Glenn Herbert Gould[fn 1][fn 2] (/ɡuːld/; September 25,
1932 – October 4, 1982) was a Canadian pianist who became one
of the best-known and celebrated classical pianists of the 20th
century. He was renowned as an interpreter of the keyboard works of
Johann Sebastian Bach. His playing was distinguished by remarkable
technical proficiency and capacity to articulate the polyphonic
texture of Bach's music.
Gould rejected most of the standard Romantic piano literature by
Chopin, Liszt, and others, in favor of Baroque, Renaissance, late
Romantic, and modernist composers. Although his recordings were
Bach and Beethoven, Gould's repertoire was diverse,
including works by Mozart, Haydn, Brahms, pre-Baroque composers such
as Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck,
Orlando Gibbons and William Byrd, and
such 20th-century composers as Paul Hindemith,
Arnold Schoenberg and
Richard Strauss. Gould was well known for various eccentricities, from
his unorthodox musical interpretations and mannerisms at the keyboard
to aspects of his lifestyle and behaviour. He stopped giving concerts
at the age of 31 to concentrate on studio recording and other
Gould was also a writer, broadcaster, and conductor. He was a prolific
contributor to musical journals, in which he discussed music theory
and outlined his musical philosophy. As a broadcaster, Gould performed
on television and radio, and produced three musique concrète radio
documentaries called the Solitude Trilogy, about isolated areas of
1.1 Early life
1.2 Gould the pianist
1.5 Personal life
1.6 Health and death
2.2 On art
3.3 Radio documentaries
4 Transcriptions, compositions, and conducting
5 Legacy and honours
Glenn Gould Foundation
Glenn Gould School
6.1 Juno Awards
6.2 Grammy Awards
7 See also
8.2.2 Multimedia sources
9 Further reading
10 External links
Gould in February 1946 with his parakeet, Mozart, and his English
Glenn Herbert Gould was born at home in
Toronto on September 25, 1932,
to Russell Herbert Gold and Florence Emma Gold (née Greig),
Presbyterians of Scottish and English ancestry. His maternal
grandfather was a cousin of Norwegian composer
Edvard Grieg (who was
himself of Scottish ancestry). The family's surname was changed
to Gould informally around 1939 in order to avoid being mistaken for
Jewish, given the prevailing anti-Semitism of prewar
Toronto and the
Gold surname's Jewish association.[fn 3] Gould had no Jewish
ancestry,[fn 4] though he sometimes made jokes on the subject, like
"When people ask me if I'm Jewish, I always tell them that I was
Jewish during the war." Gould grew up in a home at 32 Southwood
Drive, Toronto. His childhood home has been named a historic site by
the City of Toronto.
Gould's interest in music and his talent as a pianist became evident
very early. Both his parents were musical, and his mother, especially,
encouraged the infant Gould's early musical development. Before his
birth, his mother planned for him to become a successful musician, and
thus exposed him to music during her pregnancy. As a baby, he
reportedly hummed instead of crying and wiggled his fingers as if
playing chords, leading his doctor to predict that he would "be either
a physician or a pianist". By the age of three, Gould's perfect
pitch was noticed. He learned to read music before he could read
words. When presented with a piano, the young Gould was
reported to strike single notes and listen to their long decay, a
practice his father Bert noted was different from typical
children. Gould's interest in the piano proceeded side by side
with an interest in composition. He would play his own little pieces
for family, friends, and sometimes large gatherings, including, in
1938, a performance at the Emmanuel Presbyterian Church (a few blocks
from the Gould house) of one of his own compositions. At the age
of six, he was taken for the first time to hear a live musical
performance by a celebrated soloist. This left a tremendous
impression. He later described the experience:
It was Hofmann. It was, I think, his last performance in Toronto, and
it was a staggering impression. The only thing I can really remember
is that, when I was being brought home in a car, I was in that
wonderful state of half-awakeness in which you hear all sorts of
incredible sounds going through your mind. They were all orchestral
sounds, but I was playing them all, and suddenly I was Hofmann. I was
Glenn Gould with his teacher, Alberto Guerrero, in 1945. Guerrero
demonstrates his technical idea that Gould should pull down at keys
instead of striking them from above.
As a young child, Gould was taught piano by his mother. At the age of
10, he began attending
The Royal Conservatory of Music
The Royal Conservatory of Music (known until
1947, when it received a Royal Charter from King George VI, as the
Toronto Conservatory of Music) in Toronto. He studied music theory
with Leo Smith, the organ with Frederick C. Silvester, and piano with
Alberto Guerrero. Around the same time, he injured his back as a
result of a fall from a boat ramp on the shore of Lake Simcoe.[fn 5]
This incident is almost certainly related to the adjustable-height
chair his father made shortly thereafter. Gould's mother would urge
the young Gould to sit up straight at the keyboard. He used this
chair for the rest of his life and took it with him almost
everywhere. The famous chair was designed so that Gould could sit
very low at the keyboard. The chair allowed him to pull down on the
keys rather than striking them from above, a central technical idea of
his teacher at the Conservatory, Alberto Guerrero.
Gould developed a technique that enabled him to choose a very fast
tempo while retaining the separateness and clarity of each note.
His extremely low position at the instrument arguably permitted more
control over the keyboard. Gould showed considerable technical skill
in performing and recording a wide repertoire including virtuosic and
romantic works, such as his own arrangement of Ravel's
La valse and
Liszt's transcriptions of Beethoven's Fifth and Sixth Symphonies.
Gould worked from a young age with Guerrero on a technique known as
finger-tapping: a method of training the fingers to act more
independently from the arm.
Gould passed his final Conservatory examination in piano at the age of
12 (achieving the "highest marks of any candidate"), thus attaining
"professional standing as a pianist" at that age. One year later
he passed the written theory exams, qualifying for an ATCM diploma.[fn
Gould the pianist
Gould asserted that he almost never practised on the piano, preferring
to study music by reading it rather than playing it,[fn 7] another
technique he had learned from Guerrero. His manual practising focused
on articulation, rather than basic facility. He may have spoken
ironically about his practising as there is evidence that, on
occasion, he did practise quite hard, sometimes using his own drills
and techniques.[fn 8]
He stated that he did not understand the requirement of other pianists
to continuously reinforce their relationship with the instrument by
practising many hours a day. It seems that Gould was able to
practise mentally without access to an instrument, and even took this
so far as to prepare for a recording of Brahms piano works without
ever playing them until a few weeks before the recording sessions.
