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The Governor of Florida
Florida
is the head of the executive branch of Florida's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.[2] The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Florida Legislature,[3] to convene the legislature,[4] and to grant pardons, except in cases of impeachment.[5] When Florida
Florida
was first acquired by the United States, future president Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
served as its military governor. Florida
Florida
Territory was established in 1822, and five people served as governor over six distinct terms. The first territorial governor, William Pope Duval, served 12 years, the longest of any Florida
Florida
governor to date. Since statehood in 1845 there have been 43 people who have served as governor, one of whom served two distinct terms. Three state governors have served two full four-year terms: William D. Bloxham, in two stints; and Reubin Askew
Reubin Askew
and Jeb Bush, who each served their terms consecutively. Bob Graham
Bob Graham
almost served two terms, as he resigned with only three days left. The shortest term in office belongs to Wayne Mixson, who served three days following the resignation of his predecessor, Bob Graham. The current governor is Rick Scott, who took office on January 4, 2011, following the 2010 election. He was re-elected in 2014, and his second term began on January 6, 2015.

Contents

1 Governors

1.1 Federal Military Commissioner 1.2 Governors of the Territory of Florida 1.3 Governors of the State of Florida

2 Living former governors 3 Notes 4 References

Governors[edit] Federal Military Commissioner[edit]

For a list of governors of Florida
Florida
before it became a United States territory, see the list of colonial governors of Florida.

Spanish Florida
Florida
was acquired from Spain in the Adams–Onís Treaty, which took effect July 10, 1821.[6] Parts of West Florida
Florida
had already been assigned to Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi; the remainder and East Florida
Florida
were governed by a military commissioner with the powers of governor until the territory was organized and incorporated.[7]

Commissioner Term in office Appointed by Notes

Andrew Jackson March 10, 1821–December 31, 1821 James Monroe [a][b]

Governors of the Territory of Florida[edit] Florida
Florida
Territory was organized on March 30, 1822, combining East and West Florida.[12]

Governor Term in office Appointed by

William Pope Duval April 17, 1822 – April 24, 1834 James Monroe

John Quincy Adams

Andrew Jackson

John Eaton April 24, 1834 – March 16, 1836

Richard K. Call March 16, 1836 – December 2, 1839

Robert R. Reid December 2, 1839 – March 19, 1841 Martin Van Buren

Richard K. Call March 19, 1841 – August 11, 1844 William Henry Harrison

John Tyler

John Branch August 11, 1844 – June 25, 1845

Governors of the State of Florida[edit] The State of Florida
Florida
was admitted to the Union on March 3, 1845. It seceded from the Union on January 10, 1861,[13] and joined the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
on February 8, 1861,[14] as a founding member; there was no Union government in exile, so there was a single line of governors. Following the end of the American Civil War, it was part of the Third Military District.[15] Florida
Florida
was readmitted to the Union on June 25, 1868.[16] The Florida
Florida
Constitution of 1838 provided that a governor be elected every four years, who was not allowed to serve consecutive terms.[17] The secessionist constitution of 1861 would have reduced this to two years and removed the term limit,[18] but the state fell to the Union before the first election under that constitution. The rejected constitution of 1865 and the ratified constitution of 1868 maintained the four-year term,[19][20] though without the earlier term limit, which was reintroduced in the 1885 constitution.[21] The current constitution of 1968 states that should the governor serve, or would have served had he not resigned, more than six years in two consecutive terms, he cannot be elected to the succeeding term.[22] The start of a term was set in 1885 at the first Tuesday after the first Monday in the January following the election,[21] where it has remained.[23] Originally, the president of the state senate acted as governor should that office be vacant.[24] The 1865 and 1868 constitutions created the office of lieutenant governor,[25][26] who would similarly act as governor. This office was abolished in 1885, with the president of the senate again taking on that duty.[27] The 1968 constitution recreated the office of lieutenant governor, who now becomes governor in the absence of the governor.[28] The governor and lieutenant governor are elected on the same ticket.[22] Florida
Florida
was a strongly Democratic state before the Civil War, electing only candidates from the Democratic and Whig parties. It elected three Republican governors following Reconstruction, but after the Democratic Party re-established control, 90 years passed before voters chose another Republican.

