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GREATER IRAN (Persian : ایران بزرگ‎‎, _Irān-e Bozorg_), also referred to as GREATER PERSIA (سرزمین پارس, _Sarzamin-e Pārs_), is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus
Caucasus
, West Asia , Central Asia
Central Asia
, and parts of South Asia
South Asia
that has significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various Iranian (Persian) empires (such as those of the Medes , Achaemenids , Parthians
Parthians
, Sassanians , Samanids , Safavids , and Afsharids and the Qajar
Qajar
Empire
Empire
), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various Empires based in Persia
Persia
(e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia , Bahrain
Bahrain
and China
China
). It roughly corresponds to the territory on the Iranian plateau and its bordering plains . The Encyclopædia Iranica uses the term _Iranian Cultural Continent_ for this region.

The term Iran
Iran
is not limited to the modern state of Iran
Iran
(Persia), but includes all the territory ruled by the Iranians, including Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
, Eastern Anatolia, all of the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia
Central Asia
. The concept of Greater Iran
Iran
has its source in the history of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
in Persis (Pars ), and overlaps to a certain extent with the history of Iran
Iran
.

In recent centuries, Iran
Iran
lost many of the territories conquered under the Safavid
Safavid
and Qajar
Qajar
dynasties, including Iraq
Iraq
to the Ottomans (via Treaty of Amasya in 1555 and Treaty of Zuhab in 1639), western Afghanistan to the British (via Treaty of Paris in 1857 and MacMahon Arbitration in 1905 ), and all its Caucasus
Caucasus
territories to Russia during the Russo-Persian Wars in the course of the 19th century. The Treaty of Gulistan in 1813 resulted in Iran
Iran
ceding Dagestan
Dagestan
, Georgia , and most of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
to Russia
Russia
. The Turkmanchey Treaty of 1828 decisively ended centuries of Iranian control of its Caucasian provinces , and made Iran
Iran
cede what is present-day Armenia
Armenia
, the remainder of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Igdir (eastern Turkey), and set the modern boundary along the Aras River
Aras River
.

In 1935, the endonym _ Iran
Iran
_ was adopted as the official international name of Persia
Persia
by its ruler Reza Shah
Reza Shah
. However, in 1959, the government of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi , Reza Shah Pahlavi's son, announced that both "Persia" and "Iran" could officially be used interchangeably.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Definition * 3 In Persian literature * 4 Background

* 5 Provinces and regions

* 5.1 Middle East

* 5.1.1 Bahrain
Bahrain
* 5.1.2 Iraq
Iraq

* 5.2 Kurdistan
Kurdistan

* 5.3 Caucasus
Caucasus

* 5.3.1 North Caucasus
Caucasus
* 5.3.2 South Caucasus
Caucasus

* 5.4 Central Asia
Central Asia

* 5.4.1 Tajikistan
Tajikistan
* 5.4.2 Turkmenistan * 5.4.3 Uzbekistan * 5.4.4 Xinjiang
Xinjiang

* 5.5 South Asia
South Asia

* 5.5.1 Afghanistan * 5.5.2 Pakistan

* 6 Historical and modern maps of Iran
Iran
* 7 Treaties * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Sources * 11 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The name “Irān“, meaning “land of the Aryans ”, is the New Persian continuation of the old genitive plural _aryānām_ (proto-Iranian, meaning "of the Aryans"), first attested in the Avesta as _airyānąm_ (the text of which is composed in Avestan , an old Iranian language spoken in northeastern Greater Iran, or in what are now Turkmenistan and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
). The proto-Iranian term _aryānām_ is present in the term _Airyana Vaēǰah _, the homeland of Zoroaster
Zoroaster
and Zoroastrianism , near the provinces of Sogdiana
Sogdiana
, Margiana , Bactria
Bactria
, etc., listed in the first chapter of the Vidēvdād . The Avestan evidence is confirmed by Greek sources: Arianē is spoken of as being between Persia
Persia
and the Indian subcontinent . However, this is a Greek pronunciation of the name Haroyum/Haraiva ( Herat
Herat
), which the Greeks
Greeks
called 'Aria'. A land listed separately from the homeland of the Aryans.

While up until the end of the Parthian period in the 3rd century CE, the idea of “Irān“ had an ethnic, linguistic, and religious value, it did not yet have a political import. The idea of an “Iranian“ empire or kingdom in a political sense is a purely Sasanian
Sasanian
one. It was the result of a convergence of interests between the new dynasty and the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
clergy, as we can deduce from the available evidence. This convergence gave rise to the idea of an Ērān-šahr “Kingdom of the Iranians,” which was “ēr“ ( Middle Persian
Middle Persian
equivalent of Old Persian “ariya“ and Avestan “airya“).

DEFINITION

Richard Nelson Frye defines Greater Iran
Iran
as including "much of the Caucasus, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Central Asia, with cultural influences extending to China
China
and western India." According to Frye, " Iran
Iran
means all lands and peoples where Iranian languages were and are spoken, and where in the past, multi-faceted Iranian cultures existed."

Richard Foltz notes that while "A general assumption is often made that the various Iranian peoples of 'greater Iran'—a cultural area that stretched from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and the Caucasus
Caucasus
into Khwarizm , Transoxiana , Bactria, and the Pamirs
Pamirs
and included Persians, Medes, Parthians
Parthians
and Sogdians among others—were all 'Zoroastrians' in pre-Islamic times... This view, even though common among serious scholars, is almost certainly overstated." Foltz argues that "While the various Iranian peoples did indeed share a common pantheon and pool of religious myths and symbols, in actuality a variety of deities were worshipped—particularly Mitra
Mitra
, the god of covenants, and Anahita
Anahita
, the goddess of the waters, but also many others—depending on the time, place, and particular group concerned". To the Ancient Greeks, Greater Iran
Iran
ended at the Indus.

According to J. P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams most of Western _greater Iran_ spoke Southwestern Iranian languages in the Achaemenid era while the Eastern territory spoke Eastern Iranian languages related to Avestan.

George Lane also states that after the dissolution of the Mongol Empire
Empire
, the Ilkhanids became rulers of greater Iran
Iran
and Uljaytu , according to Judith G. Kolbas, was the ruler of this expanse between 1304–1317 A.D.

Primary sources, including Timurid historian Mir Khwand, define Iranshahr (Greater Iran) as extending from the Euphrates to the Oxus

Traditionally, and until recent times, ethnicity has never been a defining separating criterion in these regions. In the words of Richard Nelson Frye:

“ Many times I have emphasized that the present peoples of Central Asia, whether Iranian or Turkic speaking, have one culture, one religion, one set of social values and traditions with only language separating them. ”

Only in modern times did western colonial intervention and ethnicity tend to become a dividing force between the provinces of Greater Iran. As Patrick Clawson states, "ethnic nationalism is largely a nineteenth century phenomenon, even if it is fashionable to retroactively extend it." "Greater Iran" however has been more of a cultural super-state, rather than a political one to begin with.

