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The Great Basin
Great Basin
is the largest area of contiguous endorheic watersheds in North America. It spans sections of Wyoming, Idaho, Utah, Nevada, Oregon, California
California
and the Mexican state of Baja California. It is noted for both its arid climate and the basin and range topography that varies from the North American low point at Badwater Basin
Badwater Basin
to the highest point of the contiguous United States, less than 100 miles (160 km) away at the summit of Mount Whitney. The region spans several physiographic divisions, biomes/ecoregions, and deserts.

Contents

1 Definition 2 Hydrology 3 Ecology

3.1 Fauna

4 Geography

4.1 Great Basin
Great Basin
physiographic section 4.2 Settlements and roads

5 History 6 Climate 7 Significant special designations

7.1 See also

8 References 9 External links

Definition[edit]

The hydrographic Great Basin
Great Basin
(magenta outline), distinguished from the Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert
Desert
(black), and the Basin and Range Geological Province (teal).[3]

The term "Great Basin" is applied to hydrographic,[3][4]:11 biological,[3] floristic,[4]:21 physiographic,[4]:14 topographic,[3] and ethnographic geographic areas.[4]:34 The name was originally coined by John C. Fremont, who, based on information gleaned from Joseph R. Walker
Joseph R. Walker
as well as his own travels, recognized the hydrographic nature of the landform as "having no connection to the ocean".[4]:8–9 The hydrographic definition is the most commonly used,[3] and is the only one with a definitive border. The other definitions yield not only different geographical boundaries of "Great Basin" regions, but regional borders that vary from source to source.[4]:11 The Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert
Desert
is defined by plant and animal communities, and, according to the National Park Service, its boundaries approximate the hydrographic Great Basin, but exclude the southern "panhandle".[3] The Great Basin Floristic Province
Great Basin Floristic Province
was defined by botanist Armen Takhtajan to extend well beyond the boundaries of the hydrographically defined Great Basin: it includes the Snake River
Snake River
Plain, the Colorado Plateau, the Uinta Basin, and parts of Arizona
Arizona
north of the Mogollon Rim.[5] The Great Basin
Great Basin
physiographic section is a geographic division of the Basin and Range Province
Basin and Range Province
defined by Nevin Fenneman in 1931.[6] The United States
United States
Geological Survey adapted Fenneman's scheme in their Physiographic division of the United States.[7] The "section" is somewhat larger than the hydrographic definition. The Great Basin
Great Basin
Culture Area or indigenous peoples of the Great Basin is a cultural classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas and a cultural region located between the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
and the Sierra Nevada. The culture area covers approximately 400,000 sq mi (1,000,000 km2),[8] or just less than twice the area of the hydrographic Great Basin. Hydrology[edit]

The Tule Valley watershed and the House Range
House Range
(Notch Peak) are part of the Great Basin's Great Salt Lake
Great Salt Lake
hydrologic unit

For the subdivisions and major waterways of the Great Basin, see List of Great Basin
Great Basin
watersheds and List of rivers of the Great Basin. The hydrographic Great Basin
Great Basin
is a 209,162-square-mile (541,730 km2) area that drains internally. All precipitation in the region evaporates, sinks underground or flows into lakes (mostly saline). As observed by Fremont, creeks, streams, or rivers find no outlet to either the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
or the Pacific Ocean. The region is bounded by the Wasatch Mountains
Wasatch Mountains
to the east, the Sierra Nevada
Nevada
and Cascade Ranges to the west, and the Snake River
Snake River
Basin to the north. The south rim is less distinct. The Great Basin
Great Basin
includes most of Nevada, half of Utah, substantial portions of Oregon
Oregon
and California and small areas of Idaho, Wyoming, and Mexico. The term "Great Basin" is slightly misleading; the region is actually made up of many small basins. The Great Salt Lake, Pyramid Lake, and the Humboldt Sink
Humboldt Sink
are a few of the "drains" in the Great Basin.[3] The Salton Sink
Salton Sink
is another closed basin[9] within the Great Basin. The Great Basin Divide
Great Basin Divide
separates the Great Basin
Great Basin
from the watersheds draining to the Pacific Ocean. The southernmost portion of the Great Basin is the watershed area of the Laguna Salada. The Great Basin's longest and largest river is the Bear River of 350 mi (560 km),[10] and the largest single watershed is the Humboldt River drainage of roughly 17,000 sq mi (44,000 km2). Most Great Basin
Great Basin
precipitation is snow, and the precipitation that neither evaporates nor is extracted for human use will sink into groundwater aquifers, while evaporation of collected water occurs from geographic sinks.[11] Lake Tahoe, North America's largest alpine lake,[12] is part of the Great Basin's central Lahontan subregion. Ecology[edit] Main articles: Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert
Desert
and Mojave Desert

