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La Grande Arche
Grande Arche
de la Défense (pronounced [la ɡʁɑ̃d aʁʃ də la defɑ̃s]; also La Grande Arche
Grande Arche
de la Fraternité) is a monument and building in the business district of La Défense
La Défense
and in the commune of Puteaux, to the west of Paris, France. It is usually known as the Arche de la Défense or simply as La Grande Arche.

Contents

1 Design and construction 2 Tenants 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Design and construction[edit] A great national design competition was launched in 1982 as the initiative of French president François Mitterrand. Danish architect Johann Otto von Spreckelsen
Johann Otto von Spreckelsen
(1929–1987) and Danish engineer Erik Reitzel (1941-2012) designed the winning entry to be a late-20th-century version of the Arc de Triomphe: a monument to humanity and humanitarian ideals rather than military victories. The construction of the monument began in 1985. Spreckelsen resigned in July 1986 and ratified the transfer of all his architectural responsibilities to his associate, French architect Paul Andreu. Reitzel continued his work until the monument was completed in 1989. The Arche is in the approximate shape of a cube (width: 110m, height: 110m, depth: 110m); it has been suggested that the structure looks like a hypercube (a tesseract) projected onto the three-dimensional world.[1] It has a prestressed concrete frame covered with glass and Carrara
Carrara
marble from Italy
Italy
and was built by the French civil engineering company Bouygues. La Grande Arche
Grande Arche
was inaugurated in July 1989, with grand military parades that marked the bicentennial of the French Revolution. It completed the line of monuments that forms the Axe historique
Axe historique
running through Paris. The Arche is turned at an angle of 6.33° about the vertical axis. The most important reason for this turn was technical: with a métro station, an RER station, and a motorway all situated directly underneath the Arche, the angle was the only way to accommodate the structure's giant foundations. In addition, from an architectural point of view, the turn emphasizes the depth of the monument and is similar to the turn of the Louvre
Louvre
at the other end of the Axe historique.

Grande Arche
Grande Arche
at night

In addition, the Arche is placed so that it forms a secondary axe (axis) with the two highest buildings in Paris, the Tour Eiffel and the Tour Montparnasse. The two sides of the Arche house government offices. The roof section was an exhibition centre, housing the Musée de l'Informatique (Computing Museum). The roof, when it was open to the public, was also popular for its views of Paris. However, after an accident without injury in the elevators in April 2010, the Department of Ecology, owner of the roof of the Grande Arche, decided to permanently close the computer museum, restaurant, and viewing deck. Access to the roof was still possible via the elevators in the north and south walls, but they were closed to the public.[2] A reopening was planned for May 2017,[3] The rooftop is now open to the public and includes a restaurant and an exhibition area dedicated to photojournalism. [4]

View of the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
from the Grande Arche

Christmas decoration at the Grand Arche

The Grande Arche
Grande Arche
seen from the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
on the Axe historique

North façade of the Grande Arche
Grande Arche
de la Défense

Tenants[edit] Organizations headquartered in the Grande Arche
Grande Arche
include the Bureau d'Enquêtes sur les Événements de Mer (BEAmer), the French marine accident investigation agency, in the southern (Sud) portion.[5] See also[edit]

Paris
Paris
portal Architecture portal

List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris
Paris
region

References[edit]

^ Du Sautoy, Marcus. "A 4 Dimensional Cube in Paris". The Number Mysteries. Retrieved 17 June 2012.  ^ Lemonde.fr, Le Monde
Le Monde
(11 August 2010) ^ "Monument: Grande Arche
Grande Arche
de la Défense". Convention and Visitors Bureau Paris. Retrieved 2017-01-10.  ^ "Reopening of the Grande Arche
Grande Arche
rooftop in Paris".  ^ "Contact us." Bureau d'Enquêtes sur les Événements de Mer. Retrieved on June 22, 2017. "Bureau d’enquêtes sur les événements de mer (BEAmer) Arche Sud 92055 LA DEFENSE CEDEX FRANCE" - Note the pedestrian access map

