The HIMALAYAS, or HIMALAYA (/ˌhɪməˈleɪə, hɪˈmɑːləjə/ ),
form a mountain range in
Asia separating the plains of the Indian
subcontinent from the
Tibetan Plateau .
The Himalayan range has many of the Earth's highest peaks, including
Mount Everest . The
Himalayas include over fifty
mountains exceeding 7,200 metres (23,600 ft) in elevation, including
ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak
Aconcagua , in the
Andes ) is 6,961 metres (22,838 ft)
Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the
Eurasian Plate , the Himalayan mountain range runs, west-northwest to
east-southeast, in an arc 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) long. Its
Nanga Parbat , lies just south of the northernmost
Indus river. Its eastern anchor,
Namcha Barwa , is just west
of the great bend of the Tsangpo river. The Himalayan range is
bordered on the northwest by the
Hindu Kush ranges, to
the north, the chain is separated from the
Tibetan Plateau by a
50–60 kilometres (31–37 mi) wide tectonic valley called the
Indus-Tsangpo Suture. Towards the south the arc of the
ringed by the very low
Indo-Gangetic Plain . The range varies in
width from 350 kilometres (220 mi) in the west (Kashmir) to 150
kilometres (93 mi) in the east (Arunachal Pradesh). The
distinct from the other great ranges of central Asia, although
sometimes the term
Himalaya is loosely used to include the Karakoram
and some of the other ranges.
Himalayas are inhabited by 52.7 million people and are spread
across five countries :
with the first four countries having sovereignty over most of the
range. Some of the world's major rivers , the
Indus , the
the Tsangpo -
Brahmaputra , rise in the Himalayas, and their combined
drainage basin is home to roughly 600 million people. The Himalayas
have a profound effect on the climate of the region, helping to keep
the monsoon rains on the Indian plain and limiting rainfall on the
Tibetan plateau. The
Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of
Indian subcontinent ; many Himalayan peaks are sacred in Hinduism
Buddhism . Mount
Machapuchare (Mount Fishtail) seen from
Kaski , Nepal. Elevation: 6,993 m (22,943 ft), prominence:
1,233 m (4,045 ft)
* 1 Name
* 2 Geography and key features
* 4.1 Glaciers
* 4.2 Lakes
* 5 Climate
* 6 Ecology
* 7 Culture
* 8 Religions of the region
* 9 Resources
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 12 Further reading
* 13 External links
The name of the range derives from the
(हिमालय, "Abode of Snow"), from himá (हिम, "snow")
and ā-laya (आलय, "receptacle, dwelling"). They are now known
as the "
Himalaya Mountains", usually shortened to the "Himalayas".
Formerly, they were described in the singular as the "Himalaya". This
was also previously transcribed "HIMMALEH", as in
Emily Dickinson 's
Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau 's essays.
The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi (both
written हिमालय), the Himalaya
(ཧི་མ་ལ་ཡ་) or 'The Land of Snow'
(གངས་ཅན་ལྗོངས་) in Tibetan , the Hamaleh
Mountain Range (سلسلہ کوہ ہمالیہ) in
Urdu and the
Ximalaya Mountain Range (t 喜馬拉雅山脈, > Xǐmǎlāyǎ
Shānmài) in Chinese .
GEOGRAPHY AND KEY FEATURES
List of Himalayan peaks and passes
In the middle of the great curve of the Himalayan mountains lie the
8000m peaks of
Nepal , separated by the
Kali Gandaki Gorge
Kali Gandaki Gorge . The gorge splits the
Himalayas into Western and
Eastern sections both ecologically and orographically – the pass at
the head of the Kali Gandaki, the
Kora La is the lowest point on the
Everest and K2. To the east of
Annapurna are the
8000 m peaks of
Manaslu and across the border in Tibet,
To the south of these lies
Kathmandu , the capital of
Nepal and the
largest city in the Himalayas. East of the
Kathmandu Valley lies
valley of the Bhote/
Sun Kosi river which rises in
Tibet and provides
the main overland route between
China – the Araniko
China National Highway 318 . Further east is the Mahalangur
Himal with four of the world's six highest mountains, including the
Cho Oyu ,
Makalu . The
popular for trekking, is found here on the south-western approaches to
Everest. The Arun river drains the northern slopes of these mountains,
before turning south and flowing through the range to the east of
In the far east of
Himalayas rise to the Kanchenjunga
massif on the border with India, the third highest mountain in the
world, the most easterly 8000 m summit and the highest point of India.
