Métropole du Grand
Paris (French: [metʁopɔl dy ɡʁɑ̃
paʁi], meaning roughly "Metropolis of Greater Paris"[note 1]) is an
administrative structure for cooperation covering the City of Paris
and its nearest suburbs that surround it. The métropole came into
existence on January 1, 2016 and comprises 131 communes. It includes
the City of Paris, all 123 communes in the surrounding inner-suburban
departments of the
Petite Couronne (Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis
and Val-de-Marne), plus seven communes in two of the outer-suburban
departments, including the communes of
Argenteuil in Val-d'Oise, and
Paray-Vieille-Poste in Essonne, the latter of which covers part of
Orly airport. Part of the métropole comprised the Seine
department, which existed from 1929 to 1968. Grand
Paris covers 814
square kilometers and has a population of 7 million.
Métropole is administered by a Metropolitan Council of 210
members, not directly elected, but chosen by the councils of the
member Communes. Its responsibilities include urban planning, housing,
and protection of the environment.
Métropole du Grand
Paris should not be confused with the Grand
Paris Express, a new transportation system being developed
independently to connect the Departments in the
6 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
The idea of Greater
Paris was originally proposed by former French
Nicolas Sarkozy as "a new global plan for the Paris
metropolitan region" It first led to a new transportation master
plan for the
Paris region and to plans to develop several areas around
Paris. The "
Métropole du Grand Paris" was defined by the law of 27
January 2014 on the modernization of public territorial action and
affirmation of cities as part of Act III of decentralization. The
plans were considerably modified in December 2015, and the passage
into action in two competences, economic development and protection of
the environment, was delayed from 2016 to 2017.
The plan was first announced on 17 September 2007 during the
inauguration of "La Cité de l'architecture et du patrimoine", when
Sarkozy declared his intent to create a "new comprehensive development
project for Greater Paris". The project was organized by the French
state, with the Minister of Culture and Communication charged with
coordinating the consultation process.
In 2008 an international urban and architectural competition for the
future development of metropolitan
Paris was launched. Ten teams
gathering architects, urban planners, geographers, landscape
architects will offer their vision for building a
Paris metropolis of
the 21st century in the post-Kyoto era and make a prospective
Paris and its suburbs that will define future
developments in Greater
Paris for the next 40 years.
The architects leading the ten multi-disciplinary teams were: Jean
Nouvel, Christian de Portzamparc, Antoine Grumbach, Roland Castro,
Yves Lion, Djamel Klouche, Richard Rogers, Bernardo Secchi, Paola
Vigano, Finn Geipel, Giulia Andi, and Winy Maas.
Early versions of the plan proposed reforms to the local government
structure of the
Paris region by creating an integrated urban
community encompassing the City of
Paris and the surrounding Petite
Couronne, However, these were largely abandoned due to strong
opposition from the socialist Mayor of Paris, Bertrand Delanoë, and
the socialist head of the Île de
France region, Jean-Paul Huchon.
The original plan for the
Métropole declared these objectives; "The
Métropole of Grand
Paris is established in order to define and
implement metropolitan action to improve the quality of life of its
residents, reduce inequalities between regions within it, to develop
an urban, social and economic sustainability model, tools to improve
attractiveness and competitiveness for the benefit of the entire
national territory. The
Métropole of Grand
Paris is developing a
metropolitan project. The residents are associated with its
development according to the guidelines determined by the metropolitan
council as laid down by the development council. This metropolitan
project defines the general guidelines of the policy pursued by the
Métropole of Grand Paris. It forms part of the implementation of the
overall scheme of the Ile-de-
France region. It includes a general,
social, economic and environmental analysis of the metropolitan area,
the strategic guidelines for the development of the metropolis as well
as priority areas for intervention. The Metro project can be developed
with the support of the Land and Technical Agency of the
the International Workshop on Greater Paris, the Urban Planning
Agencies and any other useful body. "
Planned metro lines
Independently to the process described above, a position of Minister
for Le Grand
Paris was created and
Christian Blanc was appointed to
occupy it. Blanc and his team prepared a transportation plan,
announced on April 29, 2009. The Île-de-
France region had already
published its own transportation plan. Later, the architects of the
consultation joined together to present a third transportation plan.
