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Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs. Grasslands occur naturally on all continents except Antarctica. Grasslands are found in most ecoregions of the Earth. For example, there are five terrestrial ecoregion classifications (subdivisions) of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome (ecosystem), which is one of eight terrestrial ecozones of the Earth's surface.

Contents

1 Vegetation 2 Evolution 3 Climates 4 Biodiversity and conservation 5 Human impact and economic importance 6 Types of grasslands

6.1 Schimper (1898) 6.2 Ellenberg and Mueller-Dombois (1967) 6.3 Laycock (1979) 6.4 Other

6.4.1 Tropical
Tropical
and subtropical 6.4.2 Temperate 6.4.3 Flooded 6.4.4 Montane 6.4.5 Tundra
Tundra
prairies 6.4.6 Desert
Desert
and xeric

7 Animals 8 See also 9 Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
ecoregions 10 Tropical
Tropical
and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ecoregions 11 References 12 Further reading

Vegetation[edit] Grassland
Grassland
vegetation can vary in height from very short, as in chalk grassland, to quite tall, as in the case of North American tallgrass prairie, South American grasslands and African savanna.

The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills
Flint Hills
of northeastern Kansas

Woody plants, shrubs or trees may occur on some grasslands – forming savannas, scrubby grassland or semi-wooded grassland, such as the African savannas or the Iberian dehesa.[1] As flowering plants and trees, grasses grow in great concentrations in climates where annual rainfall ranges between 500 and 900 mm (20 and 35 in).[2] The root systems of perennial grasses and forbs form complex mats that hold the soil in place. Evolution[edit] Graminoids are among the most versatile life forms. They became widespread toward the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period, and fossilized dinosaur feces (coprolites) have been found containing phytoliths of a variety of grasses that include grasses that are related to modern rice and bamboo.[3] The appearance of mountains in the western United States
United States
during the Miocene
Miocene
and Pliocene
Pliocene
epochs, a period of some 25 million years, created a continental climate favorable to the evolution of grasslands. Existing forest biomes declined, and grasslands became much more widespread. Following the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
ice ages, grasslands expanded in range in the hotter, drier climates, and began to become the dominant land feature worldwide.[1] Climates[edit] Grasslands often occur in areas with annual precipitation between 600 mm (24 in) and 1,500 mm (59 in) and average mean annual temperatures ranges from −5 and 20 °C (Woodward et al. 2004). However, some grasslands occur in colder (−20 °C) and hotter (30 °C) climatic conditions.[4] Grassland
Grassland
can exist in habitats that are frequently disturbed by grazing or fire, as such disturbance prevents the encroachment of woody species. Species richness is particularly high in grasslands of low soil fertility such as serpentine barrens and calcareous grasslands, where woody encroachment is prevented as low nutrient levels in the soil may inhibit the growth of forest and shrub species. Biodiversity and conservation[edit]

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Grasslands dominated by unsown wild-plant communities ("unimproved grasslands") can be called either natural or "semi-natural" habitat. The majority of grasslands in temperate climates are "semi-natural". Although their plant communities are natural, their maintenance depends upon anthropogenic activities such as low-intensity farming, which maintains these grasslands through grazing and cutting regimes. These grasslands contain many species of wild plants, including grasses, sedges, rushes, and herbs; 25 or more species per square meter is not unusual.[citation needed] Chalk downlands in England can support over 40 species per square meter. In many parts of the world, few examples have escaped agricultural improvement (fertilizing, weed killing, plowing or re-seeding). For example, original North American prairie grasslands or lowland wildflower meadows in the UK are now rare and their associated wild flora equally threatened. Associated with the wild-plant diversity of the "unimproved" grasslands is usually a rich invertebrate fauna; there are also many species of birds that are grassland "specialists", such as the snipe and the great bustard. Agriculturally improved grasslands, which dominate modern intensive agricultural landscapes, are usually poor in wild plant species due to the original diversity of plants having been destroyed by cultivation, the original wild-plant communities having been replaced by sown monocultures of cultivated varieties of grasses and clovers, such as perennial ryegrass and white clover. In many parts of the world, "unimproved" grasslands are one of the most threatened types of habitat, and a target for acquisition by wildlife conservation groups or for special grants to landowners who are encouraged to manage them appropriately. Human impact and economic importance[edit]