In the work _Nuzhat al-Qolub_ (نزهه القلوب), the medieval geographer Hamdallah Mustawfi wrote:

چند شهر است اندر ایران مرتفع تر از همه _Some cities in Iran
Iran
are above the rest,_ بهتر و سازنده تر از خوشی آب و هوا _better and more productive due to good weather,_ گنجه پر گنج در اران صفاهان در عراق _Ganja full of treasure in Arran , and Esfahān in Iraq
Iraq
,_ در خراسان مرو و طوس در روم باشد اقسرا _ Merv
Merv
and Tus in Khorasan , and Konya
Konya
(Aqsara) in Rome (Anatolia)._

The _Cambridge History of Iran_ takes a geographical approach in referring to the "historical and cultural" entity of "Greater Iran" as "areas of Iran, parts of Afghanistan, and Chinese and Soviet Central Asia". A detailed list of these territories follows in this article.

IN PERSIAN LITERATURE

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BACKGROUND

Greater Iran
Iran
is called _Iranzamin_ (ایرانزمین) which means "The Land of Iran". _Iranzamin_ was in the mythical times opposed to the _Turanzamin_ the Land of Turan
Turan
, which was located in the upper part of Central Asia.

In the pre-Islamic period, Iranians distinguished two main regions in the territory they ruled, one Iran
Iran
and the other _Aniran_. By Iran they meant all the regions inhabited by ancient Iranian peoples , this region was more extensive in the past. This notion of _Iran_ as a territory (opposed to _Aniran_) can be seen as the core of early Greater Iran. Later many changes occurred in the boundaries and areas where Iranians lived but the languages and culture remained the dominant medium in many parts of the Greater Iran.

As an example, the Persian language (referred to, in Persian, as _Farsi_) was the main literary language and the language of correspondence in Central Asia
Central Asia
and Caucasus
Caucasus
prior to the Russian occupation, Central Asia
Central Asia
being the birthplace of modern Persian language. Furthermore, according to the British government, Persian language was also used in Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan
, prior to the British Occupation and Mandate in 1918-1932.

With Imperial Russia continuously advancing south in the course of two wars against Persia, and the treaties of Turkmenchay and Gulistan in the western frontiers, plus the unexpected death of Abbas Mirza in 1823, and the murdering of Persia's Grand Vizier
Vizier
(Mirza AbolQasem Qa'im Maqām), many Central Asian khanates began losing hope for any support from Persia
Persia
against the Tsarist armies. The Russian armies occupied the Aral coast in 1849, Tashkent in 1864, Bukhara
Bukhara
in 1867, Samarkand
Samarkand
in 1868, and Khiva
Khiva
and Amudarya in 1873. _"Many Iranians consider their natural sphere of influence to extend beyond Iran's present borders. After all, Iran
Iran
was once much larger. Portuguese forces seized islands and ports in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the 19th century, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
wrested from Tehran
Tehran
's control what is today Armenia, Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, and part of Georgia. Iranian elementary school texts teach about the Iranian roots not only of cities like Baku
Baku
, but also cities further north like Derbent
Derbent
in southern Russia. The Shah
Shah
lost much of his claim to western Afghanistan following the Anglo-Iranian war of 1856-1857. Only in 1970 did a UN sponsored consultation end Iranian claims to suzerainty over the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
island nation of Bahrain
Bahrain
. In centuries past, Iranian rule once stretched westward into modern Iraq
Iraq
and beyond. When the western world complains of Iranian interference beyond its borders, the Iranian government often convinced itself that it is merely exerting its influence in lands that were once its own. Simultaneously, Iran's losses at the hands of outside powers have contributed to a sense of grievance that continues to the present day."_ - Patrick Clawson of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy _" Iran
Iran
today is just a rump of what it once was. At its height, Iranian rulers controlled Iraq, Afghanistan, Western Pakistan, much of Central Asia, and the Caucasus. Many Iranians today consider these areas part of a greater Iranian sphere of influence."_ -Patrick Clawson _"Since the days of the Achaemenids , the Iranians had the protection of geography. But high mountains and vast emptiness of the Iranian plateau were no longer enough to shield Iran
Iran
from the Russian army or British navy. Both literally, and figuratively, Iran
Iran
shrank. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Afghanistan were Iranian, but by the end of the century, all this territory had been lost as a result of European military action."_

PROVINCES AND REGIONS

In the 8th century, Iran
Iran
was conquered by the Abbassids who ruled from Baghdad
Baghdad
, and the territory of Iran
Iran
at that time was known to be composed of two portions: _ Persian Iraq _ (western portion) and _Khorasan_ (eastern portion). The dividing region was mostly along with Gurgan and Damaghan cities. Especially the Ghaznavids , Seljuqs and Timurids divided their Empire
Empire
to Iraqi and Khorasani regions. This point can be observed in many books such as _"Tārīkhi Baïhaqī"_ of Abul Fazl Bayhqi , _Faza'ilul al-anam min rasa'ili hujjat al-Islam_ (a collection of letters of Al-Ghazali ) and other books. Transoxiana and Chorasmia were mostly included in the Khorasanian region.

MIDDLE EAST

Bahrain

See also: Persians in Bahrain
Bahrain
, Huwala , and Ajam
Ajam
of Bahrain
Bahrain

The "Ajam" and "Huwala" are ethnic communities of Bahrain
Bahrain
of Persian origin. The Persians of Bahrain
Bahrain
are a significant and influential ethnic community whose ancestors arrived in Bahrain
Bahrain
within the last 1,000 years as laborers, merchants and artisans. They have traditionally been merchants living in specific quarters of Manama and Muharraq
Muharraq
. Bahrain's Persians who adhere to the Shia sect of Islam are Ajam
Ajam
and the Persians who adhere to the Sunni
Sunni
sect are called Huwala , who migrated from Larestan in Iran
Iran
to the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
in the seventeenth and eighteenth century.

The immigration of Persians to Bahrain
Bahrain
began when the Greek Seleucid kingdom which was ruling Bahrain
Bahrain
at the time fell and the Persian Empire
Empire
successfully invaded Bahrain, but it is often believed that mass immigration started during the 1600s when Abbas I of Persia invaded Bahrain. After settling in Bahrain, some of the Persians were effectively Arabized. They usually settled in areas inhabited by the indigenous Baharna , probably because they share the same Shia Muslim faith, however, some Sunni
Sunni
Persians settled in areas mostly inhabited by Sunni
Sunni
Arab immigrants such as Hidd and Galali . In Muharraq
Muharraq
, they have their own neighborhood called Fareej Karimi named after a rich Persian man called Ali Abdulla Karimi.

From the 6th century BC to the 3rd century BC, Bahrain
Bahrain
was a prominent part of the Persian Empire
Empire
by the Achaemenids , an Iranian dynasty . Bahrain
Bahrain
was referred to by the Greeks
Greeks
as " Tylos ", the centre of pearl trading, when Nearchus discovered it while serving under Alexander the Great . From the 3rd century BC to the arrival of Islam in the 7th century AD, Bahrain
Bahrain
was controlled by two other Iranian dynasties, the Parthians
Parthians
and the Sassanids .

