Iran (Persian: ایران بزرگ, Irān-e Bozorg), also
referred to as Greater Persia (سرزمین پارس,
Sarzamin-e Pārs), is a term used to refer to the regions of the
Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of
South Asia that has
significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long
historically ruled by the various
Persian empires (such as those of
the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and
Afsharids and the
Qajar Empire), having considerable aspects
Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various Empires
Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus
that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still
inhabited by a significant amount of
Iranic peoples who patronize
their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South
Bahrain and China). It roughly corresponds to the territory on
Iranian plateau and its bordering plains. The Encyclopædia
Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent for this region.
The term Greater
Iran is not limited to the modern state of Iran, but
includes all the territory ruled by the Iranians, including
Mesopotamia, Eastern Anatolia, all of the
Caucasus and Central
Asia. The concept of Greater
Iran has its source in the
history of the
Achaemenid Empire in
Persis (Pars), and overlaps to a
certain extent with the history of Iran.
In recent centuries,
Iran lost many of the territories conquered under
Qajar dynasties, including
Iraq to the Ottomans (via
the Treaty of Amasya in 1555 and the
Treaty of Zuhab in 1639), western
Afghanistan to the British (via the Treaty of Paris in 1857 and
the MacMahon Arbitration in 1905), and all its Caucasus
Russia during the
Russo-Persian Wars in the course of
the 19th century. The
Treaty of Gulistan
Treaty of Gulistan in 1813 resulted in Iran
ceding Dagestan, Georgia, and most of
Russia. The Turkmanchey Treaty of 1828 decisively ended
centuries of Iranian control of its Caucasian provinces, and made
Iran cede what is present-day Armenia, the remainder of
Igdir (eastern Turkey), and set the modern boundary along the Aras
In March 1935, the endonym
Iran was adopted as the official
international name of
Persia by its ruler Reza Shah. However, in
1959, the government of
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Reza Shah
Pahlavi's son, announced that both "Persia" and "Iran" could
officially be used interchangeably.
3 In Persian literature
5 Provinces and regions
5.1 Middle East
5.3.1 North Caucasus
5.3.2 South Caucasus
5.4 Central Asia
5.5 South Asia
6 Historical and modern maps of Iran
8 See also
11 External links
The name "Irān", meaning "land of the Aryans", is the New Persian
continuation of the old genitive plural aryānām (proto-Iranian,
meaning "of the Aryans"), first attested in the
Avesta as airyānąm
(the text of which is composed in Avestan, an old Iranian language
spoken in northeastern Greater Iran, or in what are now Turkmenistan
and Tajikistan). The proto-Iranian term aryānām is
present in the term Airyana Vaēǰah, the homeland of
Zoroastrianism, near the provinces of Sogdiana, Margiana, Bactria,
etc., listed in the first chapter of the Vidēvdād. The
Avestan evidence is confirmed by Greek sources: Arianē is spoken of
as being between
Persia and the Indian subcontinent. However, this
is a Greek pronunciation of the name Haroyum/Haraiva (Herat), which
Greeks called 'Aria'. A land listed separately from the
homeland of the Aryans.
While up until the end of the Parthian period in the 3rd century CE,
the idea of "Irān" had an ethnic, linguistic, and religious value, it
did not yet have a political import. The idea of an "Iranian" empire
or kingdom in a political sense is a purely
Sasanian one. It was the
result of a convergence of interests between the new dynasty and the
Zoroastrian clergy, as we can deduce from the available evidence. This
convergence gave rise to the idea of an Ērān-šahr "Kingdom of the
Iranians", which was "ēr" (
Middle Persian equivalent of Old Persian
"ariya" and Avestan "airya").
Richard Nelson Frye
Richard Nelson Frye defines Greater
Iran as including "much of the
Caucasus, Iraq, Afghanistan,
Pakistan and Central Asia, with cultural
influences extending to
China and western India." According to Frye,
Iran means all lands and peoples where
Iranian languages were and are
spoken, and where in the past, multi-faceted Iranian cultures
Richard Foltz notes that while "A general assumption is often made
that the various
Iranian peoples of 'greater Iran'—a cultural area
that stretched from
Mesopotamia and the
Caucasus into Khwarizm,
Transoxiana, Bactria, and the
Pamirs and included Persians, Medes,
Parthians and Sogdians among others—were all 'Zoroastrians' in
pre-Islamic times... This view, even though common among serious
scholars, is almost certainly overstated." Foltz argues that "While
Iranian peoples did indeed share a common pantheon and
pool of religious myths and symbols, in actuality a variety of deities
were worshipped—particularly Mitra, the god of covenants, and
Anahita, the goddess of the waters, but also many others—depending
on the time, place, and particular group concerned". To the
Ancient Greeks, Greater
Iran ended at the Indus River located in
J. P. Mallory and
Douglas Q. Adams most of Western
Iran spoke Southwestern
Iranian languages in the Achaemenid
era while the Eastern territory spoke Eastern Iranian languages
related to Avestan.
George Lane also states that after the dissolution of the Mongol
Ilkhanids became rulers of greater Iran and Uljaytu,
according to Judith G. Kolbas, was the ruler of this expanse between
Primary sources, including Timurid historian Mir Khwand, define
Iranshahr (Greater Iran) as extending from the Euphrates to the
Traditionally, and until recent times, ethnicity has never been a
defining separating criterion in these regions. In the words of
Richard Nelson Frye:
Many times I have emphasized that the present peoples of Central Asia,
whether Iranian or Turkic speaking, have one culture, one religion,
one set of social values and traditions with only language separating
— Richard Nelson Frye
Only in modern times did western colonial intervention and ethnicity
tend to become a dividing force between the provinces of Greater Iran.
Patrick Clawson states, "ethnic nationalism is largely a nineteenth
century phenomenon, even if it is fashionable to retroactively extend
it." "Greater Iran" however has been more of a cultural
super-state, rather than a political one to begin with.
In the work Nuzhat al-Qolub (نزهه القلوب), the medieval
Hamdallah Mustawfi wrote:
چند شهر است اندر ایران مرتفع تر از
Some cities in
Iran are above the rest,
بهتر و سازنده تر از خوشی آب و هوا
better and more productive due to good weather,
گنجه پر گنج در اران صفاهان در عراق
Ganja full of treasure in Arran, and
Esfahān in Iraq,
در خراسان مرو و طوس در روم باشد اقسرا
Merv and Tus in Khorasan, and
Konya (Aqsara) in Rome (Anatolia).
History of Iran
History of Iran takes a geographical approach in
referring to the "historical and cultural" entity of "Greater Iran" as
"areas of Iran, parts of Afghanistan, and Chinese and Soviet Central
Asia". A detailed list of these territories follows in this
In Persian literature
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2016)
Iran is called Iranzamin (ایرانزمین) which means
"The Land of Iran". Iranzamin was in the mythical times opposed to the
Turanzamin the Land of Turan, which was located in the upper part of
In the pre-Islamic period, Iranians distinguished two main regions in
the territory they ruled, one
Iran and the other Aniran. By
meant all the regions inhabited by ancient Iranian peoples, this
region was more extensive in the past. This notion of
Iran as a
territory (opposed to Aniran) can be seen as the core of early Greater
Iran. Later many changes occurred in the boundaries and areas where
Iranians lived but the languages and culture remained the dominant
medium in many parts of the Greater Iran.