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Grassland
Grassland
in Cantabria, northern Spain

A restored grassland ecosystem at Morton Arboretum
Morton Arboretum
in Illinois

Grassland
Grassland
vegetation often remains dominant in a particular area usually due to grazing, cutting, or natural or man-made fires, all discouraging colonization by and survival of tree and shrub seedlings. Some of the world's largest expanses of grassland are found in the African savanna, and these are maintained by wild herbivores as well as by nomadic pastoralists and their cattle, sheep or goats. Grasslands may occur naturally or as the result of human activity. Grasslands created and maintained by human activity are called anthropogenic grasslands. Hunting peoples around the world often set regular fires to maintain and extend grasslands, and prevent fire-intolerant trees and shrubs from taking hold. The tallgrass prairies in the U.S. Midwest may have been extended eastward into Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio
Ohio
by human agency. Much grassland in northwest Europe
Europe
developed after the Neolithic Period
Neolithic Period
when people gradually cleared the forest to create areas for raising their livestock. The professional study of grasslands falls under the category of rangeland management, which focuses on ecosystem services associated with the grass-dominated arid and semi-arid rangelands of the world. Rangelands account for an estimated 70% of the earth's landmass; thus, many cultures including those of the United States
United States
are indebted to the economics that the world's grasslands have to offer, from producing grazing animals, tourism, ecosystems services such as clean water and air, and energy extraction. Types of grasslands[edit] Schimper (1898)[edit] Grassland
Grassland
types by Schimper (1898, 1903):[5]

meadow (hygrophilous or tropophilous grassland) steppe (xerophilous grassland) savannah (xerophilous grassland containing isolated trees)

Ellenberg and Mueller-Dombois (1967)[edit] Grassland
Grassland
types by Ellenberg and Mueller-Dombois (1967):[6]

Formation-class V. Terrestrial herbaceous communities

A. Savannas
Savannas
and related grasslands (tropical or subtropical grasslands and parklands) B. Steppes and related grasslands (e.g. North American "prairies" etc.) C. Meadows, pastures or related grasslands D. Sedge swamps and flushes E. Herbaceous
Herbaceous
and half-woody salt swamps F. Forb
Forb
vegetation

Laycock (1979)[edit] Grassland
Grassland
types by Laycock (1979):[7]

(1) tallgrass (true) prairie; (2) shortgrass prairie; (3) mixed-grass prairie; (4) shrub steppe; (5) annual grassland; (6) desert (arid) grassland; (7) high mountain grassland.

Other[edit]

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Tropical
Tropical
and subtropical[edit] These grasslands are classified with tropical and subtropical savannas and shrublands as the tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. Notable tropical and subtropical grasslands include the Llanos grasslands of South America. Temperate[edit] Mid-latitude grasslands, including the prairie and Pacific grasslands of North America, the Pampas
Pampas
of Argentina, Brazil
Brazil
and Uruguay, calcareous downland, and the steppes of Europe. They are classified with temperate savannas and shrublands as the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. Temperate
Temperate
grasslands are the home to many large herbivores, such as bison, gazelles, zebras, rhinoceroses, and wild horses. Carnivores
Carnivores
like lions, wolves and cheetahs and leopards are also found in temperate grasslands. Other animals of this region include: deer, prairie dogs, mice, jack rabbits, skunks, coyotes, snakes, fox, owls, badgers, blackbirds (both Old and New World varieties), grasshoppers, meadowlarks, sparrows, quails, hawks and hyenas.

Negri-Nepote temperate grasslands in New Jersey

Flooded[edit] Grasslands that are flooded seasonally or year-round, like the Everglades
Everglades
of Florida, the Pantanal
Pantanal
of Brazil, Bolivia
Bolivia
and Paraguay
Paraguay
or the Esteros del Ibera
Esteros del Ibera
in Argentina, are classified with flooded savannas as the flooded grasslands and savannas biome and occur mostly in the tropics and subtropics. Watermeadows are grasslands that are deliberately flooded for short periods. Montane[edit]