The eastern side of
Kanchenjunga is in the Indian state of
Formerly an independent Kingdom, it lies on the main route from India
Lhasa , Tibet, which passes over the
Nathu La pass into Tibet. East
Sikkim lies the ancient Buddhist Kingdom of
Bhutan . The highest
Gangkhar Puensum , which is also a strong
candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The
Himalayas here are becoming increasingly rugged with heavily forested
steep valleys. The
Himalayas continue, turning slightly north east,
through the disputed Indian State of
Arunachal Pradesh as well as
Tibet, before reaching their easterly conclusion in the peak of Namche
Barwa , situated in
Tibet inside the great bend of the Yarlang Tsangpo
river. On the other side of the Tsangpo, to the east, are the Kangri
Garpo mountains. The high mountains to the north of the Tsangpo
Gyala Peri , however, are also sometimes also included in
Going west from Dhaulagiri, Western
Nepal is somewhat remote and
lacks major high mountains, but is home to
Rara Lake , the largest
lake in Nepal. The Karnali
River rises in
Tibet but cuts through the
centre of the region. Further west, the border with
India follows the
River and provides a trade route into China, where on the
Tibetan plateau lies the high peak of
Gurla Mandhata . Just across
Lake Manasarovar from this lies the sacred
Mount Kailash , which
stands close to the source of the four main rivers of
Himalayas and is
revered in Hinduism, Buddhism,
Jainism and Bonpo. In the newly created
Indian state of
Uttarkhand , the
Himalayas rise again as the Garwhal
Himalayas with the high peaks of
Nanda Devi and
Kamet . The state is
also an important pilgrimage destination, with the source of the
Gangotri and the
Yamunotri , and the temples at
Kedarnath . Panoramic view of
Langtang Range in
The next Himalayan Indian state,
Himachal Pradesh , lacks very high
mountains, but is noted for its hill stations, particularly
the summer capital of the
British Raj , and
Dharmasala , the centre of
the Tibetan community in exile in India. This area marks the start of
Himalaya and the
Sutlej river , the most easterly of the
five tributaries of the
Indus , cuts through the range here. Further
Himalayas form most of the southern portion of the disputed
Indian State of Jammu "> The 6,000-kilometre-plus journey of the
India landmass (Indian Plate) before its collision with
Plate) about 40 to 50 million years ago Main article:
The Himalayan range is one of the youngest mountain ranges on the
planet and consists mostly of uplifted sedimentary and metamorphic
rock . According to the modern theory of plate tectonics , its
formation is a result of a continental collision or orogeny along the
convergent boundary between the
Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian
Plate . The
Arakan Yoma highlands in Myanmar and the Andaman and
Nicobar Islands in the
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal were also formed as a result of
Upper Cretaceous , about 70 million years ago, the
Australian plate (which has subsequently broken into
Indian Plate and the
Australian plate ) was moving at about 15 cm
per year. About 50 million years ago this fast moving Indo-Australian
plate had completely closed the
Tethys Ocean , the existence of which
has been determined by sedimentary rocks settled on the ocean floor
and the volcanoes that fringed its edges. Since both plates were
composed of low density continental crust , they were thrust faulted
and folded into mountain ranges rather than subducting into the mantle
along an oceanic trench . An often-cited fact used to illustrate this
process is that the summit of
Mount Everest is made of marine
limestone from this ancient ocean.
Today, the Indian plate continues to be driven horizontally at the
Tibetan Plateau, which forces the plateau to continue to move upwards.
The Indian plate is still moving at 67 mm per year, and over the next
10 million years it will travel about 1,500 km into Asia. About 20 mm
per year of the India-
Asia convergence is absorbed by thrusting along
Himalaya southern front. This leads to the
Himalayas rising by
about 5 mm per year, making them geologically active. The movement of
the Indian plate into the Asian plate also makes this region
seismically active, leading to earthquakes from time to time.
