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Glutamine
Glutamine
(symbol Gln or Q;[3] encoded by the codons CAA and CAG) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Its side chain is similar to that of glutamic acid, except the carboxylic acid group is replaced by an amide. It is classified as a charge-neutral, polar amino acid. It is non-essential and conditionally essential in humans, meaning the body can usually synthesize sufficient amounts of it, but in some instances of stress, the body's demand for glutamine increases, and glutamine must be obtained from the diet.[4][5] In human blood, glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid.[6] The dietary sources of glutamine includes especially the protein-rich foods like beef, chicken, fish, dairy products, eggs, vegetables like beans, beets, cabbage, spinach, carrots, parsley, vegetable juices and also in wheat, papaya, brussel sprouts, celery, kale and fermented foods like miso.

Contents

1 Functions

1.1 Producers 1.2 Consumers

2 Uses

2.1 Nutrition 2.2 Sickle cell disease 2.3 Medical food

3 Safety 4 Structure 5 Research 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Functions[edit] Glutamine
Glutamine
plays a role in a variety of biochemical functions:

Protein
Protein
synthesis, as any other of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids Lipid
Lipid
synthesis, especially by cancer cells.[7][8] Regulation of acid-base balance in the kidney by producing ammonium[9] Cellular energy, as a source, next to glucose[10] Nitrogen
Nitrogen
donation for many anabolic processes, including the synthesis of purines[6] Carbon donation, as a source, refilling the citric acid cycle[11] Nontoxic transporter of ammonia in the blood circulation Precursor to the neurotransmitter glutamate

On the level of tissue, glutamine plays a role in maintaining the normal integrity of the intestinal mucosa.,[12] but randomised trials provide no evidence of any benefit of nutritional supplementation.[12] Producers[edit] Glutamine
Glutamine
is synthesized by the enzyme glutamine synthetase from glutamate and ammonia. The most relevant glutamine-producing tissue is the muscle mass, accounting for about 90% of all glutamine synthesized. Glutamine
Glutamine
is also released, in small amounts, by the lungs and brain.[13] Although the liver is capable of relevant glutamine synthesis, its role in glutamine metabolism is more regulatory than producing, since the liver takes up large amounts of glutamine derived from the gut.[6] Consumers[edit] The most eager consumers of glutamine are the cells of intestines,[6] the kidney cells for the acid-base balance, activated immune cells,[14] and many cancer cells.[7][8][11] Uses[edit] Nutrition[edit] Glutamine
Glutamine
is the most abundant naturally occurring, nonessential amino acid in the human body, and one of the few amino acids that can directly cross the blood–brain barrier.[6] Humans obtain glutamine through catabolism of proteins in foods they eat.[15] In states where tissue is being built or repaired, like growth of babies, or healing from wounds or severe illness, glutamine becomes conditionally essential.[15] Sickle cell disease[edit] In 2017 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved L-glutamine oral powder (Endari, Emmaus Medical Inc) to reduce severe complications of sickle cell disease in people aged 5 years and older with the disorder.[1] Medical food[edit] Glutamine
Glutamine
is marketed as medical food and is prescribed when a medical professional believes a person in their care needs supplementary glutamine due to metabolic demands beyond what can be met by endogenous synthesis or diet.[16] Safety[edit] Glutamine
Glutamine
is safe in adults and in preterm infants.[17] Although glutamine is metabolized to glutamate and ammonia, both of which have neurological effects, their concentrations are not increased much, and no adverse neurological effects were detected.[17] The observed safe level for supplemental L-glutamine in normal healthy adults is 14 g/day.[18] Adverse effects of glutamine have been described for people receiving home parenteral nutrition and those with liver-function abnormalities.[19] Although glutamine has no effect on the proliferation of tumor cells, it is still possible that glutamine supplementation may be detrimental in some cancer types.[20] Ceasing glutamine supplementation in people adapted to very high consumption may initiate a withdrawal effect, raising the risk of health problems such as infections or impaired integrity of the intestine.[20] Structure[edit] Glutamine
Glutamine
can exists in either of two enantiomeric forms, L-glutamine and D-glutamine. The L-form is found in nature. Glutamine
Glutamine
contains an α-amino group which is in the protonated −NH3+ form under biological conditions and a carboxylic acid group which is in the deprotonated −COO− form, known as carboxylate, under physiological conditions.