#[c] Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[d][e]

1

  William Dunn Moseley June 25, 1845 – October 1, 1849 Democratic 1845 Office did not exist

2

Thomas Brown October 1, 1849 – October 3, 1853 Whig 1849

3

James E. Broome October 3, 1853 – October 5, 1857 Democratic 1853

4

Madison S. Perry October 5, 1857 – October 7, 1861 Democratic 1857

5

John Milton October 7, 1861 – April 1, 1865 Democratic 1861 [f]

6

Abraham K. Allison April 1, 1865 – May 19, 1865 Democratic

— Interregnum May 19, 1865 – July 13, 1865 —

7

William Marvin July 13, 1865 – December 20, 1865 Provisional — [g]

8

David S. Walker December 20, 1865 – July 4, 1868 Democratic[h]   William W. J. Kelly[i]

9

Harrison Reed July 4, 1868 – January 7, 1873 Republican 1868 [j] William Henry Gleason (removed December 14, 1868)[k]

Vacant

  Edmund C. Weeks (appointed January 24, 1870) (term ended December 27, 1870)[l]

Samuel T. Day (took office December 27, 1870)

10

Ossian B. Hart January 7, 1873 – March 18, 1874 Republican 1872 [m] Marcellus Stearns

11

Marcellus Stearns March 18, 1874 – January 2, 1877 Republican Vacant

12

George Franklin Drew January 2, 1877 – January 4, 1881 Democratic 1876

Noble A. Hull (resigned March 3, 1879)

Vacant

13

William D. Bloxham January 4, 1881 – January 7, 1885 Democratic 1880

Livingston W. Bethel

14

Edward A. Perry January 7, 1885 – January 8, 1889 Democratic 1884 Milton H. Mabry

15

Francis P. Fleming January 8, 1889 – January 3, 1893 Democratic 1888 Office did not exist

16

Henry L. Mitchell January 3, 1893 – January 5, 1897 Democratic 1892

17

William D. Bloxham January 5, 1897 – January 8, 1901 Democratic 1896

18

William Sherman Jennings January 8, 1901 – January 3, 1905 Democratic 1900

19

Napoleon B. Broward January 3, 1905 – January 5, 1909 Democratic 1904

20

Albert W. Gilchrist January 5, 1909 – January 7, 1913 Democratic 1908

21

Park Trammell January 7, 1913 – January 2, 1917 Democratic 1912

22

Sidney Johnston Catts January 2, 1917 – January 4, 1921 Prohibition 1916

23

Cary A. Hardee January 4, 1921 – January 6, 1925 Democratic 1920

24

John W. Martin January 6, 1925 – January 8, 1929 Democratic 1924

25

Doyle E. Carlton January 8, 1929 – January 3, 1933 Democratic 1928

26

David Sholtz January 3, 1933 – January 5, 1937 Democratic 1932

27

Fred P. Cone January 5, 1937 – January 7, 1941 Democratic 1936

28

Spessard Holland January 7, 1941 – January 2, 1945 Democratic 1940

29

Millard Caldwell January 2, 1945 – January 4, 1949 Democratic 1944

30

Fuller Warren January 4, 1949 – January 6, 1953 Democratic 1948

31

Daniel T. McCarty January 6, 1953 – September 28, 1953 Democratic 1952 [n]

32

Charley Eugene Johns September 28, 1953 – January 4, 1955 Democratic

33

LeRoy Collins January 4, 1955 – January 3, 1961 Democratic

1956

34

C. Farris Bryant January 3, 1961 – January 5, 1965 Democratic 1960

35

W. Haydon Burns January 5, 1965 – January 3, 1967 Democratic 1964 [o]

36

Claude R. Kirk, Jr. January 3, 1967 – January 5, 1971 Republican 1966

Ray C. Osborne (office created January 7, 1969)

37

Reubin Askew January 5, 1971 – January 2, 1979 Democratic 1970

Thomas Burton Adams, Jr.