During the last ice age , there was a connected ice stream of
Kangchenjunga in the east and
Nanga Parbat in the
west. In the west, the glaciers joined with the ice stream network
Karakoram , and in the north, they joined with the former
Tibetan inland ice. To the south, outflow glaciers came to an end
below an elevation of 1,000–2,000 metres (3,300–6,600 ft). While
the current valley glaciers of the
Himalaya reach at most 20 to 32
kilometres (12 to 20 mi) in length, several of the main valley
glaciers were 60 to 112 kilometres (37 to 70 mi) long during the ice
age. The glacier snowline (the altitude where accumulation and
ablation of a glacier are balanced) was about 1,400–1,660 metres
(4,590–5,450 ft) lower than it is today. Thus, the climate was at
least 7.0 to 8.3 °C (12.6 to 14.9 °F) colder than it is today.
River in the
Himalayas The Himalayan range at
Sikkim , in the
Despite their scale the
Himalayas do not form a major watershed, and
a number of rivers cut through the range, particularly in the eastern
part of the range. As a result, the main ridge of the
Himalayas is not
clearly defined, and mountain passes are not as significant for
traversing the range as with other mountain ranges. The rivers of the
Himalayas drain into two large river systems:
* The western rivers combine into the
Indus Basin. The
forms the northern and western boundaries of the Himalayas. It begins
Tibet at the confluence of Sengge and Gar rivers and flows
Pakistan before turning south-west to
Arabian Sea . It is fed by several major tributaries draining the
southern slopes of the Himalayas, including the Jhelum , Chenab , Ravi
, Beas and
Sutlej rivers, the five rivers of the
* The other Himalayan rivers drain the Ganges-
Brahmaputra Basin. Its
main rivers are the
Ganges , the
Brahmaputra and the
Yamuna , as well
as other tributaries. The
Brahmaputra originates as the Yarlung
River in western Tibet, and flows east through
Tibet and west
through the plains of
Assam . The
Ganges and the
Brahmaputra meet in
Bangladesh and drain into the
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal through the world's
largest river delta, the
The northern slopes of
Gyala Peri and the peaks beyond the Tsangpo ,
sometimes included in the Himalayas, drain into the Irrawaddy
which originates in eastern
Tibet and flows south through Myanmar to
drain into the
Andaman Sea . The
Mekong , Yangtze and Yellow
River all originate from parts of the
Tibetan Plateau that are
geologically distinct from the
Himalaya mountains and are therefore
not considered true Himalayan rivers. Some geologists refer to all the
rivers collectively as the circum-Himalayan rivers.
The great ranges of central Asia, including the Himalayas, contain
the third-largest deposit of ice and snow in the world, after
Antarctica and the
Arctic . The Himalayan range encompasses about
15,000 glaciers, which store about 12,000 km3 (3,000 cubic miles) of
fresh water. Its glaciers include the
Gangotri and Yamunotri
Uttarakhand ) and
Khumbu glaciers (
Mount Everest region), Langtang
Langtang region) and Zemu (
Owing to the mountains' latitude near the
Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer , the
permanent snow line is among the highest in the world at typically
around 5,500 metres (18,000 ft). In contrast, equatorial mountains in
New Guinea , the
Colombia have a snow line some 900
metres (2,950 ft) lower. The higher regions of the
snowbound throughout the year, in spite of their proximity to the
tropics, and they form the sources of several large perennial rivers .
In recent years, scientists have monitored a notable increase in the
rate of glacier retreat across the region as a result of global
climate change. For example, glacial lakes have been forming rapidly
on the surface of debris-covered glaciers in the
during the last few decades. Although the effect of this will not be
known for many years, it potentially could mean disaster for the
hundreds of millions of people who rely on the glaciers to feed the
rivers during the dry seasons.
Tilicho lake in
The Himalayan region is dotted with hundreds of lakes. Most lakes are
found at altitudes of less than 5,000 m, with the size of the lakes
diminishing with altitude.
Tilicho Lake in
Nepal in the Annapurna
massif is one of the highest lakes in the world.
Pangong Tso , which
is spread across the border between
India and China, and
Yamdrok Tso ,
located in central Tibet, are amongst the largest with surface areas
of 700 km², and 638 km², respectively. Other notable lakes include
Phoksundo Lake in the
Shey Phoksundo National Park of Nepal,
Gurudongmar Lake , in North
Gokyo Lakes in Solukhumbu
Lake Tsongmo , near the Indo-
China border in
Some of the lakes present a danger of a glacial lake outburst flood .