Glutamine
Glutamine
zwitterionic forms at neutral pH: L-glutamine (left) and D-glutamine

Research[edit]

Consequences of glutamine depletion in critically ill individuals[21]

Glutamine
Glutamine
mouthwash may be useful to prevent oral mucositis in people undergoing chemotherapy but intravenous glutamine does not appear useful to prevent mucositis in the GI tract.[22] Glutamine
Glutamine
supplementation was thought to have potential to reduce complications in people who are critically ill or who have had abdominal surgery but this was based on poor quality clinical trials.[23] Supplementation does not appear to be useful in adults or children with Crohns disease
Crohns disease
or inflammatory bowel disease but clinical studies as of 2016 were underpowered.[12] Supplementation does not appear to have an effect in infants with significant problems of the stomach or intestines.[24] See also[edit]

Isoglutamine

References[edit]

^ a b Commissioner, Office of the (7 July 2017). "Press Announcements - FDA approves new treatment for sickle cell disease". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 10 July 2017.  ^ Weast, Robert C., ed. (1981). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (62nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. C-311. ISBN 0-8493-0462-8. . ^ "Nomenclature and Symbolism for Amino Acids and Peptides". IUPAC-IUB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. 1983. Archived from the original on 9 October 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2018.  ^ Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements, published by the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition
Nutrition
Board, currently available online at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-05. Retrieved 2014-07-14.  ^ Lacey, JM; Wilmore, DW (August 1990). "Is glutamine a conditionally essential amino acid?". Nutrition
Nutrition
Reviews. 48 (8): 297–309. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.1990.tb02967.x.  ^ a b c d e Brosnan, John T. (June 2003). "Interorgan amino acid transport and its regulation". J. Nutr. 133 (6 Suppl 1): 2068S–2072S. PMID 12771367.  ^ a b Corbet C, Feron O (2015). "Metabolic and mind shifts: from glucose to glutamine and acetate addictions in cancer". Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition
Nutrition
and Metabolic Care. 18 (4): 346–353. doi:10.1097/MCO.0000000000000178. PMID 26001655.  ^ a b Gouw AM, Toal GG, Felsher DW (2016). "Metabolic vulnerabilities of MYC-induced cancer". Oncotarget. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.7223. PMID 26863454.  ^ Hall, John E.; Guyton, Arthur C. (2006). Textbook of medical physiology (11th ed.). St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Saunders. p. 393. ISBN 0-7216-0240-1.  ^ Aledo, J. C. (2004). " Glutamine
Glutamine
breakdown in rapidly dividing cells: Waste or investment?". BioEssays. 26 (7): 778–785. doi:10.1002/bies.20063. PMID 15221859.  ^ a b Yuneva, M.; Zamboni, N.; Oefner, P.; Sachidanandam, R.; Lazebnik, Y. (2007). "Deficiency in glutamine but not glucose induces MYC-dependent apoptosis in human cells". The Journal of Cell Biology. 178 (1): 93–105. doi:10.1083/jcb.200703099. PMC 2064426 . PMID 17606868.  ^ a b c Yamamoto, T; Shimoyama, T; Kuriyama, M (8 December 2016). "Dietary and enteral interventions for Crohn's disease". Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 44: 69–73. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2016.11.011. PMID 27940405.  ^ Newsholme, P.; Lima, M. M. R.; Procopio, J.; Pithon-Curi, T. C.; Doi, S. Q.; Bazotte, R. B.; Curi, R. (2003). " Glutamine
Glutamine
and glutamate as vital metabolites". Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 36 (2): 153–163. doi:10.1590/S0100-879X2003000200002. PMID 12563517.  ^ Newsholme, P. (2001). "Why is L-glutamine metabolism important to cells of the immune system in health, postinjury, surgery or infection?". The Journal of Nutrition. 131 (9 Suppl): 2515S–2522S; discussion 2522S–4S. PMID 11533304.  ^ a b Watford, Malcolm (September 2015). " Glutamine
Glutamine
and glutamate: Nonessential or essential amino acids?". Animal Nutrition. 1 (3): 119–122. doi:10.1016/j.aninu.2015.08.008.  ^ "GlutaSolve, NutreStore, SYMPT-X G.I., SYMPT-X Glutamine
Glutamine
(glutamine) Drug Side Effects, Interactions, and Medication Information on eMedicineHealth." eMedicineHealth. Retrieved 24 January 2017.  ^ a b Garlick PJ (2001). "Assessment of the safety of glutamine and other amino acids". The Journal of Nutrition. 131 (9 Suppl): 2556S–61S. PMID 11533313. Retrieved 2017-05-21.  ^ Shao A, Hathcock JN (2008). "Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine". Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP. 50 (3): 376–99. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2008.01.004. PMID 18325648. Retrieved 2017-05-21.  ^ Buchman AL (2001). "Glutamine: commercially essential or conditionally essential? A critical appraisal of the human data". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 74 (1): 25–32. PMID 11451714. Retrieved 2017-05-21.  ^ a b Holecek M (2013). "Side effects of long-term glutamine supplementation". JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 37 (5): 607–16. doi:10.1177/0148607112460682. PMID 22990615. Retrieved 2017-05-21.  ^ Stehle P, Kuhn KS (2015). "Glutamine: an obligatory parenteral nutrition substrate in critical care therapy". Biomed Res Int. 2015: 545467. doi:10.1155/2015/545467. PMC 4606408 . PMID 26495301.  ^ Berretta, M; Michieli, M; Di Francia, R; Cappellani, A; Rupolo, M; Galvano, F; Fisichella, R; Berretta, S; Tirelli, U (1 January 2013). " Nutrition
Nutrition
in oncologic patients during antiblastic treatment". Frontiers in Bioscience. 18: 120–32. doi:10.2741/4091. PMID 23276913.  ^ Tao, KM; Li, XQ; Yang, LQ; Yu, WF; Lu, ZJ; Sun, YM; Wu, FX (9 September 2014). " Glutamine
Glutamine
supplementation for critically ill adults". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (9): CD010050. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010050.pub2. PMID 25199493.  ^ Moe-Byrne, T; Brown, JV; McGuire, W (18 April 2016). "Glutamine supplementation to prevent morbidity and mortality in preterm infants". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4: CD001457. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001457.pub6. PMID 27089158. 