Grassland
Grassland
in the Antelope Valley, California

High-altitude grasslands located on high mountain ranges around the world, like the Páramo
Páramo
of the Andes Mountains. They are part of the montane grasslands and shrublands biome and also constitute tundra. Tundra
Tundra
prairies[edit] Similar to montane grasslands, polar Arctic tundra
Arctic tundra
can have grasses, but high soil moisture means that few tundras are grass-dominated today. However, during the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
ice ages, a polar grassland known as steppe-tundra occupied large areas of the Northern Hemisphere. These are in the tundra biome. Desert
Desert
and xeric[edit] Also called desert grasslands, this is composed of sparse grassland ecoregions located in the deserts and xeric shrublands biome. Animals[edit] Mites, insect larvae, nematodes and earthworms inhabit deep soil, which can reach 6 metres (20 ft) underground in undisturbed grasslands on the richest soils of the world. These invertebrates, along with symbiotic fungi, extend the root systems, break apart hard soil, enrich it with urea and other natural fertilizers, trap minerals and water and promote growth. Some types of fungi make the plants more resistant to insect and microbial attacks. Grassland
Grassland
in all its form supports a vast variety of mammals, reptiles, birds, and insects. Typical large mammals include the blue wildebeest, American bison, giant anteater and Przewalski's horse. While grasslands in general support diverse wildlife, given the lack of hiding places for predators, the African savanna regions support a much greater diversity in wildlife than do temperate grasslands.[8] There is evidence for grassland being much the product of animal behaviour and movement;[9] some examples include migratory herds of antelope trampling vegetation and African bush elephants eating acacia saplings before the plant has a chance to grow into a mature tree. See also[edit]

Ecology portal Environment portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Grasslands.

Appalachian bald Biomes Bunch grass Bushveld Cerrado Coastal
Coastal
plain Dambo Desert Field Flood-meadow Flooded grasslands and savannas Llanos Lowland
Lowland
semi-natural grassland Meadow Pacific grasslands Pampa Pasture Plain Plateau Prairie Savanna Sods Steppe Taiga Tundra Veld Water-meadow Wet meadow

Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
ecoregions[edit]

The grassland Ecoregions
Ecoregions
of the Temperate
Temperate
grasslands, savannas, and shrublands Biome
Biome
are:

Afrotropic
Afrotropic
Temperate
Temperate
grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

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Al Hajar Al Gharbi montane woodlands Oman

Amsterdam and Saint-Paul Islands temperate grasslands Amsterdam Island, Saint-Paul Island

Tristan da Cunha-Gough Islands shrub and grasslands Tristan da Cunha, Gough Island

Australasia Temperate
Temperate
grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

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Canterbury-Otago tussock grasslands New Zealand

Eastern Australia
Australia
mulga shrublands Australia

Southeast Australia
Australia
temperate savanna Australia

Nearctic
Nearctic
Temperate
Temperate
grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

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California
California
Central Valley grasslands United States

Canadian aspen forests and parklands Canada, United States

Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States

Central forest-grasslands transition United States

Central tall grasslands United States

Columbia Plateau United States

Edwards Plateau
Plateau
savanna United States

Flint Hills
Flint Hills
tall grasslands United States

Montana valley and foothill grasslands United States

Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States

Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States

Northern short grasslands Canada, United States

Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States

Palouse grasslands United States

Texas blackland prairies United States

Western short grasslands United States

Neotropic
Neotropic
Temperate
Temperate
grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

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Argentine Espinal Argentina

Argentine Monte Argentina

Humid Pampas Argentina

Patagonian grasslands Argentina, Chile

Patagonian steppe Argentina, Chile

Semi-arid Pampas Argentina

Palearctic temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

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Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan

Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazakhstan

Central Anatolian steppe Turkey

Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia

Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Armenia, Iran, Turkey

Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakhstan

Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
boreal grasslands Faroe Islands, Denmark

Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan

Kazakh forest steppe Kazakhstan, Russia

Kazakh steppe Kazakhstan, Russia

Kazakh Uplands Kazakhstan

Middle East steppe Iraq, Syria

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia, Russia

Pontic steppe Kazakhstan, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria

Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia

Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia

South Siberian forest steppe Russia

Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan

Tropical
Tropical
and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ecoregions[edit]

Afrotropic
Afrotropic
Tropical
Tropical
and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

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Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola

Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia

Ascension scrub and grasslands Ascension Island

Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Angola, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia

