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Gramvousa
Gramvousa
also Grampousa (Greek: Γραμβούσα or Γραμπούσα, further names include Akra, Cavo Buso, Cavo Bouza, Garabusa and Grabusa) refers to two small uninhabited islands off the coast of a peninsula also known as Gramvousa
Gramvousa
Peninsula (Greek: Χερσόνησος Γραμβούσας) in north-western Crete
Crete
in the regional unit of Chania.[1] The Gramvousa
Gramvousa
Peninsula forms the westernmost of the two pairs of peninsulae in north-western Crete
Crete
(the other being Rodopos Peninsula) and is the western part of Kissamos Bay. The Gramvousa
Gramvousa
islands are administered from the municipality of Kissamos.

Contents

1 Naming 2 Ottoman–Venetian Wars 3 Greek War of Independence 4 Balos Lagoon 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources

Naming[edit] Imeri Gramvousa
Gramvousa
(Greek: Ήμερη Γραμβούσα), which translates to Tame Gramvousa, hosts the remains of a Venetian fort and the remains of buildings left behind by Cretan insurgents, who were compelled to live as pirates during the Greek War of Independence. Today, Imeri Gramvousa
Gramvousa
is a popular tourist attraction. Agria Gramvousa
Gramvousa
(Greek: Άγρια Γραμβούσα), which translates to Wild Gramvousa, is much less hospitable and is located due north of Imeri Gramvousa. It has also been named False Gramvousa.[2] In ancient times the larger island was known as Korykos,[3] which means leather bag.[4] The island was name "Gramvousa" in honour of Vousa, the wife of a pirate chief and the only inhabitant of the island to evade capture when the pirates were forcibly removed.[5] Ottoman–Venetian Wars[edit]

The walls of the fort at Imeri Gramvousa

The fort at Imeri Gramvousa
Gramvousa
was built between 1579 and 1584 during Venetian rule over Crete
Crete
to defend the island from the Ottoman Turks. The fort remained in Venetian hands throughout the prolonged Cretan War, and in the treaty of 16 September 1669, which surrendered Crete to the Ottomans, Gramvousa, along with the fortresses of Souda and Spinalonga, was retained by Venice.[6] These three forts defended Venetian trade routes and were also strategic bases in the event of a new Ottoman–Venetian war for Crete.[7] On 6 December 1691, during the Morean War
Morean War
(another Ottoman–Venetian war), the Neapolitan Captain de la Giocca[verification needed] betrayed the Venetians by surrendering Gramvousa
Gramvousa
to the Ottoman Turks for a generous bribe. He lived the rest of his life in Constantinople and was well known by the nickname "Captain Grambousas".[7] Not long after the start of Turkish rule, Cretan insurgents used to gather at the three coastal forts which included Gramvousa.[8] Greek War of Independence[edit] With the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence, the fort fell to the insurgents' hands. In 1823, Emmanouil Tombazis, the Greek provisional government's commissioner for Crete, failed to strengthen the defences at Gramvousa
Gramvousa
when he had the opportunity, soon after his arrival on the island.[9] Towards the summer of 1825, a body of three to four hundred Cretans, who had fought with other Greeks in the Peloponnese, journeyed to Crete. On 9 August 1825, led by Dimitrios Kallergis and Emmanouil Antoniadis, this group of Cretans, disguised as Turks, captured the fort at Gramvousa, which became their base. These and subsequent actions revitalized the Cretan insurgency, ushering the so-called " Gramvousa
Gramvousa
period".[10] Although the Ottomans did not manage to retake the fort, they were successful in blocking the spread of the insurgency to the islands' western provinces. The insurgents were besieged in Gramvousa
Gramvousa
for more than two years and they had to resort to piracy to survive. Gramvousa became a hive of piratical activity that greatly affected Turkish-Egyptian and European shipping in the region. During that period the population of Gramvousa
Gramvousa
became organised and they built a school[11] and a church. The church was called Panagia
Panagia
i Kleftrina and was dedicated to the wives of the klephts, namely the pirates.[12] In 1828, the new Governor of Greece, Ioannis Kapodistrias, sent Alexander Mavrocordatos
Alexander Mavrocordatos
with British and French ships to Crete
Crete
to deal with the pirates. This expedition resulted in the destruction of all pirate ships at Gramvousa
Gramvousa
and the fort came under British control.[12] On 5 January 1828, on Kapodistrias' orders Hatzimichalis Dalianis landed at Gramvousa
Gramvousa
with 700 men.[12] During the Cretan revolt of 1878, only the forts at Gramvousa, Ierapetra, Spinalonga, Heraklion, Rethymnon, Izeddin, Hania, and Kissamos
Kissamos
could not be captured by the insurgents because they did not have the necessary artillery.[13] Balos Lagoon[edit] There is a lagoon, named the Balos lagoon, between the island and the coast of Crete. There is an islet which forms part of a cape, through the lagoon, called Cape Tigani (which means "frying pan" in Greek). North of Balos, at the Korykon cape, are the ruins of the small ancient Roman city of Agnion, with a temple to the god Apollo.