Tsho Rolpa glacier lake in the Rowaling Valley , in the Dolakha
District of Nepal, is rated as the most dangerous. The lake, which is
located at an altitude of 4,580 metres (15,030 ft) has grown
considerably over the last 50 years due to glacial melting.
The mountain lakes are known to geographers as tarns if they are
caused by glacial activity. Tarns are found mostly in the upper
reaches of the Himalaya, above 5,500 metres.
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The vast size, huge altitude range and complex topography of the
Himalayas mean they experience a wide range of climates, from humid
subtropical in the foothills to cold, dry desert conditions on the
Tibetan side of the range.
For much of
Himalayas – that on the south side of the high
mountains, except in the furthest west, the most characteristic
feature of the climate is the monsoon . Heavy rain arrives on the
south-west monsoon in June and persists until September. The monsoon
can seriously impact transport and cause major landslides. It
restricts tourism – the trekking and mountaineering season is
limited to either before the monsoon in April/May or after the monsoon
in October/November (autumn). In
Nepal and Sikkim, there are often
considered to be five seasons: summer, monsoon , autumn (or
post-monsoon), winter and spring.
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification , the lower elevations of
the Himalayas, reaching in mid elevations in central
Kathmandu valley), are classified as CWA, Humid subtropical
climate with dry winters. Higher up, most of the
Himalayas have a
subtropical highland climate (CWB) .
In the furthest west of the Himalayas, in the west of the Kashmir
valley and the
Indus valley, the South Asian monsoon is no longer a
dominant factor and most precipitation falls in the spring. Srinagar
receives around 723 millimetres (28 in) around half the rainfall of
locations such as
Shimla and Kathmandu, with the wettest months being
March and April.
The northern side of the Himalayas, also known as the Tibetan
Himalaya, is dry, cold and generally wind swept particularly in the
west where it has a cold desert climate . The vegetation is sparse and
stunted and the winters are severely cold. Most of the precipitation
in the region is in the form of snow during late winter and spring
Local impacts on climate are significant throughout the Himalayas.
Temperatures fall by 6.5 °C (11.7 °F) for every 1000m rise in
altitude. This gives rise to a variety of climates from nearly
tropical in the foothills to tundra and permanent snow and ice. Local
climate is also affected by the topography: The leeward side of the
mountains receive less rain while the well exposed slopes get heavy
rainfall and the rain shadow of large mountains can be significant,
for example leading to near desert conditions in the Upper Mustang
which is sheltered from the monsoon rains by the
Dhaulagiri massifs and has annual precipitation of around 300mm, while
Pokhara on the southern side of the massifs has substantial rainfall
(3,900mm/year). Thus although annual precipitation is generally higher
in east than the west, local variations are often more important.
Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the Indian
subcontinent and the Tibetan Plateau. They prevent frigid, dry winds
from blowing south into the subcontinent, which keeps South
warmer than corresponding temperate regions in the other continents.
It also forms a barrier for the monsoon winds, keeping them from
traveling northwards, and causing heavy rainfall in the
Himalayas are also believed to play an important part in the
formation of Central Asian deserts, such as the
Ecology of the Himalayas Captive snow leopard
The flora and fauna of the
Himalayas vary with climate, rainfall,
altitude, and soils. The climate ranges from tropical at the base of
the mountains to permanent ice and snow at the highest elevations. The
amount of yearly rainfall increases from west to east along the
southern front of the range. This diversity of altitude, rainfall and
soil conditions combined with the very high snow line supports a
variety of distinct plant and animal communities. The extremes of high
altitude (low atmospheric pressure) combined with extreme cold favor
extremophile organisms. Male Himalayan Tahr in
At high altitudes, the elusive and endangered snow leopard is the
main predator. Its prey includes members of the goat family grazing on
the alpine pastures and living on the rocky terrain, notably the
endemic bharal or Himalayan blue sheep. The
Himalayan musk deer
Himalayan musk deer is
also found at high altitude. Hunted for its musk, it is now rare and
endangered. Other endemic or near endemic herbivores include the
Himalayan tahr , the takin , the
Himalayan serow , and the Himalayan
goral . The critically endangered Himalayan subspecies of the brown
bear is found sporadically across the range as is the Asian black bear
. In the mountainous mixed deciduous and conifer forests of the
Red panda feed in the dense understories of bamboo.