East Sudanian savanna Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda

Eastern Miombo woodlands Mozambique, Tanzania

Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea
Guinea
Bissau, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo

Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia

Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Zimbabwe

Mandara Plateau
Plateau
mosaic Cameroon, Nigeria

Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, Uganda

Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, Uganda

Sahelian Acacia
Acacia
savanna Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Sudan, Sudan

Serengeti Kenya, Tanzania

Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia

Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Kenya, Tanzania

Southern Africa
Africa
bushveld Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe

Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Southern Miombo woodlands Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Saint Helena
Saint Helena
scrub and woodlands Saint Helena

Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda

West Sudanian savanna Benin, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal

Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo

Western Zambezian grasslands Angola, Zambia

Zambezian and Mopane woodlands Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Australasia Tropical
Tropical
and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

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Arnhem Land tropical savanna Australia

Brigalow tropical savanna Australia

Cape York tropical savanna Australia

Carpentaria tropical savanna Australia

Einasleigh upland savanna Australia

Kimberley tropical savanna Australia

Mitchell grass downs Australia

Trans Fly savanna and grasslands Indonesia, Papua New Guinea

Victoria Plains tropical savanna Australia

Indomalaya
Indomalaya
Tropical
Tropical
and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

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Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal

Nearctic
Nearctic
Tropical
Tropical
and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

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Western Gulf coastal grasslands Mexico, United States

Neotropic
Neotropic
Tropical
Tropical
and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

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Aripo Savannas Trinidad

Beni savanna Bolivia

Campos rupestres Brazil

Cerrado Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay

Clipperton Island
Clipperton Island
shrub and grasslands Clipperton Island
Clipperton Island
is an overseas territory of France

Córdoba montane savanna Argentina

Guianan savanna Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela

Gran Chaco Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay

Los Llanos Venezuela, Colombia

Uruguayan savanna Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay

Oceania Tropical
Tropical
and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

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Hawaiian tropical high shrublands Hawaiʻi

Hawaiian tropical low shrublands Hawaiʻi

Northwestern Hawaii
Hawaii
scrub Hawaiʻi

References[edit]

^ a b University of California
California
Museum of Paleontology Grasslands website. Ucmp.berkeley.edu. Retrieved on 2011-12-01. ^ NASA Earth
Earth
Observatory webpage. Earthobservatory.nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2011-12-01. ^ Piperno, D. R.; Sues, HD (2005). "Dinosaurs Dined on Grass". Science. 310 (5751): 1126–8. doi:10.1126/science.1121020. PMID 16293745.  ^ EO Experiments: Grassland
Grassland
Biome. Earthobservatory.nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2011-12-01. ^ Schimper, A. F. W. 1898. Pflanzen-Geographie auf physiologischer Grundlage. Fisher, Jena. 876 pp. English translation, 1903, [1]. ^ Ellenberg, H. & D. Mueller-Dombois. 1967. Tentative physiognomic-ecological classification of plant formations of the Earth
Earth
[based on a discussion draft of the UNESCO working group on vegetation classification and mapping.] Berichte des Geobotanischen Institutes der Eidg. Techn. Hochschule, Stiftung Rübel, Zürich 37 (1965-1966): 21—55, [2]. ^ Laycock, W.A. 1979. Introduction, pp. 1-2, in: French. N R. (ed.). Perspectives in Grassland
Grassland
Ecology. Springer, New York, 204 pp., [3]. ^ University of California
California
– Santa Barbara Temperate
Temperate
Grasslands website. Kids.nceas.ucsb.edu. Retrieved on 2011-12-01. ^ How can grazing heal land?. ManagingWholes.com. Retrieved on 2011-12-01.

Further reading[edit]

Courtwright, Julie. 2011. Prairie
Prairie
Fire: A Great Plains History. University Press of Kansas. 274 pp. French, N. R. (ed.). 1979. Perspectives in Grassland
Grassland
Ecology. Springer, New York, 204 pp., [4]. Suttie, J. M.; Reynolds, S. G.; C. Batello. 2005. Grasslands of the world. Rome: FAO. [5].