As an example, the
Persian language (referred to, in Persian, as
Farsi) was the main literary language and the language of
Central Asia and
Caucasus prior to the Russian
Central Asia being the birthplace of modern Persian
language. Furthermore, according to the British government, Persian
language was also used in Iraqi Kurdistan, prior to the British
Occupation and Mandate in 1918-1932.
Imperial Russia continuously advancing south in the course of two
wars against Persia, and the treaties of Turkmenchay and Gulistan in
the western frontiers, plus the unexpected death of
Abbas Mirza in
1823, and the murdering of Persia's Grand
Vizier (Mirza AbolQasem
Qa'im Maqām), many Central Asian khanates began losing hope for any
Persia against the Tsarist armies. The Russian armies
occupied the Aral coast in 1849,
Tashkent in 1864,
Bukhara in 1867,
Samarkand in 1868, and
Amudarya in 1873.
"Many Iranians consider their natural sphere of influence to extend
beyond Iran's present borders. After all,
Iran was once much larger.
Portuguese forces seized islands and ports in the 16th and 17th
centuries. In the 19th century, the
Russian Empire wrested from
Tehran's control what is today Armenia, Republic of Azerbaijan, and
part of Georgia. Iranian elementary school texts teach about the
Iranian roots not only of cities like Baku, but also cities further
Derbent in southern Russia. The
Shah lost much of his claim
to western Afghanistan following the Anglo-Iranian war of 1856-1857.
Only in 1970 did a UN sponsored consultation end Iranian claims to
suzerainty over the
Persian Gulf island nation of Bahrain. In
centuries past, Iranian rule once stretched westward into modern Iraq
and beyond. When the western world complains of Iranian interference
beyond its borders, the Iranian government often convinced itself that
it is merely exerting its influence in lands that were once its own.
Simultaneously, Iran's losses at the hands of outside powers have
contributed to a sense of grievance that continues to the present
Patrick Clawson of the Washington Institute for Near East
Iran today is just a rump of what it once was. At its height, Iranian
rulers controlled Iraq, Afghanistan, Western Pakistan, much of Central
Asia, and the Caucasus. Many Iranians today consider these areas part
of a greater Iranian sphere of influence." -Patrick Clawson
"Since the days of the Achaemenids, the Iranians had the protection of
geography. But high mountains and vast emptiness of the Iranian
plateau were no longer enough to shield
Iran from the Russian army or
British navy. Both literally, and figuratively,
Iran shrank. At the
beginning of the nineteenth century, Azerbaijan, Armenia, and
Afghanistan were Iranian, but by the end of the century, all this
territory had been lost as a result of European military action."
Provinces and regions
In the 8th century,
Iran was conquered by the
Abbassids who ruled from
Baghdad, and the territory of
Iran at that time was known to be
composed of two portions:
Persian Iraq (western portion) and Khorasan
(eastern portion). The dividing region was mostly along with Gurgan
and Damaghan cities. Especially the Ghaznavids, Seljuqs and Timurids
Empire to Iraqi and Khorasani regions. This point can be
observed in many books such as "Tārīkhi Baïhaqī" of Abul Fazl
Bayhqi, Faza'ilul al-anam min rasa'ili hujjat al-Islam (a collection
of letters of Al-Ghazali) and other books.
Transoxiana and Chorasmia
were mostly included in the Khorasanian region.
See also: Persians in Bahrain, Huwala, and
Ajam of Bahrain
The "Ajam" and "Huwala" are ethnic communities of
Bahrain of Persian
origin. The Persians of
Bahrain are a significant and influential
ethnic community whose ancestors arrived in
Bahrain within the last
1,000 years as laborers, merchants and artisans. They have
traditionally been merchants living in specific quarters of
Muharraq. Bahrain's Persians who adhere to the
Shia sect of Islam are
Ajam and the Persians who adhere to the
Sunni sect are called Huwala,
who migrated from
Iran to the
Persian Gulf in the
seventeenth and eighteenth century.
The immigration of Persians to
Bahrain began when the Greek Seleucid
kingdom which was ruling
Bahrain at the time fell and the Persian
Empire successfully invaded Bahrain, but it is often believed that
mass immigration started during the 1600s when Abbas I of Persia
invaded Bahrain. After settling in Bahrain, some of the Persians were
effectively Arabized. They usually settled in areas inhabited by the
indigenous Baharna, probably because they share the same
faith, however, some
Sunni Persians settled in areas mostly inhabited
Sunni Arab immigrants such as
Hidd and Galali. In Muharraq, they
have their own neighborhood called Fareej Karimi named after a rich
Persian man called Ali Abdulla Karimi.
From the 6th century BC to the 3rd century BC,
Bahrain was a prominent
part of the Persian
Empire by the Achaemenids, an Iranian dynasty.
Bahrain was referred to by the
Greeks as "Tylos", the centre of pearl
Nearchus discovered it while serving under Alexander the
Great. From the 3rd century BC to the arrival of Islam in the 7th
Bahrain was controlled by two other Iranian dynasties, the
Parthians and the Sassanids.
In the 3rd century AD, the
Sassanids succeeded the
controlled the area for four centuries until the arrival of Islam.
Ardashir, the first ruler of the Iranian Sassanid dynasty marched to
Bahrain and defeated Sanatruq (or Satiran), probably
the Parthian governor of Bahrain. He appointed his son
Shapur I as
governor of Bahrain. Shapur constructed a new city there and named it
Batan Ardashir after his father. At this time, Bahrain
incorporated the southern Sassanid province covering the Persian
Gulf's southern shore plus the archipelago of Bahrain. The
southern province of the
Sassanids was subdivided into three
districts; Haggar (now al-Hafuf province, Saudi Arabia), Batan
Ardashir (now al-Qatif province, Saudi Arabia), and
Bahrain Island) (In Middle-Persian/Pahlavi it means
By about 130 BC, the Parthian dynasty brought the
Persian Gulf under
their control and extended their influence as far as Oman. Because
they needed to control the
Persian Gulf trade route, the Parthians
established garrisons along the southern coast of the Persian
Gulf. through warfare and economic distress, been reduced to only
60. The influence of
Iran was further undermined at the end of the
18th century when the ideological power struggle between the
Akhbari-Usuli strands culminated in victory for the Usulis in
An Afghan uprising lead by Hotakis of Kandahar at the beginning of the
18th century resulted in the near collapse of the
In the resultant power vacuum, Oman invaded
Bahrain in 1717, ending
over one hundred years of Persian hegemony in Bahrain. The Omani
invasion began a period of political instability and a quick
succession of outside rulers took power with consequent destruction.