External links[edit]

Glutamine
Glutamine
spectra acquired through mass spectroscopy

v t e

Other alimentary tract and metabolism products (A16)

Amino acids
Amino acids
and derivatives

Ademetionine Betaine Carglumic acid Cysteamine Levocarnitine Levoglutamide Metreleptin

Enzymes

Carbohydrate metabolism: sucrase (Sacrosidase) alpha-glucosidase (Alglucosidase alfa)

Glycolipid/sphingolipid: glucocerebrosidase (Alglucerase Imiglucerase Taliglucerase alfa Velaglucerase alfa) alpha-galactosidase (Agalsidase alfa Agalsidase beta)

Glycosaminoglycan: iduronidase (Laronidase) arylsulfatase B (Galsulfase) iduronate-2-sulfatase (Idursulfase)

Lipid: lysosomal lipase (Sebelipase alfa)

Phosphate: Asfotase alfa

Other

Anethole trithione Eliglustat Glycerol phenylbutyrate Miglustat Nitisinone Sapropterin Sodium
Sodium
benzoate Sodium
Sodium
phenylbutyrate Teduglutide Trientine Tioctic acid Uridine triacetate Zinc
Zinc
acetate

v t e

The encoded amino acid

General topics

Protein Peptide Genetic code

By properties

Aliphatic

Branched-chain amino acids (Valine Isoleucine Leucine) Methionine Alanine Proline Glycine