Ecoregions as currently delineated by the Environmental Protection Agency[13] and World Wildlife Fund[14]

The hydrographic Great Basin
Great Basin
contains multiple deserts and ecoregions, each with its own distinctive set of flora and fauna.[3] The ecological boundaries and divisions in the Great Basin
Great Basin
are unclear.[15] The Great Basin
Great Basin
overlaps four different deserts: portions of the hot Mojave and Colorado (a region within the Sonoran desert) Deserts to the south, and the cold Great Basin
Great Basin
and Oregon
Oregon
High Deserts in the north. The deserts can be distinguished by their plants: the Joshua tree and creosote bush occur in the hot deserts, while the cold deserts have neither. The cold deserts are generally higher than the hot, and have their precipitation spread throughout the year.[16] The climate and flora of the Great Basin
Great Basin
is strongly dependent on elevation: as the elevation increases, the precipitation increases and temperature decreases. Because of this, forests occur at higher elevations. Utah
Utah
juniper/single-leaf pinyon (southern regions) and mountain mahogany (northern regions) form open pinyon-juniper woodland on the slopes of most ranges. Stands of limber pine and Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) can be found in some of the higher ranges. In riparian areas with dependable water cottonwoods (Populus fremontii) and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) groves exist. Because the forest ecosystem is distinct from a typical desert, some authorities, such as the World Wildlife Fund, separate the mountains of the Great Basin
Great Basin
desert into their own ecoregion: the Great Basin montane forests.[17] Many rare and endemic species occur in this ecoregion, because the individual mountain ranges are isolated from each other. During the last ice age, the Great Basin
Great Basin
was wetter. As it dried during the Holocene, some species retreated to the higher isolated mountains and have high genetic diversity[17] Other authorities divide the Great Basin
Great Basin
into different ecoregions, depending on their own criteria. Armen Takhtajan
Armen Takhtajan
defined the "Great Basin floristic province". The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency divides the Great Basin
Great Basin
into three ecoregions roughly according to latitude: the Northern Basin and Range ecoregion, the Central Basin and Range ecoregion, and the Mojave Basin and Range ecoregion.

Great Basin
Great Basin
snowstorm in the Snake Valley of Utah
Utah
and Nevada

Fauna[edit] Great Basin
Great Basin
wildlife includes pronghorn, mule deer, mountain lion, and lagomorphs such as black-tailed jackrabbit and desert cottontail and the coyotes that prey on them. Packrats, kangaroo rats and other small rodents are also common, and are predominantly nocturnal. Elk
Elk
and bighorn sheep are present but uncommon. Small lizards such as the Great Basin
Great Basin
fence lizard, longnose leopard lizard and horned lizard are common, especially in lower elevations. Rattlesnakes and gopher snakes are also present. The Inyo Mountains salamander
Inyo Mountains salamander
is endangered. Shorebirds such as phalaropes and curlews can be found in wet areas. American white pelicans are common at Pyramid Lake. Golden eagles are also very common in the Great Basin.[18] Mourning dove, western meadowlark, black-billed magpie, and common raven are other common bird species. Two endangered species of fish are found in Pyramid Lake: the Cui-ui sucker fish (endangered 1967) and the Lahontan cutthroat trout (threatened 1970).[19] Large invertebrates include tarantulas ( Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
genus) and Mormon crickets. Exotic species, including chukar, grey partridge, and Himalayan snowcock, have been successfully introduced to the Great Basin, although the latter has only thrived in the Ruby Mountains. Cheatgrass, an invasive species which was unintentionally introduced, forms a critical portion of their diets. Feral
Feral
horses (mustangs) and wild burros are highly reproductive, and ecosystem-controversial, alien species. Most of the Great Basin
Great Basin
is open range and domestic cattle and sheep are widespread. Geography[edit]