In the 3rd century AD, the Sassanids succeeded the Parthians
Parthians
and controlled the area for four centuries until the arrival of Islam. Ardashir , the first ruler of the Iranian Sassanid dynasty marched to Oman and Bahrain
Bahrain
and defeated Sanatruq (or Satiran ), probably the Parthian governor of Bahrain. He appointed his son Shapur I as governor of Bahrain. Shapur constructed a new city there and named it Batan Ardashir after his father. At this time, Bahrain
Bahrain
incorporated the southern Sassanid province covering the Persian Gulf's southern shore plus the archipelago of Bahrain. The southern province of the Sassanids was subdivided into three districts; Haggar (now al-Hafuf province, Saudi Arabia), Batan Ardashir (now al-Qatif province, Saudi Arabia), and Mishmahig (now Bahrain
Bahrain
Island) (In Middle-Persian /Pahlavi it means "ewe-fish").

By about 130 BC, the Parthian dynasty brought the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
under their control and extended their influence as far as Oman. Because they needed to control the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
trade route, the Parthians established garrisons along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf. through warfare and economic distress, been reduced to only 60. The influence of Iran
Iran
was further undermined at the end of the 18th century when the ideological power struggle between the Akhbari-Usuli strands culminated in victory for the Usulis in Bahrain.

An Afghan uprising lead by Hotakis of Kandahar at the beginning of the 18th century resulted in the near collapse of the Safavid
Safavid
state. In the resultant power vacuum, Oman invaded Bahrain
Bahrain
in 1717 , ending over one hundred years of Persian hegemony in Bahrain. The Omani invasion began a period of political instability and a quick succession of outside rulers took power with consequent destruction. According to a contemporary account by theologian, Sheikh Yusuf Al Bahrani, in an unsuccessful attempt by the Persians and their Bedouin allies to take back Bahrain
Bahrain
from the Kharijite
Kharijite
Omanis, much of the country was burnt to the ground. Bahrain
Bahrain
was eventually sold back to the Persians by the Omanis, but the weakness of the Safavid
Safavid
empire saw Huwala tribes seize control.

In 1730, the new Shah
Shah
of Persia
Persia
, Nadir Shah
Shah
, sought to re-assert Persian sovereignty in Bahrain. He ordered Latif Khan, the admiral of the Persian navy in the Persian Gulf, to prepare an invasion fleet in Bushehr
Bushehr
. The Persians invaded in March or early April 1736 when the ruler of Bahrain, Shaikh Jubayr, was away on hajj . The invasion brought the island back under central rule and to challenge Oman in the Persian Gulf. He sought help from the British and Dutch, and he eventually recaptured Bahrain
Bahrain
in 1736. During the Qajar
Qajar
era, Persian control over Bahrain
Bahrain
waned and in 1753, Bahrain
Bahrain
was occupied by the Sunni
Sunni
Persians of the Bushire
Bushire
-based Al Madhkur family, who ruled Bahrain
Bahrain
in the name of Persia
Persia
and paid allegiance to Karim Khan Zand .

During most of the second half of the eighteenth century, Bahrain
Bahrain
was ruled by Nasr Al-Madhkur , the ruler of Bushehr
Bushehr
. The Bani Utibah tribe from Zubarah exceeded in taking over Bahrain
Bahrain
after a war broke out in 1782. Persian attempts to reconquer the island in 1783 and in 1785 failed; the 1783 expedition was a joint Persian- Qawasim invasion force that never left Bushehr. The 1785 invasion fleet, composed of forces from Bushehr, Rig and Shiraz
Shiraz
was called off after the death of the ruler of Shiraz, Ali Murad Khan . Due to internal difficulties, the Persians could not attempt another invasion. In 1799, Bahrain came under threat from the expansionist policies of Sayyid Sultan , the Sultan of Oman , when he invaded the island under the pretext that Bahrain
Bahrain
did not pay taxes owed. The Bani Utbah solicited the aid of Bushire
Bushire
to expel the Omanis on the condition that Bahrain
Bahrain
would become a tributary state of Persia. In 1800, Sayyid Sultan invaded Bahrain again in retaliation and deployed a garrison at Arad Fort , in Muharraq
Muharraq
island and had appointed his twelve-year-old son Salim, as Governor of the island.

Many names of villages in Bahrain
Bahrain
are derived from the Persian language. These names were thought to have been as a result influences during the Safavid
Safavid
rule of Bahrain
Bahrain
(1501–1722) and previous Persian rule. Village names such as Karbabad , Salmabad , Karzakan , Duraz , Barbar were originally derived from the Persian language, suggesting that Persians had a substantial effect on the island's history. The local Bahrani Arabic dialect has also borrowed many words from the Persian language. Bahrain's capital city, Manama is derived from two Persian words meaning 'I' and 'speech'.

In 1910, the Persian community funded and opened a private school , Al-Ittihad school, that taught Farsi
Farsi
amongst other subjects. According to the 1905 census, there were 1650 Bahraini citizens of Persian origin.

Historian Nasser Hussain says that many Iranians fled their native country in the early 20th century due to a law king Reza Shah
Reza Shah
issued which banned women from wearing the hijab , or because they feared for their lives after fighting the English, or to find jobs. They were coming to Bahrain
Bahrain
from Bushehr
Bushehr
and the Fars province between 1920 and 1940. In the 1920s, local Persian merchants were prominently involved in the consolidation of Bahrain's first powerful lobby with connections to the municipality in effort to contest the municipal legislation of British control.

Bahrain's local Persian community have heavily influenced the country's local food dishes. One of the most notable local delicacies of the people in Bahrain
Bahrain
is mahyawa , consumed in Southern Iran
Iran
as well, is a watery earth brick coloured sauce made from sardines and consumed with bread or other food. Bahrain's Persians are also famous in Bahrain
Bahrain
for bread-making. Another local delicacy is "pishoo" made from rose water (golab) and agar agar. Other food items consumed are similar to Persian cuisine
Persian cuisine
.

Iraq

See also: Iran–Iraq relations , Persians in Iraq , and Asuristan
Asuristan

Throughout history, Iran
Iran
always had strong cultural ties with the region of nowadays Iraq
Iraq
. Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
is considered as the cradle of civilization and the place where the first empires in history were established. These empires, namely the Sumerian , Akkadian
Akkadian
, Babylonian , and Assyrian , dominated the ancient middle east for millennia, which explains the great influence of the Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
on the Iranian culture and history, and it is also the reason why the later Iranian and Greek dynasties chose Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
to be the political centre of their rule. For a period of around 500 years, what is now Iraq
Iraq
formed the core of Iran, with the Iranian Parthian and Sasanian
Sasanian
empire having their capital in what is modern-day Iraq
Iraq
for the same centuries long time span. ( Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
)

“ Of the four residences of the Achaemenids named by Herodotus
Herodotus
Ecbatana , Pasargadae or Persepolis
Persepolis
, Susa
Susa
and Babylon
Babylon
— the last was maintained as their most important capital, the fixed winter quarters, the central office of bureaucracy, exchanged only in the heat of summer for some cool spot in the highlands.

Under the Seleucids and the Parthians
Parthians
the site of the Mesopotamian capital moved a little to the north on the Tigris
Tigris
— to Seleucia
Seleucia
and Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
. It is indeed symbolic that these new foundations were built from the bricks of ancient Babylon
Babylon
, just as later Baghdad
Baghdad
, a little further upstream, was built out of the ruins of the Sassanian double city of Seleucia- Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
. ”

— Iranologist Ehsan Yarshater
Ehsan Yarshater
, The Cambridge History of Iran,

The Cyrus Cylinder
Cyrus Cylinder
, written in Babylonian cuneiform in the name of the Achaemenid king, Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
, describes the Persian takeover of Babylon
Babylon
(the ancient name of Iraq).