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Biogeographic regionalisations

Biomes

Terrestrial biomes

Polar/montane

Tundra Taiga Montane
Montane
grasslands and shrublands

Temperate

Coniferous forests Broadleaf and mixed forests Deciduous
Deciduous
forests Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Tropical
Tropical
and subtropical

Coniferous forests Moist broadleaf forests Dry broadleaf forests Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Dry

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub Deserts and xeric shrublands

Wet

Flooded grasslands and savannas Riparian Wetland

Aquatic biomes

Pond Littoral Intertidal Mangroves Kelp forests Coral reefs Neritic zone Pelagic zone Benthic zone Hydrothermal vents Cold seeps Demersal zone

Other biomes

Endolithic zone

Biogeographic realms

Terrestrial

Afrotropical Antarctic Australasian Nearctic Palearctic Indomalayan Neotropical Oceanian

Marine

Arctic Temperate
Temperate
Northern Pacific Tropical
Tropical
Atlantic Western Indo-Pacific Central Indo-Pacific Tropical
Tropical
Eastern Pacific

Subdivisions

Biogeographic provinces Bioregions Ecoregions

List of ecoregions Global 200
Global 200
ecoregions

See also

Ecological land classification Floristic kingdoms Vegetation
Vegetation
classifications Zoogeographic regions

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Botany

History of botany

Subdisciplines

Plant
Plant
systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant
Plant
anatomy Plant
Plant
ecology Phytogeography

Geobotany Flora

Phytochemistry Plant
Plant
pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology

Plant
Plant
groups

Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm

Plant
Plant
morphology (glossary)

Plant
Plant
cells

Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole

Tissues

Meristem Vascular tissue

Vascular bundle

Ground tissue

Mesophyll

Cork Wood Storage organs

Vegetative

Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot

Stem Leaf

Petiole Cataphyll

Bud Sessility

Reproductive (Flower)

Flower
Flower
development Inflorescence

Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate

Flower

Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula

Receptacle Hypanthium
Hypanthium
(Floral cup) Perianth

Tepal Petal Sepal

Sporophyll Gynoecium

Ovary

Ovule

Stigma

Archegonium Androecium

Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum

Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant
Plant
embryo Fruit

Fruit
Fruit
anatomy Berry Capsule Seed

Seed
Seed
dispersal Endosperm

Surface structures

Epicuticular wax Plant
Plant
cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle

Plant
Plant
physiology Materials

Nutrition Photosynthesis

Chlorophyll

Plant
Plant
hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose

Plant
Plant
growth and habit

Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous
Herbaceous
plants Habit

Vines

Lianas

Shrubs

Subshrubs

Trees Succulent plants

Reproduction

Evolution Ecology

Alternation of generations Sporangium

Spore Microsporangia

Microspore

Megasporangium

Megaspore

Pollination

Pollinators Pollen
Pollen
tube

Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history

timeline

Hardiness zone

Plant
Plant
taxonomy

History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature

Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
(ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP)

Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant
Plant
Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant
Plant
taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy

Citrus taxonomy cultigen

cultivar Group grex

Practice

Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture

Lists Related topics

Botanical terms Botanists

by author abbreviation

Botanical expedition

Category Portal WikiProject

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Phytogeography: Vegetation
Vegetation
classification

Physiognomy

Forests, woodlands, arboretum Shrublands, scrubs, thickets, fruticetum Dwarf-shrubland, subshrublands, dwarf-scrubs, suffruticetum Herbaceous
Herbaceous
communities, grasslands, steppes, prairies, herbetum Savannas, parklands Scarcely vegetated areas, desert vegetation

Latitude

Tropical Subtropical Temperate Subpolar Polar

Climatic regime

Pluvial, rainy, ombrophilous Cloudy Seasonal Drought

Altitude

Montane Submontane Lowland Coastal

Leaves

Loss of leaves

Deciduous, caducifolious Semi-deciduous, semicaducifolious Evergreen, perennifolious

Leaf
Leaf
hardness

Sclerophyll, stiff leaves Orthophyll, hyptiophyll leaves

Leaf
Leaf
form

Aciculifolious, needle-leaved Latifolious, broad-leaved

Substrate

Terrestrial vegetation Aquatic vegetation

Riparian Mangrove Swampy

See also

Biogeographic realms Biomes Floristic kingdoms Plant
Plant
habits Plant
Plant
life-forms Vegetation

Authority control

.