Basin and Range topography as seen from the air

The Great Basin
Great Basin
includes valleys, basins, lakes and mountain ranges of the Basin and Range Province.[20] Geographic features near the Great Basin include the Continental Divide of the Americas, the Great Divide Basin, and the Gulf of California.

Map showing the Great Basin
Great Basin
physiographic section (shown as 22a)

Great Basin
Great Basin
physiographic section[edit] The Great Basin
Great Basin
physiographic section of the Basin and Range Province contains the Great Basin, but extends into eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, and the Colorado River
Colorado River
watershed (including the Las Vegas metropolitan area and the northwest corner of Arizona).[21] The Basin and Range region is the product of geological forces stretching the earth's crust, creating many north-south trending mountain ranges. These ranges are separated by flat valleys or basins. These hundreds of ranges make Nevada
Nevada
the most mountainous state in the country.[3] Settlements and roads[edit] The Great Basin's two most populous metropolitan areas are the Reno-Sparks metropolitan area
Reno-Sparks metropolitan area
to the west and Wasatch Front
Wasatch Front
to the east. The region between these two areas is sparsely populated, but includes the smaller cities of Elko, Ely, Wendover, West Wendover, and Winnemucca. To the north are; in California
California
Susanville, in Oregon Burns and Hines, in Idaho
Idaho
Malad and in Wyoming
Wyoming
Evanston. To the south are Cedar City, Tonopah, and Bishop and the very southern area of the basin has the communities of Pahrump, Palmdale, Victorville, and Palm Springs. Interstate Highways traversing the Great Basin
Great Basin
are Interstate 80 (I-80) and I-15, and I-70 and I-84 have their respective endpoints within its boundaries. Other major roadways are U.S. Route 6 (US 6), US 50, US 93, US 95 and US 395. The section of US 50 between Delta, Utah, and Fallon, Nevada, is nicknamed "The Loneliest Road in America",[22] and Nevada
Nevada
State Route 375 is designated the "Extraterrestrial Highway".[23] The Great Basin is traversed by several rail lines including the Union Pacific Railroad's Overland Route (Union Pacific Railroad)
Overland Route (Union Pacific Railroad)
through Reno and Ogden, Feather River Route, Central Corridor and Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad. History[edit] Sediment build-up over thousands of years filled the down-faulted basins between ranges and created relatively flat lacustrine plains from Pleistocene
Pleistocene
lake beds of the Great Basin.[24] For example, after forming about 32,000 years ago, Lake Bonneville
Lake Bonneville
overflowed about 14,500 years ago in the Bonneville Flood
Bonneville Flood
through Red Rock Pass
Red Rock Pass
and lowered to the "Provo Lake"[25] level (the Great Salt Lake, Utah
Utah
Lake, Sevier Lake, Rush Lake, and Little Salt Lake remain).[26] Lake Lahontan, Lake Manly, and Lake Mojave were similar Pleistocene
Pleistocene
lakes.

Native American tribes that inhabited the Great Basin
Great Basin
were divided between the "Great Basin" and, in the Colorado desert
Colorado desert
region, the "California" tribal classifications.