Gould could play from memory not just a vast repertoire of piano
music, but also a wide range of orchestral and operatic
transcriptions. He could 'memorize at sight' and once challenged
his friend John Roberts to name 'any piece of music' that he could not
'instantly play from memory'.
The piano, Gould said, "is not an instrument for which I have any
great love as such... [but] I have played it all my life, and it is
the best vehicle I have to express my ideas." In the case of Bach,
Gould admitted, "[I] fixed the action in some of the instruments I
play on—and the piano I use for all recordings is now so fixed—so
that it is a shallower and more responsive action than the standard.
It tends to have a mechanism which is rather like an automobile
without power steering: you are in control and not it; it doesn't
drive you, you drive it. This is the secret of doing
Bach on the piano
at all. You must have that immediacy of response, that control over
fine definitions of things."
As a teenager, Gould was significantly influenced by Artur
Schnabel,[fn 9] Rosalyn Tureck's recordings of
Bach ("upright, with a
sense of repose and positiveness"), and Leopold Stokowski.
Gould was known for having a vivid imagination. Listeners regarded his
interpretations as ranging from brilliantly creative to outright
eccentric. His piano playing had great clarity and erudition,
particularly in contrapuntal passages, and extraordinary control.
He was a child prodigy and in adulthood described as a musical
phenomenon.[fn 10] As he played, he often swayed his torso in a
Gould had a pronounced aversion to what he termed a "hedonistic"
approach to the piano repertoire, performance, and music generally.
For Gould, "hedonism" in this sense denoted a superficial
theatricality, something to which he felt Mozart, for example, became
increasingly susceptible later in his career. He associated this
drift towards hedonism with the emergence of a cult of showmanship and
gratuitous virtuosity on the concert platform in the 19th century and
later. The institution of the public concert, he felt, degenerated
into the "blood sport" with which he struggled, and which he
On June 5, 1938, Gould played in public for the first time at a church
service held at the Business Men's Bible Class in Uxbridge, Ontario,
to a congregation of about two thousand. In 1945, at the age of
thirteen, he made his first appearance with an orchestra, the Toronto
Symphony Orchestra, in a performance of the first movement of
Beethoven's 4th Piano Concerto. His first solo recital followed in
1947, and his first recital on radio was with the CBC in 1950.
This was the beginning of his long association with radio and
recording. He founded the Festival Trio chamber group in 1953 with the
cellist Isaac Mamott and the violinist Albert Pratz.
In 1957, Gould undertook a tour of the Soviet Union, becoming the
first North American to play there since World War II. His
concerts featured Bach, Beethoven, and the serial music of Schoenberg
and Berg, which had been suppressed in the
Soviet Union during the era
of Socialist Realism. Gould made his Boston debut in 1958, playing for
Peabody Mason Concert
Peabody Mason Concert Series. On January 31, 1960, Gould made
his American television debut on CBS's Ford Presents series,
performing Bach's Keyboard Concerto No. 1 in D minor (BWV 1052) with
Leonard Bernstein conducting the New York Philharmonic.
Gould was convinced that the institution of the public concert was not
only an anachronism, but also a "force of evil", leading to his
retirement from concert performance. He argued that public performance
devolved into a sort of competition, with a non-empathetic audience
(musically and otherwise) mostly attendant to the possibility of the
performer erring or not meeting critical expectation. This doctrine he
set forth, only half in jest, in "GPAADAK", the Gould Plan for the
Abolition of Applause and Demonstrations of All Kinds.
On April 10, 1964, Gould gave his last public performance, playing in
Los Angeles, at the Wilshire Ebell Theater. Among the pieces he
performed that night were Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 30, selections
from Bach's The Art of Fugue, and Paul Hindemith's Piano Sonata No.
3.[fn 11] Gould performed fewer than 200 concerts over the course of
his career, of which fewer than 40 were overseas. For pianists such as
Van Cliburn, 200 concerts would have amounted to about two years'
One of Gould's reasons for abandoning live performance was his
aesthetic preference for the recording studio, where, in his words, he
developed a "love affair with the microphone".[fn 12] There, he could
control every aspect of the final musical "product" by selecting parts
of various takes. He felt that he could realize a musical score more
fully this way. Thus, the act of musical composition, to Gould, did
not entirely end with the original score. The performer had to make
creative choices. Gould felt strongly that there was little point in
re-recording centuries-old pieces if the performer had no new
perspective to bring to the work. For the rest of his life, Gould
eschewed live performance, focusing instead on recording, writing, and
A replica of Gould's piano chair
Gould was widely known for his unusual habits. He usually hummed or
sang while he played the piano, and his recording engineers had mixed
results in how successfully they could exclude his voice from
recordings. Gould claimed that his singing was unconscious and
increased proportionately with the inability of the piano in question
to realize the music as he intended. It is likely that this habit
originated in Gould's having been taught by his mother to "sing
everything that he played", as
Kevin Bazzana puts it. This became "an
unbreakable (and notorious) habit". Some of Gould's recordings
were severely criticised because of the background "vocalising". For
example, a reviewer of his 1981 re-recording of the Goldberg
Variations opined that many listeners would "find the groans and
croons intolerable". Gould was renowned for his peculiar body
movements while playing and for his insistence on absolute control
over every aspect of his playing environment. The temperature of the
recording studio had to be exactly regulated. He invariably insisted
that it had to be extremely warm. According to Friedrich, the air
conditioning engineer had to work just as hard as the recording
engineers. The piano had to be set at a certain height and would
be raised on wooden blocks if necessary. A small rug would
sometimes be required for his feet underneath the piano. He had to
sit fourteen inches above the floor and would play concerts only while
sitting on the old chair his father had made. He continued to use this
chair even when the seat was completely worn through. His chair is
so closely identified with him that it is shown in a place of honour
in a glass case at the National Library of Canada.
Conductors responded diversely to Gould and his playing habits. George
Szell, who led Gould in 1957 with the Cleveland Orchestra, remarked to
his assistant, "That nut's a genius."
Leonard Bernstein said,
"There is nobody quite like him, and I just love playing with
him." Bernstein created a stir at the concert of April 6, 1962
when, just before the
New York Philharmonic
New York Philharmonic was to perform the Brahms
Piano Concerto No. 1 in D minor with Gould as soloist, he informed the
audience that he was assuming no responsibility for what they were
about to hear. He asked the audience: "In a concerto, who is the
boss – the soloist or the conductor? (audience laughter). The
answer is, of course, sometimes the one and sometimes the other,
depending on the people involved." Specifically, he was referring
to their rehearsals with Gould's insistence that the entire first
movement be played at half the indicated tempo. The speech was
interpreted by Harold C. Schonberg, music critic for The New York
Times, as an abdication of responsibility and an attack on Gould.