Aromatic

Phenylalanine Tyrosine Tryptophan Histidine

Polar, uncharged

Asparagine Glutamine Serine Threonine

Positive charge (pKa)

Lysine
Lysine
(≈10.8) Arginine
Arginine
(≈12.5) Histidine
Histidine
(≈6.1)

Negative charge (pKa)

Aspartic acid
Aspartic acid
(≈3.9) Glutamic acid
Glutamic acid
(≈4.1) Cysteine
Cysteine
(≈8.3) Tyrosine
Tyrosine
(≈10.1)

Amino acids
Amino acids
types: Encoded (proteins) Essential Non-proteinogenic Ketogenic Glucogenic Imino acids D-amino acids Dehydroamino acids

v t e

Dietary supplements

Types

Amino acids Bodybuilding supplement Energy drink Energy bar Fatty acids Herbal supplements Minerals Prebiotics Probiotics (Lactobacillus Bifidobacterium) Protein
Protein
bar Vitamins

Vitamins and chemical elements ("minerals")

Retinol ( Vitamin
Vitamin
A) B vitamins: Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1) Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2) Niacin
Niacin
(B3) Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5) Pyridoxine (B6) Biotin
Biotin
(B7) Folic acid
Folic acid
(B9) Cyanocobalamin
Cyanocobalamin
(B12) Ascorbic acid ( Vitamin
Vitamin
C) Ergocalciferol and Cholecalciferol ( Vitamin
Vitamin
D) Tocopherol ( Vitamin
Vitamin
E) Naphthoquinone ( Vitamin
Vitamin
K) Calcium Choline Chromium Cobalt Copper Fluorine Iodine Iron Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Phosphorus Potassium Selenium Sodium Sulfur Zinc

Other common ingredients

AAKG β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate Carnitine Chondroitin sulfate Cod liver oil Copper
Copper
gluconate Creatine/ Creatine
Creatine
supplements Dietary fiber Echinacea Elemental calcium Ephedra Fish oil Folic acid Ginseng Glucosamine Glutamine Grape seed extract Guarana Iron
Iron
supplements Japanese Honeysuckle Krill oil Lingzhi Linseed oil Lipoic acid Milk thistle Melatonin Red yeast rice Royal jelly Saw palmetto Spirulina St John's wort Taurine Wheatgrass Wolfberry Yohimbine Zinc
Zinc
gluconate

Related articles

Codex Alimentarius Enzyte Hadacol Herbal tea Nutraceutical Multivitamin Nutrition

v t e

GABA receptor
GABA receptor
modulators

Ionotropic

GABAA

Agonists: (+)-Catechin Bamaluzole Barbiturates
Barbiturates
(e.g., phenobarbital) BL-1020 DAVA Dihydromuscimol GABA Gabamide GABOB Gaboxadol
Gaboxadol
(THIP) Homotaurine
Homotaurine
(tramiprosate, 3-APS) Ibotenic acid iso-THAZ iso-THIP Isoguvacine Isomuscimol Isonipecotic acid Kojic amine Lignans (e.g., honokiol) Methylglyoxal Monastrol Muscimol Nefiracetam Neuroactive steroids (e.g., allopregnanolone) Org 20599 Phenibut Picamilon P4S Progabide Propofol Quisqualamine SL-75102 TACA TAMP Terpenoids (e.g., borneol) Thiomuscimol Tolgabide ZAPA

