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The Métropole du Grand Paris
Paris
(French: [metʁopɔl dy ɡʁɑ̃ paʁi], meaning roughly "Metropolis of Greater Paris"[note 1]) is an administrative structure for cooperation covering the City of Paris and its nearest suburbs that surround it. The métropole came into existence on January 1, 2016 and comprises 131 communes. It includes the City of Paris, all 123 communes in the surrounding inner-suburban departments of the Petite Couronne
Petite Couronne
(Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne), plus seven communes in two of the outer-suburban departments, including the communes of Argenteuil
Argenteuil
in Val-d'Oise, and Paray-Vieille-Poste
Paray-Vieille-Poste
in Essonne, the latter of which covers part of Orly
Orly
airport.[1] Part of the métropole comprised the Seine department, which existed from 1929 to 1968. Grand Paris
Paris
covers 814 square kilometers and has a population of 7 million.[2][3] The Métropole is administered by a Metropolitan Council of 210 members, not directly elected, but chosen by the councils of the member Communes. Its responsibilities include urban planning, housing, and protection of the environment. The Métropole du Grand Paris
Paris
should not be confused with the Grand Paris
Paris
Express, a new transportation system being developed independently to connect the Departments in the Paris
Paris
suburbs.

Contents

1 History 2 Objectives 3 Transportation 4 Criticism 5 Communes 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit] The idea of Greater Paris
Paris
was originally proposed by former French President Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
as "a new global plan for the Paris metropolitan region"[4] It first led to a new transportation master plan for the Paris
Paris
region and to plans to develop several areas around Paris. The " Métropole du Grand Paris" was defined by the law of 27 January 2014 on the modernization of public territorial action and affirmation of cities as part of Act III of decentralization. The plans were considerably modified in December 2015, and the passage into action in two competences, economic development and protection of the environment, was delayed from 2016 to 2017. The plan was first announced on 17 September 2007 during the inauguration of "La Cité de l'architecture et du patrimoine", when Sarkozy declared his intent to create a "new comprehensive development project for Greater Paris". The project was organized by the French state, with the Minister of Culture and Communication charged with coordinating the consultation process.[5] In 2008 an international urban and architectural competition for the future development of metropolitan Paris
Paris
was launched. Ten teams gathering architects, urban planners, geographers, landscape architects will offer their vision for building a Paris
Paris
metropolis of the 21st century in the post-Kyoto era and make a prospective diagnosis for Paris
Paris
and its suburbs that will define future developments in Greater Paris
Paris
for the next 40 years.[5] The architects leading the ten multi-disciplinary teams were: Jean Nouvel, Christian de Portzamparc, Antoine Grumbach, Roland Castro, Yves Lion, Djamel Klouche, Richard Rogers, Bernardo Secchi, Paola Vigano, Finn Geipel, Giulia Andi, and Winy Maas.[6] Early versions of the plan proposed reforms to the local government structure of the Paris
Paris
region by creating an integrated urban community encompassing the City of Paris
Paris
and the surrounding Petite Couronne,[7] However, these were largely abandoned due to strong opposition from the socialist Mayor of Paris, Bertrand Delanoë, and the socialist head of the Île de France
France
region, Jean-Paul Huchon.[8] Objectives[edit] The original plan for the Métropole declared these objectives; "The Métropole of Grand Paris
Paris
is established in order to define and implement metropolitan action to improve the quality of life of its residents, reduce inequalities between regions within it, to develop an urban, social and economic sustainability model, tools to improve attractiveness and competitiveness for the benefit of the entire national territory. The Métropole of Grand Paris
Paris
is developing a metropolitan project. The residents are associated with its development according to the guidelines determined by the metropolitan council as laid down by the development council. This metropolitan project defines the general guidelines of the policy pursued by the Métropole of Grand Paris. It forms part of the implementation of the overall scheme of the Ile-de- France
France
region. It includes a general, social, economic and environmental analysis of the metropolitan area, the strategic guidelines for the development of the metropolis as well as priority areas for intervention. The Metro project can be developed with the support of the Land and Technical Agency of the Paris
Paris
Region, the International Workshop on Greater Paris, the Urban Planning Agencies and any other useful body. "[citation needed] Transportation[edit]