Plans for a studio recording of the performance came to nothing. The
live radio broadcast (along with Bernstein's disclaimer) was
subsequently released on CD.
Gould was averse to cold and wore heavy clothing (including gloves),
even in warm places. He was once arrested, presumably mistaken for a
vagrant, while sitting on a park bench in Sarasota, Florida, dressed
in his standard all-climate attire of coat(s), hat and mittens. He
also disliked social functions. He hated being touched, and in later
life he limited personal contact, relying on the telephone and letters
for communication. On one visit to
Steinway Hall in New York City in
1959, the chief piano technician at the time, William Hupfer, greeted
Gould by giving him a slap on the back. Gould was shocked by this, and
complained of aching, lack of coordination, and fatigue because of the
incident. He went on to explore the possibility of litigation against
Steinway & Sons if his apparent injuries were permanent. He
was known for cancelling performances at the last minute, which is why
Bernstein's above-mentioned public disclaimer opens with, "Don't be
frightened, Mr. Gould is here... will appear in a moment."
In his liner notes and broadcasts, Gould created more than two dozen
alter egos for satirical, humorous, or didactic purposes, permitting
him to write hostile reviews or incomprehensible commentaries on his
own performances. Probably the best-known are the German musicologist
"Karlheinz Klopweisser", the English conductor "Sir Nigel
Twitt-Thornwaite", and the American critic "Theodore Slutz". These
facets of Gould, whether interpreted as neurosis or "play", have
provided ample material for psychobiography.
Fran's Restaurant in
Toronto was a regular haunt of Gould's. A CBC
profile noted, "sometime between two and three every morning, Gould
would go to Fran's, a 24-hour diner a block away from his Toronto
apartment, sit in the same booth, and order the same meal of scrambled
eggs." In a letter to the cellist Virginia Katims, dating back to
January 20, 1973, Gould stated he had been vegetarian for about ten
Gould lived a private life. Documentarian
Bruno Monsaingeon said of
him, "No supreme pianist has ever given of his heart and mind so
overwhelmingly while showing himself so sparingly." He never
married, and biographers have spent considerable time on his
sexuality. Bazzana writes that "it is tempting to assume that Gould
was asexual, an image that certainly fits his aesthetic and the
persona he sought to convey, and one can read the whole Gould
literature and be convinced that he died a virgin"—but he also
mentions that evidence points to "a number of relationships with women
that may or may not have been platonic and ultimately became
complicated and were ended".
One piece of evidence arrived in 2007. When Gould was in Los Angeles
in 1956, he met Cornelia Foss, an art instructor, and her husband
Lukas, a conductor. After several years, Gould and Cornelia Foss
became lovers. Foss left her husband in 1967 for Gould, taking her
two children with her to Toronto. She purchased a house near Gould's
St. Clair Avenue West
St. Clair Avenue West apartment. In 2007, Foss confirmed that she
and Gould had had a love affair lasting several years. According to
Foss, "There were a lot of misconceptions about Glenn, and it was
partly because he was so very private. But I assure you, he was an
extremely heterosexual man. Our relationship was, among other things,
quite sexual." Their affair lasted until 1972, when she returned to
her husband. As early as two weeks after leaving her husband, Foss
noticed disturbing signs in Gould, alluding to unusual behaviour that
was more than "just neurotic".
Health and death
Gould suffered many pains and ailments, though he was something of a
hypochondriac[fn 13] (admitting it himself on at least one
occasion), and his autopsy revealed few underlying problems in areas
that often troubled him.[fn 14] He was highly concerned about his
health throughout his life, worrying about everything from high blood
pressure (which in his later years he recorded in diary form) to the
safety of his hands. (Gould rarely shook hands with anyone and usually
wore gloves.)[fn 15][fn 16] As mentioned above, early in his life
Gould had suffered a spine injury. His physicians prescribed, usually
independently, an assortment of analgesics, anxiolytics, and other
drugs. Bazzana has speculated that Gould's increasing use of a variety
of prescription medicines over his career may have had a deleterious
effect on his health. It reached the stage, Bazzana writes, that "he
was taking pills to counteract the side effects of other pills,
creating a cycle of dependency". It has been debated whether
Gould's behaviour fell within the autism spectrum. The diagnosis
was first suggested by psychiatrist Peter Ostwald, a friend of
Gould's, in the 1997 book Glenn Gould: The Ecstasy and Tragedy of
On September 27, 1982, just two days after his 50th birthday, after
experiencing a severe headache, Gould suffered a stroke that paralyzed
the left side of his body. He was admitted to
Toronto General Hospital
and his condition rapidly deteriorated. By October 4, there was
evidence of brain damage, and Gould's father decided that his son
should be taken off life support. Gould's public funeral was held
in St. Paul's Anglican Church on October 15 with singing by Lois
Marshall and Maureen Forrester, a service attended by over 3,000
people and broadcast on CBC. He is buried next to his parents in
Toronto's Mount Pleasant Cemetery (section 38, row 1088, plot 1050).
The first few bars of the
Goldberg Variations are carved on his
Gould is reported to have 'periodically told interviewers that if he
had not been a pianist, he would have been a writer'. He expounded
his criticism and philosophy of music and art in lectures, convocation
speeches, periodicals, and radio and television documentaries for the
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Gould participated in many
interviews, and had a predilection for scripting them to the extent
that they may be seen as much as "works" as off-the-cuff discussions.
Gould's writing style was highly articulate, but sometimes florid,
indulgent, or rhetorical. This is especially evident in those works in
which he attempts humour or irony, which he did often.[fn 17] Bazzana
writes that although some of Gould's 'conversational dazzle' found its
way into his prolific, written output, his writing was 'at best
uneven, at worst awful'. While offering 'brilliant insights' and
'provocative theses', it was often marred by 'long, tortuous
sentences' and a 'false formality'.
In these he praised certain composers and rejected what he deemed
banal in music composition and its consumption by the public, and also
gave insightful analyses of the music of Richard Strauss, Alban Berg
and Anton Webern. Despite a certain affection for
Gould was mostly averse to popular music. He enjoyed a jazz concert
with his friends as a youth, mentioned jazz in his writings, and once
The Beatles for "bad voice leading"[fn 18]—while praising
Petula Clark and Barbra Streisand. He shared a mutual admiration with
jazz pianist Bill Evans, who made his seminal record Conversations
with Myself using Gould's celebrated Steinway CD 318 piano. Gould
believed that "the piano is a contrapuntal instrument," and his whole
approach to music was, in fact, centered in the Baroque. Much of the
homophony that followed he felt belongs to a less serious and less
spiritual period of art.
