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Goa
Goa
/ˈɡoʊ.ə/ ( listen) is a state in India
India
within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India. It is bounded by Maharashtra
Maharashtra
to the north and Karnataka
Karnataka
to the east and south, with the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
forming its Western coast. It is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Goa
Goa
has the highest GDP per capita among all Indian states,[3] that is two and a half times that of the country.[4] It was ranked the 'best placed State' by the "Eleventh Finance Commission" for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the 'best quality of life' in India
India
by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators.[4] Panaji
Panaji
is the state's capital, while Vasco da Gama is its largest city. The historic city of Margao
Margao
still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese, who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants and conquered it soon thereafter. Goa
Goa
is a former Portuguese province; the Portuguese overseas territory of Portuguese India
India
existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by India
India
in 1961.[5][6] Goa
Goa
is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year for its white sand beaches, nightlife, places of worship and world heritage architecture. It has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
range, a biodiversity hotspot.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography and climate

3.1 Geography 3.2 Climate

4 Subdivisions 5 Government and politics 6 Flora and fauna 7 Economy 8 Demographics

8.1 Population 8.2 Languages 8.3 Religion

9 Tourism

9.1 Historic sites and neighbourhoods 9.2 Museums and science centre

10 Culture

10.1 Dance and music 10.2 Theatre 10.3 Konkani
Konkani
cinema 10.4 Food 10.5 Architecture

11 Media and communication 12 Sports 13 Education 14 Transportation

14.1 Air 14.2 Road 14.3 Rail 14.4 Sea

15 See also 16 Citations 17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links

Etymology[edit] In ancient literature, Goa
Goa
was known by many names, such as Gomanchala, Gopakapattana, Gopakapattam, Gopakapuri, Govapuri, Govem, and Gomantak.[7] Other historical names for Goa
Goa
are Sindapur, Sandabur, and Mahassapatam.[8] History[edit] Main article: History of Goa

Rock cut engraving at Usgalimal.

Rock art
Rock art
engravings found in Goa
Goa
exhibit the earliest traces of human life in India.[9] Goa, situated within the Shimoga- Goa
Goa
Greenstone Belt in the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
(an area composed of metavolcanics, iron formations and ferruginous quartzite), yields evidence for Acheulean occupation.[10] Rock art
Rock art
engravings (petroglyphs) are present on laterite platforms and granite boulders in Usgalimal near the west flowing Kushavati river and in Kajur.[11] In Kajur, the rock engravings of animals, tectiforms and other designs in granite have been associated with what is considered to be a megalithic stone circle with a round granite stone in the centre.[12] Petroglyphs, cones, stone-axe, and choppers dating to 10,000 years ago have been found in various locations in Goa, including Kazur, Mauxim, and the Mandovi- Zuari
Zuari
basin.[13] Evidence of Palaeolithic life is visible at Dabolim, Adkon, Shigao, Fatorpa, Arli, Maulinguinim, Diwar, Sanguem, Pilerne, and Aquem-Margaon. Difficulty in carbon dating the laterite rock compounds poses a problem for determining the exact time period.[14]

Gold coins issued by the Kadamba king of Goa, Shivachitta Paramadideva. Circa 1147–1187 AD.

Early Goan society underwent radical change when Indo-Aryan and Dravidian migrants amalgamated with the aboriginal locals, forming the base of early Goan culture.[15] In the 3rd century BC, Goa
Goa
was part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka
Ashoka
of Magadha. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Goa. Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th century AD, Goa
Goa
was ruled by the Bhojas of Goa. Chutus of Karwar
Karwar
also ruled some parts as feudatories of the Satavahanas of Kolhapur
Kolhapur
(2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD), Western Kshatrapas
Western Kshatrapas
(around 150 AD), the Abhiras of Western Maharashtra, Bhojas of the Yadav clans of Gujarat, and the Konkan
Konkan
Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuris.[16] The rule later passed to the Chalukyas of Badami, who controlled it between 578 and 753, and later the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed
Malkhed
from 753 to 963. From 765 to 1015, the Southern Silharas of Konkan
Konkan
ruled Goa
Goa
as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas.[17] Over the next few centuries, Goa
Goa
was successively ruled by the Kadambas as the feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. They patronised Jainism
Jainism
in Goa.[18] In 1312, Goa
Goa
came under the governance of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate. The kingdom's grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 it was forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara empire. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell into the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese as Velha Goa
Velha Goa
(or Old Goa).[19]

The Se Cathedral
Se Cathedral
at Old Goa, an example of Portuguese architecture
Portuguese architecture
and one of the largest churches in Asia.

The Mahadeva Temple, attributed to the Kadamba period.

In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur sultan Yousuf Adil Shah with the help of a local ally, Timayya. They set up a permanent settlement in Velha Goa. This was the beginning of Portuguese rule in Goa
Goa
that would last for four and a half centuries, until its annexation in 1961.[citation needed] In 1843 the Portuguese moved the capital to Panaji
Panaji
from Velha Goa. By the mid-18th century, Portuguese Goa
Goa
had expanded to most of the present-day state limits. Simultaneously the Portuguese lost other possessions in India
India
until their borders stabilised and formed the Estado da Índia Portuguesa or State of Portuguese India, of which Goa was the largest territory.[citation needed] After India
India
gained independence from the British in 1947, India requested that Portuguese territories on the Indian subcontinent be ceded to India. Portugal refused to negotiate on the sovereignty of its Indian enclaves. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army invaded with Operation Vijay resulting in the annexation of Goa, and of Daman and Diu islands into the Indian union. Goa, along with Daman and Diu, was organised as a centrally administered union territory of India. On 30 May 1987, the union territory was split, and Goa
Goa
was made India's twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu
remaining a union territory.[citation needed] Geography and climate[edit] Geography[edit]