1974 Jim Williams

38

Bob Graham January 2, 1979 – January 3, 1987 Democratic 1978 Wayne Mixson

1982 [p]

39

Wayne Mixson January 3, 1987 – January 6, 1987 Democratic Vacant

40

Bob Martinez January 6, 1987 – January 8, 1991 Republican 1986

Bobby Brantley

41

Lawton Chiles January 8, 1991 – December 12, 1998 Democratic 1990

Buddy MacKay

1994 [q]

42

Buddy MacKay December 12, 1998 – January 5, 1999 Democratic Vacant

43

Jeb Bush January 5, 1999 – January 2, 2007 Republican 1998

Frank Brogan (resigned March 3, 2003)

2002

Toni Jennings

44

Charlie Crist January 2, 2007 – January 4, 2011 Republican 2006 Jeff Kottkamp[i]

Independent[r]

45

Rick Scott January 4, 2011 – Incumbent Republican 2010 Jennifer Carroll (resigned March 12, 2013)

Vacant

Carlos López-Cantera (appointed February 3, 2014)

2014 [s]

Living former governors[edit] There are six living former governors, the oldest being Wayne Mixson (served 1987, born 1922). The most recent death of a former governor was that of Reubin Askew
Reubin Askew
(served 1971–1979, born 1928), on March 13, 2014.

Governor Gubernatorial term Date of birth (and age)

Bob Graham 1979–1987 (1936-11-09) November 9, 1936 (age 81)

Wayne Mixson 1987 (1922-06-16) June 16, 1922 (age 95)

Bob Martinez 1987–1991 (1934-12-25) December 25, 1934 (age 83)

Buddy MacKay 1998–1999 (1933-03-22) March 22, 1933 (age 85)

Jeb Bush 1999–2007 (1953-02-11) February 11, 1953 (age 65)

Charlie Crist 2007–2011 (1956-07-24) July 24, 1956 (age 61)

Notes[edit]

Book: Governors of Florida

^ Jackson's official titles were "Commissioner of the United States" and "Governor of East and West Florida".[8] ^ Jackson left Florida
Florida
on October 8, 1821.[9] His resignation was submitted on November 13, 1821,[10] and the president accepted it on December 31, 1821.[11] ^ The official numbering includes repeat terms, as well as the provisional governor. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was created in 1868, abolished in 1885, and recreated in 1968. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted. ^ Milton died in office, having committed suicide due to the pending defeat of the Confederate States of America, stating in his final address to the legislature that "death would be preferable to reunion."[29] As president of the senate, Allison acted as governor until he resigned to go into hiding from approaching Union troops, and was captured by them on June 19, 1865.[30] Following his resignation, Florida
Florida
was without governance until a federal governor was appointed. ^ Marvin and Walker were appointed by President Andrew Johnson following the American Civil War. ^ Most sources state Walker was a Democrat; the state archives say he was "Conservative".[31] ^ a b Represented the Republican Party. ^ Reed was popularly elected under the terms of the 1868 constitution, and took the oath of office on June 8, 1868; it was not until July 4, 1868, however, that the federal commander of Florida, still under Reconstruction, recognized the validity of the state constitution and the election.[32] ^ During an attempted impeachment of Reed, Gleason proclaimed himself governor. The Supreme Court eventually sided with Reed, and Gleason was removed from office.[33] ^ Appointed as temporary lieutenant governor to replace William Henry Gleason. However, the state comptroller did not believe the governor could appoint a replacement to an elected office and refused to pay Weeks, and the Senate refused to accept his presidency over them, even proposing a motion to arrest him. Governor Reed called for a special election to replace him, and though Weeks fought it, the Florida Supreme Court declared his term to have ended when the new election results were certified.[34] ^ Hart died in office; as lieutenant governor, Stearns acted as governor for the remainder of the term. ^ McCarty died in office; as president of the senate, Johns acted as governor until a special election, in which Collins was chosen.[35] ^ This term was only two years as the election schedule was changed so that it would not coincide with presidential elections.[36] ^ Graham resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate; as lieutenant governor, Mixson succeeded him. ^ Chiles died in office; as lieutenant governor, MacKay succeeded him. ^ Crist was elected as a member of the Republican Party, and switched to independent in April 2010.[37] ^ Governor Scott's second term expires on January 8, 2019; he will be term limited.

References[edit]

General

"Governors of Florida". National Governors Association. Retrieved August 29, 2016.  "A Guide to Florida
Florida
Governors and the Florida
Florida
Cabinet". State Library and Archives of Florida. Retrieved April 19, 2015. 

Constitutions

"Constitution of the State of Florida". Florida
Florida
Legislature. 1968. Retrieved March 31, 2010.  "Constitution of 1885". State Library and Archives of Florida. 1885. Retrieved April 19, 2015.  "Constitution of 1868". State Library and Archives of Florida. 1868. Retrieved April 19, 2015.  "Constitution of 1865". State Library and Archives of Florida. 1865. Retrieved April 19, 2015.  "Constitution of the State of Florida". State Library and Archives of Florida. 1868. Archived from the original on March 6, 2010. Retrieved April 19, 2015.  "Constitution of 1838". State Library and Archives of Florida. 1838. Retrieved April 19, 2015. 