According to a contemporary account by theologian, Sheikh Yusuf Al
Bahrani, in an unsuccessful attempt by the Persians and their Bedouin
allies to take back
Bahrain from the
Kharijite Omanis, much of the
country was burnt to the ground.
Bahrain was eventually sold back
to the Persians by the Omanis, but the weakness of the
Huwala tribes seize control.
In 1730, the new
Shah of Persia, Nadir Shah, sought to re-assert
Persian sovereignty in Bahrain. He ordered Latif Khan, the admiral of
the Persian navy in the Persian Gulf, to prepare an invasion fleet in
Bushehr. The Persians invaded in March or early April 1736 when
the ruler of Bahrain, Shaikh Jubayr, was away on hajj. The
invasion brought the island back under central rule and to challenge
Oman in the Persian Gulf. He sought help from the British and Dutch,
and he eventually recaptured
Bahrain in 1736. During the Qajar
era, Persian control over
Bahrain waned and in 1753,
occupied by the
Sunni Persians of the Bushire-based Al Madhkur
family, who ruled
Bahrain in the name of
Persia and paid
allegiance to Karim Khan Zand.
During most of the second half of the eighteenth century,
ruled by Nasr Al-Madhkur, the ruler of Bushehr. The Bani Utibah tribe
from Zubarah exceeded in taking over
Bahrain after a war broke out in
1782. Persian attempts to reconquer the island in 1783 and in 1785
failed; the 1783 expedition was a joint Persian-
Qawasim invasion force
that never left Bushehr. The 1785 invasion fleet, composed of forces
from Bushehr, Rig and
Shiraz was called off after the death of the
ruler of Shiraz, Ali Murad Khan. Due to internal difficulties, the
Persians could not attempt another invasion. In 1799,
under threat from the expansionist policies of Sayyid Sultan, the
Sultan of Oman, when he invaded the island under the pretext that
Bahrain did not pay taxes owed. The Bani Utbah solicited the aid
Bushire to expel the Omanis on the condition that
become a tributary state of Persia. In 1800, Sayyid Sultan invaded
Bahrain again in retaliation and deployed a garrison at Arad Fort, in
Muharraq island and had appointed his twelve-year-old son Salim, as
Governor of the island. 
Many names of villages in
Bahrain are derived from the Persian
language. These names were thought to have been as a result
influences during the
Safavid rule of
Bahrain (1501–1722) and
previous Persian rule. Village names such as Karbabad, Salmabad,
Karzakan, Duraz, Barbar were originally derived from the Persian
language, suggesting that Persians had a substantial effect on the
island's history. The local
Bahrani Arabic dialect has also
borrowed many words from the Persian language. Bahrain's capital
Manama is derived from two Persian words meaning 'I' and
In 1910, the Persian community funded and opened a private school,
Al-Ittihad school, that taught
Farsi amongst other subjects.
According to the 1905 census, there were 1650 Bahraini citizens of
Historian Nasser Hussain says that many Iranians fled their native
country in the early 20th century due to a law king
Reza Shah issued
which banned women from wearing the hijab, or because they feared for
their lives after fighting the English, or to find jobs. They were
Bushehr and the
Fars province between 1920 and
1940. In the 1920s, local Persian merchants were prominently involved
in the consolidation of Bahrain's first powerful lobby with
connections to the municipality in effort to contest the municipal
legislation of British control.
Bahrain's local Persian community have heavily influenced the
country's local food dishes. One of the most notable local delicacies
of the people in
Bahrain is mahyawa, consumed in Southern
well, is a watery earth brick coloured sauce made from sardines and
consumed with bread or other food. Bahrain's Persians are also famous
Bahrain for bread-making. Another local delicacy is "pishoo" made
from rose water (golab) and agar agar. Other food items consumed are
similar to Persian cuisine.
See also: Iran–
Iraq relations, Persians in Iraq, and Asuristan
Iran always had strong cultural ties with the
region of nowadays Iraq.
Mesopotamia is considered as the cradle of
civilization and the place where the first empires in history were
established. These empires, namely the Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian,
and Assyrian, dominated the ancient middle east for millennia, which
explains the great influence of the
Mesopotamia on the Iranian culture
and history, and it is also the reason why the later Iranian and Greek
Mesopotamia to be the political centre of their rule.
For a period of around 500 years, what is now
Iraq formed the core of
Iran, with the Iranian Parthian and
Sasanian empire having their
capital in what is modern-day
Iraq for the same centuries long time
Of the four residences of the
Achaemenids named by
Pasargadae or Persepolis,
Babylon — the last
[situated in Iraq] was maintained as their most important capital, the
fixed winter quarters, the central office of bureaucracy, exchanged
only in the heat of summer for some cool spot in the highlands.
Under the Seleucids and the
Parthians the site of the Mesopotamian
capital moved a little to the north on the
Tigris — to
Ctesiphon. It is indeed symbolic that these new foundations were built
from the bricks of ancient Babylon, just as later Baghdad, a little
further upstream, was built out of the ruins of the
city of Seleucia-Ctesiphon.
— Iranologist Ehsan Yarshater, The Cambridge History of Iran,
The Cyrus Cylinder, written in Babylonian cuneiform in the name of the
Achaemenid king, Cyrus the Great, describes the Persian takeover of
Babylon (the ancient name of Iraq).
Achaemenid Empire or "First Persian Empire" was the
successor state to the empires of
Babylonia based in Iraq,
Elam is part of Iran, the ancient people of
ruled by ancient Mesopotamians, which explains the close proximity
between the people of south western
Iran and the Iraqis even in modern
days, in fact, the people of that part of
Iran speak Mesopotamian
Arabic and were put under the rule of modern
Iran by the British. The
ancient Persians adopted the Babylonian cuneiform script and modified
it to write their language, along with adopting many other facets of
ancient Iraqi culture, including the
Aramaic language which became the
official language of the Persian Empire.
The Cyrus Cylinder, written in Babylonian cuneiform in the name of the
Achaemenid king Cyrus the Great, describes the Persian takeover of
Babylon (the ancient name of Iraq). An excerpt reads:
When I entered
Babylon in a peaceful manner, I took up my lordly abode
in the royal palace amidst rejoicing and happiness. Marduk, the great
lord, established as his fate for me a magnanimous heart of one who
loves Babylon, and I daily attended to his worship. My vast army
Babylon in peace; I did not permit anyone to frighten the
Sumer and Akkad. I sought the welfare of the city of Babylon
and all its sacred centers. As for the citizens of Babylon,[...] upon
Nabonidus imposed a corvée which was not the gods' wish and not
befitting them, I relieved their wariness and freed them from their
service. Marduk, the great lord, rejoiced over my good deeds. He sent
gracious blessing upon me, Cyrus, the king who worships him, and upon
Cambyses, the son who is my offspring, and upon all my army, and in
peace, before him, we moved around in friendship [with the people of
— Cyrus Cylinder
An 1814 map of
Persia at time of
According to Iranologist Richard N. Frye:
Throughout Iran’s history the western part of the land has been
frequently more closely connected with the lowlands of Mesopotamia
(Iraq) than with the rest of the plateau to the east of the central
Dasht-e Kavir and Dasht-e Lut].