Goa
Goa
coastline at Dona Paula

Goa
Goa
encompasses an area of 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi). It lies between the latitudes 14°53′54″ N and 15°40′00″ N and longitudes 73°40′33″ E and 74°20′13″ E. Goa
Goa
is a part of the coastal country known as the Konkan, which is an escarpment rising up to the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
range of mountains, which separate it from the Deccan Plateau. The highest point is the Sonsogor, with an altitude of 1,167 metres (3,829 ft). Goa
Goa
has a coastline of 101 km (63 mi). Goa's seven major rivers are the Zuari, Mandovi, Terekhol, Chapora, Galgibag, Kumbarjua canal, Talpona and the Sal.[20] The Zuari
Zuari
and the Mandovi
Mandovi
are the most important rivers, interspaced by the Kumbarjua canal, forming a major estuarine complex.[20] These rivers are fed by the Southwest monsoon rain and their basin covers 69% of the state's geographical area.[20] These rivers are some of the busiest in India. Goa
Goa
has more than 40 estuarine, eight marine, and about 90 riverine islands. The total navigable length of Goa's rivers is 253 km (157 mi). Goa
Goa
has more than 300 ancient water-tanks built during the rule of the Kadamba dynasty and over 100 medicinal springs. The Mormugao
Mormugao
harbour on the mouth of the River Zuari
Zuari
is one of the best natural harbours in South Asia. Most of Goa's soil cover is made up of laterites rich in ferric-aluminium oxides and reddish in colour. Further inland and along the riverbanks, the soil is mostly alluvial and loamy. The soil is rich in minerals and humus, thus conducive to agriculture. Some of the oldest rocks in the Indian subcontinent are found in Goa
Goa
between Molem
Molem
and Anmod on Goa's border with Karnataka. The rocks are classified as Trondjemeitic Gneiss
Gneiss
estimated to be 3,600 million years old, dated by rubidium isotope dating. A specimen of the rock is exhibited at Goa
Goa
University. Climate[edit]

Dudhsagar Falls
Dudhsagar Falls
on the Goa- Karnataka
Karnataka
border.

Goa
Goa
features a tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate classification. Goa, being in the tropical zone and near the Arabian Sea, has a hot and humid climate for most of the year. The month of May is usually the hottest, seeing daytime temperatures of over 35 °C (95 °F) coupled with high humidity. The state's three seasons are: Southwest monsoon period (June – September), post-monsoon period (October – January) and fair weather period (February – May).[20] Over 90% of the average annual rainfall (120 inches) is received during the monsoon season.[20]

Climate data for Goa

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 31.6 (88.9) 31.5 (88.7) 32.0 (89.6) 33.0 (91.4) 33.0 (91.4) 30.3 (86.5) 28.9 (84) 28.8 (83.8) 29.5 (85.1) 31.6 (88.9) 32.8 (91) 32.4 (90.3) 31.28 (88.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) 26.0 (78.8) 26.3 (79.3) 27.7 (81.9) 29.3 (84.7) 30.0 (86) 27.6 (81.7) 26.7 (80.1) 26.4 (79.5) 26.9 (80.4) 27.9 (82.2) 27.6 (81.7) 26.6 (79.9) 27.42 (81.35)

Average low °C (°F) 19.6 (67.3) 20.5 (68.9) 23.2 (73.8) 25.6 (78.1) 26.3 (79.3) 24.7 (76.5) 24.1 (75.4) 24.0 (75.2) 23.8 (74.8) 23.8 (74.8) 22.3 (72.1) 20.6 (69.1) 23.21 (73.78)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.2 (0.008) 0.1 (0.004) 1.2 (0.047) 11.8 (0.465) 112.7 (4.437) 868.2 (34.181) 994.8 (39.165) 512.7 (20.185) 251.9 (9.917) 124.8 (4.913) 30.9 (1.217) 16.7 (0.657) 2,926 (115.2)

Average precipitation days 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.8 4.2 21.9 27.2 13.3 13.5 6.2 2.5 0.4 90.1

Mean monthly sunshine hours 313.1 293.8 291.4 288.0 297.6 126.0 105.4 120.9 177.0 248.0 273.0 300.7 2,834.9

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization[21]

Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory[22] for sunshine and mean temperatures

Subdivisions[edit]

Talukas of Goa. Talukas in green shades belong to North Goa
North Goa
district, and orange denote South Goa
South Goa
district.

Main article: Districts of Goa See also: List of cities and towns in Goa The state is divided into two districts: North Goa
North Goa
and South Goa. Each district is administered by a district collector, appointed by the Indian government. Panaji
Panaji
is the headquarters of North Goa
North Goa
district and is also the capital of Goa. North Goa
North Goa
is further divided into three subdivisions – Panaji, Mapusa, and Bicholim; and five taluks – Ilhas de Goa
Goa
(Tiswadi), Bardez
Bardez
(Mapusa), Pernem, Bicholim, and Sattari (Valpoi), Margão is the headquarters of South Goa
South Goa
district. South Goa
South Goa
is further divided into five subdivisions – Ponda, Mormugao
Mormugao
(Vasco da Gama), Margao, Quepem, and Dharbandora; and seven taluks – Ponda, Mormugao, Salcete
Salcete
(Margao), Quepem, and Canacona (Chaudi), Sanguem, and Dharbandora. (Ponda Taluka shifted from North Goa
Goa
to South Goa
South Goa
in January 2015). Goa's major cities include Vasco da Gama, Margão, Panaji, Mapusa
Mapusa
and Ponda. Panaji
Panaji
And Margao
Margao
are the two Municipal Corporations in Goa. There are thirteen Municipal Councils: Margao, Mormugao
Mormugao
(including Vasco da Gama), Pernem, Mapusa, Bicholim, Sanquelim, Valpoi, Ponda, Cuncolim, Quepem, Curchorem, Sanguem, and Canacona. Goa
Goa
has a total number of 334 villages.[23] Government and politics[edit] Main article: Government of Goa

Goa
Goa
Assembly

The politics of Goa
Goa
are a result of the uniqueness of this region due to 450 years of Portuguese rule, in comparison to three centuries of British colonialism experienced by the rest of India. The Indian National Congress was unable to achieve electoral success in the first two decades after the State's incorporation into India.[24] Instead, the state was dominated by the communal politics of the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party
and the United Goans Party.[25]

Government In the Parliament of India, Goa
Goa
has two seats in the Lok Sabha (House of the People), one representing each district, and one seat in the Rajya Sabha (Council of the States). Goa's administrative capital is Panaji
Panaji
in English, Pangim in Portuguese, and Ponjê in the local language. It lies on the left bank of the Mandovi. The seat of the Goa Legislative Assembly
Goa Legislative Assembly
is in Porvorim, across the Mandovi
Mandovi
from Panaji. As the state comes under the Bombay High Court, Panaji
Panaji
has a bench of it. Unlike other states, which follow the British Indian model of civil laws framed for individual religions, the Portuguese Goa
Goa
Civil Code, a uniform code based on the Napoleonic code, has been retained in Goa. Goa
Goa
has a unicameral legislature of 40 members, headed by a speaker. The Chief Minister heads the executive, which is made up from the party or coalition elected with a majority in the legislature. The Governor, the head of the state, is appointed by the President of India. After having stable governance for nearly thirty years up to 1990, Goa
Goa
is now notorious for its political instability having seen fourteen governments in the span of the fifteen years between 1990 and 2005.[26] In March 2005 the assembly was dissolved by the Governor and President's Rule was declared, which suspended the legislature. A by-election in June 2005 saw the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
coming back to power after winning three of the five seats that went to polls. The Congress Party and the Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
(BJP) are the two largest parties in the state. In the assembly poll of 2007, the INC-led coalition won and formed the government.[27] In the 2012 Vidhan Sabha Elections, the Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
along with the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party
won a clear majority, forming the new government with Manohar Parrikar
Manohar Parrikar
as the Chief Minister. Other parties include the United Goans Democratic Party, the Nationalist Congress Party.[28] In the 2017 assembly elections, the Indian National Congress gained the most seats, with the BJP coming in second. However, no party was able to gain a majority in the 40 member house. The BJP was invited to form the Government by Governor Mridula Sinha. The Congress claimed the use of money power on the part of the BJP and took the case to the Supreme Court. However, the Manohar Parikkar led Government was able to prove its majority in the Supreme Court mandated "floor test".[29][30][31] Flora and fauna[edit] Main article: Flora and fauna of Goa