A 1962 quote is often used to summarize Gould's perspective on art:
"The justification of art is the internal combustion it ignites in the
hearts of men and not its shallow, externalized, public
manifestations. The purpose of art is not the release of a momentary
ejection of adrenaline but is, rather, the gradual, lifelong
construction of a state of wonder and serenity."
Gould referred to himself repeatedly as "the last puritan", a
reference to philosopher George Santayana's novel of the same
name. Weighing this statement against Gould's highly
individualistic lifestyle and artistic vision leads to an apparent
contradiction. He was progressive in many ways, promulgating the
controversial atonal composers, and anticipating, through his deep
involvement with the recording process, the vast changes that
technology would have on the production and distribution of music.
Mark Kingwell summarizes the paradox, never resolved by Gould nor his
He was progressive and anti-progressive at once, and likewise at once
both a critic of the
Zeitgeist and its most interesting expression. He
was, in effect, stranded on a beachhead of his own thinking between
past and future. That he was not able, by himself, to fashion a bridge
between them is neither surprising, nor, in the end, disappointing. We
should see this failure, rather, as an aspect of his genius. He both
was and was not a man of his time.
The issue of "authenticity" in relation to an approach like Gould's
has been a topic of great debate, although diminished by the end of
the 20th century—a development that Gould seems to have anticipated.
It asks whether a recording is less authentic or "direct" for having
been highly refined by technical means in the studio. Gould likened
his process to that of a film director—one does not perceive
that a two-hour film was made in two hours—and implicitly asks why
the act of listening to music should be any different. He went so far
as to conduct an experiment with musicians, sound engineers, and
laypeople in which they were to listen to a recording and determine
where the splices occurred. Each group chose different points based on
their relationship to music, but none successfully. While the
conclusion was hardly scientific, Gould remarked, "The tape does lie,
and nearly always gets away with it".
In a lecture and essay titled "Forgery and Imitation in the Creative
Process", one of Gould's most significant texts, he makes explicit
his views on authenticity and creativity. Gould asks why the epoch in
which a work is received influences its reception as "art",
postulating a sonata he composes that sounds so much like
it is received as such. If, instead, the same sonata had been
attributed to a somewhat earlier or later composer, it becomes more or
less interesting as a piece of music. Yet it is not the work that has
changed but its relation within the accepted narrative of music
history. Similarly, Gould notes the "pathetic duplicity" in the
reception of high-quality forgeries by
Han van Meegeren
Han van Meegeren of new
paintings attributed to Dutch Golden Age master Vermeer, before and
after the forgery was known.
Gould, therefore, prefers an ahistorical, or at least pre-Renaissance,
view of art, minimizing the identity of the artist and the attendant
historical context in evaluating the artwork: "What gives us the right
to assume that in the work of art we must receive a direct
communication with the historical attitudes of another period? ...
moreover, what makes us assume that the situation of the man who wrote
it accurately or faithfully reflects the situation of his time? ...
What if the composer, as historian, is faulty?"
Main article: List of recordings by Glenn Gould
See also: Bach: The
Goldberg Variations (
Glenn Gould recording)
Gould in later years.
Fugue in C major from
The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach (excerpt)
The C major prelude from the first book of the WTC.
Allegro Moderato from Piano Sonata
No. 10 in C major by Wolfgang Ama-
deus Mozart (excerpts from two recordings)
Compare the 1970 version from the "Complete Piano Sonatas" set (played
first) and the 1958 interpretation (second).
Contrapunctus V from
The Art of Fugue
The Art of Fugue by Johann Sebastian Bach
The only organ recordings Gould made were the first nine parts of
Bach's The Art of Fugue.
Gigue from Suite in A major HWV 426, by Georg Friederich Handel
Gould recorded several Handel suites and a few pieces from J.S. Bach's
WTC on a Wittmayer harpsichord. The somewhat muffled sound of this
20th-century instrument is very different from modern recordings that
are made using copies of old harpsichords.
Problems playing these files? See media help.
In creating music, Gould much preferred the control and intimacy
provided by the recording studio. He disliked the concert hall, which
he compared to a competitive sporting arena. After his final public
performance in 1964, he devoted his career solely to the studio,
recording albums and several radio documentaries. He was attracted to
the technical aspects of recording, and considered the manipulation of
tape to be another part of the creative process. Although Gould's
recording studio producers have testified that "he needed splicing
less than most performers", Gould used the process to give himself
total artistic control over the recording process. He recounted his
recording of the A minor fugue from Book I of The Well-Tempered
Clavier and how it was spliced together from two takes, with the
fugue's expositions from one take and its episodes from another.
Gould's first commercial recording (of Berg's Piano sonata, Op. 1)
came in 1953 on the short-lived Canadian Hallmark label. He soon
signed with Columbia Records' classical music division and, in 1955,
recorded Bach: The Goldberg Variations, his breakthrough work.
Although there was some controversy at Columbia about the
appropriateness of this "debut" piece, the record received phenomenal
praise and was among the best-selling classical music albums of its
time. Gould became closely associated with the piece, playing it
in full or in part at many of his recitals. A new recording of the
Goldberg Variations, made in 1981, would be among his last albums, and
one of only a few pieces he recorded twice in the studio. The 1981
record was one of CBS Masterworks' first digital recordings. The 1955
interpretation is highly energetic and often frenetic; the later is
slower and more deliberate—Gould wanted to treat the aria
and its 30 variations as a cohesive whole.[fn 19]
Gould revered J.S. Bach, stating that the Baroque composer was "first
and last an architect, a constructor of sound, and what makes him so
inestimably valuable to us is that he was beyond a doubt the greatest
architect of sound who ever lived". He recorded most of Bach's
other keyboard works, including both books of The Well-Tempered
Clavier and the Partitas, French Suites, English Suites, Inventions
and Sinfonias, keyboard concertos, and a number of toccatas (which
interested him least, being less contrapuntal). For his only recording
at the organ, he recorded about half of The Art of Fugue, which was
also released posthumously on piano.
As for Beethoven, Gould preferred the composer's early and late
periods. He recorded all five of Beethoven's piano concertos, 23 of
the 32 piano sonatas, and numerous bagatelles and variations. Gould
was the first pianist to record any of Liszt's piano transcriptions of
Beethoven's symphonies (beginning with the Fifth Symphony, in 1967,
with the Sixth released in 1969).
