner. Historical Philology: Greek, Latin
Latin
and Romance. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 29–40.  Beekes, Robert Stephen Paul (2009). Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Leiden and Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-17418-4.  Browning, Robert (1983) [1969]. Medieval and Modern Greek. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23488-3.  Dawkins, Richard McGillivray; Halliday, William Reginald (1916). Modern Greek
Modern Greek
in Asia Minor: A Study of Dialect
Dialect
of Silly, Cappadocia and Pharasa with Grammar, Texts, Translations and Glossary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Dosuna, Julián Víctor Méndez (2012). "Ancient Macedonian as a Greek Dialect: A Critical Survey on Recent Work". In Giannakis, Georgios K. Ancient Macedonia: Language, History and Culture (in Greek). Thessaloniki: Centre for the Greek Language. pp. 65–78.  Gamkrelidze, Tamaz V.; Ivanov, Vyacheslav (March 1990). "The Early History of Indo-European Languages". Scientific American: 110–116. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014.  Georgiev, Vladimir Ivanov (1981). Introduction to the History of the Indo-European Languages. Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.  Gray, Russel D.; Atkinson, Quentin D. (2003). "Language-tree Divergence Times Support the Anatolian Theory of Indo-European Origin". Nature. 426 (6965): 435–439. doi:10.1038/nature02029. PMID 14647380.  Hamp, Eric P. (August 2013). "The Expansion of the Indo-European Languages: An Indo-Europeanist's Evolving View" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers. 239.  Holm, Hans J. (2008). "The Distribution of Data in Word Lists and its Impact on the Subgrouping of Languages". In Preisach, Christine; Burkhardt, Hans; Schmidt-Thieme, Lars; Decker, Reinhold. Data Analysis, Machine Learning, and Applications. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Gesellschaft für Klassifikation e.V., Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, March 7–9, 2007. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. pp. 628–636. ISBN 978-3-540-78246-9.  Hooker, J.T. (1976). Mycenaean Greece. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.  Jeffries, Ian (2002). Eastern Europe at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century: A Guide to the Economies in Transition. London and New York: Routledge (Taylor & Francis). ISBN 978-0-415-23671-3.  Ralli, Angeliki (2001). Μορφολογία [Morphology] (in Greek). Athens: Ekdoseis Pataki.  Renfrew, Colin (1973). "Problems in the General Correlation of Archaeological and Linguistic Strata in Prehistoric Greece: The Model of Autochthonous Origin". In Crossland, R. A.; Birchall, Ann. Bronze Age Migrations in the Aegean; Archaeological and Linguistic Problems in Greek Prehistory: Proceedings of the first International Colloquium on Aegean Prehistory, Sheffield. London: Gerald Duckworth and Company Limited. pp. 263–276. ISBN 0-7156-0580-1.  Renfrew, Colin (2003). "Time Depth, Convergence Theory, and Innovation in Proto-Indo-European: 'Old Europe' as a PIE Linguistic Area". In Bammesberger, Alfred; Vennemann, Theo. Languages in Prehistoric Europe. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter GmBH. pp. 17–48. ISBN 978-3-8253-1449-1.  Renfrew, Colin (1990) [1987]. Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-38675-3.  Scheler, Manfred (1977). Der englische Wortschatz [English Vocabulary] (in German). Berlin: E. Schmidt. ISBN 978-3-503-01250-3.  Tsitselikis, Konstantinos (2013). "A Surviving Treaty: The Lausanne Minority Protection in Greece
Greece
and Turkey". In Henrard, Kristin. The Interrelation between the Right to Identity of Minorities and their Socio-economic Participation. Leiden and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 287–315. 

Further reading[edit]

Allen, W. Sidney (1968). Vox Graeca – A Guide to the Pronunciation of Classical Greek. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20626-X.  Crosby, Henry Lamar; Schaeffer, John Nevin (1928). An Introduction to Greek. Boston and New York: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.  Dionysius of Thrace. Τέχνη Γραμματική [Art of Grammar] (in Greek).  c. 100 BC Holton, David; Mackridge, Peter; Philippaki-Warburton, Irene (1997). Greek: A Comprehensive Grammar of the Modern Language. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10002-X.  Horrocks, Geoffrey (1997). Greek: A History of the Language and Its Speakers. London and New York: Longman Linguistics Library (Addison Wesley Longman Limited). ISBN 0-582-30709-0.  Krill, Richard M. (1990). Greek and Latin
Latin
in English Today. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. ISBN 0-86516-241-7.  Mallory, James P. (1997). "Greek Language". In Mallory, James P.; Adams, Douglas Q. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. pp. 240–246.  Newton, Brian (1972). The Generative Interpretation of Dialect: A Study of Modern Greek
Modern Greek
Phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-08497-0.  Sihler, Andrew L. (1995). New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508345-8.  Smyth, Herbert Weir; Messing, Gordon (1956) [1920]. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-36250-0. 

External links[edit]

Standard Greek edition of, the free encyclopedia

Pontic Greek edition of, the free encyclopedia

Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Greek language

For a list of words relating to Greek language, see the Greek language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
test of at Wikimedia Incubator

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Greek language.

Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Greek.

General background[edit]

Greek Language, Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. The Greek Language and Linguistics Gateway, useful information on the history of the Greek language, application of modern Linguistics to the study of Greek, and tools for learning Greek. Aristotle
Aristotle
University of Thessaloniki, The Greek Language Portal, a portal for Greek language
Greek language
and linguistic education. The Perseus Project has many useful pages for the study of classical languages and literatures, including dictionaries. Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Tutorials, Berkeley Language Center of the University of California, Berkeley

Language learning[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Greek language

Hellenistic Greek Lessons Greek-Language.com provides a free online grammar of Hellenistic Greek. Greek dictionary, tutorial and hangman program with texteditor, this shareware program is aimed at learning New Testament
New Testament
Greek. komvos.edu.gr, a website for the support of people who are being taught the Greek language. New Testament
New Testament
Greek Three graduated courses designed to help students learn to read the Greek New Testament Books on Greek language
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that are taught at schools in Greece
Greece
(page in Greek) Greek Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh list appendix) USA Foreign Service Institute Modern Greek
Modern Greek
basic course Ask any question about the Greek language
Greek language
and a qualified Greek teacher answers you

Dictionaries[edit]

Greek Lexical Aids, descriptions of both online lexicons (with appropriate links) and Greek Lexicons in Print. The Greek Language Portal, dictionaries of all forms of Greek (Ancient, Hellenistic, Medieval, Modern) scanned images from S. C. Woodhouse's English–Greek dictionary, 1910

Literature[edit]

Center for Neo-Hellenic Studies, a non-profit organization that promotes modern Greek literature
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