Coconut
Coconut
palm trees are a ubiquitous symbol of the State

Equatorial forest cover in Goa
Goa
stands at 1,424 km2 (549.81 sq mi),[7] most of which is owned by the government. Government owned forest is estimated at 1,224.38 km2 (472.74 sq mi) whilst private is given as 200 km2 (77.22 sq mi). Most of the forests in the state are located in the interior eastern regions of the state. The Western Ghats, which form most of eastern Goa, have been internationally recognised as one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. In the February 1999 issue of National Geographic
National Geographic
Magazine, Goa
Goa
was compared with the Amazon and the Congo basins for its rich tropical biodiversity.[citation needed] Goa's wildlife sanctuaries boast of more than 1512 documented species of plants, over 275 species of birds, over 48 kinds of animals and over 60 genera of reptiles.[32] Goa
Goa
is also known for its coconut cultivation. The coconut tree has been reclassified by the government as a palm (like a grass), enabling farmers and real estate developers to clear land with fewer restrictions. Rice is the main food crop, and pulses (legume), Ragi (Finger Millet) and other food crops are also grown. Main cash crops are coconut, cashewnut, arecanut, sugarcane and fruits like pineapple, mango and banana.[7] Goa's state animal is the Gaur, the state bird is the Ruby Throated Yellow Bulbul, which is a variation of Black-crested Bulbul, and the state tree is the Asan. The important forests products are bamboo canes, Maratha
Maratha
barks, chillar barks and the bhirand. Coconut
Coconut
trees are ubiquitous and are present in almost all areas of Goa
Goa
barring the elevated regions. A large number of deciduous trees, such as teak, Sal tree, cashew and mango trees are present. Fruits include jackfruit, mango, pineapple and "black-berry" ("podkoam" in Konkani
Konkani
language). Goa's forests are rich with medicinal plants.

Rice paddies are common in rural Goa.

Foxes, wild boar and migratory birds are found in the jungles of Goa. The avifauna (bird species) includes kingfisher, myna and parrot. Numerous types of fish are also caught off the coast of Goa
Goa
and in its rivers. Crab, lobster, shrimp, jellyfish, oysters and catfish are the basis of the marine fishery. Goa
Goa
also has a high snake population. Goa has many famous "National Parks", including the renowned Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary on the island of Chorão. Other wildlife sanctuaries include the Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary, Molem
Molem
Wildlife Sanctuary, Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary, Madei Wildlife Sanctuary, Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary, and Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary. Goa
Goa
has more than 33% of its geographic area under government forests (1224.38 km²) of which about 62% has been brought under Protected Areas (PA) of Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Park. Since there is a substantial area under private forests and a large tract under cashew, mango, coconut, etc. plantations, the total forest and tree cover constitutes 56.6% of the geographic area. Economy[edit]

Gross State Domestic Product (in millions of Rupees)[33]

Year GSDP

1980 3,980

1985 6,550

1990 12,570

1995 33,190

2000 76,980

2010 150,000

Train carrying iron ore to Marmagao
Marmagao
Port, Vasco

Commercial area in Panaji.

Goa's state domestic product for 2017 is estimated at $11 billion at current prices. Goa
Goa
is India's richest state with the highest GDP per capita – two and a half times that of the country – with one of its fastest growth rates: 8.23% (yearly average 1990–2000).[34] Tourism is Goa's primary industry: it gets 12%[35] of foreign tourist arrivals in India. Goa
Goa
has two main tourist seasons: winter and summer. In winter, tourists from abroad (mainly Europe) come, and summer (which, in Goa, is the rainy season) sees tourists from across India. Goa's net state domestic product (NSDP) was around US$7.24 billion in 2015–16.[36] The land away from the coast is rich in minerals and ores, and mining forms the second largest industry. Iron, bauxite, manganese, clays, limestone and silica are mined. The Mormugao
Mormugao
port handled 31.69 million tonnes of cargo last year, which was 39% of India's total iron ore exports. Sesa Goa
Sesa Goa
(now owned by Vedanta Resources) and Dempo are the lead miners. Rampant mining has been depleting the forest cover as well as posing a health hazard to the local population. Corporations are also mining illegally in some areas. During 2015–16, the total traffic handled by Mormugao
Mormugao
port was recorded to be 20.78 million tones. Agriculture, while of shrinking importance to the economy over the past four decades, offers part-time employment to a sizeable portion of the populace. Rice is the main agricultural crop, followed by areca, cashew and coconut. Fishing employs about 40,000 people, though recent official figures indicate a decline of the importance of this sector and also a fall in catch, due perhaps, to traditional fishing giving way to large-scale mechanised trawling. Medium scale industries include the manufacturing of pesticides, fertilisers, tyres, tubes, footwear, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, wheat products, steel rolling, fruits and fish canning, cashew nuts, textiles, brewery products. Currently there are 16 planned SEZs in Goa. The Goa
Goa
government has recently decided to not allow any more special economic zones (SEZs) in Goa
Goa
after strong opposition to them by political parties and the powerful Goa
Goa
Catholic Church.[37] Goa
Goa
is also notable for its low priced beer, wine and spirits prices due to its very low excise duty on alcohol. Another main source of cash inflow to the state is remittance, from many of its citizens who work abroad, to their families. It is said to have some of the largest bank savings in the country. Goa
Goa
is the second state in India
India
to achieve a 100 per cent automatic telephone system with a solid network of telephone exchanges. As of September 2017, Goa
Goa
had a total installed power generation capacity of 547.88 MW. Goa
Goa
is also one of the few states in India
India
to achieve 100 per cent rural electrification.[38] Demographics[edit] Population[edit] See also: Goans

Population growth 

Census Pop.