After much negotiation, a compromise between the national government
France regional government was announced in January 2011
and the final plan subsequently approved.
The transport plan will be carried out in ten years, at a cost of 35
billion euros funded by the state, local governments and new debt.
An important part of the project is a driverless subway linking
important business and residential poles such as Versailles and the
Charles de Gaulle airport but also banlieues like
Clichy-sous-Bois through a figure-eight track 140 km long and
operating 24-hour, which will alone cost 21 billion euros. Another 14
billion euros will be spent in the extension and re-equipment of
existing metro, regional and suburban lines.
The way Le Grand
Paris has been handled was criticized by the
architects themselves, especially by
Jean Nouvel who wrote several
virulent editorials against the Minister in charge of Le Grand Paris
until June 2010, Christian Blanc.
Politically, the President of the Île-de-
France region, Jean-Paul
Huchon and the Mayor of Paris, Bertrand Delanoë, both members of the
French Socialist Party
French Socialist Party opposed the initiatives taken by the national
government, which they said were in contradiction with the devolution
of urban planning matters to local governments. In October 2011,
Delanoë stated that the President "is trying to claim for himself an
urban dynamic begun long ago by the local governments". Although
Huchon had reached an agreement with the national government earlier
in the year on the transportation network, he also declared that Grand
Paris "is not a generic term to cover everything that is going on on
the territory of the Île-de-
France region (...) and even less a
national certificate created to relabel local policies that were
already in existence." Political opposition was also strong from
the Green Party (Europe Écologie), led in the Île-de-
by Cécile Duflot.
Métropole du Grand
Paris consists of the following 131
Paris Metropolitan Area
^ There is no official or widely-used English translation yet.
^ a b "Décret n° 2015-1212 du 30 septembre 2015 constatant le
périmètre fixant le siège et désignant le comptable public de la
métropole du Grand
Paris Legifrance". Retrieved 2017-06-28.
^ "The Metropole of Grand
Paris a mastodon of 7 million persons" (in
French). Le Parisien. 17 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December
^ a b BANATIC, Périmètre des EPCI à fiscalité propre. Accessed
^ Inauguration de la Cité de l'Architecture et du Patrimoine
(Speech). Presidency of the French Republic. 2007-09-17. Archived from
the original on 2012-04-01. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
^ a b "Ten Scenarios for 'Grand Paris' Metropolis Now Up for Public
Debate". Bustler. 2009-03-13. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
^ "Big Plans for Grand Paris". 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
^ "Sarkozy relance le projet d'un " Grand
Paris "". 20 Minutes.
2007-07-06. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
^ Erlanger, Steven (2009-06-11). "A
Paris Plan, Less Grand Than
Gritty". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
^ Discours de M. le Président de la République (PDF) (Speech).
French Ministry of Culture. 2009-04-09. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
^ Le Grand Paris, 4 ans après (Speech). Presidency of the French
Republic. 2011-10-10. Archived from the original on 2011-11-06.
^ Lichfield, John (2009-04-29). "Sarko's €35bn rail plan for a
'Greater Paris'". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
Jean Nouvel (2010-05-19). "Mais enfin, Monsieur Blanc!". Le
Monde. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ a b Sibylle Vincendon (2011-10-11). "Pour Delanoë, Sarkozy n'est
pas propriétaire du Grand Paris!". Libération. Retrieved
Walter Wells, "Big Plans for Grand Paris,"
France Today (June 2009),
Vol. 24 Issue 6, pp 10–12
Official Website (in French)
Métropoles in France
with special status
Territorial collectivity metropolis
Coordinates: 48°51′36″N 2°20′40″E / 48.8600°N