— Richard N. Frye, The Golden Age of Persia: The Arabs in the East
Between the coming of the Abbasids [in 750] and the Mongol onslaught
Iraq and western
Iran shared a closer history than did
Iran and its western counterpart.
— Neguin Yavari , Iranian Perspectives on the Iran-Iraq
Testimony to the close relationship shared by
Iraq and western Iran
during the Abbasid era and later centuries, is the fact that the two
regions came to share the same name. The western region of Iran
(ancient Media) was called 'Irāq-e 'Ajamī ("Persian Iraq"), while
Iraq (Babylonia) was called 'Irāq al-'Arabī
("Arabic Iraq") or Bābil ("Babylon"). And the name
Iraq comes from
the ancient Mesopotamian city Uruk, which suggests an even older
For centuries the two neighbouring regions were known as "The Two
Iraqs" ("al-'Iraqain"). The 12th century Persian poet Khāqāni wrote
a famous poem Tohfat-ul Iraqein ("The Gift of the Two Iraqs"). The
city of Arāk in western
Iran still bears the region's old name, and
Iranians still traditionally call the region between Tehran, Isfahan
and Īlām "ʿErāq".
During medieval ages, Mesopotamian and
Iranian peoples knew each
other's languages because of trade, and because Arabic was the
language of religion and science at that time. The Timurid historian
Ḥāfeẓ-e Abru (d. 1430) wrote of Iraq:
The majority of inhabitants of
Iraq know Persian and Arabic, and from
the time of domination of Turkic people the
Turkish language has also
— Ḥāfeẓ-e Abru
Iraqis share religious and certain cultural ties Iranians. The
majority of Iranians are Twelver
Shia (an Islamic sect established in
Iraq), although the majority of Iranians were
Sunni Muslims and did
not convert to
Shia until the
Shi'ism in Iran.
Iraqi culture has commonalities with the culture of Iran. The spring
Nowruz that is celebrated in
Iran and some parts of Iraq
roots back to the Akitu spring festival (Babylonian new year). The
Mesopotamian cuisine has also similarities to the
Persian cuisine and
has common dishes and cooking techniques. The Iraqi dialect has
absorbed many words from the
Persian language as well.
There are still cities and provinces in
Iraq where the Persian names
of the city are still retained. e.g. ’Anbār and Baghdad. Other
Iraq with originally Persian names include Nokard
(نوكرد) --> Haditha,
Suristan (سورستان) --> Kufa,
Shahrban (شهربان) --> Muqdadiyah, Arvandrud
(اروندرود) --> Shatt al-Arab, and Asheb (آشب) -->
Amadiya, Peroz-Shapur --> Anbar (town)
In the modern era, the
Safavid dynasty of
Iran briefly reasserted
their hegemony over
Iraq in the periods of 1501–1533 and
Iraq to the
Ottoman Empire on both occasions (via
the Treaty of Amasya in 1555 and the
Treaty of Zuhab in 1639). Ottoman
Iraq was reconfirmed in the
Treaty of Kerden in 1746.
Following the fall of the Ba'athist regime in 2003 and the empowerment
of Iraq's majority Shī'i community, relations with
flourished in all fields.
Iraq is today Iran’s largest trading
partner in regard to non-oil goods.
Many Iranians were born in
Iraq or have ancestors from Iraq, such
as the Chairman of Iran's Parliament Ali Larijani, the former Chief
Iran Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi, and the Minister of Foreign
Iran Ali Akbar Salehi, who were born in
Najaf and Karbala
respectively. In the same way, many Iraqis were born in
Iran or have
ancestors from Iran, such as
Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, who
was born in Mashhad.
Culturally and historically
Kurdistan has been a part of what is known
as Greater Iran. Kurds speak a Northwestern Iranian language known as
Kurdish. Many aspects of
Kurdish culture are related to the other
peoples of Greater Iran, examples include Newroz and Simurgh.
Some historians and linguists, such as Vladimir Minorsky, have
suggested that the Medes, an Iranian people who inhabited much of
western Iran, including
Azerbaijan and Kurdistan, might have been
forefathers of modern Kurds.
Sassanian fortress in Derbent, Dagestan. Now inscribed on Russia's
UNESCO world heritage list since 2003.
See also: History of Dagestan, History of Kabardino-Balkaria,
Russo-Persian Wars, Treaty of Gulistan, Treaty of Turkmenchay, and Tat
Caucasus region in today's southern
Russia including the
republics of Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, North Ossetia,
Kabardino-Balkaria and other republics and oblasts of the region long
formed part of Persia, most notably under the
Safavids and Afsharids,
and of the Iranian cultural sphere until they were conquered and
Imperial Russia over the course of the 18th and 19th
centuries. Strong Persian cultural influence can be traced up as far
Tatarstan in central Russia.
Dagestan remains the bastion of
Persian culture in the North
Caucasus with fine examples of Iranian
architecture like the Sassanid citadel in Derbent, strong influence of
Persian cuisine, and common Persian names amongst the ethnic peoples
of Dagestan. The ethnic Persian population of the North Caucasus, the
Tats, remain, despite strong assimilation over the years, still
visible in several North Caucasian cities. Even today, after decades
of partition, some of these regions retain Iranian influences, as seen
in their old beliefs, traditions and customs (e.g. Norouz).
See also: Azerbaijani people, History of Azerbaijan, Tat people
(Iran), Tat people (Caucasus),
Safavid conversion of
Iran to Shia
Islam, Old Azeri language, Shirvan, Arran (Caucasus), Shirvanshah, and
According to Tadeusz Swietochowski, the territories of
Iran and the
Azerbaijan usually shared the same history from the time
of ancient Media (ninth to seventh centuries b.c.) and the Persian
Empire (sixth to fourth centuries b.c.).
Intimately and inseparably intertwined histories for millennia, Iran
irrevocably lost the territory that is nowadays
Azerbaijan in the
course of the 19th century. With the
Treaty of Gulistan
Treaty of Gulistan of 1813
Russo-Persian War (1804-1813)
Russo-Persian War (1804-1813)
Iran had to cede eastern
Georgia, its possessions in the North
Caucasus and many of those in
what is today the
Azerbaijan Republic, which included
Shirvan Khanate, Karabakh Khanate, Ganja Khanate, Shaki Khanate, Quba
Khanate, and parts of the Talysh Khanate.
Derbent (Darband) Khanate of
Dagestan was also lost to Russia. These Khanates comprise most of what
is today the Republic of
Dagestan in Southern Russia.
Treaty of Turkmenchay
Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828 following the Russo-Persian War
(1826-1828), the result was even more disastrous, and resulted in Iran
being forced to cede the
Nakhichevan Khanate and the Mughan regions to
Russia, as well as Erivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh
Khanate. All these territories together, lost in 1813 and 1828
combined, constitute all of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, the
Republic of Armenia, and southern Dagestan. The area to the North of
the river Aras, among which the territory of the contemporary republic
Azerbaijan were Iranian territory until they were occupied by
Russia in the course of the 19th century.