1951 547,000

1961 590,000

7.9%

1971 795,000

34.7%

1981 1,008,000

26.8%

1991 1,170,000

16.1%

2001 1,347,668

15.2%

2011 1,731,031

28.4%

A native of Goa
Goa
is called a Goan. Goa
Goa
has a population of 1.459 million residents,[39] making it India's fourth smallest (after Sikkim, Mizoram
Mizoram
and Arunachal Pradesh). The population has a growth rate of 8.23% per decade. There are 394 people for each square kilometre of land which is higher than national average 382 per km2. Goa
Goa
is the state with highest proportion of urban population with 62.17% of the population living in urban areas. The sex ratio is 973 females to 1,000 males. The birth rate is 15.70 per 1,000 people in 2007. Goa
Goa
also is the state with lowest proportion of Scheduled Tribes at 0.04%.[40] A relatively small Goan-Portuguese mixed race population resulted from Portuguese colonization, one estimate being that less than 100 mestiço families left in 1961 when Portugal lost the colony.[41] Languages[edit] See also: Konkani
Konkani
and Marathi

Languages in Goa

Konkani

57%

Marathi

23%

Kannada

5.5%

Hindi

5.7%

Urdu

4.0%

Others

4.8%

The Goa, Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu
Official Language Act, 1987 makes Konkani
Konkani
in the Devanagari
Devanagari
script the sole official language of Goa, but provides that Marathi may also be used "for all or any of the official purposes". Portuguese was the sole official language during Portuguese colonial rule. It is now, however, mostly spoken by only the elderly Portuguese-educated populations and is no longer an official language[citation needed]. There is now a growing interest in Portuguese with the organisation of several contests and programmes to promote the same[citation needed]. The Government also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in Marathi.[42] Whilst there have been demands for according Konkani
Konkani
in the Roman script official status in the state, there is widespread support for keeping Konkani
Konkani
as the sole official language of Goa.[43] It is however notable to mention that the entire liturgy and communication of the Catholic church in Goa
Goa
is done solely in the Roman script of Konkani. Konkani
Konkani
is spoken as a native language by about 57% of the people in the state but almost all Goans can speak and understand Konkani. Other linguistic minorities in the state as per the 2001 census are speakers of Marathi (23%), Kannada
Kannada
(5.5%), Hindi
Hindi
(5.7%), and Urdu
Urdu
(4%).[44] With the exception of Konkani, English, Portuguese and Marathi, all other mentioned languages are primarily migrant-based languages, natively spoken in other Indian states. Religion[edit]

Hindu- Christianity
Christianity
Unity Memorial at Miramar Beach.

Religion in Goa
Goa
(2011)[45][46]    Hinduism
Hinduism
(66.08%)    Christianity
Christianity
(25.10%)    Islam
Islam
(8.33%)    Sikhism
Sikhism
(0.10%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(0.08%)    Jainism
Jainism
(0.08%)   Other or not religious (0.2%)

According to the 2011 census, in a population of 1,458,545 people, 66.1% were Hindu, 25.1% were Christian, and 8.3% were Muslim. Smaller minorities of about 0.1% each followed Sikhism, Buddhism, or Jainism.[46] Due to the economic decline of the Estado da India
India
from the eighteenth century, there was a large scale migration of Goan Catholics. The local Indian Christians were called "indiacatos" and the mixed population, mestiços by the Portuguese. The population moved from 64.5% Christians and 35% Hindus in 1851 to 50% Christians and 50% Hindus in 1900, with a steady increase in the Hindu
Hindu
proportion from then onwards.[47] The Catholics in Goa
Goa
state and Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu
union territory are served by the Metropolitan Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Goa
Archdiocese of Goa
and Daman, the primatial see of India, in which the titular Patriarchate of the East Indies is vested. Tourism[edit] See also: Tourism in Goa

International and Indian tourists visit Goa
Goa
and Goans

Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas of Goa, with decreased tourist activity inland. In 2010, there were more than 2 million tourists reported to have visited Goa, about 1.2 million of whom were from abroad.[48] As of 2013[update], Goa
Goa
was a destination of choice for Indian and foreign tourists, particularly Britons and Russians, with limited means who wanted to party. The state was hopeful that changes could be made which would attract a more upscale demographic.[49] Goa
Goa
stands 6th in the Top 10 Nightlife cities in the world in National Geographic Travel.[50] One of the biggest tourist attractions in Goa is water sports. Beaches like Baga and Calangute offer jet-skiing, parasailing, banana boat rides, water scooter rides, and more. Patnem beach in Palolem stood 3rd in CNN
CNN
Travel's Top 20 Beaches in Asia.[51] Over 450 years of Portuguese rule and the influence of the Portuguese culture presents to visitors to Goa
Goa
a cultural environment that is not found elsewhere in India. Goa
Goa
is often described as a fusion between Eastern and Western culture
Western culture
with Portuguese culture having a dominant position in the state be it in its architectural, cultural or social settings. The state of Goa
Goa
is famous for its excellent beaches, churches, and temples[52].The Bom Jesus
Jesus
Cathedral, Fort Aguada
Fort Aguada
and a new wax museum on Indian history, culture and heritage in Old Goa
Old Goa
are other tourism destinations. Historic sites and neighbourhoods[edit] Goa
Goa
has two World Heritage Sites: the Bom Jesus
Jesus
Basilica[53] and churches and convents of Old Goa. The basilica holds the mortal remains of St. Francis Xavier, regarded by many Catholics as the patron saint of Goa
Goa
(the patron of the Archdiocese of Goa
Archdiocese of Goa
is actually Saint Joseph Vaz). These are both Portuguese-era monuments and reflect a strong European character. The relics are taken down for veneration and for public viewing, as per the prerogative of the Church in Goa, not every ten or twelve years as popularly thought and propagated. The last exposition was held in 2014.[54]

Our Lady of Immaculate Conception
Our Lady of Immaculate Conception
Church in Panaji

Tourist Arrivals[55]