Gould also recorded works by Brahms, Mozart, and many other prominent
piano composers, though he was outspoken in his criticism of the
Romantic era as a whole. He was extremely critical of Frédéric
Chopin. In a radio interview, when asked if he did not find himself
wanting to play Chopin, he replied: "No, I don't. I play it in a weak
moment – maybe once a year or twice a year for myself. But it
doesn't convince me." However, in 1970, he played the B minor
sonata by Chopin for the CBC and, in an interview, he stated that he
liked some of the minatures and that he "sort of liked the first
movement of the B minor". Although Gould recorded all of Mozart's
sonatas and admitted enjoying the "actual playing" of them, he
claimed to dislike Mozart's later works, to the extent of arguing
(perhaps facetiously) that Mozart died too late rather than too
early. He was fond of many lesser-known composers, such as Orlando
Gibbons, whose Anthems he had heard as a teenager, and for whose
music he felt a "spiritual attachment". He recorded a number of
Gibbons's keyboard works and called him his favourite
composer, despite his better-known admiration for the
technical mastery of Bach.[fn 20] He made recordings of piano music by
Jean Sibelius (the Sonatines and Kyllikki),
Georges Bizet (the
Variations Chromatiques de Concert and the Premier nocturne), Richard
Strauss (the Piano Sonata, the Five Pieces, and Enoch Arden with
Claude Rains), and
Paul Hindemith (the three piano sonatas and the
sonatas for brass and piano). He also made recordings of the complete
piano works Lieder by Arnold Schoenberg. In early September 1982,
Gould made his final recording, Strauss's Piano Sonata in B minor.
The success of Gould's collaborations with other artists was to a
degree dependent upon their receptiveness to his sometimes
unconventional readings of the music. His television collaboration
Yehudi Menuhin in 1965, in which they played works by Bach,
Beethoven and Schoenberg, was called a success by Stegemann (1993b)
because "Menuhin was ready to embrace the new perspectives opened up
by an unorthodox view". His 1966 collaboration with Elisabeth
Schwarzkopf, however, recording Richard Strauss's Ophelia Lieder, Op.
67, was deemed an "outright fiasco". Schwarzkopf believed in
"total fidelity" to the score, but she also objected to the thermal
conditions in the recording studio: "The studio was incredibly
overheated, which may be good for a pianist but not for a singer: a
dry throat is the end as far as singing is concerned. But we
persevered nonetheless. It wasn't easy for me. Gould began by
improvising something Straussian—we thought he was simply warming
up, but no, he continued to play like that throughout the actual
recordings, as though Strauss's notes were just a pretext that allowed
him to improvise freely". He worked with numerous vocalists to
record Schoenberg, Hindemith, and Ernst Krenek, including Donald Gramm
and Ellen Faull. Gould also recorded Bach's six sonatas for violin and
keyboard with Jaime Laredo, and the three sonatas for viola da gamba
and keyboard with Leonard Rose.
Claude Rains narrated their recording
of Strauss's Enoch Arden melodrama.
Glenn Gould made numerous television and radio programs for CBC
Television and CBC Radio. Notable productions include his
music-concrète Solitude Trilogy, which consists of The Idea of North,
a meditation on Northern Canada and its people, The Latecomers about
Newfoundland, and The Quiet in the Land, about Mennonites in Manitoba.
All three use a radiophonic electronic-music technique that Gould
called contrapuntal radio, in which several people are heard speaking
at once—much like the voices in a fugue—manipulated through the
use of tape. Gould's experience of driving across northern Ontario
while listening to Top 40 radio in 1967 provided the inspiration for
one of his most unusual CBC radio pieces, The Search for Petula Clark,
a witty and eloquent dissertation on the recordings of the renowned
British pop singer, who was then at the peak of her international
Transcriptions, compositions, and conducting
Main article: List of compositions by Glenn Gould
Gould was not only a pianist, but also a prolific transcriber of
orchestral repertoire for piano. His transcriptions include his
recorded Wagner and Ravel transcriptions, as well as the operas of
Richard Strauss and the symphonies of Schubert and Bruckner, which
he played privately for pleasure.[fn 21]
He dabbled in composition with few finished works. As a teenager,
Gould wrote chamber music and piano works in the style of the Second
Viennese school of composition. His only significant work was the
String Quartet, Op. 1, which he finished when he was in his 20s
(published in 1956 and recorded in 1960), and perhaps his cadenzas to
Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 1. Later works include the Lieberson
SATB and piano), and So You Want to Write a Fugue? (SATB
with piano or string quartet accompaniment). His String Quartet Op. 1
had a mixed reception from critics. For example, the notices from the
Christian Science Monitor
Christian Science Monitor and The Saturday Review were quite
laudatory, while the response from the
Montreal Star was less so.
There is little critical commentary on Gould's compositional work for
the simple reason that there are few compositions; he did not proceed
beyond Opus 1, leaving many compositions unfinished. He attributed
his failure as a composer to his lack of a "personal voice". The
majority of his work is published by Schott Music. The recording Glenn
Gould: The Composer contains his original works.
Towards the end of his life, Gould began conducting. He had earlier
directed Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 and the cantata Widerstehe
doch der Sünde from the harpsipiano (a piano with metal hammers to
simulate a harpsichord's sound), and Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 2
(the Urlicht section) in the 1960s. His last recording was as a
conductor of Wagner's
Siegfried Idyll in its original chamber music
scoring. He intended to spend his later years conducting, writing
about music, and composing.
Legacy and honours
Park Bench Sculpture of Gould located outside the Canadian
Gould's star on Canada's Walk of Fame
Gould is one of the most acclaimed 20th-century classical musicians.
His unique pianistic method, insight into the architecture of
compositions, and relatively free interpretation of scores created
performances and recordings that were revelatory to many listeners
while highly objectionable to others. Philosopher
Mark Kingwell writes
that "his influence is made inescapable. No performer after him can
avoid the example he sets... Now, everyone must perform through him:
he can be emulated or rejected, but he cannot be ignored."