Lower down the forests of the foothills are inhabited by several
different primates, including the endangered Gee\'s golden langur and
Kashmir gray langur , with highly restricted ranges in the east
and west of the
The unique floral and faunal wealth of the
Himalayas is undergoing
structural and compositional changes due to climate change . Hydrangea
hirta is an example of floral species that can be found in this area.
The increase in temperature is shifting various species to higher
elevations. The oak forest is being invaded by pine forests in the
Garhwal Himalayan region. There are reports of early flowering and
fruiting in some tree species, especially rhododendron , apple and box
myrtle . The highest known tree species in the
Himalayas is Juniperus
tibetica located at 4,900 metres (16,080 ft) in Southeastern Tibet.
The Himalayan population belongs to four distinct cultural groups,
who throughout history have systematically penetrated the isolated
indigenous Himalayan population. Those migrating cultures – Hindu
(Indian), Buddhist (Tibetan), Islamic (Afghanistan–Iran) and Animist
(Burmese and south-eastern Asian) – without any doubt have created
here their own individual and unique place. Their current
arrangement, though with a few exceptions, is linked to specific
geographical regions, and the relative altitude at which they occur.
There are many cultural aspects of the Himalayas. For the Hindus, the
Himalayas are personified as Himavath, the father of the goddess
Himalayas is also considered to be the father of the
river Ganges. The Mountain Kailash is a sacred peak to the Hindus and
is where the Lord Shiva is believed to live. Two of the most sacred
places of pilgrimage for the Hindus is the temple complex in
Pashupatinath and Muktinath, also known as Saligrama because of the
presence of the sacred black rocks called saligrams.
The Buddhists also lay a great deal of importance on the mountains of
Paro Taktsang is the holy place where
in Bhutan. The Muktinath is also a place of pilgrimage for the
Tibetan Buddhists. They believe that the trees in the poplar grove
came from the walking sticks of eighty-four ancient Indian Buddhist
magicians or mahasiddhas. They consider the saligrams to be
representatives of the Tibetan serpent deity known as Gawo Jagpa.
The Himalayan people’s diversity shows in many different ways. It
shows through their architecture, their languages and dialects, their
beliefs and rituals, as well as their clothing. The shapes and
materials of the people’s homes reflect their practical needs and
the beliefs. Another example of the diversity amongst the Himalayan
peoples is that handwoven textiles display colors and patterns unique
to their ethnic backgrounds. Finally, some people place a great
importance on jewellery. The Rai and Limbu women wear big gold
earrings and nose rings to show their wealth through their jewellery.
RELIGIONS OF THE REGION
The Taktsang Monastery,
Bhutan , also known as the "Tiger's
Several places in the
Himalayas are of religious significance in
Sikhism . A notable example of a
religious site is
Paro Taktsang , where
Padmasambhava is said to have
Buddhism in Bhutan.
Padmasambhava is also worshipped as the
patron saint of
Sikkim . There are also
Muslim and Hindhu Shaivite
Kashmiri Pandit in the area of
In Hinduism, the
Himalayas have been personified as the king of all
Mountain – "Giriraj
Himavat ", father of Ganga and
Parvati (form of
A number of
Vajrayana Buddhist sites are situated in the Himalayas,
Bhutan and in the Indian regions of
Ladakh , Sikkim,
Arunachal Pradesh , Spiti and
Darjeeling . There were over 6,000
monasteries in Tibet, including the residence of the
Dalai Lama .
Ladakh are also dotted with numerous monasteries.
Tibetan Muslims have their own mosques in
Himalayas are home to a diversity of medicinal resources. Plants
from the forests have been used for millennia to treat conditions
ranging from simple coughs to snake bites. Different parts of the
plants – root, flower, stem, leaves, and bark – are used as
remedies for different ailments. For example, a bark extract from an
abies pindrow tree is used to treat coughs and bronchitis. Leaf and
stem paste from an arachne cordifolia is used for wounds and as an
antidote for snake bites. The bark of a callicarpa arborea is used for
skin ailments. Nearly a fifth of the gymnosperms , angiosperms and
pteridophytes in the
Himalayas are found to have medicinal properties,
and more are likely to be discovered.