Year Total Arrivals % Change

1985 775,212

1990 881,323 13.3

1995 1,107,705 23.7

2000 1,268,513 13.8

2005 2,302,146 66.3

2010 2,644,805 13.9

2015 5,297,902 76.4

Goa
Goa
has the Sanctuary of Saint Joseph Vaz
Joseph Vaz
in Sancoale. Pilar monastery which holds novenas of Venerable Padre Agnelo Gustavo de Souza from 10 November to 20 November yearly. There is a claimed Marian Apparition at the Church of Saints Simon and Jude at Batim, Ganxim, near Pilar, where Goans and non-resident Goans visit. There is the statue of the bleeding Jesus
Jesus
on the Crucifix
Crucifix
at the Santa Monica
Santa Monica
Convent
Convent
in Velha Goa. There are churches (Igorzo), like the Baroque styled Nixkollounk Gorb-Sombhov Saibinnich Igorz (Church of the Our Lady of Immaculate Conception) in Panaji, the Gothic styled Mater Dei (Dêv Matechi Igorz/ Mother of God) church in Saligao
Saligao
and each church having its own style and heritage, besides Kopelam/ Irmidi (chapels). The Velhas Conquistas
Velhas Conquistas
regions are known for Goa-Portuguese style architecture. There are many forts in Goa
Goa
such as Tiracol, Chapora, Corjuem, Aguada, Reis Magos, Nanus, Mormugao, Fort Gaspar Dias and Cabo de Rama.[citation needed] In many parts of Goa, mansions constructed in the Indo-Portuguese style architecture still stand, though in some villages, most of them are in a dilapidated condition. Fontainhas in Panaji
Panaji
has been declared a cultural quarter, showcasing the life, architecture and culture of Goa. Influences from the Portuguese era are visible in some of Goa's temples, notably the Shanta Durga Temple, the Mangueshi Temple
Mangueshi Temple
and the Mahalasa
Mahalasa
Temple. After 1961, many of these were demolished and reconstructed in the indigenous Indian style.[citation needed] Museums and science centre[edit] Goa
Goa
has a few museums, the two important ones being Goa
Goa
State Museum and the Naval Aviation Museum. The aviation museum is one among three of its kind in the India
India
(the other two being in Delhi
Delhi
and Bengaluru). A place not well known to tourists is the Goa
Goa
Science
Science
Centre, which is in Miramar, Panaji.[56] The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) is in Goa
Goa
at Dona Paula.[57] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Goa

Shanta Durga temple
Shanta Durga temple
at Kavlem.

Having been a Portuguese territory for over 450 years, Goa's culture is an interesting amalgamation of both Eastern and Western styles, with the latter having a more dominant role. The tableau of Goa showcases religious harmony by focusing on the Deepastambha, the Cross and Ghode Modni followed by a chariot. Western royal attire of kings is as much part of Goa's cultural heritage as are regional dances performed depicting a unique blend of different religions and cultures of this State. Prominent local festivals are Christmas, Easter, Carnival, Diwali, Shigmo, Chavoth, Samvatsar Padvo, Dasara etc. The Goan Carnival
Carnival
and Christmas-new year celebrations are well known to attract a large number of tourists. The Gomant Vibhushan Award, the highest civilian honour of the State of Goa, is given annually by Government of Goa since 2010.[58][59] Dance and music[edit] Main article: Music of Goa Traditional Goan art forms are Dekhnni, Fugdi, Corridinho, Mando, Dulpod and Fado.[60] Goan Catholics
Goan Catholics
are fond of social gatherings and Tiatr
Tiatr
(Teatro). As part of its Portuguese history, music is an integral part of Goan homes. It is often said that " Goans are born with music and sport". Western musical instruments like the piano, guitars and violins are widely used in most religious and social functions of the Catholics. Goan Hindus are very fond of Natak, Bhajan
Bhajan
and Kirtan.[citation needed] Many famous Indian classical singers hail from Goa, including Mogubai Kurdikar, Kishori Amonkar, Kesarbai Kerkar, Jitendra Abhisheki and Pandit Prabhakar Karekar.[citation needed] Goa
Goa
is also known as the origin of Goa
Goa
trance. Theatre[edit] See also: Goan literature

Goan-chumar-chitram

Natak, Tiatr
Tiatr
(most popular) and Jagor are the chief forms of Goa's traditional performance arts. Other forms are Ranmale, Dashavatari, Kalo, Goulankala, Lalit, Kala and Rathkala.[citation needed] Stories from the Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
along with more modern social subjects are narrated with song and dance.[61][62] "Jagor", the traditional folk dance-drama, is performed by the Hindu Kunbi
Kunbi
and Christian
Christian
Gauda community of Goa, to seek the Devine Grace for protection and prosperity of the crop. Literal meaning of Jagor is "jagran" or wakeful nights. The strong belief is that the night long performance, awakens the deities once a year and they continue to remain awake throughout the year guarding the village. Perni Jagor is the ancient mask dance – drama of Goa, performed by Perni families, using well crafted and painted wooden masks, depicting various animals, birds, super natural power, deities, demons and social characters. Gauda Jagor, is an impression of social life, that displays all the existing moods and modes of human characters. It is predominantly based on three main characters, Gharasher, Nikhandar and Parpati wearing shining dress and headgears. The performance is accompanied by vibrant tunes of Goan folk instruments like Nagara/Dobe, Ghumat, Madale and Kansale. In some places, Jagor performances are held with participation of both Hindus and Christian
Christian
community, whereby, characters are played by Hindus and musical support is provided by Christian
Christian
artistes.[63] Tiatr
Tiatr
(Teatro) and its artists play a major role in keeping the Konkani language
Konkani language
& music alive. Tiatr's are conducted solely in the Roman script of Konkani
Konkani
as it is primarily a Christian
Christian
community based act. They are played in scenes with music at regular intervals, the scenes are portrayals of daily life and are known to depict social and cultural scenarios. Tiatrs are regularly held especially on weekends mainly at Kala Academy, Panaji, Pai Tiatrist Hall at Ravindra Bhavan, Margao
Margao
and most recent shows have also started at the new Ravindra Bhavan, Baina, Vasco. Western Musical Instruments such as Drums, bass, Keyboards, Trumpets etc. are part of the show and most of them are played acoustically.[citation needed] It is one of Goa's few art forms that is renowned across the world with performances popular among Goans in the Middle-East, Americas and Europe. Konkani
Konkani
cinema[edit]

2005 India
India
Goa
Goa
Film
Film
Festival

Konkani
Konkani
cinema is an Indian film
Indian film
industry, where films are made in the Konkani
Konkani
language, which is spoken mainly in the Indian states of Goa, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Karnataka
Karnataka
and to a smaller extent in Kerala. Konkani films have been produced in Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Kerala.[64] The first full length Konkani
Konkani
film was Mogacho Anvddo, released on 24 April 1950, and was produced and directed by A. L.Jerry Braganza, a native of Mapusa, under the banner of ETICA Pictures.[65][66] Hence, 24 April is celebrated as Konkani
Konkani
Film
Film
Day.[67] Since 2004, starting from the 35th edition, the International Film Festival of India
India
moved its permanent venue to Goa, it is annually held in the months of November and December.[68] Konkani
Konkani
film Paltadcho manis has been included in the world's best films of 2009 list.[69] Konkani
Konkani
films are eligible for the National Film
Film
Award for Best Feature Film
Film
in Konkani. The most commercially successful Konkani
Konkani
film (as of June 2011) is O Maria directed by Rajendra Talak.[70] In 2012, the whole new change adopted in Konkani
Konkani
Cinema by introducing Digital Theatrical Film
Film
"The Victim" directed by Milroy Goes.[71] Some old Konkani
Konkani
films are Sukhachem Sopon, Amchem Noxib, Nirmonn, Mhoji Ghorkarn, Kortubancho Sonvsar, Jivit Amchem Oxem, Mog ani Moipas, Bhuierantlo Munis, Suzanne, Boglantt, Padri and Bhogsonne. Ujwadu is a 2011 Konkani
Konkani
film directed by Kasargod Chinna and produced by KJ Dhananjaya and Anuradha Padiyar. Food[edit] Main article: Goan cuisine