Many localities in this region bear Persian names or names derived
Iranian languages and
Azerbaijan remains by far Iran's closest
cultural, religious, ethnic and historical neighbor.
by far the second largest ethnicity in Iran, and comprise the largest
community of ethnic
Azerbaijanis in the world, vastly outnumbering the
number in the Republic of Azerbaijan. Both nations are the only
Shia majority in the world, with adherents of the religion
comprising an absolute majority in both nations. The people of
Azerbaijan were converted to Shiism during exactly
the same time in history. Furthermore, the name of "Azerbaijan" is
derived through the name of the Persian satrap which ruled the
contemporary region of Iranian
Azerbaijan and minor parts of the
Azerbaijan in ancient times. In 1918, the
Musavat party adopted the name for the nation upon the
independence of the former territories under the Russian Empire.
Early in antiquity, Narseh of
Persia is known to have had
fortifications built here. In later times, some of Persia's literary
and intellectual figures from the
Qajar period have hailed from this
region. Under intermittent Iranian suzerainty since antiquity, it was
also separated from
Iran in the mid-19th century, by virtue of the
Gulistan Treaty and Turkmenchay Treaty.
که تا جایگه یافتی نخچوان
Oh Nakhchivan, respect you've attained,
بدین شاه شد بخت پیرت جوان
With this King in luck you'll remain.
Painted clay and alabaster head of a
Zoroastrian priest wearing a
distinctive Bactrian-style headdress, Takhti-Sangin, Tajikistan,
Greco-Bactrian kingdom, 3rd-2nd century BC
Khwarazm is one of the regions of Iran-zameen, and is the home of the
ancient Iranians, Airyanem Vaejah, according to the ancient book of
the Avesta. Modern scholars believe
Khwarazm to be what ancient
Avestic texts refer to as "Ariyaneh Waeje" or
Iran vij. Iranovich
These sources claim that Urgandj, which was the capital of ancient
Khwarazm for many years, was actually "Ourva": the eighth land of
Ahura Mazda mentioned in the Pahlavi text of Vendidad. Others such as
University of Hawaii
University of Hawaii historian
Elton L. Daniel believe
Khwarazm to be
the "most likely locale" corresponding to the original home of the
Avestan people, while
Khwarazm "the cradle of the
Aryan tribe" (مهد قوم آریا). Today
Khwarazm is split between
several central Asian republics.
Superimposed on and overlapping with
Chorasmia was Khorasan which
roughly covered nearly the same geographical areas in Central Asia
(starting from Semnan eastward through northern Afghanistan roughly
until the foothills of Pamir, ancient Mount Imeon). Current day
provinces such as Sanjan in Turkmenia, Razavi Khorasan Province, North
Khorasan Province, and
Southern Khorasan Province
Southern Khorasan Province in
Iran are all
remnants of the old Khorasan. Until the 13th century and the
devastating Mongol invasion of the region, Khorasan was considered the
cultural capital of Greater Iran.
The national anthem in Tajikistan, "Surudi Milli", attests to the
Perso-Tajik identity, which has seen a large revival, after the
breakup of the USSR. Their language is almost identical to that spoken
in Afghanistan and Iran, and their cities have Persian names, e.g.
Dushanbe, Isfara, Rasht Valley, Garm, Murghab, Vahdat, Zar-afshan
river, Shurab, and
Kulob ([permanent dead link]). It is also
important[to whom?] to note that Rudaki, considered by many as the
father of modern Persian poetry, was from the modern day region of
Home of the
Parthian Empire (Nysa).
Merv is also where the
half-Persian caliph al-Mamun moved his capital to. The city of Eshgh
Abad (some claim that the word is actually the transformed form of
"Ashk Abad" literally meaning "built by Ashk", the head of Arsacid
dynasty) is yet another Persian word meaning "city of love", and like
Iran, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan, it was once part of Airyanem
Uzbekistan has a local Tajik population. The famous Persian cities of
Afrasiab, Bukhara, Samarkand, Shahrisabz, Andijan, Khiveh, Navā'i,
Shirin, Termez, and Zar-afshan are located here. These cities are the
birthplace of the Islamic era Persian literature. The Samanids, who
claimed inheritance to the Sassanids, had their capital built here.
ای بخارا شاد باش و دیر زی
Oh Bukhara! Joy to you and live long!
شاه زی تو میهمان آید همی
Your King comes to you in ceremony.
This article or section possibly contains synthesis of material which
does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic. Relevant
discussion may be found on the talk page. (December 2015) (Learn how
and when to remove this template message)
See also: Iran-
China relations and Tajiks in China
Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County
Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County regions of
China harbored a
Persian population and culture. Chinese Tashkurgan Tajik
Autonomous County was always counted as a part of the Iranian cultural
& linguistic continent with Kashgar, Yarkand, Hotan, and Turpan
bound to the Iranian history.
The culture of the Muslim
Uyghur people of
Xinjiang has been strongly
influenced by Persian culture.
Modern state of Afghanistan was part of
Sistan and Greater Khorasan
regions, and hence was recognized with the name Khorasan (along with
regions centered on
Merv and Nishapur), which in Pahlavi means "The
Eastern Land" (خاور زمین in Persian).
Nowadays region of Afghanistan is where
Balkh is located, home of
Rumi, Rabi'a Balkhi, Sanāī Ghaznawi, Jami, Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
and where many other notables in
Persian literature came from.
ز زابل به کابل رسید آن زمان
Zabul he arrived to Kabul
گرازان و خندان و دل شادمان
Strutting, happy, and mirthful
Ferdowsi in Shahnama
There is considerable influence of Iranian-speaking peoples in
Pakistan. The region of Baluchistan is split between
Pakistan and Iran
and Baluchi, the majority languages of the Baluchistan province of
Pakistan are also spoken in Southeastern Iran. In fact, the Chagai
Hills and the western part of Makran district were part of
Durand Line was drawn in the late 1800s.
Pashto which is spoken in
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and FATA of
Afghanistan is an Iranian language.
Historical and modern maps of Iran
Map depicting the Achaemenid Empire.
1598 German map of the region.
1610 map by Dutch map maker
Jodocus Hondius showing
Georgia among the territories.
1719 map depiction of Asia.
1720 map by Herman Moll.
1753 map by
Robert de Vaugondy
Robert de Vaugondy titled Estats du Grand-Seigneur en Asie
where the color yellow marks the territories of Persia.
1808 British map of Persia.
1814 map of
Persia by John Thomson.
19th century British map depicting Persia
1555 Treaty of Amasya: The first treaty between
Persia and the
Ottoman Empire, splitting the
Mesopotamia in a Turkish
and Persian sphere.
1639 Treaty of Zuhab:
Iraq to the Ottoman Empire.