Most of the population in some Asian and African countries depend on
medicinal plants rather than prescriptions and such (Gupta and Sharma,
vii). Since so many people use medicinal plants as their only source
of healing in the Himalayas, the plants are an important source of
income. This contributes to economic and modern industrial development
both inside and outside the region (Gupta and Sharma, 5). The only
problem is that locals are rapidly clearing the forests on the
Himalayas for wood, often illegally (Earth Island Journal, 2). This
means that the number of medicinal plants is declining and that some
of them might become rarer or, in some cases, go extinct.
Although locals are clearing out portions of the forests in the
Himalayas, there is still a large amount of greenery ranging from the
tropical forests to the Alpine forests. These forests provide wood for
fuel and other raw materials for use by industries. There are also
many pastures for animals to graze upon (Mohita, sec. Forest and
Wealth). The many varieties of animals that live in these mountains
do so based on the elevation. For example, elephants and rhinoceros
live in the lower elevations of the Himalayas, also called the Terai
region. Also, found in these mountains are the Kashmiri stag, black
bears, musk deer, langur, and snow leopards. The Tibetan yak are also
found on these mountains and are often used by the people for
transportation. However, the populations of many of these animals and
still others are declining and are on the verge of going extinct
(Admin, sec. Flora and Fauna).
Himalayas are also a source of many minerals and precious stones.
Amongst the tertiary rocks, are vast potentials of mineral oil. There
is coal located in Kashmir, and precious stones located in the
Himalayas. There is also gold, silver, copper, zinc, and many other
such minerals and metals located in at least 100 different places in
these mountains (Mohita, sec. Minerals).
List of Himalayan topics
* Eastern , Garhwal and
List of Himalayan peaks and passes and of Himalayan peaks of
Indian Himalayan Region
* List of mountains in
List of Ultras of the Himalayas
List of Ultras of the Himalayas
* ^ Yang, Qinye; Zheng, Du (2004). Himalayan Mountain System. ISBN
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its rocks, tectonics and orogeny. Record Geol. Survey of
* ^ Valdiya, K. S. (1998). Dynamic
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* ^ (1995) Geologists Find: An Earth Plate Is Breaking in Two
* ^ A site which uses this dramatic fact first used in illustration
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* ^ glacier maps downloadable
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Himalaya – a glaciogeomorphological
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* ^ "
Sunderbans the world\'s largest delta". gits4u.com. Archived
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* Palin, Michael , Himalaya, London, Weidenfeld ">HIMALAYAS
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for HIMALAYAS .
Wikiquote has quotations related to: HIMALAYAS
* The Digital
Himalaya research project at Cambridge and Yale
* Pierre Dèzes (1999). "The making of the
Himalaya and major
tectonic subdivisions". The geology of Zanskar.
Geology of the Himalayan mountains
* Birth of the Himalaya
* Some notes on the formation of the Himalaya
* Pictures from a trek in
Annapurna (film by Ori Liber)
* South Asia\'s Troubled Waters Journalistic project at the Pulitzer
Centre for Crisis Reporting
* Die Berge des
Himalaya The mountains of
Himalaya (in German –
easily translatable online)
Geography of South
MOUNTAINS AND PLATEAUS
* Shivalik Hills
Toba Kakar Range
Chittagong Hill Tracts
Chittagong Hill Tracts
* Chota Nagpur
* Gandhamardan Hills
LOWLANDS AND ISLANDS
* Indo-Gangetic plain
Atolls of the Maldives
Atolls of the Maldives
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Sundarbans Reserve Forest
Sundarbans Reserve Forest
* Greater Rann of Kutch
Little Rann of Kutch
Little Rann of Kutch
* Protected areas in Tamil Nadu
* Sri Lanka
NOTABLE HIMALAYAN QUAKES
1505 Lo Mustang earthquake
1505 Lo Mustang earthquake
* 1934 Nepal–Bihar
* 1950 Assam–
* 1991 Uttarkashi
* 1999 Chamoli
* 2008 Damxung
* April 2015
* May 2015
Geology of the Himalayas
* Oldham Fault
* Himalayan Frontal Fault
* North Himalayan Normal Fault
Atmospheric science /
Coastal geography /
Edaphology / Pedology or
* WorldCat Identities
* VIAF : 140840481
* GND : 4024923-2
* SUDOC : 027484505
* BNF : cb119795732 (data)