Traditional native Goan Fish Curry

Rice with fish curry (xit koddi in Konkani) is the staple diet in Goa. Goan cuisine
Goan cuisine
is famous for its rich variety of fish dishes cooked with elaborate recipes. Coconut
Coconut
and coconut oil are widely used in Goan cooking along with chili peppers, spices, and vinegar is used in the Catholic cuisine, giving the food a unique flavour. The Goan cuisine is heavily influenced by Portuguese cuisine. Goan food may be divided into Goan Catholic and Goan Hindu
Hindu
cuisine with each showing very distinct tastes, characteristics, and cooking styles. Pork
Pork
dishes such as Vindalho, Xacuti, chouriço, and Sorpotel are cooked for major occasions among the Goan Catholics. An exotic Goan vegetable stew, known as Khatkhate, is a very popular dish during the celebrations of festivals, Hindu
Hindu
and Christian
Christian
alike. Khatkhate contains at least five vegetables, fresh coconut, and special Goan spices that add to the aroma. Sannas, Hitt, are variants of idli and Polle, Amboli, and Kailoleo are variants of dosa; all are native to Goa. A rich egg-based, multi-layered sweet dish known as bebinca is a favourite at Christmas. There are some places in Goa
Goa
which are famous for Goa's traditional & special cuisines. Ros omlette is one of the most popular snacks and street foods in Goa, it is traditionally sold on food carts on streets. The most popular alcoholic beverage in Goa
Goa
is feni; cashew feni is made from the fermentation of the fruit of the cashew tree, while coconut feni is made from the sap of toddy palms. Urrak is another local liquor prepared from Cashew fruit. Infact the bar culture is one of the unique aspects of the Goan villages where a local bar serves as a meeting point for villagers to unwind.[72] Goa
Goa
also has a rich wine culture.[73][74]

The House of the Seven Gables in Margao

Architecture[edit] The architecture of Goa
Goa
is a combination of Goan, Ottoman and Portuguese styles. Since the Portuguese ruled and governed for four centuries, many churches and houses bear a striking element of the Portuguese style of architecture. Goan Hindu
Hindu
houses do not show any Portuguese influence, though the modern temple architecture is an amalgam of original Goan temple style with Dravidian, Hemadpanthi, Islamic, and Portuguese architecture.[75] The original Goan temple architecture fell into disuse as the temples were demolished by the Portuguese and the Sthapati
Sthapati
known as Thavayi in Konkani
Konkani
were converted to Christianity
Christianity
though the wooden work and the Kavi murals can still be seen.[76] (see:Goa: Hindu
Hindu
temples and deities by Rui Gomes Pereira). Media and communication[edit] Main article: Media in Goa Goa
Goa
is served by almost all television channels available in India. Channels are received through cable in most parts of Goa. In the interior regions, channels are received via satellite dishes. Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster, has two free terrestrial channels on air.[77] DTH (Direct To Home) TV services are available from Dish TV, Videocon D2H, Tata Sky & DD Direct Plus. The All India
India
Radio is the only radio channel in the state that broadcasts on both FM and AM bands. Two AM channels are broadcast, the primary channel at 1287 kHz and the Vividh Bharati channel at 1539 kHz. AIR's FM channel is called FM Rainbow and is broadcast at 105.4 MHz. A number of private FM radio channels are available, Big FM at 92.7 and Radio Indigo
Indigo
at 91.9 MHz. There is also an educational radio channel, Gyan Vani, run by IGNOU
IGNOU
broadcast from Panaji
Panaji
at 107.8 MHz. In 2006, St Xavier's College, Mapusa, became the first college in the state to launch a campus community radio station "Voice of Xavier's".[78] Major cellular service operators include Bharti Airtel, Vodafone Essar, Idea Cellular, Telenor, Reliance Infocomm, Tata DoCoMo, BSNL CellOne
CellOne
and Jio.[79] Local publications include the English language
English language
O Heraldo
O Heraldo
(Goa's oldest, once a Portuguese language
Portuguese language
paper), The Gomantak Times and The Navhind Times. In addition to these, The Times of India
India
and The Indian Express are also received from Mumbai
Mumbai
and Bangalore in the urban areas. The Times of India
India
has recently started publication from Goa itself, serving the local population news directly from the state capital. Among the list of officially accredited newspapers are O Heraldo, The Navhind Times
The Navhind Times
and The Gomantak Times in English; Bhaangar Bhuin in Konkani
Konkani
( Devanagari
Devanagari
script); and Tarun Bharat, Gomantak, Navprabha, Goa
Goa
Times, Sanatan Prabhat, Govadoot and Lokmat (all in Marathi). All are dailies. Other publications in the state include Planet Goa
Goa
(English, monthly), Goa Today (English, monthly), Goan Observer (English, weekly), Vauraddeancho Ixtt (Roman-script Konkani, weekly) Goa
Goa
Messenger, Vasco Watch, Gulab (Konkani, monthly), Bimb (Devanagari-script Konkani).[80] Sports[edit] Further information: Goans in sports

Fatorda Stadium

Normally other states are fond of cricket but association football is the most popular sport in Goa
Goa
and is embedded in Goan culture as a result of the Portuguese influence.[81] Its origins in the state are traced back to 1883 when the visiting Irish priest Fr. William Robert Lyons established the sport as part of a "Christian education".[81][82] On 22 December 1959 the Associação de Futebol de Goa
Goa
was formed, which continues to administer the game in the state under the new name Goa
Goa
Football Association.[81] Goa, along with West Bengal and Kerala[81] is the locus of football in India
India
and is home to many football clubs in the national I-League. The state's football powerhouses include Salgaocar Sports Club, Dempo Sports Club, Churchill Brothers, Vasco Sports Club, Sporting Clube de Goa
Sporting Clube de Goa
and FC Goa. The first Unity World Cup was held in Goa
Goa
in 2014. The state's main football stadium, Fatorda Stadium, is located at Margao
Margao
and also hosts cricket matches.[83] The state hosted few matches of the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup in Fatorda Stadium.[84] A number of Goans have represented India
India
in football and six of them, namely Samir Naik, Climax Lawrence, Brahmanand Sankhwalkar, Bruno Coutinho, Mauricio Afonso and Roberto Fernandes have all captained the national team. Goa
Goa
has its own state football team and league, the Goa Professional League. It is probably the only state in India
India
where cricket is not considered the most important of all sports. Goa
Goa
also has its own cricket team. Dilip Sardesai remains the only Goan to date to play international cricket for India.[85] The Indian Olympic Association (IOA) has won the right to host the Asian Beach Games
Asian Beach Games
in 2020.[86] Further information: Goans in sports Education[edit] Main article: Education in Goa See also: List of institutions of higher education in Goa