Sunset at the Balos Lagoon with Cape Tigani in the center, Pondikonisi in the background to the left, the island of Imeri Gramvousa
Gramvousa
in the background to the right, and further back to the right is the island of Agria Gramvousa
Gramvousa
(panoramic photograph taken from the island of Crete).

Balos Lagoon with Cap Tigani to the right.

See also[edit]

List of islands of Greece

References[edit]

^ Γραμβούσα - Μπάλος Archived 2011-07-21 at the Wayback Machine. Greek Panorama, Issue 27, May/June 2002 (Greek) ^ Severin (1987) page 141 ^ Severin (1987) page 133 ^ Severin (1987) pages 139-140 ^ Severin (1987) page 133 ^ Maltezou, Crete
Crete
under Venetian rule, p. 159 ^ a b Detorakis, Turkish rule in Crete, p. 343 ^ Detorakis, Turkish rule in Crete, p. 355 ^ Detorakis, Turkish rule in Crete, p. 378 ^ Detorakis, Turkish rule in Crete, p. 381 ^ Detorakis, Turkish rule in Crete, p. 422 ^ a b c Detorakis, Turkish rule in Crete, p. 383 ^ Detorakis, Turkish rule in Crete, p. 408

Sources[edit]

Maltezou, Chrysas A. (1988). "Η Κρήτη κατα τη Βενετοκρατία (" Crete
Crete
under Venetian rule")". In Panagiotakis, Nikolaos M. Crete, History and Civilization (in Greek). II. Vikelea Library, Association of Regional Associations of Regional Municipalities. pp. 105–162.  Detorakis, Theocharis (1988). "Η Τουρκοκρατία στην Κρήτη ("Turkish rule in Crete")". In Panagiotakis, Nikolaos M. Crete, History and Civilization (in Greek). II. Vikelea Library, Association of Regional Associations of Regional Municipalities. pp. 333–436.  Severin, Tim (1987), The Ulysses Voyage: Sea Search for the Odyssey 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gramvousa.

v t e

Cretan islands

Chania regional unit

Major islands

Agioi Theodoroi (Agios Theodoros Mikros Agios Theodoros) Elafonisi Gavdos Gavdopoula Gramvousa, Agria Gramvousa, Imeri Pondikonisi Souda

Islets and rocks

Agioi Apostoloi Agios Nikolaos Ammoudi tous Volakous Arnaouti Artemis Gaidouronisi Karga Katonisi Koursaroi Lazaretta Leon/Nisi Loutro Palaiosouda/Marathi Petalida/Xera Petalouda Pontikaki Praso Kissamou Prasonisi Gavdou Schistonisi/Trachyli Treis Volakous Valenti

Rethymno regional unit

Major islands

Paximadia
Paximadia
(Megalo Paximadi Mikro Paximadi)