Because the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
or "First Persian Empire" was the successor state to the empires of Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia
Babylonia
based in Iraq, and because Elam
Elam
is part of Iran, the ancient people of Iran
Iran
were ruled by ancient Mesopotamians, which explains the close proximity between the people of south western Iran
Iran
and the Iraqis even in modern days, in fact, the people of that part of Iran
Iran
speak Mesopotamian Arabic and were put under the rule of modern Iran
Iran
by the British. The ancient Persians adopted the Babylonian cuneiform script and modified it to write their language , along with adopting many other facets of ancient Iraqi culture, including the Aramaic language which became the official language of the Persian Empire.

The Cyrus Cylinder
Cyrus Cylinder
, written in Babylonian cuneiform in the name of the Achaemenid king Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
, describes the Persian takeover of Babylon
Babylon
(the ancient name of Iraq). An excerpt reads:

“ When I entered Babylon
Babylon
in a peaceful manner, I took up my lordly abode in the royal palace amidst rejoicing and happiness. Marduk , the great lord, established as his fate for me a magnanimous heart of one who loves Babylon, and I daily attended to his worship. My vast army marched into Babylon
Babylon
in peace; I did not permit anyone to frighten the people of Sumer
Sumer
and Akkad . I sought the welfare of the city of Babylon
Babylon
and all its sacred centers. As for the citizens of Babylon, upon whom Nabonidus
Nabonidus
imposed a corvée which was not the gods' wish and not befitting them, I relieved their wariness and freed them from their service. Marduk, the great lord, rejoiced over my good deeds. He sent gracious blessing upon me, Cyrus , the king who worships him, and upon Cambyses , the son who is my offspring, and upon all my army, and in peace, before him, we moved around in friendship . ”

An 1814 map of Persia
Persia
at time of Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty

According to Iranologist Richard N. Frye :

“ Throughout Iran’s history the western part of the land has been frequently more closely connected with the lowlands of Mesopotamia (Iraq) than with the rest of the plateau to the east of the central deserts . ”

“ Between the coming of the Abbasids and the Mongol onslaught , Iraq and western Iran
Iran
shared a closer history than did eastern Iran
Iran
and its western counterpart. ”

Testimony to the close relationship shared by Iraq
Iraq
and western Iran during the Abbasid era and later centuries, is the fact that the two regions came to share the same name. The western region of Iran (ancient Media) was called \'Irāq-e \'Ajamī ("Persian Iraq"), while central-southern Iraq
Iraq
(Babylonia) was called 'Irāq al-'Arabī ("Arabic Iraq") or Bābil ("Babylon"). And the name Iraq
Iraq
comes from the ancient Mesopotamian city Uruk, which suggests an even older relationship.

For centuries the two neighbouring regions were known as "The Two Iraqs " ("al-'Iraqain"). The 12th century Persian poet Khāqāni wrote a famous poem _Tohfat-ul Iraqein_ ("The Gift of the Two Iraqs"). The city of Arāk in western Iran
Iran
still bears the region's old name, and Iranians still traditionally call the region between Tehran
Tehran
, Isfahan and Īlām "ʿErāq".

During medieval ages, Mesopotamian and Iranian peoples knew each other's languages because of trade, and because Arabic was the language of religion and science at that time. The Timurid historian Ḥāfeẓ-e Abru (d. 1430) wrote of Iraq:

“ The majority of inhabitants of Iraq
Iraq
know Persian and Arabic , and from the time of domination of Turkic people the Turkish language has also found currency. ”

Iraqis share religious and certain cultural ties Iranians . The majority of Iranians are Twelver Shia (an Islamic sect established in Iraq), although the majority of Iranians were Sunni
Sunni
Muslims and did not convert to Shia until the Safavids forced Shi\'ism in Iran.

Iraqi culture has commonalities with the culture of Iran
Iran
. The spring festival of Nowruz
Nowruz
that is celebrated in Iran
Iran
and some parts of Iraq roots back to the Akitu spring festival (Babylonian new year). The Mesopotamian cuisine has also similarities to the Persian cuisine
Persian cuisine
and has common dishes and cooking techniques. The Iraqi dialect has absorbed many words from the Persian language as well.

There are still cities and provinces in Iraq
Iraq
where the Persian names of the city are still retained. e.g. ’Anbār and Baghdad
Baghdad
. Other cities of Iraq
Iraq
with originally Persian names include _Nokard_ (نوكرد) --> Haditha , _Suristan_ (سورستان) --> Kufa , _Shahrban_ (شهربان) --> Muqdadiyah , _Arvandrud_ (اروندرود) --> Shatt al-Arab , and _Asheb_ (آشب) --> Amadiya , _Peroz-Shapur_ --> Anbar (town)

In the modern era, the Safavid dynasty of Iran
Iran
briefly reasserted their hegemony over Iraq
Iraq
in the periods of 1501–1533 and 1622–1638 , losing Iraq
Iraq
to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
on both occasions (via the Treaty of Amasya in 1555 and the Treaty of Zuhab in 1639). Ottoman hegemony over Iraq
Iraq
was reconfirmed in the Treaty of Kerden in 1746.

Following the fall of the Ba'athist regime in 2003 and the empowerment of Iraq's majority Shī'i community, relations with Iran have flourished in all fields. Iraq
Iraq
is today Iran’s largest trading partner in regard to non-oil goods.

Many Iranians were born in Iraq
Iraq
or have ancestors from Iraq, such as the Chairman of Iran\'s Parliament Ali Larijani , the former Chief Justice of Iran
Iran
Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi , and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran
Iran
Ali Akbar Salehi , who were born in Najaf and Karbala
Karbala
respectively. In the same way, many Iraqis were born in Iran or have ancestors from Iran, such as Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani , who was born in Mashhad .

Nevertheless, most (if not all) of Iraqi do not have a sense of belonging to such an entity, and there was never a political or social movement in modern Iraq
Iraq
calling for unity between the Iraqi and the Iranian peoples. However, Arab Nationalism was very popular during the 50s and the 60s, in addition to Iraqi Nationalism which has also been popular in the last century and even sometimes in parallel with Arab Nationalism. Pros of Iraqi Nationalism see modern Iraqis as the descendent of the ancient and medieval Mesopotamian civilizations.

KURDISTAN

Culturally and historically Kurdistan
Kurdistan
has been a part of what is known as Greater Iran. Kurds speak a Northwestern Iranian language known as Kurdish . Many aspects of Kurdish culture are related to the other peoples of Greater Iran, examples include Newroz and Simurgh . Some historians and linguists, such as Vladimir Minorsky , have suggested that the Medes , an Iranian people who inhabited much of western Iran, including Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Kurdistan, might have been forefathers of modern Kurds.