Specific

^ "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014.  ^ FL Const. art. IV, § 1a ^ FL Const. art. III, § 8 ^ FL Const. art. III, § 3c ^ FL Const. art. IV, § 8 ^ "Adams-Onís Treaty". Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture. Oklahoma Historical Society. Archived from the original on July 31, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2010.  ^ "Andrew Jackson, Commissioner of the United States". Florida Department of State. Retrieved October 28, 2016.  ^ "Andrew Jackson". State Library and Archives of Florida. Archived from the original on February 2, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2010.  ^ Morris, Allen; Joan Perry Morris (1999). The Florida
Florida
Handbook, 1999–2000. Peninsular Books. ISBN 978-0-9616000-7-5. Retrieved July 6, 2010.  ^ Harold D. Moser; David R. Hoth; George H. Hoemann, eds. (1996). The Papers of Andrew Jackson: 1821–1824. University of Tennessee Press. p. 513. ISBN 0-87049-897-5. Retrieved July 6, 2010.  ^ Stanislaus Murray Hamilton, ed. (1902). The Writings of James Monroe. G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 207. Retrieved July 6, 2010.  ^ Peters, Virginia Bergman (1979). The Florida
Florida
Wars. Hamden: The Shoestring Press. pp. 63–74. ISBN 0-208-01719-4.  ^ " Florida
Florida
and the Civil War" A Short History". Florida
Florida
Memory. State Library & Archives of Florida. Archived from the original on April 26, 2010. Retrieved July 5, 2010.  ^ "February 1861–1865". This Day in History. Florida
Florida
Historical Society. Archived from the original on January 10, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2010.  ^ Cox, Merlin (January 1968). "Military Reconstruction in Florida". Florida
Florida
Historical Quarterly. 46 (3): 219.  ^ "June in Florida
Florida
History". This Day in History. Florida
Florida
Historical Society. Archived from the original on October 14, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2010.  ^ 1838 Const. art III, § 2 ^ 1861 Const. art. III, § 2 ^ 1865 Const. art. III, § 2 ^ 1868 Const. art. V, § 2 ^ a b 1885 Const. art. IV, § 2 ^ a b FL Const. art. IV, § 5 ^ FL Const. art. IV, § 2 ^ 1838 Const. art III, § 18 ^ 1865 Const. art. III, § 19 ^ 1868 Const. art. V, § 15 ^ 1885 Const. art. IV, § 19 ^ FL Const. art. IV, § 3 ^ "John Milton". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 30, 2010.  ^ "Abraham Kurkindolle Allison". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 30, 2010.  ^ "David Shelby Walker". State Library and Archives of Florida. Archived from the original on January 23, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2010.  ^ " Florida
Florida
Governors' Portraits – Harrison Reed". Museum of Florida History. Retrieved March 30, 2010.  ^ Davis, William Watson (1913). The Civil War and Reconstruction in Florida, Volume 53. Columbia University. pp. 550–555. Retrieved July 6, 2010.  ^ Cases argued and adjudged in the Supreme Court of Florida. XIII. State of Florida. 1871. Retrieved July 6, 2010.  ^ "Thomas Leroy Collins". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 30, 2010.  ^ "Haydon Burns". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 30, 2010.  ^ "Can Crist Win in Florida
Florida
as an Independent?". Time. May 3, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2010. 

v t e

Governors of Florida

Military (1821)

Jackson

Territorial (1822–45)

Duval Eaton Call Reid Call Branch

State (since 1845)

Moseley Brown Broome Perry Milton Allison Marvin Walker Reed Hart Stearns Drew Bloxham Perry Fleming Mitchell Bloxham Jennings Broward Gilchrist Trammell Catts Hardee Martin Carlton Sholtz Cone Holland Caldwell Warren McCarty Johns Collins Bryant Burns Kirk Askew Graham Mixson Martinez Chiles MacKay Bush Crist Scott

v t e

Years in Florida
Florida
(1845–present)

19th century

Pre-1845 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900

20th century

1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

21st century

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021

v t e

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v t e

 State of Florida

Tallahassee (capital)

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