Planned metro lines

Independently to the process described above, a position of Minister for Le Grand Paris
Paris
was created and Christian Blanc
Christian Blanc
was appointed to occupy it. Blanc and his team prepared a transportation plan, announced on April 29, 2009.[9] The Île-de- France
France
region had already published its own transportation plan. Later, the architects of the consultation joined together to present a third transportation plan. After much negotiation, a compromise between the national government the Île-de- France
France
regional government was announced in January 2011 and the final plan subsequently approved. The transport plan will be carried out in ten years, at a cost of 35 billion euros funded by the state, local governments and new debt.[10] An important part of the project is a driverless subway linking important business and residential poles such as Versailles and the Charles de Gaulle airport but also banlieues like Montfermeil
Montfermeil
and Clichy-sous-Bois
Clichy-sous-Bois
through a figure-eight track 140 km long and operating 24-hour, which will alone cost 21 billion euros. Another 14 billion euros will be spent in the extension and re-equipment of existing metro, regional and suburban lines.[11] Criticism[edit] The way Le Grand Paris
Paris
has been handled was criticized by the architects themselves, especially by Jean Nouvel
Jean Nouvel
who wrote several virulent editorials against the Minister in charge of Le Grand Paris until June 2010, Christian Blanc.[12] Politically, the President of the Île-de- France
France
region, Jean-Paul Huchon and the Mayor of Paris, Bertrand Delanoë, both members of the French Socialist Party
French Socialist Party
opposed the initiatives taken by the national government, which they said were in contradiction with the devolution of urban planning matters to local governments. In October 2011, Delanoë stated that the President "is trying to claim for himself an urban dynamic begun long ago by the local governments".[13] Although Huchon had reached an agreement with the national government earlier in the year on the transportation network, he also declared that Grand Paris
Paris
"is not a generic term to cover everything that is going on on the territory of the Île-de- France
France
region (...) and even less a national certificate created to relabel local policies that were already in existence."[13] Political opposition was also strong from the Green Party (Europe Écologie), led in the Île-de- France
France
region by Cécile Duflot. Communes[edit] The Métropole du Grand Paris
Paris
consists of the following 131 communes:[1][3][14]

Ablon-sur-Seine Alfortville Antony Arcueil Argenteuil Asnières-sur-Seine Athis-Mons Aubervilliers Aulnay-sous-Bois Bagneux Bagnolet Le Blanc-Mesnil Bobigny Bois-Colombes Boissy-Saint-Léger Bondy Bonneuil-sur-Marne Boulogne-Billancourt Le Bourget Bourg-la-Reine Bry-sur-Marne Cachan Champigny-sur-Marne Charenton-le-Pont Châtenay-Malabry Châtillon Chaville Chennevières-sur-Marne Chevilly-Larue Choisy-le-Roi Clamart Clichy Clichy-sous-Bois Colombes Coubron Courbevoie La Courneuve Créteil Drancy Dugny Épinay-sur-Seine Fontenay-aux-Roses Fontenay-sous-Bois Fresnes Gagny Garches La Garenne-Colombes Gennevilliers Gentilly Gournay-sur-Marne L'Haÿ-les-Roses L'Île-Saint-Denis Issy-les-Moulineaux Ivry-sur-Seine Joinville-le-Pont Juvisy-sur-Orge Le Kremlin-Bicêtre Les Lilas Levallois-Perret Limeil-Brévannes Livry-Gargan Maisons-Alfort Malakoff Mandres-les-Roses Marnes-la-Coquette Marolles-en-Brie Meudon Montfermeil Montreuil Montrouge Morangis Nanterre Neuilly-Plaisance Neuilly-sur-Marne Neuilly-sur-Seine Nogent-sur-Marne Noiseau Noisy-le-Grand Noisy-le-Sec Orly Ormesson-sur-Marne Pantin Paray-Vieille-Poste Paris Les Pavillons-sous-Bois Périgny Le Perreux-sur-Marne Pierrefitte-sur-Seine Le Plessis-Robinson Le Plessis-Trévise Le Pré-Saint-Gervais Puteaux La Queue-en-Brie Le Raincy Romainville Rosny-sous-Bois Rueil-Malmaison Rungis Saint-Cloud Saint-Denis Saint-Mandé Saint-Maur-des-Fossés Saint-Maurice Saint-Ouen Santeny Savigny-sur-Orge Sceaux Sevran Sèvres Stains Sucy-en-Brie Suresnes Thiais Tremblay-en-France Valenton Vanves Vaucresson Vaujours Villecresnes Ville-d'Avray Villejuif Villemomble Villeneuve-la-Garenne Villeneuve-le-Roi Villeneuve-Saint-Georges Villepinte Villetaneuse Villiers-sur-Marne Vincennes Viry-Châtillon Vitry-sur-Seine