Positive modulators (abridged; see here for a full list): α-EMTBL Alcohols (e.g., ethanol) Anabolic steroids Avermectins (e.g., ivermectin) Barbiturates
Barbiturates
(e.g., phenobarbital) Benzodiazepines (e.g., diazepam) Bromide compounds (e.g., potassium bromide) Carbamates (e.g., meprobamate) Carbamazepine Chloralose Chlormezanone Clomethiazole Dihydroergolines (e.g., ergoloid (dihydroergotoxine)) Etazepine Etifoxine Fenamates (e.g., mefenamic acid) Flavonoids (e.g., apigenin, hispidulin) Fluoxetine Flupirtine Imidazoles (e.g., etomidate) Kava
Kava
constituents (e.g., kavain) Lanthanum Loreclezole Monastrol Neuroactive steroids (e.g., allopregnanolone, cholesterol) Niacin Nicotinamide
Nicotinamide
(niacinamide) Nonbenzodiazepines (e.g., β-carbolines (e.g., abecarnil), cyclopyrrolones (e.g., zopiclone), imidazopyridines (e.g., zolpidem), pyrazolopyrimidines (e.g., zaleplon)) Norfluoxetine Petrichloral Phenols (e.g., propofol) Phenytoin Piperidinediones (e.g., glutethimide) Propanidid Pyrazolopyridines (e.g., etazolate) Quinazolinones (e.g., methaqualone) Retigabine
Retigabine
(ezogabine) ROD-188 Skullcap constituents (e.g., baicalin) Stiripentol Sulfonylalkanes (e.g., sulfonmethane (sulfonal)) Topiramate Valerian constituents (e.g., valerenic acid) Volatiles/gases (e.g., chloral hydrate, chloroform, diethyl ether, paraldehyde, sevoflurane)

Antagonists: Bicuculline Coriamyrtin Dihydrosecurinine Gabazine
Gabazine
(SR-95531) Hydrastine Hyenachin (mellitoxin) PHP-501 Pitrazepin Securinine Sinomenine SR-42641 SR-95103 Thiocolchicoside Tutin

Negative modulators: 1,3M1B 3M2B 11-Ketoprogesterone 17-Phenylandrostenol α5IA (LS-193,268) β-CCB β-CCE β-CCM β-CCP β-EMGBL Anabolic steroids Amiloride Anisatin β-Lactams (e.g., penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems) Basmisanil Bemegride Bilobalide CHEB Cicutoxin Cloflubicyne Cyclothiazide DHEA DHEA-S Dieldrin (+)-DMBB DMCM DMPC EBOB Etbicyphat FG-7142
FG-7142
(ZK-31906) Fiproles (e.g., fipronil) Flavonoids (e.g., amentoflavone, oroxylin A) Flumazenil Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) Flurothyl Furosemide Iomazenil (123I) IPTBO Isoallopregnanolone Isopregnanolone
Isopregnanolone
(sepranolone) L-655,708 Laudanosine Leptazol Lindane MaxiPost Morphine Morphine-3-glucuronide MRK-016 Naloxone Naltrexone Nicardipine Nonsteroidal antiandrogens (e.g., apalutamide, bicalutamide, enzalutamide, flutamide, nilutamide) Oenanthotoxin Pentylenetetrazol
Pentylenetetrazol
(pentetrazol) Phenylsilatrane Picrotoxin
Picrotoxin
(i.e., picrotin and picrotoxinin) Pregnenolone sulfate Propybicyphat PWZ-029 Radequinil Ro 15-4513 Ro 19-4603 RO4882224 RO4938581 Sarmazenil SCS Suritozole TB-21007 TBOB TBPS TCS-1105 Terbequinil TETS Thujone U-93631 Zinc ZK-93426

GABAA-ρ

Agonists: BL-1020 CACA CAMP Homohypotaurine GABA GABOB Ibotenic acid Isoguvacine Muscimol N4-Chloroacetylcytosine arabinoside Picamilon Progabide TACA TAMP Thiomuscimol Tolgabide

Positive modulators: Allopregnanolone Alphaxolone ATHDOC Lanthanides

Antagonists: (S)-2-MeGABA (S)-4-ACPBPA (S)-4-ACPCA 2-MeTACA 3-APMPA 4-ACPAM 4-GBA cis-3-ACPBPA CGP-36742 (SGS-742) DAVA Gabazine
Gabazine
(SR-95531) Gaboxadol
Gaboxadol
(THIP) I4AA Isonipecotic acid Loreclezole P4MPA P4S SKF-97541 SR-95318 SR-95813 TPMPA trans-3-ACPBPA ZAPA