Paleo-Indian habitation by the Great Basin tribes
Great Basin tribes
began as early as 10,000 B.C. (the Numic-speaking Shoshonean peoples arrived as late as 1000 A.D.).[27] Archaeological evidence of habitation sites along the shore of Lake Lahontan
Lake Lahontan
date from the end of the ice age when its shoreline was approximately 500 feet (150 m) higher along the sides of the surrounding mountains. The Great Basin
Great Basin
was inhabited for at least several thousand years by Uto-Aztecan
Uto-Aztecan
language group-speaking Native American Great Basin
Great Basin
tribes, including the Shoshone, Ute, Mono, and Northern Paiute. European exploration of the Great Basin
Great Basin
occurred during the 18th century Spanish colonization of the Americas. The first immigrant American to cross the Great Basin
Great Basin
from the Sierra Nevada
Nevada
was Jedediah Strong Smith in 1827.[28] Peter Skene Ogden
Peter Skene Ogden
of the British Hudson's Bay Company explored the Great Salt Lake
Great Salt Lake
and Humboldt River
Humboldt River
regions in the late 1820s, following the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada
Nevada
to the Gulf of California.[29] Benjamin Bonneville
Benjamin Bonneville
explored the northeast portion during an 1832 expedition. The United States
United States
had acquired control of the area north of the 42nd parallel via the 1819 Adams–Onís Treaty
Adams–Onís Treaty
with Spain and 1846 Oregon
Oregon
Treaty with Britain. The US gained control of most of the rest of the Great Basin
Great Basin
via the 1848 Mexican Cession. The first non-indigenous settlement was in 1847 in the Great Salt Lake
Great Salt Lake
Valley, leading to first American religious settlement effort of the Mormon provisional State of Deseret
State of Deseret
in 1849 in present-day Utah
Utah
and northern Nevada. Later settlements were connected with the eastern regions of the 1848 California
California
Gold Rush, with its immigrants crossing the Great Basin
Great Basin
on the California
California
Trail along Nevada's Humboldt River
Humboldt River
to Carson Pass
Carson Pass
in the Sierras. The Oregon
Oregon
Territory was established in 1848 and the Utah
Utah
Territory in 1850. In 1869 the First Transcontinental Railroad
First Transcontinental Railroad
was completed at Promontory Summit
Promontory Summit
in the Great Basin.[30] Around 1902, the San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad
Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad
was constructed in the lower basin and Mojave Desert
Desert
for California- Nevada
Nevada
rail service to Las Vegas, Nevada. To close a 1951 Indian Claims Commission case, the Western Shoshone Claims Distribution Act of 2004 established the United States
United States
payment of $117 million to the Great Basin
Great Basin
tribe for the acquisition of 39,000 square miles (100,000 km2).[citation needed] The Dixie Valley, Nevada, earthquake (6.6–7.1) in the Great Basin was in 1954. Climate[edit]

Wah Wah Valley, Utah, thunderstorm

For more detail of Great Basin
Great Basin
climate, see Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert § Climate, and Mojave Desert
Desert
§ Climate. Climate varies throughout the Great Basin
Great Basin
by elevation, latitude, and other factors. Higher elevations tend to be cooler and receive more precipitation. The western areas of the basin tend to be drier than the eastern areas because of the rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada. Most of the basin experiences a semi-arid or arid climate with warm summers and cold winters. However, some of the mountainous areas in the basin are high enough in elevation to experience an Alpine climate. Due to the region's altitude and aridity, most areas in the Great Basin
Great Basin
experience a substantial Diurnal temperature variation. Significant special designations[edit]