CAUCASUS

North Caucasus

Sassanian
Sassanian
fortress in Derbent
Derbent
, Dagestan. Now inscribed on Russia's UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage list since 2003. See also: History of Dagestan
Dagestan
, History of Kabardino-Balkaria , Russo-Persian Wars , Treaty of Gulistan , Treaty of Turkmenchay , and Tat people (Caucasus)

North Caucasus
Caucasus
region in today's southern Russia
Russia
including the republics of Dagestan
Dagestan
, Chechnya , Ingushetia , North Ossetia
North Ossetia
, Kabardino-Balkaria and other republics and oblasts of the region long formed part of Persia, most notably under the Safavids and Afsharids , and of the Iranian cultural sphere until they were conquered and annexed by Imperial Russia over the course of the 18th and 19th centuries . Strong Persian cultural influence can be traced up as far as Tatarstan in central Russia. Dagestan
Dagestan
remains the bastion of Persian culture in the North Caucasus
Caucasus
with fine examples of Iranian architecture like the Sassanid citadel in Derbent
Derbent
, strong influence of Persian cuisine
Persian cuisine
, and common Persian names amongst the ethnic peoples of Dagestan. The ethnic Persian population of the North Caucasus, the Tats , remain, despite strong assimilation over the years, still visible in several North Caucasian cities. Even today, after decades of partition, some of these regions retain a sort of Iranian identity, as seen in their old beliefs, traditions and customs (e.g. Norouz ).

South Caucasus

See also: Azerbaijani people , History of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, Tat people (Iran) , Tat people (Caucasus) , Safavid
Safavid
conversion of Iran
Iran
to Shia Islam , Old Azeri language , Shirvan , Arran (Caucasus) , Shirvanshah , and Iranian Azerbaijanis

According to Tadeusz Swietochowski , the territories of Iran
Iran
and the republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
usually shared the same history from the time of ancient Media (ninth to seventh centuries b.c.) and the Persian Empire
Empire
(sixth to fourth centuries b.c.).

Intimately and inseparably intertwined histories for millennia, Iran irrevocably lost the territory that is nowadays Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in the course of the 19th century. With the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813 following the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) Iran
Iran
had to cede eastern Georgia , its possessions in the North Caucasus
Caucasus
and many of those in what is today the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Republic , which included Baku
Baku
Khanate , Shirvan Khanate , Karabakh Khanate
Karabakh Khanate
, Ganja Khanate , Shaki Khanate , Quba Khanate , and parts of the Talysh Khanate
Talysh Khanate
. Derbent
Derbent
(Darband) Khanate of Dagestan
Dagestan
was also lost to Russia. These Khanates comprise most of what is today the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Dagestan
Dagestan
in Southern Russia. By the Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828 following the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828) , the result was even more disastrous, and resulted in Iran
Iran
being forced to cede the Nakhichevan Khanate and the Mughan regions to Russia, as well as Erivan Khanate , and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. All these territories together, lost in 1813 and 1828 combined, constitute all of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, the Republic of Armenia
Armenia
, and southern Dagestan
Dagestan
. The area to the North of the river Aras , among which the territory of the contemporary republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia
Russia
in the course of the 19th century.

Many localities in this region bear Persian names or names derived from Iranian languages and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
remains by far Iran's closest cultural, religious, ethnic and historical neighbor. Azerbaijanis are by far the second largest ethnicity in Iran, and comprise the largest community of ethnic Azerbaijanis in the world, vastly outnumbering the number in the Republic of Azerbaijan. Both nations are the only officially Shia majority in the world, with adherents of the religion comprising an absolute majority in both nations. The people of nowadays Iran
Iran
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
were converted to Shiism during exactly the same time in history. Furthermore, the name of "Azerbaijan" is derived through the name of the Persian satrap which ruled the contemporary region of Iranian Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and minor parts of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in ancient times. In 1918, the Azerbaijani Musavat party adopted the name for the nation upon the independence of the former territories under the Russian Empire.

Early in antiquity, Narseh of Persia
Persia
is known to have had fortifications built here. In later times, some of Persia's literary and intellectual figures from the Qajar
Qajar
period have hailed from this region. Under intermittent Iranian suzerainty since antiquity, it was also separated from Iran
Iran
in the mid-19th century, by virtue of the Gulistan Treaty and Turkmenchay Treaty.

که تا جایگه یافتی نخچوان Oh Nakhchivan , respect you've attained, بدین شاه شد بخت پیرت جوان With this King in luck you'll remain. _---Nizami _

CENTRAL ASIA

Painted clay and alabaster head of a Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
priest wearing a distinctive Bactrian -style headdress, Takhti-Sangin , Tajikistan
Tajikistan
, Greco-Bactrian kingdom , 3rd-2nd century BC

Khwarazm is one of the regions of _Iran-zameen_, and is the home of the ancient Iranians, Airyanem Vaejah , according to the ancient book of the Avesta . Modern scholars believe Khwarazm to be what ancient Avestic texts refer to as "Ariyaneh Waeje" or Iran
Iran
vij. _Iranovich_ These sources claim that Urgandj , which was the capital of ancient Khwarazm for many years, was actually "Ourva": the eighth land of Ahura Mazda mentioned in the Pahlavi text of Vendidad. Others such as University of Hawaii historian Elton L. Daniel believe Khwarazm to be the "most likely locale" corresponding to the original home of the Avestan people, while Dehkhoda calls Khwarazm "the cradle of the Aryan tribe" (مهد قوم آریا). Today Khwarazm is split between several central Asian republics.

Superimposed on and overlapping with Chorasmia was Khorasan which roughly covered nearly the same geographical areas in Central Asia (starting from Semnan eastward through northern Afghanistan roughly until the foothills of Pamir , ancient Mount Imeon ). Current day provinces such as Sanjan in Turkmenia , Razavi Khorasan Province , North Khorasan Province , and Southern Khorasan Province in Iran
Iran
are all remnants of the old Khorasan. Until the 13th century and the devastating Mongol invasion of the region, Khorasan was considered the cultural capital of Greater Iran.

Tajikistan

The national anthem in Tajikistan, " Surudi Milli ", attests to the Perso-Tajik identity, which has seen a large revival, after the breakup of the USSR
USSR
. Their language is almost identical to that spoken in Afghanistan and Iran, and their cities have Persian names, e.g. Dushanbe
Dushanbe
, Isfara
Isfara
, Rasht Valley , Garm , Murghab , Vahdat
Vahdat
, Zar-afshan river , Shurab , and Kulob (). It is also important to note that Rudaki
Rudaki
, considered by many as the father of modern Persian Language, was from the modern day region of Tajikistan.

Turkmenistan

Home of the Parthian Empire (Nysa ). Merv
Merv
is also where the half-Persian caliph al-Mamun moved his capital to. The city of Eshgh Abad (some claim that the word is actually the transformed form of "Ashk Abad" literally meaning "built by Ashk", the head of Arsacid dynasty) is yet another Persian word meaning "city of love", and like Iran, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan, it was once part of Airyanem Vaejah .

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan has a local Tajik population. The famous Persian cities of Afrasiab
Afrasiab
, Bukhara
Bukhara
, Samarkand, Shahrisabz
Shahrisabz
, Andijan , Khiveh , Navā\'i , Shirin
Shirin
, Termez , and Zar-afshan are located here. These cities are the birthplace of the Islamic era Persian literature. The Samanids , who claimed inheritance to the Sassanids, had their capital built here.