Negative modulators: 5α-Dihydroprogesterone Bilobalide Loreclezole Picrotoxin
Picrotoxin
(picrotin, picrotoxinin) Pregnanolone ROD-188 THDOC Zinc

Metabotropic

GABAB

Agonists: 1,4-Butanediol 4-Fluorophenibut Aceburic acid Arbaclofen Arbaclofen
Arbaclofen
placarbil Baclofen BL-1020 GABA Gabamide GABOB GBL GHB GHBAL GHV GVL Isovaline Lesogaberan Phenibut Picamilon Progabide Sodium
Sodium
oxybate SKF-97,541 SL 75102 Tolgabide Tolibut

Positive modulators: ADX-71441 BHF-177 BHFF BSPP CGP-7930 CGP-13501 GS-39783 rac-BHFF KK-92A

Antagonists: 2-Hydroxysaclofen CGP-35348 CGP-46381 CGP-52432 CGP-54626 CGP-55845 CGP-64213 DAVA Homotaurine
Homotaurine
(tramiprosate, 3-APS) Phaclofen Saclofen SCH-50911 SKF-97541

Negative modulators: Compound 14

See also Receptor/signaling modulators GABAA receptor positive modulators GABA metabolism/transport modulators

Glutamate
Glutamate
receptor modulators

v t e

Ionotropic glutamate receptor
Ionotropic glutamate receptor
modulators

AMPAR

Agonists: Main site agonists: 5-Fluorowillardiine Acromelic acid (acromelate) AMPA BOAA Domoic acid Glutamate Ibotenic acid Proline Quisqualic acid Willardiine; Positive allosteric modulators: Aniracetam Cyclothiazide CX-516 CX-546 CX-614 Farampator
Farampator
(CX-691, ORG-24448) CX-717 CX-1739 CX-1942 Diazoxide Hydrochlorothiazide
Hydrochlorothiazide
(HCTZ) IDRA-21 LY-392098 LY-395153 LY-404187 LY-451646 LY-503430 Mibampator
Mibampator
(LY-451395) Nooglutyl ORG-26576 Oxiracetam PEPA PF-04958242 Piracetam Pramiracetam S-18986 Tulrampator
Tulrampator
(S-47445, CX-1632)

Antagonists: ACEA-1011 ATPO Becampanel Caroverine CNQX Dasolampanel DNQX Fanapanel
Fanapanel
(MPQX) GAMS Kaitocephalin Kynurenic acid Kynurenine Licostinel
Licostinel
(ACEA-1021) NBQX PNQX Selurampanel Tezampanel Theanine Topiramate YM90K Zonampanel; Negative allosteric modulators: Barbiturates
Barbiturates
(e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental) Cyclopropane Enflurane Ethanol
Ethanol
(alcohol) Evans blue GYKI-52466 GYKI-53655 Halothane Irampanel Isoflurane Perampanel Pregnenolone sulfate Sevoflurane Talampanel; Unknown/unsorted antagonists: Minocycline

KAR

Agonists: Main site agonists: 5-Bromowillardiine 5-Iodowillardiine Acromelic acid (acromelate) AMPA ATPA Domoic acid Glutamate Ibotenic acid Kainic acid LY-339434 Proline Quisqualic acid SYM-2081; Positive allosteric modulators: Cyclothiazide Diazoxide Enflurane Halothane Isoflurane

Antagonists: ACEA-1011 CNQX Dasolampanel DNQX GAMS Kaitocephalin Kynurenic acid Licostinel
Licostinel
(ACEA-1021) LY-382884 NBQX NS102 Selurampanel Tezampanel Theanine Topiramate UBP-302; Negative allosteric modulators: Barbiturates
Barbiturates
(e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental) Enflurane Ethanol
Ethanol
(alcohol) Evans blue NS-3763 Pregnenolone sulfate