Islets and rocks

Aspros Volakas Diapori Mavros
Mavros
Volakas Peristeri Prasonisi

Heraklion regional unit

Major islands

Dia

Islets and rocks

Afentis Christos Agia Varvara Glaronisi/Petalidi Mavronisi Megalonisi/Makronisi Mikronisi/Agios Pavlos Nisoplaka Papadoplaka Paximadi Psarocharako Thetis Trafos

Lasithi regional unit

Major islands

Agioi Pantes Chrysi/Gaidouronisi Dionysades
Dionysades
(Dragonada Gianysada Paximada Paximadaki) Elasa Koufonisi/Lefki Kyriamadi Mikronisi Strongyli Trachilos

Islets and rocks

Agia Eirini Agios Nikolaos/Mochlos Agriomandra Avgo Daskaleia Fotia Grandes Io Kalydon/Spinalonga Karavi Kavaloi Katergo Kolokythas/Vryonisi Konida Kymo/Koumeli Makroulo Marmaro Mavros Mavros
Mavros
Vrachos Megatzedes Mikronisi Nikolos/Nikolonisi/Agios Antonios Paximadaki/Prasonisi Siteias Peristerovrachoi Ftena Trachylia/Pinakl Prasonisi Prosfora Pseira Psyllos Sideros/Strongylo Vryonisi/Prasonisi

v t e

Aegean Sea

General

Countries

 Greece  Turkey

Other

Aegean civilizations Aegean dispute Aegean Islands

Aegean Islands

Cyclades

Amorgos Anafi Andros Antimilos Antiparos Delos Despotiko Donousa Folegandros Gyaros Ios Irakleia Kardiotissa Kea Keros Kimolos Koufonisia Kythnos Milos Mykonos Naxos Paros Polyaigos Rineia Santorini Schoinoussa Serifopoula Serifos Sifnos Sikinos Syros Therasia Tinos Vous

Dodecanese

Agathonisi Arkoi Armathia Alimia Astakida Astypalaia Çatalada Chamili Farmakonisi Gaidaros Gyali Halki Imia/Kardak Kalolimnos Kalymnos Kandelioussa Kara Ada Karpathos Kasos Kinaros Kos Küçük Tavşan Adası Leipsoi
Leipsoi
(Lipsi) Leros Levitha
Levitha
(Lebynthos) Nimos Nisyros Pacheia Patmos Platy Pserimos Rhodes Salih Ada Saria Symi Syrna Telendos Tilos Zaforas

North Aegean

Agios Efstratios Agios Minas Ammouliani Ayvalık Islands Büyük Ada Chios Chryse Cunda Foça Islands Fournoi Korseon Icaria Imbros Koukonesi Lemnos Lesbos Metalik Ada Nisiopi Oinousses Pasas Psara Samiopoula Samos Samothrace Tenedos Thasos Thymaina Uzunada Zourafa

Saronic

Aegina Agios Georgios Agistri Dokos Hydra Poros Psyttaleia Salamis Spetses

Sporades

Adelfoi Islets Agios Georgios Skopelou Alonnisos Argos Skiathou Dasia Erinia Gioura Grammeza Kyra Panagia Lekhoussa Peristera Piperi Psathoura Repi Sarakino Skandili Skantzoura Skiathos Skopelos Skyropoula Skyros Tsoungria Valaxa

Cretan

Afentis Christos Agia Varvara Agioi Apostoloi Agioi Pantes Agioi Theodoroi Agios Nikolaos Anavatis Arnaouti Aspros Volakas Avgo Crete Daskaleia Dia Diapori Dionysades Elasa Ftena Trachylia Glaronisi Gramvousa Grandes Kalydon (Spinalonga) Karavi Karga Katergo Kavallos Kefali Kolokythas Koursaroi Kyriamadi Lazaretta Leon Mavros Mavros
Mavros
Volakas Megatzedes Mochlos Nikolos Palaiosouda Peristeri Peristerovrachoi Petalida Petalouda Pontikaki Pontikonisi Praso (Prasonisi) Prosfora Pseira Sideros Souda Valenti Vryonisi

Other

Antikythera Euboea

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