Goa
Goa
University

Goa
Goa
had India's earliest educational institutions built with European support. The Portuguese set up seminaries for religious education and parish schools for elementary education. Founded circa 1542 by saint Francis Xavier, Saint Paul's College, Goa
Saint Paul's College, Goa
was a Jesuit school in Old Goa, which later became a college. St Paul's was once the main Jesuit institution in the whole of Asia. It housed the first printing press in India
India
and published the first books in 1556. Medical education began in 1801 with the offering of regular medical courses at the Royal and Military Hospital in the old City of Goa. Built in 1842 as the Escola Médico-Cirúrgica de (Nova) Goa (Medical-Surgical School of Goa), Goa Medical College
Goa Medical College
is one of Asia's oldest medical colleges and has one of the oldest medical libraries (since 1845).[87] It houses the largest hospital in Goa
Goa
and continues to provide medical training to this day. According to the 2011 census, Goa
Goa
has a literacy rate of 87%, with 90% of males and 84% of females being literate.[88] Each taluka is made up of villages, each having a school run by the government. Private schools are preferred over government run schools. All schools come under the Goa
Goa
Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education, whose syllabus is prescribed by the state education department. There are also a few schools that subscribe to the all- India
India
ICSE syllabus or the NIOS syllabus. Most students in Goa
Goa
complete their high school with English as the medium of instruction. Most primary schools, however, use Konkani
Konkani
and Marathi (in private, but government-aided schools). As is the case in most of India, enrolment for vernacular media has seen a fall in numbers in favour of English medium education. As per a report published in The Times of India, 84% of Goan primary schools run without an administrative head.[89]

Carmel College for Women is affiliated to Goa
Goa
University. It was established more than 50 years to aid in closing the education gender gap.

The best known schools in Goa
Goa
include Sharada Mandir School in Miramar, St Mary Angels Convent
Convent
High School in Chinchinim, Perpetual Succour Convent
Convent
High school, Navelim, Our Lady of the Rosary High School at Dona Paula, Vidya Prabhodini at Porvorim, K.B. Hedgewar High School, the Progress High School, Don Bosco High School, People's High School, Mushtifund High School in Panaji, Saraswat Vidyalaya High School in Mapusa, Sunshine Worldwide school in Old Goa, Shiksha Niketan and Nisha's Playschool in Torda, A. J. de Almeida High School in Ponda, S.S. Samiti's I.V.B.D. High School in Dhawali–Ponda, Vidya Bharati, Mahila And Nutan English High School in Margao, Manovikas in Margao, Loyola High School in Margao, St. Joseph's Institute, Deepvihar High School in Vasco da Gama and Rosary High School in Navelim, Lourdes Convent
Convent
High School in Saligao
Saligao
and The King's School in São José de Areal.

Goa
Goa
Medical College, previously called Escola Médico–Cirúrgica de Goa

After ten years of schooling, students join a Higher Secondary school, which offers courses in popular streams such as Science, Arts, Law
Law
and Commerce. A student may also opt for a course in vocational studies. Additionally, they may join three-year diploma courses. Two years of college is followed by a professional degree programme. Goa University, the sole university in Goa, is located in Taleigão
Taleigão
and most Goan colleges are affiliated to it. There are six engineering colleges in the state. Goa
Goa
Engineering College and National Institute of Technology Goa are government funded colleges whereas the private engineering colleges include Don Bosco College of Engineering
Engineering
at Fatorda, Shree Rayeshwar Institute of Engineering
Engineering
and Information Technology at Shiroda, Agnel Institute of Technology and Design (AITD), Assagao, Bardez
Bardez
and Padre Conceicao College of Engineering
Engineering
at Verna. In 2004, BITS Pilani one of the premier institutes in India, inaugurated its second campus, the BITS Pilani Goa
Goa
Campus, at Zuarinagar near Dabolim. The Indian Institute of Technology Goa
Goa
(IIT Goa) began functioning from its temporary campus, located in Goa
Goa
Engineering
Engineering
College since 2016. The site for permanent campus is yet to be finalised. There are colleges offering pharmacy, architecture and dentistry along with numerous private colleges offering law, arts, commerce and science. There are also two National Oceanographic Science
Science
related centres: the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research in Vasco da Gama and the National Institute of Oceanography in Dona Paula. Goa Institute of Management
Goa Institute of Management
located at Sanquelim, near Panaji
Panaji
is one of India's premier business schools. In addition to the engineering colleges, there are government polytechnic institutions in Panaji, Bicholim
Bicholim
and Curchorem, and aided institutions like Father Agnel Polytechnic in Verna and the Institute of Shipbuilding Technology in Vasco da Gama which impart technical and vocational training.[90] Other colleges in Goa
Goa
include Shri Damodar College of Commerce
Commerce
and Economics, V.V.M's R.M. Salgaocar Higher Secondary School in Margao, G.V.M's S.N.J.A higher secondary school, Don Bosco College, D.M.'s College of Arts, Science
Science
and Commerce, St Xavier's College, Carmel College, The Parvatibai Chowgule College, Dhempe College, Damodar College, MES College, S. S. Samiti's Higher Secondary School of Science
Science
and Rosary College of Commerce
Commerce
& Arts. Transportation[edit] Air[edit]

Goa
Goa
International Airport, new terminal building

Goa
Goa
International Airport, is a civil enclave at INS Hansa, a Naval airfield located at Dabolim
Dabolim
near Vasco da Gama. The airport caters to scheduled domestic and international air services. Goa
Goa
has scheduled international connections to Doha, Dubai, Muscat, Sharjah and Kuwait in the Middle East
Middle East
by airlines like Air Arabia, Air India, GoAir, Indigo, Oman Air, SpiceJet, Jet Airways, JetKonnect and Qatar Airways. The proposed greenfield Mopa Airport will be built at Mopa in Pernem taluka. Road[edit]

Most of Goa
Goa
is well connected by roads.

Government-run Kadamba buses at a bus station in Goa

Goa's public transport largely consists of privately operated buses linking the major towns to rural areas. Government-run buses, maintained by the Kadamba Transport Corporation, link major routes (like the Panaji– Margao
Margao
route) and some remote parts of the state. The Corporation owns 15 bus stands, 4 depots and one Central workshop at Porvorim
Porvorim
and a Head Office at Porvorim.[91] In large towns such as Panajiand Margao, intra-city buses operate. However, public transport in Goa
Goa
is less developed, and residents depend heavily on their own transportation, usually motorised two-wheelers and small family cars.