Gould left an extensive body of work beyond the keyboard. After his
retirement from concert performance, he was increasingly interested in
other media, including audio and film documentary and writing, through
which he mused on aesthetics, composition, music history, and the
effect of the electronic age on the consumption of media. (Gould grew
Toronto at the same time that Canadian theorists Marshall
McLuhan, Northrop Frye, and
Harold Innis were making their mark on
communications studies.) Anthologies of his writing and
letters have been published.[fn 22] Library and Archives Canada
retains a significant portion of Gould's work called The Glenn Gould
One of Gould's performances of the Prelude and
Fugue in C major from
Book II of
The Well-Tempered Clavier
The Well-Tempered Clavier was chosen for inclusion on the
Voyager Golden Record
Voyager Golden Record by a committee headed by Carl Sagan. The
disc of recordings was placed on the spacecraft Voyager 1, which is
now approaching interstellar space and is the farthest man-made object
Gould is a popular subject of biography and even critical analysis.
Philosophers such as
Giorgio Agamben and
Mark Kingwell have
interpreted Gould's life and ideas. References to Gould and his
work are plentiful in poetry, fiction, and the visual arts.
Genie Award winning 1993 film, Thirty Two Short
Glenn Gould includes documentary interviews with people
who knew him, dramatizations of scenes from Gould's life, and fanciful
segments including an animation set to music. Thomas Bernhard's
renowned 1983 novel
The Loser (Der Untergeher) purports to be an
extended first-person essay about Gould and his lifelong friendship
with two fellow students from the Mozarteum school in Salzburg, both
of whom have abandoned their careers as concert pianists due to the
intimidating example of Gould's genius.
In 1983, Gould was posthumously inducted into the Canadian Music Hall
of Fame. He was inducted into
Canada's Walk of Fame
Canada's Walk of Fame in
1998, and designated a National Historic Person in 2012. A
federal plaque reflecting the designation was erected next to a
sculpture of him in downtown Toronto. The
Glenn Gould Studio
Glenn Gould Studio at
Canadian Broadcasting Centre
Canadian Broadcasting Centre in
Toronto was named after him.
To commemorate what would have been Gould's 75th birthday, the
Canadian Museum of Civilization
Canadian Museum of Civilization held an exhibition titled Glenn Gould:
The Sounds of Genius in 2007. The multimedia exhibit was held in
conjunction with Library and Archives Canada.
Glenn Gould Foundation
Glenn Gould Foundation
Toronto in 1983, the
Glenn Gould Foundation
Glenn Gould Foundation was established to
honour Gould and to keep his memory and life's work alive. The
Foundation's mission "is to extend awareness of the legacy of Glenn
Gould as an extraordinary musician, communicator, and Canadian, and to
advance his visionary and innovative ideas into the future." Its prime
activity is the awarding of the
Glenn Gould Prize every three
years to "an individual who has earned international recognition
as the result of a highly exceptional contribution to music and its
communication, through the use of any communications technologies."
The prize consists of CA$100,000 for the recipient, and the
responsibility of awarding the CA$15,000
Glenn Gould Protégé Prize
to a young musician of their choice.
Glenn Gould School
Main article: The
Glenn Gould School
The Royal Conservatory of Music
The Royal Conservatory of Music Professional School in
The Glenn Gould School in 1997, after the Conservatory's most
Gould received many honours before and after his death (while he
claimed to despise competition in music). In 1970, the government of
Canada offered him the Companion of the Order of Canada, but Gould
declined the honour, believing that he was too young to receive it.
Juno Awards are presented annually by the Canadian Academy of
Recording Arts and Sciences. Gould won three awards out of his six
nominations. However he only personally received one Juno.
Best Classical Album of the Year
Hindemith: Das Marienleben (with Roxolana Roslak)
Best Classical Album of the Year
Bach Toccatas, Vol. 2
Best Classical Album of the Year
Bach: Preludes. Fughettas & Fugues
Best Classical Album of the Year
Haydn: The Six Last Sonatas
Bach: The Goldberg Variations
Best Classical Album of the Year
Brahms: Ballades Op. 10, Rhapsodies Op. 79
The Grammys are awarded annually by the National Academy of Recording
Arts and Sciences. Gould won four awards but personally only received
one. In 1983, he was honoured posthumously, being inducted into
the Grammy Hall of Fame for his 1955 recording (released in 1956)
Bach: The Goldberg Variations.
Best Album Notes – Classical
Hindemith: Sonatas for Piano (Complete)
Best Classical Album
Goldberg Variations (with producer Samuel H. Carter)
Best Instrumental Soloist Performance
Bach: The Goldberg Variations
Best Classical Performance – Instrumental Soloist or Soloists
Beethoven: Piano Sonatas Nos. 12 & 13
Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award
Gould Estate v Stoddart Publishing Co Ltd
Glenn Gould Prize
Glenn Gould Foundation
List of Canadian composers
List of compositions by Glenn Gould
List of recordings by Glenn Gould
Music of Canada
Classical music portal
Music of Canada
Music of Canada portal
^ Bazzana (2003, p. 27) states, "Gould's first name is frequently
misspelled as 'Glen' in documents (including official ones) dating
back to the beginning of his life, and Gould himself used both
spellings interchangeably throughout his life." Bazzana (2003,
p. 24) Further investigated the name-change records in Ontario's
Office of the Registrar General and found only a record of his father
Bert's name-change to Gould in 1979 (to be able to legally marry with
that name); he concludes that the family's name-change was informal
and "Gould was still legally 'Glenn Herbert Gold' when he died."
^ According to Bazzana (2003, p. 24), "[Gould's] birth
certificate gave his name as 'Gold, Glenn Herbert.' The family name
had always been Gold [...] All of the documents through 1938 that
survive among Gould's papers give his surname as 'Gold,' but beginning
at least as early as June 1939, the family name was almost always
printed 'Gould' in newspapers, programs, and other sources; the last
confirmed publication of 'Gold' is in the program for a church supper
and concert on October 27, 1940. The whole family adopted the new
^ Full circumstances of the name-change can be found in Bazzana (2003,
^ According to Bazzana (2003, p. 27), "At least as far back as
the mid-eighteenth century, there were no Jews in this particular Gold
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 27) dates this incident on the basis of a
discussion with Gould's father, who is cited by Friedrich as stating
that it occurred "when the boy was about ten".
^ ATCM is Associate,
Toronto Conservatory of Music. The Conservatory
received its royal charter in 1947 and became The Royal Conservatory
^ In their documentary film Glenn Gould: A Portrait (Till & Tovell
1985), Glenn Gould's father recalled that Glenn "would not come out
[of his bedroom] until he memorized the whole music" [regarding one of
Beethoven's piano concertos].