1813 Gulestan Treaty:
Iran loses a large amount of its land in the
Caucasus, including eastern half of Georgia, southern Dagestan, large
parts of the Armenian Republic, and most of what is today the
1828 Turkmenchay Treaty: Signed by Fath Ali Shah.
sovereignty over the entire Caucasus, including Iran's Nakhichivan,
Nagorno-Karabakh, the entirety of Armenia, and the remainder of the
modern-day territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan
1857 Paris Treaty: Signed by Nasereddin Shah.
Iran renounces all
Herat and parts of Afghanistan in exchange for the
evacuation of Iran's southern ports by Great Britain.
1881 Akhal Treaty: Signed by Nasereddin Shah.
Khwarazmia in exchange for security guarantees from Russia.
Iran transfers to
Russia additional regions near the Atrek River
that were Iranian under the Akhal Treaty. This treaty was signed by
General Boutsoff and Mirza Ali Asghar Amin al-Sultan on May 27, 1893.
Persia was to be carved up into three regions, according to the
Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907.
Iran abandons sovereignty rights over
Bahrain to Great Britain
in exchange for
Greater and Lesser Tunbs
Greater and Lesser Tunbs and
Abu Musa islands in the
List of kings of Persia
Culture of Iran
Culture of Azerbaijan
History of the Caucasus
History of the Kurdish people
Old Azeri language
History of Turkey
List of Persia-related topics
Qanat water management system
^ a b "IRAN i. LANDS OF IRAN". Encyclopædia Iranica.
^ a b Yarshater, Ehsan
Persia or Iran, Persian or
2010-10-24 at the Wayback Machine., Iranian Studies, vol. XXII no. 1
^ Cite error: The named reference Gignoux_Aneran was invoked but never
defined (see the help page).
^ MacKenzie, David Niel (1998). "Ērān, Ērānšahr". Encyclopedia
Iranica. 8. Costa Mesa: Mazda. Archived from the original on 13 March
^ Marcinkowski, Christoph (2010). Shi'ite Identities: Community and
Culture in Changing Social Contexts. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 83.
^ "Interview with
Richard N. Frye
Richard N. Frye (CNN)". Retrieved 2007. Check
date values in: access-date= (help)
^ Richard Nelson Frye, The Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 55, No. 4
(Oct., 1962), pp. 261-268 https://www.jstor.org/pss/1508723 I use the
Iran in an historical context[...]
Persia would be used for the
modern state, more or less equivalent to "western Iran". I use the
term "Greater Iran" to mean what I suspect most Classicists and
ancient historians really mean by their use of
Persia - that which was
within the political boundaries of States ruled by Iranians.
^ Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary. Clive
Holes. 2001. Page XXX. ISBN 90-04-10763-0
^ "Columbia College Today". columbia.edu. Retrieved 9 December
^ Reitzenstein and Qumrân Revisited by an Iranian, Richard Nelson
Frye, The Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 55, No. 4 (Oct., 1962), pp.
International Journal of Middle East Studies (2007), 39: pp 307-309
Copyright © 2007 Cambridge University Press
^ Erik Goldstein (1992). Wars and peace treaties, 1816-1991.
Psychology Press. pp. 72–73. ISBN 9780203976821.
^ Sir Percy Molesworth Sykes (1915). A history of Persia, Volume 2.
Macmillan and co. p. 469.
^ Roxane Farmanfarmaian (2008). War and peace in
implications past and present. Psychology Press. p. 4.
^ India. Foreign and Political Dept. (1892). A Collection of Treaties,
Engagements, and Sunnuds, Relating to India and Neighbouring
Persia and the Persian Gulf. G. A. Savielle and P. M.
Cranenburgh, Bengal Print. Co. pp. x (10).
^ Mikaberidze, Alexander (2015). Historical Dictionary of Georgia.
Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 348–349. ISBN 9781442241466.
Persia lost all its territories to the north of the Aras River, which
included all of Georgia, and parts of
Armenia and Azerbaijan.
^ Olsen, James Stuart; Shadle, Robert (1991). Historical Dictionary of
European Imperialism. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 314.
ISBN 9780313262579. In 1813
Iran signed the Treaty of Gulistan,
ceding Georgia to Russia.
^ Fisher et al. 1991, p. 329.
^ Abbas Amanat (1997). Pivot of the universe: Nasir al-Din
and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831-1896. I.B.Tauris. p. 16.
^ Kenneth M. Pollack (2005). The Persian puzzle: the conflict between
Iran and America. Random House, Inc. p. 38.
^ William W. Malandra (2005-07-20). "ZOROASTRIANISM i. HISTORICAL
REVIEW". Retrieved 2011-01-14.
^ Nicholas Sims-Williams. "EASTERN IRANIAN LANGUAGES". Retrieved
^ "IRAN". Retrieved 2011-01-14.
^ K. Hoffmann. "AVESTAN LANGUAGE I-III". Retrieved 2011-01-14.
^ "ĒRĀN-WĒZ". iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
^ "ZOROASTER ii. GENERAL SURVEY". iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 9
^ a b Ahmad Ashraf. "IRANIAN IDENTITY ii. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD".
^ Ed Eduljee. "Haroyu". heritageinstitute.com. Retrieved 9 December
^ Ed Eduljee. "
Aryan Homeland, Airyana Vaeja, Location. Aryans and
Zoroastrianism". heritageinstitute.com. Retrieved 9 December
^ Ed Eduljee. "
Aryan Homeland, Airyana Vaeja, in the Avesta. Aryan
lands and Zoroastrianism". heritageinstitute.com. Retrieved 9 December
^ Frye, Richard Nelson, Greater Iran, ISBN 1-56859-177-2 p.xi
^ Richard Foltz, "Religions of the Silk Road: Premodern Patterns of
globalization", Palgrave Macmillan, rev. 2nd edition, 2010. pg 27
^ J.M. Cook, "The Rise of the
Achaemenids and Establishment of Their
Empire" in Ilya Gershevitch, William Bayne Fisher, J. A. Boyle
"Cambridge History of Iran", Vol 2. pg 250. Excerpt: "To the Greeks,
Iran ended at the Indus".
^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (1997), Encyclopedia of Indo-European
culture, London and Chicago: Fitzroy-Dearborn,
ISBN 1-884964-98-2. pg 307: "Dialetically,
Old Persian is
regarded as a southwestern Iranian language in contrast to the east
Iranian Avestan which covered most of the rest of Greater Iran.
However, it is important to note that during the Achaemeid era, the
official language of the empire was Aramaic, which was the mother
tongue of the ancient [Iraqis], since it was the language of
literature, religion, and science at that time. [Aramaic] language had
a great impact on Persian and survived as the dominant language in the
middle east until the [Islamic conquest].
^ George Lane, "Daily life in the Mongol empire", Greenwood Publishing
Group, 2006. pg 10" The year following 1260 saw the empire irrevocably
split but also signaled the emergence of the two greatest achievements
of the house of Chinggis, namely the Yuan dynasty of greater
the Il-Khanid dynasty of greater Iran.
^ Judith G. Kolbas, "The Mongols in Iran", Excerpt from 399: "Uljaytu,
Ruler of Greater
Iran from 1304-1317 A.D."