See also[edit]

Grand Paris
Paris
(project) Grand Paris
Paris
Express Paris
Paris
Metropolitan Area Île-de-France

Notes[edit]

^ There is no official or widely-used English translation yet.

References[edit]

^ a b "Décret n° 2015-1212 du 30 septembre 2015 constatant le périmètre fixant le siège et désignant le comptable public de la métropole du Grand Paris
Paris
Legifrance". Retrieved 2017-06-28.  ^ "The Metropole of Grand Paris
Paris
a mastodon of 7 million persons" (in French). Le Parisien. 17 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.  ^ a b BANATIC, Périmètre des EPCI à fiscalité propre. Accessed 2017-06-28. ^ Inauguration de la Cité de l'Architecture et du Patrimoine (Speech). Presidency of the French Republic. 2007-09-17. Archived from the original on 2012-04-01. Retrieved 2011-10-28.  ^ a b "Ten Scenarios for 'Grand Paris' Metropolis Now Up for Public Debate". Bustler. 2009-03-13. Retrieved 2009-06-12.  ^ "Big Plans for Grand Paris". 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2009-06-12.  ^ "Sarkozy relance le projet d'un " Grand Paris
Paris
"". 20 Minutes. 2007-07-06. Retrieved 2009-06-12.  ^ Erlanger, Steven (2009-06-11). "A Paris
Paris
Plan, Less Grand Than Gritty". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-12.  ^ Discours de M. le Président de la République (PDF) (Speech). French Ministry of Culture. 2009-04-09. Retrieved 2011-10-26.  ^ Le Grand Paris, 4 ans après (Speech). Presidency of the French Republic. 2011-10-10. Archived from the original on 2011-11-06. Retrieved 2011-10-26.  ^ Lichfield, John (2009-04-29). "Sarko's €35bn rail plan for a 'Greater Paris'". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2009-06-12.  ^ Jean Nouvel
Jean Nouvel
(2010-05-19). "Mais enfin, Monsieur Blanc!". Le Monde.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b Sibylle Vincendon (2011-10-11). "Pour Delanoë, Sarkozy n'est pas propriétaire du Grand Paris!". Libération. Retrieved 2010-10-26.  ^ INSEE

Further reading[edit]

Walter Wells, "Big Plans for Grand Paris," France
France
Today (June 2009), Vol. 24 Issue 6, pp 10–12

External links[edit]

Official Website (in French)

v t e

Métropoles in France

Intercommunality metropolis with special status

Aix-Marseille Paris

Intercommunality metropolis

Bordeaux Brest Dijon Grenoble Lille Montpellier Nancy Nantes Nice Orléans Rennes Rouen Strasbourg Toulouse Tours

Territorial collectivity metropolis

Lyon

Coordinates: 48°51′36″N 2°20′40″E / 48.8600°N 2.3444°E

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