^ In outtakes of the Goldberg Variations, Gould describes his
practising technique by composing a drill on Variation 11, remarking
that he is "still sloppy" and with his usual humour that "a little
practising is in order." He is also heard practising other parts of
^ Gould: "The piano was a means to an end for him, and the end was to
approach Beethoven." See Tovell (1959) 07:40 minutes in.
^ During Gould's 1957 concert performances in Moscow, Vladimir
Ashkenazy labelled him a phenomenon (Till & Tovell 1985).
^ Friedrich first states that Gould performed the Beethoven Piano
Sonata No. 30 (Opus 109) Friedrich (1990, p. 108) but later
states that he performed the Beethoven Piano Sonata No. 31 (Opus 110)
Friedrich (1990, p. 354). Bazzana (2003, p. 229) cites
Beethoven Piano Sonata No. 30 (Opus 109).
^ Originally published in Piano Quarterly in 1974. Reprinted and
quoted in Kingwell (2009, p. 159) and Kieser (1993). See Album
details at world catalogue.
^ Bazzana (2003, pp. 352–368) In a section, quotes Gould: "They
say I'm a hypochondriac, and, of course, I am."
^ Ostwald (1997, p. 329) specifies "No physical abnormalities
were found in the kidneys, prostate, bones, joints, muscles, or other
parts of the body that Glenn so often had complained about."
^ This is discussed and can be seen in the 1959 National Film Board of
Canada documentary film On and Off the Record (Koenig & Kroitor
^ The claim that Gould "never shook hands" is exaggerated. Friedrich
(1990, p. 267) quotes Timothy Findley: "Everybody said you never
touched his hands, you never try to shake hands with him, but the
first thing he did to me was to offer to shake hands. He offered me
his hand in a very definite way, none of this tentative,
^ These include his famous "self-interview", his book review of a
biography written about him (in which he refers to himself in the
third person)—not to mention the various appearances of his "alter
egos" in print, radio, or TV, including an "extended and rather
strained radio joke show", ("Critics Callout Corner" on the Silver
Jubilee Album, 1980) which Kingwell (2009, p. 180) comments: "The
humour is punishing... There can be no excuse for it, and the one
clear lesson of the recording is that it could exist only because of
the stature of its creator. Gould in effect called in twenty-five
years of chits from Columbia when he got them to release this
embarrassing piece of twaddle."
^ These comments can be found in essays in Gould (1987).
^ There are two other Gould recordings of the Goldberg Variations. One
is a live recording from 1954
CBC Records (PSCD 2007); the other is
live recorded in Moscow on 7 May 1957 and in
Salzburg on 25 August
1959 (Sony SRCR 9500). It is part of The
Glenn Gould edition and has
been re-released on CD on
Sony Classical Records
Sony Classical Records (SMK 52685).
^ Gould discusses this in the 1974
Bruno Monsaingeon film series
Chemins de la Musique (Ways of the Music). His 24 part series features
Gould in four of those parts: La Retraite (The Retreat), L'Alchimiste
(The Alchemist), 1974, Partita No. 6 (Bach's Partia No 6). The four
parts on Gould were re-released in 2002 on DVD as Gould: the alchemist
^ The Schubert can be seen briefly in the film Hereafter (Monsaingeon
2006). The transcription of Bruckner's 8th symphony Gould alludes to
in an article (Gould 1987) where he deprecates its "sheer ledger-line
unplayability"; the Strauss opera playing can be seen in one of the
Humphrey Burton conversations and is referred to by almost everyone
who saw him play in private.
^ See Gould (1999) for an example.
^ Flanagan, Damian. "The three-cornered world of
Glenn Gould and
Natsume Soseki", The Japan Times, March 2, 2015
^ Hafner 2009, p. 19 
^ Jorgensen, Birgitte (2003). "The Dogs of Pianist Glenn Gould: In the
Key of Woof". Modern Dog. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
^ Bazzana (2003, p. 21)
^ Ostwald (1997, p. 35)
^ a b c d e Tovell, Vincent (4 December 1959). Gould in conversation
with his friend Vincent Tovell (excerpt): A 26-year-old Gould talks
about his fame (CBC Radio. Radio Show: Project '60).
CBC Radio 1.
Retrieved 25 December 2011.
^ Bazzana (2003, p. 30)
^ Bazzana (2003, p. 24)
^ a b Bazzana, Kevin; Beckwith, John & Payzant, Geoffrey (4 March
2015). "Glenn Gould".
The Canadian Encyclopedia
The Canadian Encyclopedia (online ed.).
^ Ostwald (1997, p. 39)
^ Ostwald (1997, p. 40)
^ a b Friedrich (1990, p. 15)
^ Ostwald (1997, pp. 44–45)
^ Ostwald (1997, p. 48)
^ Payzant (1978, p. 2)
^ Beckwith, John (15 September 2014). "Alberto Guerrero". The Canadian
Encyclopedia (online ed.). Historica Canada.
^ Ostwald (1997, p. 73)
^ Ostwald (1997, p. 71)
^ a b c "Glenn Gould". soundbug.com. Misja.com. Retrieved 25 December
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 31)
^ a b Bazzana (2003, p. 76)
^ Dubal (1985, pp. 180–183)
^ Bazzana (2003, p. 326)
^ Friedrich (1990, pp. 17–18)
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 17)
^ Stegemann (1993a, p. 15)
^ "Glenn Gould, biography". sonymasterworks.com. Sony BMG Masterworks.
Archived from the original on 10 February 2008. Retrieved 12 March
^ Host: Gordon Burwash (23 June 1957). "
Glenn Gould is a rising star "
The Story". CBC Newsmagazine. . Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. CBC
Television. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 147)
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 100)
^ Ostwald, Peter (1997). Glenn Gould: The Ecstasy and Tragedy of
Genius. 500 Fifth Avenue, New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
p. 47. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 35)
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 36)
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 38)
^ Bazzana (2003, p. 163)
^ Kelly, Kevin (22 March 1958). "
Glenn Gould at Jordan Hall". The
The New York Times
The New York Times Company. ISSN 0743-1791.
^ Glenn Gould's U.S. Television Debut – Bernstein conducts Bach's
Keyboard Concerto No. 1 in D minor. 20 January 2016. Retrieved 5
February 2016 – via YouTube.
^ Gould (1987)
^ Bazzana (2003, p. 229)
^ Bazzana (2003, pp. 232–233)
^ Bazzana (2003, p. 47)
^ Greenfield, Layton & March (1988, p. 44)
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 50)
^ Ostwald (1997, p. 18)
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 51)
^ Ostwald (1997, pp. 304–306)
^ a b Bazzana (2003, p. 158)
^ Announcer: James Fassett, Guest:
Leonard Bernstein (25 April 1962).