ای بخارا شاد باش و دیر زی Oh Bukhara! Joy to you and live long! شاه زی تو میهمان آید همی Your King comes to you in ceremony. _--- Rudaki
Rudaki
_

Xinjiang

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See also: Iran- China
China
relations and Tajiks in China
China

The Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County regions of China
China
harbored a Persian population and culture. Chinese Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County was always counted as a part of the Iranian cultural ">

SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan

Modern state of Afghanistan was part of Sistan and Greater Khorasan regions, and hence was recognized with the name Khorasan (along with regions centered on Merv
Merv
and Nishapur), which in Pahlavi means "The Eastern Land" (خاور زمین in Persian).

Nowadays region of Afghanistan is where Balkh is located, home of Rumi
Rumi
, Rabi\'a Balkhi , Sanāī Ghaznawi , Jami
Jami
, Khwaja Abdullah Ansari and where many other notables in Persian literature came from.

ز زابل به کابل رسید آن زمان From Zabul he arrived to Kabul
Kabul
گرازان و خندان و دل شادمان Strutting, happy, and mirthful _--- Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
in Shahnama
Shahnama
_

Pakistan

There is considerable influence of Iranian-speaking peoples in Pakistan. The region of Baluchistan is split between Pakistan and Iran and Baluchi, the majority languages of the Baluchistan province of Pakistan are also spoken in Southeastern Iran. In fact, the Chagai Hills and the western part of Makran district were part of Iran
Iran
till the Durand Line was drawn in the late 1800s. According to Arrian _Indica_, India ended at Malana (present-day Ras Malan in Baluchistan) and Persia
Persia
began.

Pashto which is spoken in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
and FATA of Pakistan and Afghanistan is an Iranian language.

HISTORICAL AND MODERN MAPS OF IRAN

*

Map depicting the Achaemenid Empire. *

1598 German map of the region. *

1610 map by Dutch map maker Jodocus Hondius showing Bactria
Bactria
and Georgia among the territories. *

1719 map depiction of Asia. *

1720 map by Herman Moll . *

1753 map by Robert de Vaugondy titled _Estats du Grand-Seigneur en Asie_ where the color yellow marks the territories of Persia. *

1808 British map of Persia. *

1814 map of Persia
Persia
by John Thomson . *

19th century British map depicting Persia
Persia

TREATIES

* 1555 Treaty of Amasya : The first treaty between Safavid
Safavid
Persia and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, splitting the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in a Turkish and Persian sphere. * 1639 Treaty of Zuhab : Iran
Iran
loses Iraq
Iraq
to the Ottoman Empire. * 1813 Gulestan Treaty : Iran
Iran
loses a large amount of its land in the Caucasus, including eastern Georgia, southern Dagestan
Dagestan
, and most of what is today the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Republic * 1828 Turkmenchay Treaty : Signed by Fath Ali Shah
Shah
. Russia
Russia
gains sovereignty over the entire Caucasus, including Iran's Nakhichivan , Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
, Armenia
Armenia
, and the remainder of the modern-day territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan * 1857 Paris Treaty : Signed by Nasereddin Shah
Shah
. Iran
Iran
renounces all claims to Herat
Herat
and parts of Afghanistan in exchange for the evacuation of Iran's southern ports by Great Britain. * 1881 Akhal Treaty : Signed by Nasereddin Shah
Shah
. Iran
Iran
loses Merv and parts of Khwarazmia in exchange for security guarantees from Russia. * 1893: Iran
Iran
transfers to Russia
Russia
additional regions near the Atrek River that were Iranian under the Akhal Treaty. This treaty was signed by General Boutsoff and _Mirza Ali Asghar Amin al-Sultan_ on May 27, 1893. * 1907: Persia
Persia
was to be carved up into three regions, according to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 . * 1970: Iran
Iran
abandons sovereignty rights over Bahrain
Bahrain
to Great Britain in exchange for Greater and Lesser Tunbs and Abu Musa
Abu Musa
islands in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
.

SEE ALSO

* Iran
Iran
portal * Zoroastrianism portal

* Median Empire
Empire
* Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
* Persianization * List of kings of Persia
Persia
* Culture of Iran * Culture of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Azerbaijani language * South Caucasus
Caucasus
* North Caucasus
Caucasus
* History of the Caucasus
Caucasus
* Iranian peoples * Iranian studies * Pan-Iranism

* History of the Kurdish people * Kurdish culture * Kurdish language * Old Azeri language * History of Turkey * Persianate society
Persianate society
* Turko-Persian tradition * Persia-Georgia relations * List of Persia-related topics * Yaz culture * -stan * Qanat water management system