Great Basin
Great Basin
National Park: President Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
created Lehman Caves National Monument by presidential proclamation on January 24, 1922. It was incorporated into the national park on October 27, 1986. Death Valley
Death Valley
National Park: Death Valley
Death Valley
National Monument was designated in 1933 and the park was substantially expanded and became a national park in 1994.[31] Joshua Tree National Park
Joshua Tree National Park
was initially created as a National Monument on 10 August 1936, containing 825,000 acres (334,000 ha), after Minerva Hoyt led activism aimed at persuading the state and federal governments at protecting the area.[32] The park was elevated to a National Park on 31 October 1994 by the Desert
Desert
Protection Act, which also added 234,000 acres to the park.[33] The Golden Spike National Historic Site
Golden Spike National Historic Site
as authorized as a National Historic Site on April 2, 1957 under non-federal ownership. It was authorized for federal ownership and administration by an act of Congress on July 30, 1965. The Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail
Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail
was designated in 1990. The Pony Express
Pony Express
and California
California
National Historic Trails were designated in 1992. The Mojave National Preserve
Mojave National Preserve
was established October 31, 1994 with the passage of the California
California
Desert
Desert
Protection Act by the US Congress.[34] The Black Rock Desert–High Rock Canyon Emigrant Trails National Conservation Area was created by the Black Rock Desert–High Rock Canyon Emigrant Trails National Conservation Area Act of 2000.[35] The Old Spanish National Historic Trail was designated in 2002. The Great Basin National Heritage Area was designated on October 13, 2006 under P.L.109-338[36] A section of the Amargosa River was a designated Wild and Scenic River in 2009 and is also a Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Land Management
Natural Area.[37] The Basin and Range National Monument
Basin and Range National Monument
was designated on July 9, 2015 under the authority of the Antiquities Act
Antiquities Act
by President Barack Obama on the boundary of the Great Basin
Great Basin
and Mojave Deserts, encompassing Garden and Coal Valleys in Southern Nevada.[38]

See also[edit]

Hidden Cave, an archaeological cave site located in the Great Basin Bonneville Salt Flats Hastings Cutoff Nevada
Nevada
Basin Salton Sea

References[edit]