Further reading[edit]

François Chaslin et Virginie Picon-Lefebvre, La Grande Arche
Grande Arche
de La Défense Electa-Moniteur, 1989 Erik Reitzel Le Cube ouvert. Structures and foundations International conference on tall buildings. Singapore, 1984. ISBN 9971840421 Erik Reitzel Les forces dont resultent quelques monuments Parisiens de la Fin du XXe siècle Le pouvoir et la ville à l'époque moderne et contemporaine, Sorbonne
Sorbonne
2001. ISBN 2747526100

External links[edit]

Grande Arche
Grande Arche
(French and English) Satellite image from Google Maps Panorama during a storm Grande Arche
Grande Arche
(in French) ERI.dk Grande Arche
Grande Arche
pictures in Art Days

v t e

La Défense

Skyscrapers and complexes

Tour Adria Tours Aillaud Tour Areva Tour Ariane Tour Athéna Tour Atlantique (FR) Tour Aurore Tour Carpe Diem Tour CB21 Tour CBX Tour Cèdre (FR) Tour Chartis (FR) Tour D2 Cœur Défense Tour Défense 2000 Tour EDF Tour Égée Tour Eqho Tour Europe (FR) Tour Europlaza Tour Ève (FR) Tour First Tour France Tour Franklin Tour Gambetta (FR) Tour GAN Eurocourtage (FR) Grande Arche Tour Granite Tour Initiale Tour Les Poissons Tour Majunga Tour Manhattan (FR) Tour Neptune (FR) Tour Opus 12 Tour Pascal (FR) Préfecture des Hauts-de-Seine Tour Sequoia Tours Société Générale
Tours Société Générale
(Alicante and Chassagne) Tour T1 Tour Total Esso Tower (demolished)

Planned

Tour Generali (cancelled) Hermitage Plaza Phare Tower Tour Signal (cancelled)

Other landmarks

Center of New Industries and Technologies

ESSEC Business School

Parvis de la Défense (FR)

Paris
Paris
Métro stations

Esplanade de La Défense La Défense
La Défense
Grande Arche
Grande Arche
(Gare de La Défense)

This list is incomplete.

v t e

Puteaux

Areas

La Défense

Primary and secondary schools

Le Lycée Général et Technologique Agora Le Lycée Professionnel Lucien-Voilin

Landmarks

Tour AGF - Athéna (FR) Tour Atlantique (FR) Tour Ariane Center of New Industries and Technologies

ESSEC Business School

Tour Défense 2000 Tour EDF Tour Ève (FR) Tour France Tour Franklin Grande Arche Tour Initiale Tour Majunga Opus 12 Tower Tour Pascal (FR) Tour Sequoia Notre-Dame de Pentecôte (FR) Parvis de la Défense (FR)

Planned

Tour Signal (cancelled)

Paris
Paris
Métro stations

Esplanade de La Défense La Défense
La Défense
Grande Arche
Grande Arche
(Gare de La Défense)

Transilien
Transilien
stations

Gare de Puteaux

This list is incomplete.

v t e

Grands Projets of François Mitterrand

Commissioned

Louvre
Louvre
Pyramid Arab World Institute Opéra Bastille Ministère des Finances et de l'Économie Bibliothèque nationale de France Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Centre Centre International de Conferences

Influenced

Musée d'Orsay Parc de la Villette Grande Arche

v t e

Tourism in Paris

Landmarks

Arc de Triomphe Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
du Carrousel Arènes de Lutèce Bourse Catacombs Conciergerie Eiffel Tower Flame of Liberty Grand Palais
Grand Palais
and Petit Palais Institut de France Jeanne d'Arc Les Invalides Louvre
Louvre
Pyramid Luxor Obelisk Odéon Opéra Bastille Opéra Garnier Panthéon Philharmonie de Paris Porte Saint-Denis Porte Saint-Martin Sorbonne Tour Montparnasse