^ Mīr Khvānd, Muḥammad ibn Khāvandshāh, Tārīkh-i rawz̤at
al-ṣafā. Taṣnīf Mīr Muḥammad ibn Sayyid Burhān al-Dīn
Khāvand Shāh al-shahīr bi-Mīr Khvānd. Az rū-yi nusakh-i
mutaʻaddadah-i muqābilah gardīdah va fihrist-i asāmī va aʻlām
va qabāyil va kutub bā chāphā-yi digar mutamāyiz
mībāshad.[Tehrān] Markazī-i Khayyām Pīrūz [1959-60].
ایرانشهر از کنار فرات تا جیهون است و
وسط آبادانی عالم است. Iranshahr stretches from the
Euphrates to the Oxus, and it is the center of the prosperity of the
^ Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave Macmillan. 2005
ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.23
^ The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. III: The Seleucid, Parthian and
Sasanian Periods, Ehsan Yarshater, Review author[s]: Richard N. Frye,
International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 21, No. 3. (Aug.,
1989), pp.415. Link: 
Dehkhoda Dictionary, Dehkhoda, see under entry "Turan"
^ "The old www.cogsci.ed.ac.uk server". ed.ac.uk. Retrieved 9 December
^ Homayoun, N. T., Kharazm: What do I know about Iran?. 2004.
ISBN 964-379-023-1, p.78
^ Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave. 2005. Coauthored with
Michael Rubin. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.9,10
^ Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave. 2005. Coauthored with
Michael Rubin. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.30
^ Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave. 2005. Coauthored with
Michael Rubin. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.31-32
^ Life and Land Use on the
Bahrain Islands: The Geoarcheology of an
Ancient ... by Curtis E. Larsen p. 13
^ a b
Bahrain by Federal Research Division, page 7
^ Robert G. Hoyland, Arabia and the Arabs: From the Bronze Age to the
Coming of Islam,
^ a b c Security and Territoriality in the Persian Gulf: A Maritime
Political Geography by Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh, page 119
^ a b Conflict and Cooperation:
Zoroastrian Subalterns and Muslim
Elites in ... By Jamsheed K. Choksy, 1997, page 75
^ Yoma 77a and Rosh Hashbanah, 23a
^ Juan Cole, Sacred Space and Holy War, IB Tauris, 2007 p52
^ Are the
Shia Rising? Maximilian Terhalle, Middle East Policy, Volume
14 Issue 2 Page 73, June 2007
^ a b c d Bashir 1979, p. 7.
^ Autobiography of Sheikh Yusuf Al Bahrani published in Interpreting
the Self, Autobiography in the Arabic Literary Tradition, Edited by
Dwight F. Reynolds, University of California Press Berkeley 2001
^ The Autobiography of Yūsuf al-Bahrānī (1696–1772) from Lu'lu'at
al-Baḥrayn, from the final chapter An Account of the Life of the
Author and the Events That Have Befallen Him featured in Interpreting
the Self, Autobiography in the Arabic Literary Tradition, Edited by
Dwight F. Reynolds, University of California Press Berkeley 2001 p221
^ Charles Belgrave, The Pirate Coast, G. Bell & Sons, 1966 p19
^ Ahmad Mustafa Abu Hakim, History of Eastern Arabia 1750–1800,
Khayat, 1960, p78
^ Bashir 1979, p. 46.
^ a b Bashir 1979, p. 47.
^ James Onley, The Politics of Protection in the Gulf: The Arab Rulers
and the British Resident in the Nineteenth Century, Exeter University,
^ a b c d Al-Tajer, Mahdi Abdulla (1982). Language & Linguistic
Origins In Bahrain. Taylor & Francis. pp. 134, 135.
^ Shirawi, May Al-Arrayed (1987). Education in
Bahrain - 1919-1986, An
Analytical Study of Problems and Progress (PDF). Durham University.
^ a b Fuccaro, Nelida (2009-09-03). Histories of City and State in the
Manama Since 1800. p. 114.
^ a b c Yarshater, Ehsan (1993). The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume
3. Cambridge University Press. p. 482.
ISBN 978-0-521-20092-9. Of the four residences of the Achaemenids
Herodotus — Ecbatana,
Pasargadae or Persepolis,
Babylon — the last [situated in Iraq] was maintained as their most
important capital, the fixed winter quarters, the central office of
bureaucracy, exchanged only in the heat of summer for some cool spot
in the highlands. Under the Seleucids and the
Parthians the site of
the Mesopotamian capital moved a little to the north on the
Seleucia and Ctesiphon. It is indeed symbolic that these new
foundations were built from the bricks of ancient Babylon, just as
later Baghdad, a little further upstream, was built out of the ruins
Sassanian double city of Seleucia-Ctesiphon.
^ Frye, Richard N. (1975). The Golden Age of Persia: The Arabs in the
East. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 184.
ISBN 978-0-7538-0944-0. [..] throughout Iran’s history the
western part of the land has been frequently more closely connected
with the lowlands of
Mesopotamia than with the rest of the plateau to
the east of the central deserts.
^ a b Yavari, Neguin (1997). Iranian Perspectives on the Iran-Iraq
War; Part II. Conceptual Dimensions; 7. National, Ethnic, and
Sectarian Issues in the Iran-
Iraq War. University Press of Florida.
p. 80. ISBN 978-0-8130-1476-0. Between the coming of the
'Abbasids and the Mongol onslaught,
Iraq and western
Iran shared a
closer history than did eastern
Iran and its western
^ Morony, Michael G. "IRAQ AND ITS RELATIONS WITH IRAN". IRAQ i. IN
THE LATE SASANID AND EARLY ISLAMIC ERAS. Encyclopædia Iranica.
Retrieved 11 February 2012. Persian remained the language of most of
the sedentary people as well as that of the chancery until the 15th
century and thereafter, as attested by
Ḥāfeẓ-e Abru (d. 1430) who
said, “The majority of inhabitants of
Iraq know Persian and Arabic,
and from the time of domination of Turkic people the Turkish language
has also found currency: as the city people and those engaged in trade
and crafts are Persophone, the Bedouins are Arabophone, and the
governing classes are Turkophone. But, all three peoples (qawms) know
each other’s languages due to the mixture and amalgamation.”
^ Csató, Éva Ágnes; Isaksson, Bo; Jahani, Carina (2005). Linguistic
Convergence and Areal Diffusion: Case Studies from Iranian, Semitic
and Turkic. Routledge. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-415-30804-5.
^ See: محمدی ملایری، محمد: فرهنگ ایران در
دوران انتقال از عصر ساسانی به عصر
اسلامی، جلد دوم: دل ایرانشهر، تهران،
انتشارات توس 1375.: Mohammadi Malayeri, M.: Del-e
Iranshahr, vol. II,
Tehran 1375 Hs.
Iraq plans to send 200-member trade delegation to Iran". Tehran
Times. 9 January 2013. Archived from the original on 11 March 2013.