Motorcycle Taxi or "Pilots"

Goa
Goa
has four National Highways passing through it. NH-66 (ex NH-17) runs along India's west coast and links Goa
Goa
to Mumbai
Mumbai
in the north and Mangalore
Mangalore
to the south. NH-4A running across the state connects the capital Panaji
Panaji
to Belgaum
Belgaum
in east, linking Goa
Goa
to cities in the Deccan. The NH-366 (ex NH-17A) connects NH-66 to Mormugao
Mormugao
Port from Cortalim. The new NH-566 (ex NH-17B) is a four-lane highway connecting Mormugao
Mormugao
Port to NH-66 at Verna via Dabolim
Dabolim
Airport, primarily built to ease pressure on the NH-366 for traffic to Dabolim
Dabolim
Airport and Vasco da Gama. NH-768 (ex NH-4A) links Panaji
Panaji
and Ponda to Belgaum
Belgaum
and NH-4. Goa
Goa
has a total of 224 km (139 mi) of national highways, 232 km (144 mi) of state highway and 815 kilometres (506 miles) of district highway. National Highways in Goa are among the narrowest in the country and will remain so for the foreseeable future, as the state government has received an exemption that allows narrow national highways. In Kerala, highways are 45 metres (148 feet) wide. In other states National Highways are grade separated highways 60 metres (200 feet) wide with a minimum of four lanes, as well as 6 or 8 lane access-controlled expressways.[92][93] Hired forms of transport include unmetered taxis and, in urban areas, auto rickshaws. Another form of transportation in Goa
Goa
is the motorcycle taxi, operated by drivers who are locally called "pilots". These vehicles transport a single pillion rider, at fares that are usually negotiated. Other than buses, "pilots" tend to be the cheapest mode of transport.[94] River crossings in Goa
Goa
are serviced by flat-bottomed ferry boats, operated by the river navigation department. Rail[edit]

Margao
Margao
railway station

Goa
Goa
has two rail lines – one run by the South Western Railway and the other by the Konkan
Konkan
Railway. The line run by the South Western Railway was built during the colonial era linking the port town of Vasco da Gama, Goa
Vasco da Gama, Goa
with Belgaum, Hubli, Karnataka
Karnataka
via Margao. The Konkan
Konkan
Railway line, which was built during the 1990s, runs parallel to the coast connecting major cities on the western coast. Sea[edit] The Mormugao
Mormugao
harbour near the city of Vasco handles mineral ore, petroleum, coal, and international containers. Much of the shipments consist of minerals and ores from Goa's hinterland. Panaji, which is on the banks of the Mandovi, has a minor port, which used to handle passenger steamers between Goa
Goa
and Mumbai
Mumbai
till the late 1980s. There was also a short-lived catamaran service linking Mumbai
Mumbai
and Panaji operated by Damania Shipping in the 1990s. See also[edit]

Outline of Goa

Citations[edit]

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Daman and Diu
Official Language Act, 1987" (PDF). daman.nic.in. U.T. Administration of Daman and Diu. Retrieved 17 May 2015.  ^ "The Supreme Court of India". Courts in federal countries : federalists or unitarists?. Kincaid, John, Aroney, Nicholas,. Toronto: University
University
of Toronto Press. 2017. p. 225. ISBN 9781487514662. OCLC 982378193.  ^ a b Reports of the finance commissions of India: First Finance Commission to the Twelfth Finance Commission: the complete report. India. Finance Commission. Academic Foundation. 2005. p. 268. ISBN 81-7188-474-1.  ^ "Liberation of Goa". Government Polytechnic, Panaji. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2007.  ^ Pillarisetti, Jagan. "The Liberation of Goa: an Overview". The Liberation of Goa:1961. bharat-rakshak.com. Archived from the original on 9 August 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2007.  ^ a b c "Goa". National Informatics Centre(NIC). Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2009.  ^ Sakshena, R.N. Goa: Into the Mainstream. p. 5.  ^ Indian Archaeological Society (2006). Purātattva, Issue 36. Indian Archaeological Society. p. 254.  ^ The evolution and history of human populations in South Asia : inter-disciplinary studies in archaeology, biological anthropology, linguistics and genetics. Petraglia, M. D. (Michael D.), Allchin, Bridget. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer. 2007. p. 85. ISBN 9781402055621. OCLC 187951478.  ^ Chakravarty, Kalyan Kumar (1997). Indian rock art and its global context. Bednarik, Robert G., Indirā Gāndhī Rāshṭrīya Mānava Saṅgrahālaya. (1st ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 34. ISBN 9788120814646. OCLC 38936967.  ^ Chakravarty, Kalyan Kumar (1997). Indian rock art and its global context. Bednarik, Robert G., Indirā Gāndhī Rāshṭrīya Mānava Saṅgrahālaya. (1st ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 70. ISBN 9788120814646. OCLC 38936967.  ^ C. R. Srinivasan; K. V. Ramesh; S. Subramonia Iyer (2004). Śrī puṣpāñjali: Recent Researches in Prehistory, Protohistory, Art, Architecture, Numismatics, Iconography, and Epigraphy: Dr. C.R. Srinivasan commemoration volume, Volume 1. Bharatiya Kala Prakashan,. pp. 469 pages (see page4). ISBN 9788180900563.  ^ Sakhardande, Prajal. "7th National Conference on Marine Archaeology of Indian Ocean Countries: Session V". Heritage and history of Goa. NIO Goa. Retrieved 30 March 2011.  ^ Dhume, Anant Ramkrishna (1986). The cultural history of Goa
Goa
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References[edit]

Pearson, M. N. (2 November 2006). "The Portuguese in India". Cambridge University
University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-02850-9.  de Souza, Teotonio R. (1989). Essays in Goan history. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-263-7. Retrieved 24 August 2009.  de Souza, Teotonio R. (1990). Goa
Goa
Through the Ages: An economic history. Goa University
Goa University
publication. 2. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-259-0. Retrieved 25 August 2009.  Sakshena, R. N. (2003). Goa: Into the Mainstream. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-81-7017-005-1. Retrieved 24 August 2009.  Isadora Tast: Mother India. Searching For a Place. Peperoni Books: Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-941825-00-0.

Further reading[edit]

Andrada (undated). The Life of Dom John de Castro: The Fourth Vice Roy of India. Jacinto Freire de Andrada. Translated into English by Peter Wyche. (1664). Henry Herrington, New Exchange, London. Facsimile edition (1994) AES Reprint, New Delhi. ISBN 81-206-0900-X.

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