Museums

Bibliothèque nationale Carnavalet Centre Pompidou/Beaubourg Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie Jeu de Paume Louis Vuitton Foundation Musée des Arts Décoratifs Musée des Arts et Métiers Musée d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaïsme Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris Musée Cognacq-Jay Musée Grévin Musée Guimet Maison de Victor Hugo Musée Jacquemart-André Musée du Louvre Musée Marmottan Monet Musée de Montmartre Musée National d'Art Moderne Musée national Eugène Delacroix Musée national Gustave Moreau Musée national des Monuments Français Muséum national d'histoire naturelle Musée national du Moyen Âge Musée de l'Orangerie Musée d'Orsay Musée Pasteur Musée Picasso Musée du quai Branly Musée Rodin Palais de la Légion d'Honneur

Musée de la Légion d'honneur

Musée de la Vie Romantique

Religious buildings

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral American Cathedral American Church Chapelle expiatoire Grand Mosque Grand Synagogue La Madeleine Notre-Dame de Paris Notre-Dame-de-Bonne-Nouvelle Notre-Dame-de-Lorette Notre-Dame-des-Victoires Sacré-Cœur Saint Ambroise Saint-Augustin Saint-Étienne-du-Mont Saint-Eustache Saint-François-Xavier Saint-Germain-des-Prés Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois Saint-Gervais-Saint-Protais Saint-Jacques Tower Saint-Jean-de-Montmartre Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis Saint-Pierre de Montmartre Saint-Roch Saint-Sulpice Saint-Vincent-de-Paul Sainte-Chapelle Sainte-Clotilde Sainte-Trinité Temple du Marais Val-de-Grâce

Hôtels particuliers and palaces

Élysée Palace Hôtel de Beauvais Hôtel de Charost Hôtel de Crillon Hôtel d'Estrées Hôtel de la Païva Hôtel de Pontalba Hôtel de Sens Hôtel de Soubise Hôtel de Sully Hôtel de Ville Hôtel Lambert Hôtel Matignon Luxembourg Palace
Luxembourg Palace
(Petit Luxembourg) Palais Bourbon Palais de Justice Palais-Royal

Areas, bridges, streets and squares

Avenue Foch Avenue George V Champ de Mars Champs-Élysées Covered passages

Galerie Véro-Dodat Choiseul Panoramas Galerie Vivienne Havre Jouffroy Brady

Latin Quarter Le Marais Montmartre Montparnasse Place Dauphine Place de la Bastille Place de la Concorde Place de la Nation Place de la République Place Denfert-Rochereau Place des États-Unis Place des Pyramides Place des Victoires Place des Vosges Place du Carrousel Place du Châtelet Place du Tertre Place Saint-Michel Place Vendôme Pont Alexandre III Pont d'Iéna Pont de Bir-Hakeim Pont des Arts Pont Neuf Rive Gauche Rue de Rivoli Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré Saint-Germain-des-Prés Trocadéro

Parks and gardens

Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Jardin d'Acclimatation Jardin du Luxembourg Parc des Buttes Chaumont Parc Montsouris Tuileries Garden

Cemeteries

Montmartre
Montmartre
Cemetery Montparnasse
Montparnasse
Cemetery Passy Cemetery Père Lachaise Cemetery Picpus Cemetery

Région parisienne

Chantilly La Défense

Grande Arche

Disneyland Paris Écouen Fontainebleau France
France
Miniature Malmaison Musée de l’air et de l’espace Musée Fragonard d'Alfort Parc Astérix Provins Rambouillet La Roche-Guyon Basilica of St Denis Saint-Germain-en-Laye Sceaux Stade de France U Arena Vaux-le-Vicomte Palace and Gardens of Versailles Vincennes

Events and traditions

Bastille Day military parade Fête de la Musique Nuit Blanche Paris
Paris
Air Show Paris-Plages Republican Guard

Other

Le Bateau-Lavoir La Ruche Café des 2 Moulins Café Procope Les Deux Magots Maxim's Moulin de la Galette Moulin Rouge

Related

Paris
Paris
Musées Axe historique

Paris
Paris
Métro Bateaux Mouches

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141196

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