REFERENCES

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Iran
in an historical context Persia
Persia
would be used for the modern state, more or less equivalent to "western Iran". I use the term "Greater Iran" to mean what I suspect most Classicists and ancient historians really mean by their use of Persia
Persia
- that which was within the political boundaries of States ruled by Iranians. * ^ Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary. Clive Holes. 2001. Page XXX. ISBN 90-04-10763-0 * ^ "Columbia College Today". _columbia.edu_. Retrieved 9 December 2015. * ^ Reitzenstein and Qumrân Revisited by an Iranian, Richard Nelson Frye, The Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 55, No. 4 (Oct., 1962), pp. 261-268 http://www.jstor.org/pss/1508723 * ^ International Journal of Middle East Studies (2007), 39: pp 307-309 Copyright © 2007 Cambridge University Press http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1009412 * ^ Erik Goldstein (1992). _Wars and peace treaties, 1816-1991_. Psychology Press. pp. 72–73. ISBN 9780203976821 . * ^ Sir Percy Molesworth Sykes (1915). _A history of Persia, Volume 2_. Macmillan and co. p. 469. * ^ Roxane Farmanfarmaian (2008). _War and peace in Qajar
Qajar
Persia: implications past and present_. Psychology Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780203938300 . * ^ India. Foreign and Political Dept. (1892). _A Collection of Treaties, Engagements, and Sunnuds, Relating to India and Neighbouring Countries: Persia
Persia
and the Persian Gulf_. G. A. Savielle and P. M. Cranenburgh, Bengal
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Print. Co. pp. x (10). * ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander (2015). _Historical Dictionary of Georgia_. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 348–349. ISBN 9781442241466 . Persia
Persia
lost all its territories to the north of the Aras River, which included all of Georgia, and parts of Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan. * ^ Olsen, James Stuart; Shadle, Robert (1991). _Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism_. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 314. ISBN 9780313262579 . In 1813 Iran
Iran
signed the Treaty of Gulistan, ceding Georgia to Russia. * ^ Fisher et al. 1991 , p. 329. * ^ Abbas Amanat (1997). _Pivot of the universe: Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar
Qajar
and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831-1896_. I.B.Tauris. p. 16. ISBN 9781860640971 . * ^ Kenneth M. Pollack (2005). _The Persian puzzle: the conflict between Iran
Iran
and America_. Random House, Inc. p. 38. ISBN 9780812973365 . * ^ Yarshater, Ehsan Persia
Persia
or Iran, Persian or Farsi, _Iranian Studies_, vol. XXII no. 1 (1989) * ^ William W. Malandra (2005-07-20). "ZOROASTRIANISM i. HISTORICAL REVIEW". Retrieved 2011-01-14. * ^ Nicholas Sims-Williams. "EASTERN IRANIAN LANGUAGES". Retrieved 2011-01-14. * ^ "IRAN". Retrieved 2011-01-14. * ^ K. Hoffmann. "AVESTAN LANGUAGE I-III". Retrieved 2011-01-14. * ^ "ĒRĀN-WĒZ". _iranicaonline.org_. Retrieved 9 December 2015. * ^ "ZOROASTER ii. GENERAL SURVEY". _iranicaonline.org_. Retrieved 9 December 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Ahmad Ashraf. "IRANIAN IDENTITY ii. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD". Retrieved 2011-01-14. * ^ Ed Eduljee. "Haroyu". _heritageinstitute.com_. Retrieved 9 December 2015. * ^ Ed Eduljee. " Aryan Homeland, Airyana Vaeja, Location. Aryans and Zoroastrianism.". _heritageinstitute.com_. Retrieved 9 December 2015. * ^ Ed Eduljee. " Aryan Homeland, Airyana Vaeja, in the Avesta. Aryan lands and Zoroastrianism.". _heritageinstitute.com_. Retrieved 9 December 2015. * ^ Frye, Richard Nelson , _Greater Iran_, ISBN 1-56859-177-2 p._xi_ * ^ Richard Foltz , "Religions of the Silk Road: Premodern Patterns of globalization", Palgrave Macmillan, rev. 2nd edition, 2010. pg 27 * ^ J.M. Cook, "The Rise of the Achaemenids and Establishment of Their Empire" in Ilya Gershevitch, William Bayne Fisher, J. A. Boyle "Cambridge History of Iran", Vol 2. pg 250. Excerpt: "To the Greeks, Greater Iran
Iran
ended at the Indus". * ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (1997), Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London and Chicago: Fitzroy-Dearborn, ISBN 1-884964-98-2 . pg 307: "Dialetically, Old Persian is regarded as a southwestern Iranian language in contrast to the east Iranian Avestan which covered most of the rest of Greater Iran. However, it is important to note that during the Achaemeid era, the official language of the empire was Aramaic
Aramaic
, which was the mother tongue of the ancient , since it was the language of literature, religion, and science at that time. language had a great impact on Persian and survived as the dominant language in the middle east until the . * ^ George Lane, "Daily life in the Mongol empire", Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. pg 10" The year following 1260 saw the empire irrevocably split but also signaled the emergence of the two greatest achievements of the house of Chinggis, namely the Yuan dynasty of greater China
China
and the Il-Khanid dynasty of greater Iran. * ^ Judith G. Kolbas, "The Mongols in Iran", Excerpt from 399: "Uljaytu, Ruler of Greater Iran
Iran
from 1304-1317 A.D." * ^ Mīr Khvānd, Muḥammad ibn Khāvandshāh, Tārīkh-i rawz̤at al-ṣafā. Taṣnīf Mīr Muḥammad ibn Sayyid Burhān al-Dīn Khāvand Shāh al-shahīr bi-Mīr Khvānd. Az rū-yi nusakh-i mutaʻaddadah-i muqābilah gardīdah va fihrist-i asāmī va aʻlām va qabāyil va kutub bā chāphā-yi digar mutamāyiz mībāshad. Markazī-i Khayyām Pīrūz . ایرانشهر از کنار فرات تا جیهون است و وسط آبادانی عالم است. Iranshahr stretches from the Euphrates to the Oxus, and it is the center of the prosperity of the World. * ^ Patrick Clawson . _Eternal Iran_. Palgrave Macmillan. 2005 ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.23 * ^ _The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. III: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian
Sasanian
Periods_, Ehsan Yarshater
Ehsan Yarshater
, Review author: Richard N. Frye , International Journal of Middle East Studies , Vol. 21, No. 3. (Aug., 1989), pp.415. Link: * ^ Dehkhoda Dictionary , Dehkhoda , see under entry "Turan" * ^ "The old www.cogsci.ed.ac.uk server". _ed.ac.uk_. Retrieved 9 December 2015. * ^ Homayoun, N. T. , _Kharazm: What do I know about Iran?_. 2004. ISBN 964-379-023-1 , p.78 * ^ Patrick Clawson . _Eternal Iran_. Palgrave. 2005. Coauthored with Michael Rubin . ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.9,10 * ^ Patrick Clawson . _Eternal Iran_. Palgrave. 2005. Coauthored with Michael Rubin . ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.30 * ^ Patrick Clawson . _Eternal Iran_. Palgrave. 2005. Coauthored with Michael Rubin . ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.31-32 * ^ _Life and Land Use on the Bahrain
Bahrain
Islands: The Geoarcheology of an Ancient ..._ by Curtis E. Larsen p. 13 * ^ _A_ _B_ _Bahrain_ by Federal Research Division, page 7 * ^ Robert G. Hoyland, _Arabia and the Arabs: From the Bronze Age to the Coming of Islam_, Routledge 2001p28 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _Security and Territoriality in the Persian Gulf: A Maritime Political Geography_ by Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh, page 119 * ^ _A_ _B_ Conflict and Cooperation: Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
Subalterns and Muslim Elites in ... By Jamsheed K. Choksy, 1997, page 75 * ^ Yoma 77a and Rosh Hashbanah, 23a * ^ Juan Cole, _Sacred Space and Holy War_, IB Tauris, 2007 p52 * ^ Are the Shia Rising? Maximilian Terhalle, _Middle East Policy_, Volume 14 Issue 2 Page 73, June 2007 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Bashir 1979 , p. 7. * ^ Autobiography of Sheikh Yusuf Al Bahrani published in _Interpreting the Self, Autobiography in the Arabic Literary Tradition_, Edited by Dwight F. Reynolds, University of California Press Berkeley 2001 * ^ The Autobiography of Yūsuf al-Bahrānī (1696–1772) from Lu'lu'at al-Baḥrayn, from the final chapter An Account of the Life of the Author and the Events That Have Befallen Him featured in _Interpreting the Self, Autobiography in the Arabic Literary Tradition_, Edited by Dwight F. Reynolds, University of California Press Berkeley 2001 p221 * ^ Charles Belgrave, The Pirate Coast, G. Bell & Sons, 1966 p19 * ^ Ahmad Mustafa Abu Hakim, _History of Eastern Arabia 1750–1800_, Khayat, 1960, p78 * ^ Bashir 1979 , p. 46. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bashir 1979 , p. 47. * ^ James Onley, The Politics of Protection in the Gulf: The Arab Rulers and the British Resident in the Nineteenth Century, Exeter University, 2004 p44 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Al-Tajer, Mahdi Abdulla (1982). _Language & Linguistic Origins In Bahrain_. Taylor & Francis. pp. 134, 135. ISBN 9780710300249 . * ^ Shirawi, May Al-Arrayed (1987). _Education in Bahrain
Bahrain
- 1919-1986, An Analytical Study of Problems and Progress_ (PDF). Durham University. p. 60. * ^ _A_ _B_ Fuccaro, Nelida (2009-09-03). _Histories of City and State in the Persian Gulf: Manama Since 1800_. p. 114. ISBN 9780521514354 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Yarshater, Ehsan (1993). _The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 3_. Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. p. 482. ISBN 978-0-521-20092-9 . Of the four residences of the Achaemenids named by Herodotus
Herodotus
Ecbatana , Pasargadae or Persepolis
Persepolis
, Susa
Susa
and Babylon — the last was maintained as their most important capital, the fixed winter quarters, the central office of bureaucracy, exchanged only in the heat of summer for some cool spot in the highlands. Under the Seleucids and the Parthians
Parthians
the site of the Mesopotamian capital moved a little to the north on the Tigris
Tigris
— to Seleucia
Seleucia
and Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
. It is indeed symbolic that these new foundations were built from the bricks of ancient Babylon
Babylon
, just as later Baghdad
Baghdad
, a little further upstream, was built out of the ruins of the Sassanian double city of Seleucia- Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
. * ^ Frye, Richard N. (1975). _The Golden Age of Persia: The Arabs in the East_. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-7538-0944-0 . throughout Iran’s history the western part of the land has been frequently more closely connected with the lowlands of Mesopotamia than with the rest of the plateau to the east of the central deserts. * ^ _A_ _B_ Yavari, Neguin (1997). _Iranian Perspectives on the Iran- Iraq
Iraq
War; Part II. Conceptual Dimensions; 7. National, Ethnic, and Sectarian Issues in the Iran- Iraq
Iraq
War_. University Press of Florida . p. 80. ISBN 978-0-8130-1476-0 . Between the coming of the 'Abbasids and the Mongol onslaught, Iraq
Iraq
and western Iran
Iran
shared a closer history than did eastern Iran
Iran
and its western counterpart. * ^ Morony, Michael G . "IRAQ AND ITS RELATIONS WITH IRAN". _IRAQ i. IN THE LATE SASANID AND EARLY ISLAMIC ERAS_. Encyclopædia Iranica . Retrieved 11 February 2012. Persian remained the language of most of the sedentary people as well as that of the chancery until the 15th century and thereafter, as attested by Ḥāfeẓ-e Abru (d. 1430) who said, “The majority of inhabitants of Iraq
Iraq
know Persian and Arabic, and from the time of domination of Turkic people the Turkish language has also found currency: as the city people and those engaged in trade and crafts are Persophone, the Bedouins are Arabophone, and the governing classes are Turkophone. But, all three peoples (qawms) know each other’s languages due to the mixture and amalgamation.” * ^ Csató, Éva Ágnes; Isaksson, Bo; Jahani, Carina (2005). _Linguistic Convergence and Areal Diffusion: Case Studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic_. Routledge . p. 177. ISBN 978-0-415-30804-5 . * ^ See: محمدی ملایری، محمد: فرهنگ ایران در دوران انتقال از عصر ساسانی به عصر اسلامی، جلد دوم: دل ایرانشهر، تهران، انتشارات توس 1375.: Mohammadi Malayeri, M.: Del-e Iranshahr, vol. II, Tehran
Tehran
1375 Hs. * ^ " Iraq
Iraq
plans to send 200-member trade delegation to Iran". _ Tehran
Tehran
Times _. 9 January 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Regional developments are leading to convergence of nations: Ahmadinejad". Mehr News Agency . 31 August 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2013. * ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/newsite/index.isc?Article=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/v9f5/v9f553c.html#v * ^ _ Encyclopædia Iranica _: Arvand-Rud, by M. Kasheff. – Retrieved on 18 October 2007. * ^ "Professor Vladimir Minorsky". _jstor.org_. Retrieved 9 December 2015. * ^ "Media". _Encyclopedia Britannica_. Retrieved 9 December 2015. * ^ _ Encyclopædia Iranica _: " Caucasus
Caucasus
Iran" article, p.84-96. * ^ Historical Background Vol. 3, Colliers Encyclopedia CD-ROM, 02-28-1996 * ^ Swietochowski, Tadeusz (1995). _ Russia
Russia
and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition_. Columbia University Press . pp. 69, 133. ISBN 978-0-231-07068-3 . * ^ L. Batalden, Sandra (1997). _The newly independent states of Eurasia: handbook of former Soviet republics_. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-89774-940-4 . * ^ E. Ebel, Robert, Menon, Rajan (2000). _Energy and conflict in Central Asia
Central Asia
and the Caucasus_. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-7425-0063-1 . * ^ Andreeva, Elena (2010). _ Russia
Russia
and Iran
Iran
in the great game: travelogues and orientalism_ (reprint ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-415-78153-4 . * ^ Çiçek, Kemal, Kuran, Ercüment (2000). _The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation_. University of Michigan. ISBN 978-975-6782-18-7 . * ^ Ernest Meyer, Karl, Blair Brysac, Shareen (2006). _Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire
Empire
in Central Asia_. Basic Books. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-465-04576-1 . * ^ Houtsma, M. Th. (1993). _First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913–1936_ (reprint ed.). BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-09796-4 . * ^ Schippmann, Klaus (1989). _Azerbaijan: Pre-Islamic History_. Encyclopædia Iranica. pp. 221–224. ISBN 978-0-933273-95-5 . * ^ Daniel, E. , _The History of Iran_. 2001. ISBN 0-313-30731-8 , p.28 * ^ Lorentz, J. _Historical Dictionary of Iran_. 1995. ISBN 0-8108-2994-0