NMDAR

Agonists: Main site agonists: AMAA Aspartate Glutamate Homocysteic acid
Homocysteic acid
(L-HCA) Homoquinolinic acid Ibotenic acid NMDA Proline Quinolinic acid Tetrazolylglycine Theanine; Glycine
Glycine
site agonists: β-Fluoro-D-alanine ACBD ACC (ACPC) ACPD AK-51 Apimostinel
Apimostinel
(NRX-1074) B6B21 CCG D-Alanine D-Cycloserine D-Serine DHPG Dimethylglycine Glycine HA-966 L-687414 L-Alanine L-Serine Milacemide Neboglamine
Neboglamine
(nebostinel) Rapastinel
Rapastinel
(GLYX-13) Sarcosine; Polyamine site agonists: Neomycin Spermidine Spermine; Other positive allosteric modulators: 24S-Hydroxycholesterol DHEA (prasterone) DHEA sulfate
DHEA sulfate
(prasterone sulfate) Epipregnanolone sulfate Pregnenolone sulfate SAGE-201 SAGE-301 SAGE-718

Antagonists: Competitive antagonists: AP5
AP5
(APV) AP7 CGP-37849 CGP-39551 CGP-39653 CGP-40116 CGS-19755 CPP Kaitocephalin LY-233053 LY-235959 LY-274614 MDL-100453 Midafotel
Midafotel
(d-CPPene) NPC-12626 NPC-17742 PBPD PEAQX Perzinfotel PPDA SDZ-220581 Selfotel; Glycine
Glycine
site antagonists: 4-Cl-KYN (AV-101) 5,7-DCKA 7-CKA ACC ACEA-1011 ACEA-1328 Apimostinel
Apimostinel
(NRX-1074) AV-101 Carisoprodol CGP-39653 CNQX D-Cycloserine DNQX Felbamate Gavestinel GV-196771 Harkoseride Kynurenic acid Kynurenine L-689560 L-701324 Licostinel
Licostinel
(ACEA-1021) LU-73068 MDL-105519 Meprobamate MRZ 2/576 PNQX Rapastinel
Rapastinel
(GLYX-13) ZD-9379; Polyamine site antagonists: Arcaine Co 101676 Diaminopropane Diethylenetriamine Huperzine A Putrescine; Uncompetitive pore blockers (mostly dizocilpine site): 2-MDP 3-HO-PCP 3-MeO-PCE 3-MeO-PCMo 3-MeO-PCP 4-MeO-PCP 8A-PDHQ 18-MC α-Endopsychosin Alaproclate Alazocine
Alazocine
(SKF-10047) Amantadine Aptiganel Argiotoxin-636 Arketamine ARL-12495 ARL-15896-AR ARL-16247 Budipine Coronaridine Delucemine
Delucemine
(NPS-1506) Dexoxadrol Dextrallorphan Dextromethadone Dextromethorphan Dextrorphan Dieticyclidine Diphenidine Dizocilpine Ephenidine Esketamine Etoxadrol Eticyclidine Fluorolintane Gacyclidine Ibogaine Ibogamine Indantadol Ketamine Ketobemidone Lanicemine Levomethadone Levomethorphan Levomilnacipran Levorphanol Loperamide Memantine Methadone Methorphan Methoxetamine Methoxphenidine Milnacipran Morphanol NEFA Neramexane Nitromemantine Noribogaine Norketamine Orphenadrine PCPr PD-137889 Pethidine
Pethidine
(meperidine) Phencyclamine Phencyclidine Propoxyphene Remacemide Rhynchophylline Rimantadine Rolicyclidine Sabeluzole Tabernanthine Tenocyclidine Tiletamine Tramadol; Ifenprodil (NR2B) site antagonists: Besonprodil Buphenine
Buphenine
(nylidrin) CO-101244 (PD-174494) Eliprodil Haloperidol Isoxsuprine Radiprodil (RGH-896) Rislenemdaz
Rislenemdaz
(CERC-301, MK-0657) Ro 8-4304 Ro 25-6981 Safaprodil Traxoprodil
Traxoprodil
(CP-101606); NR2A-selective antagonists: MPX-004 MPX-007 TCN-201 TCN-213; Cations: Hydrogen Magnesium Zinc; Alcohols/volatile anesthetics/related: Benzene Butane Chloroform Cyclopropane Desflurane Diethyl ether Enflurane Ethanol
Ethanol
(alcohol) Halothane Hexanol Isoflurane Methoxyflurane Nitrous oxide Octanol Sevoflurane Toluene Trichloroethane Trichloroethanol Trichloroethylene Urethane Xenon Xylene; Unknown/unsorted antagonists: ARR-15896 Bumetanide Caroverine Conantokin D-αAA Dexanabinol Flufenamic acid Flupirtine FPL-12495 FR-115427 Furosemide Hodgkinsine Ipenoxazone (MLV-6976) MDL-27266 Metaphit Minocycline MPEP Niflumic acid Pentamidine Pentamidine
Pentamidine
isethionate Piretanide Psychotridine Transcrocetin
Transcrocetin
(saffron)