^ a b " Great Basin
Great Basin
(2087988)". Geographic Names Information System. United States
United States
Geological Survey. Retrieved 2011-10-01.  ^ "What is the WBD?". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-10-23.  ^ a b c d e f g h i  This article incorporates public domain material from the National Park Service
National Park Service
document "What is the Great Basin?". Retrieved on 2015-07-14. ^ a b c d e f Grayson, Donald K. (1993). The Desert's Past. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1560982225.  ^ Thorne, Robert F. "Phytogeography of North America
North America
North of Mexico". Archived from the original on 2004-03-17.  ^ Fenneman, Nevin Melancthon (1931). Physiography of western United States. McGraw-Hill. pp. 326–328. OCLC 487636.  ^ "Physiographic Regions". United States
United States
Geological Survey. 2003-04-17. Archived from the original on 2006-05-15.  ^ Pritzker, Barry M (2000). A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples (Google Books). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Retrieved 2010-06-04.  ^ "Salton Sea: California's Everglades" (PDF). Redlands Institute. p. 6. Retrieved 2015-08-02.  ^ "Bear River Watershed Description". Bear River Watershed Information System. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2010-04-28.  (an additional ~1% is in the SW corner of WY) ^ "Great Basin". Geologic Provinces of the United States: Basin and Range Province. nature.nps.gov: National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2009-01-16. Retrieved 2009-01-10.  ^ "Amazing Lake Tahoe". Lake Tahoe
Lake Tahoe
Visitors Authority. Archived from the original on 2008-12-07. Retrieved 2008-10-26.  ^ Level III and IV Ecoregions of the Continental United States, EPA  ^ " Great Basin
Great Basin
shrub steppe". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.  ^ Brussard, P.F.; Charlet, D.A.; Dobkin, D.S.; Ball, L.C.; et al. (1998). "Great Basin-Mojave Desert
Desert
Region" (PDF). In Mac, M.J.; Opler, P.A.; Puckett Haeker, C.E.; et al. Status and trends of the nation’s biological resources. 2. Reno, Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey.  ^ "Deserts of North American". Encyclopedia of Earth.  ^ a b " Great Basin
Great Basin
montane forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.  ^ Schmitt, Dave N. (Winter 1995). "The Taphonomy of Golden Eagle Prey Accumulations at Great Basin
Great Basin
Roosts" (PDF). J. Ethnobiol. 15 (2): 237–256.  ^ Hogan, C.Michael; Papineau, Marc; et al. (1987). Development of a dynamic water quality simulation model for the Truckee River. Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Agency
Technology Series. Washington D.C.: Earth
Earth
Metrics Inc.  ^ "Basin and Range Province". Geologic Provinces of the United States. United States
United States
Geological Survey. 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-10.  ^ "Physiographic regions" (PDF). Tapestry of Time and Terrain. USGS.  ^ Nevada
Nevada
Commission on Tourism. The Official Hwy 50 Survival Guide: The Loneliest Road in America (PDF). Nevada
Nevada
Commission on Tourism. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 30, 2010. Retrieved December 15, 2007.  ^ "Tourism Commission Has Really Gone Far Out There". Las Vegas Sun. July 5, 1996. Retrieved January 13, 2009.  ^ Jackson, Richard H.; Stevens, Dale J. (1981). "Physical and Cultural Environment of Utah
Utah
Lake and Adjacent Areas". Great Basin
Great Basin
Naturalist Memoirs (5: Utah
Utah
Lake Monograph): 5. Retrieved 2010-04-06.  ^ Gilbert, Grove Karl (1890). Lake Bonneville
Lake Bonneville
(Google Books). p. 127. Retrieved 2010-04-23.  ^ Morgan, Dale L (1947). The Great Salt Lake. Salt Lake City: University of Utah
Utah
Press. p. 22. ISBN 0-87480-478-7.  ^ "Archaeology, Cultural Transmission, and the Indigenous Native American Indians of the Great Basin
Great Basin
Region of North America". Bauu Institute. Retrieved 2010-04-22.  ^ Morgan (1953, 1964), Jedediah Smith and the Opening of the West, p. 7 ^ Ogden, Peter Skene, Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online ^ "Ceremony at "Wedding of the Rails," May 10, 1869 at Promontory Point, Utah". World Digital Library. 1869-05-10. Retrieved 2013-07-20.  ^ NPS contributors (2003). The National Parks Index (PDF). Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. p. 26. Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2008-10-05. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Zarki, Joe. "A Park for Minerva". Joshua Tree National Park, NPS. Retrieved 17 December 2013.  ^ "Park History". Joshua Tree National Park, NPS. Retrieved 17 December 2013.  ^ " California
California
Desert
Desert
Protection Act". Joshua Tree National Park. U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved 2015-08-02.  ^ "Black Rock Desert-High Rock Canyon Emigrant Trails National Conservation Area Act of 2000" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2004-11-08. Retrieved 25 July 2015.  ^ "Join Our Friends". Great Basin
Great Basin
National Park. U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved 2015-08-02.  ^ " Amargosa River Natural Area". U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Archived from the original on 2016-02-03. Retrieved 2015-08-02.  ^ "Secretary Jewell Applauds President Obama's Designation of Basin and Range National Monument in Nevada". Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Land Management
News Release. U.S. Department of the Interior. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Great Basin
Great Basin
(category)

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Great Basin.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana
Encyclopedia Americana
article Great Basin.

"Great Basin" from the Utah
Utah
History Encyclopedia by Gary B. Peterson  "Great Basin". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

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Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon
Oregon
Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River
Colorado River
Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California
California
Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River
Colorado River
Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

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Great Basin
Great Basin
watersheds

Bear River

Upper Bear River Lower Bear River

Great Salt Lake

Weber River Jordan River Great Salt Lake
Great Salt Lake
Desert

Escalante-Sevier

Escalante Desert Sevier River

Black Rock-Humboldt

Humboldt River Black Rock Desert

Central Lahontan

Truckee River Carson River Walker River

Central Nevada
Nevada
desert Oregon
Oregon
closed basins Tulare-Buena Vista

Kern River Tule River Tulare Lake

North Lahontan Northern Mojave-Mono Lake

Mono Lake Owens Lake Amargosa River Mojave River

Southern Mojave-Salton Sea

Salton Sea Southern Mojave Desert

Baja California
California
& other California

Laguna Salada Goose Lake Lost River

.