* ^ See:

* _ Encyclopædia Iranica _, p.443 for _Persian settlements in southwestern China_ * _Iran- China
China
relations _ for more links on the historical ties.

* ^ " Persian language in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
" (زبان فارسی در سین کیانگ). Zamir Sa'dollah Zadeh (دکتر ضمیر سعدالله زاده). _Nameh-i Iran_ (نامه ایران) V.1. Editor: Hamid Yazdan Parast (حمید یزدان پرست). ISBN 964-423-572-X Perry-Castañeda Library collection under DS 266 N336 2005. * ^ Dehkhoda , _ Dehkhoda dictionary _, Tehran
Tehran
University Press, p.8457

SOURCES

* Fisher, William Bayne; Avery, P.; Hambly, G. R. G; Melville, C. (1991). _The Cambridge History of Iran_. 7. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press . ISBN 0521200954 . * Foltz, Richard (2015). _ Iran
Iran
in World History_. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199335497 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* v * t * e

Iran
Iran
topics

HISTORY

Prehistory

ANCIENT

3400–550 BCE

* Kura-Araxes culture (3400–2000 BC) * Proto-Elamite civilization (3200–2800 BC) * Elamite dynasties (2800–550 BC) * Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire
Empire
(c.2334 BC–c.2154 BC) * Kassites (c.1500–c.1155 BC) * Kingdom of Mannai (10th–7th century BC) * Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–609 BC) * Urartu (860 BC–590 BC) * Median Empire
Empire
(728–550 BC) * (Scythian Kingdom) (652–625 BC) * Neo-Babylonian Empire
Empire
(626–539 BC)

550 BC – 224 AD

* Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(550–330 AD) * Kingdom of Armenia
Armenia
(331 BC–428 AD) * Atropatene
Atropatene
(320s BC–3rd century AD) * Seleucid Empire (330 BC–150 AD) * Parthian Empire (248 BC – 224 AD)

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