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulators Glutamate
Glutamate
metabolism/transport modulators

v t e

Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulators

Group I

mGluR1

Agonists: ACPD DHPG Glutamate Ibotenic acid Quisqualic acid Ro01-6128 Ro67-4853 Ro67-7476 VU-71 Theanine

Antagonists: BAY 36-7620 CPCCOEt Cyclothiazide LY-367,385 LY-456,236 MCPG NPS-2390

mGluR5

Agonists: ACPD ADX-47273 CDPPB CHPG DFB DHPG Glutamate Ibotenic acid Quisqualic acid VU-1545

Antagonists: CTEP DMeOB LY-344,545 Mavoglurant MCPG NPS-2390 Remeglurant SIB-1757 SIB-1893; Negative allosteric modulators: Basimglurant Dipraglurant Fenobam GRN-529 MPEP MTEP Raseglurant

Group II

mGluR2

Agonists: BINA CBiPES DCG-IV Eglumegad Glutamate Ibotenic acid LY-379,268 LY-404,039
LY-404,039
(pomaglumetad) LY-487,379 LY-566,332 MGS-0028 Pomaglumetad methionil (LY-2140023) Talaglumetad; Positive allosteric modulators: JNJ-40411813
JNJ-40411813
(ADX-71149)

Antagonists: APICA CECXG EGLU HYDIA LY-307,452 LY-341,495 MCPG MGS-0039 PCCG-4; Negative allosteric modulators: Decoglurant RO4491533

mGluR3

Agonists: CBiPES DCG-IV Eglumegad Glutamate Ibotenic acid LY-379,268 LY-404,039
LY-404,039
(pomaglumetad) LY-487,379 MGS-0028 Pomaglumetad methionil (LY-2140023) Talaglumetad

Antagonists: APICA CECXG EGLU HYDIA LY-307,452 LY-341,495 MCPG MGS-0039; Negative allosteric modulators: Decoglurant RO4491533

Group III

mGluR4

Agonists: Glutamate L-AP4 PHCCC VU-001,171 VU-0155,041; Positive allosteric modulators: Foliglurax MPEP

Antagonists: CPPG MAP4 MPPG MSOP MTPG UBP-1112

mGluR6

Agonists: Glutamate L-AP4

Antagonists: CPPG MAP4 MPPG MSOP MTPG UBP-1112

mGluR7

Agonists: AMN082 Glutamate L-AP4

Antagonists: CPPG MAP4 MMPIP MPPG MSOP MTPG UBP-1112

mGluR8

Agonists: DCPG Glutamate L-AP4

Antagonists: CPPG MAP4 MPPG MSOP MTPG UBP-1112

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ionotropic glutamate receptor modulators • Glutamate
Glutamate
metabolism/transport modulators

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