Retrieved 8 February 2013.
^ a b "Regional developments are leading to convergence of nations:
Ahmadinejad". Mehr News Agency. 31 August 2007. Archived from the
original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
^ Encyclopædia Iranica: Arvand-Rud, by M. Kasheff. – Retrieved on
18 October 2007.
^ "Professor Vladimir Minorsky". jstor.org. Retrieved 9 December
^ "Media". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
^ Encyclopædia Iranica: "
Caucasus Iran" article, p.84-96.
^ Historical Background Vol. 3, Colliers Encyclopedia CD-ROM,
^ Swietochowski, Tadeusz (1995).
Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland
in Transition. Columbia University Press. pp. 69, 133.
^ L. Batalden, Sandra (1997). The newly independent states of Eurasia:
handbook of former Soviet republics. Greenwood Publishing Group.
p. 98. ISBN 978-0-89774-940-4.
^ E. Ebel, Robert, Menon, Rajan (2000). Energy and conflict in Central
Asia and the Caucasus. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 181.
^ Andreeva, Elena (2010).
Iran in the great game:
travelogues and orientalism (reprint ed.). Taylor & Francis.
p. 6. ISBN 978-0-415-78153-4.
^ Çiçek, Kemal, Kuran, Ercüment (2000). The Great Ottoman-Turkish
Civilisation. University of Michigan.
^ Ernest Meyer, Karl, Blair Brysac, Shareen (2006). Tournament of
Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for
Empire in Central Asia. Basic
Books. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-465-04576-1.
^ Houtsma, M. Th. (1993). First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913–1936
(reprint ed.). BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-09796-4.
^ Schippmann, Klaus (1989). Azerbaijan: Pre-Islamic History.
Encyclopædia Iranica. pp. 221–224.
^ Daniel, E., The History of Iran. 2001. ISBN 0-313-30731-8, p.28
^ Lorentz, J. Historical Dictionary of Iran. 1995.
Encyclopædia Iranica, p.443 for Persian settlements in southwestern
China relations for more links on the historical ties.
Persian language in Xinjiang" (زبان فارسی در سین
کیانگ). Zamir Sa'dollah Zadeh (دکتر ضمیر سعدالله
Iran (نامه ایران) V.1. Editor: Hamid
Yazdan Parast (حمید یزدان پرست). ISBN 964-423-572-X
Perry-Castañeda Library collection under DS 266 N336 2005.
Tehran University Press, p.8457
Fisher, William Bayne; Avery, P.; Hambly, G. R. G; Melville, C.
(1991). The Cambridge History of Iran. 7. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0521200954.
Foltz, Richard (2015).
Iran in World History. New York: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 9780199335497.
Marcinkowski, Christoph (2010). Shi'ite Identities: Community and
Culture in Changing Social Contexts. Berlin: Lit Verlag 2010. ISBN
Kura-Araxes culture (3400–2000 BC)
Proto-Elamite civilization (3200–2800 BC)
Elamite dynasties (2800–550 BC)
Empire (c.2334 BC–c.2154 BC)
Kassites (c.1500–c.1155 BC)
Kingdom of Mannai (10th–7th century BC)
Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–609 BC)
Urartu (860 BC–590 BC)
Empire (728–550 BC)
(Scythian Kingdom) (652–625 BC)
Empire (626–539 BC)
550 BC – 224 AD
Achaemenid Empire (550–330 AD)
Armenia (331 BC–428 AD)
Atropatene (320s BC–3rd century AD)
Kingdom of Cappadocia
Kingdom of Cappadocia (320s BC–17 AD)
Seleucid Empire (330 BC–150 AD)
Kingdom of Pontus
Kingdom of Pontus (281 BC–62 AD)
Parthian Empire (248 BC – 224 AD)
Sasanian Empire (224–651 AD)
637 – 1055
Patriarchal Caliphate (637–651)
Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)
Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
Tahirid dynasty (821–873)
Alavid dynasty (864–928)
Saffarid dynasty (861–1003)
Samanid dynasty (819–999)
Ziyarid dynasty (928–1043)
Buyid dynasty (934–1062)
Ghurid dynasty (1011–1215)
Seljuk Empire (1037–1194)
Khwarazmian dynasty (1077–1231)
Kurt dynasty (1231–1389)
Muzaffarid dynasty (1314–1393)
Chobanid dynasty (1337–1357)
Jalairid Sultanate dynasty (1339–1432)
Timurid Empire (1370–1507)
Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans (1375–1468)
Ag Qoyunlu Turcomans (1378–1508)
Empire (1501 – 1722 / 1736)
Afsharid dynasty (1736–50)
Zand Dynasty (1750–94)
Qajar Dynasty (1794–1925)
Khanates of the
Caucasus (18th century–20th century)
Pahlavi dynasty (1925–1979)
Iran Constituent Assembly, 1949
1953 coup d'état
Iranian Revolution (1979)
Arab separatism in Khuzestan
Embassy siege (1980)
Iraq War (1980–88)
Iranian pilgrim massacre (1987)
Iran Air Flight 655 shootdown (1988)
Syrian Civil War
Military intervention against ISIL
Iranic peoples (languages)
Kings of Persia
Heads of state
History of democracy
List of years in Iran
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests
Constitution (Persian Constitutional Revolution)
Elections (2009 presidential
Human rights (LGBT)
Ministry of Intelligence and National Security
Nuclear program (UN Security Council Resolution 1747)
Terrorism (state-sponsorship allegations)
White Revolution (1963)
Women's rights movement
Assembly (or Council) of Experts
Expediency Discernment Council
City and Village Councils
Islamic Consultative Assembly
Islamic Consultative Assembly (parliament)
Supreme National Security Council
Bonyad (charitable trust)
Companies (Automotive industry)
Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)
Economic Reform Plan
Foreign direct investment
International oil bourse
Iran and the World Trade Organization
Main economic laws
Economy of the Middle East
Milad Tower and complex
Military equipment manufactured
Nuclear program (UN Security Council Resolution 1747)
Supreme Audit Court
Tehran Stock Exchange
Venture capital (Technology start-ups)
Banking and insurance (Banks (Central Bank)
Health care (Pharmaceuticals)
Petroleum (Anglo-Persian Oil Company)
Telecommunications and IT (TCI)
Defense Industries Organization
Defense Industries Organization (DIO)
Industrial Development and Renovation Organization (IDRO)
Iran Aviation Industries Organization (IAIO)
Iran Electronics Industries (IEI)
National Iranian Oil Company
National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC)
National Development Fund
Asaluyeh industrial corridor
Chabahar Free Trade-Industrial Zone
Kish Island Free Trade Zone
Iranian citizens (abroad)
scientists and scholars
Water supply and sanitation
Art (modern / contemporary)
Calendars (Persian New Year (Nowruz))
Chicago Persian antiquities dispute
Media (news agencies (student)
National symbols (Imperial Anthem)
Rap and hip-hop
Rock and alternative
Science and technology
East Slavic peoples
Papua New Guinea
Border changes · Partitionism ·