Leonard Bernstein and
Glenn Gould don't see eye to eye". CBC Radio
Special. . New York. CBC Radio.
CBC Radio 1. Retrieved 23 December
^ Schonberg, Harold C. (7 April 1962). "Music: Inner Voices of Glenn
Gould; Pianist Plays Them in Addition to Brahms Bernstein Speech Hits
at the Interpretation (article abstract)". The New York Times. Arthur
Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. p. 17. ISSN 0362-4331.
OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 62)
^ "Musician's Medical Maladies". ahsl.arizona.edu. Arizona health
sciences library. Archived from the original on 30 December 2007.
Retrieved 12 March 2009.
^ Stegemann (1993a, p. 14)
^ Kingwell 2009, pp. 125–128 On "play" chapter 11.
^ Interviewer: Hugh Thomson (15 July 1958). "Glenn Gould: Variations
on an Artist » Gould on his eccentricities » Did you
know?". Assignment. . Toronto. CBC Radio.
CBC Radio 1. Retrieved 12
^ Glenn Gould: Selected Letters (John P. L. Roberts, Ghyslaine
^ Bruno, Monsaingeon (1983). "Introduction to The Last Puritan".
collectionscanada.gc.ca. Ottawa: Library and Archives Canada.
Retrieved 15 December 2011.
^ Elliott, R. "Constructions of Identity in the Life Stories of Emma
Albani and Glenn Gould." Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue d'études
canadiennes, vol. 39 no. 2, 2005, pp. 105-126. Project MUSE,
^ a b Clarkson, Michael (25 August 2007). "The secret life of Glenn
Toronto Star. Torstar Corporation. OCLC 679765547.
Retrieved 29 May 2009.
^ Burns, John F. (29 May 1988). "OTTAWA; An Exhibition of Glenn Gould
Memorabilia Sheds A Little Light on A Musical Enigma". The New York
Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.
Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. ISSN 0362-4331.
OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
^ Bazzana (2004, p. 362)
^ Ostwald (1997)
^ Ostwald (1997, pp. 325–328)
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 112)
^ Bazzana (2004, p. 271)
^ Bazzana (2004, p. 272)
^ Kingwell (2009, p. 194)
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 125)
^ Kingwell (2009, p. 166)
^ Kingwell (2009, p. 151)
^ Kingwell (2009, pp. 158–159)
^ Gould (1999, p. 205) Editor's introduction to the essay.
^ Gould (1999, p. 208)
^ Bazzana (2003, p. 263)
^ Gould, Glenn (1966). "The Prospects of Recording – Resources –
Glenn Gould Archive". collectionscanada.gc.ca. Ottawa: Library and
Archives Canada. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
^ Ostwald (1997, p. 119)
^ "The Variations of Glenn Gould: Legendary, Eccentric Pianist
Launched His Career by Playing Bach". www.npr.org. National Public
Radio. Archived from the original on 29 November 2011. Retrieved 24
^ Tommasini, Anthony (1 September 2002). "Two faces of a pianist who
had many". The New York Times. 151. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.
p. AR20. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 22
^ In "
Bach the Nonconformist"; Roberts (ed.), 100
^ Payzant (1978, p. 82)
^ "Of Mozart and Related Matters.
Glenn Gould in Conversation with
Bruno Monsaingeon". The Piano Quarterly. San Anselmo: The String
Letter Press. Fall 1976. p. 33. ISSN 0031-9554.
Reprinted in 1990. See also Ostwald (1997, p. 249)
^ Ostwald (1997, p. 249)
^ Ostwald (1997, p. 257)
^ Ostwald (1997, pp. 256–257)
^ "Variations on Gould". cbc.ca/radio2.
CBC Radio 2. Retrieved 24
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 141)
Glenn Gould " The CBC Legacy " Timeline of a Musical Genius".
cbc.ca/gould. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the
original on 24 April 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
^ a b Stegemann (1993b, p. 10)
^ Gould (1992, p. 12)
^ Announcer: Ken Haslam, Commentator:
Glenn Gould (11 December 1967).
"Glenn Gould's fascination with
Petula Clark (excerpt)". The Best of
IDEAS. . Toronto. 4:34 minutes in. CBC Radio.
CBC Radio 1. Retrieved
17 December 2011.
^ Friedrich (1990, pp. 165–166)
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 170)
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 172)
^ Friedrich (1990, p. 315)
^ Kingwell (2009, p. 59)
^ Kingwell (2009, p. xi) "Introduction" by John Ralston Saul
^ Kingwell (2009, pp. 34–35)
^ "Voyager – Music From Earth". voyager.jpl.nasa.gov. Jet
Propulsion Laboratory. 20 August 1977. Retrieved 12 March 2009.
^ Kingwell (2009, pp. 62 & 75)
^ Kingwell (2009, notes 3, 13, 18)
^ "Glenn Gould". The Canadian Music Hall of Fame. Retrieved 17
Glenn Gould National Historic Person, Parks Canada, Designations of
National Historic Significance, 2012
^ Harper Government Celebrates
Glenn Gould as National Historic Person
Canadian cultural icon commemorated at plaque unveiling ceremony,
Parks Canada news release, 21 February 2013
Glenn Gould (1932–1982), National Historic Sites and Monuments
Board marker at OntarioPlaques.com
^ "Glenn Gould: The Sounds of Genius » Credits".
civilization.ca. Canadian Museum of Civilization. 2007. Archived from
the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
^ "Dr. José Antonio Abreu Awarded Coveted 2008
Glenn Gould Prize".
newswire.ca (Press release). Aerial Communications Group. 14 February
2008. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
The Glenn Gould School " Key Facts and History".
learning.rcmusic.ca. Royal Conservatory of Music. 1997. Archived from
the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
Juno Awards Database". junoawards.ca. Canadian Academy of Recording
Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012.
Retrieved 18 December 2011.
^ "Home Past " Winners Search". www.grammy.org. National Academy of
Recording Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
^ "Home " The Recording Academy " The GRAMMY Awards " GRAMMY Hall of
Fame". www.grammy.org. National Academy of Recording Arts and
Sciences. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
^ Patch, Nick (9 February 2013). "Late
Toronto pianist Glenn Gould
receives Grammy lifetime achievement award". Winnipeg Free Press.
Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 11 February
Bazzana, Kevin (2003). Wondrous Strange: The Life and Art of Glenn
Gould. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-1101-6.
Dubal, David (1985). The World of the Concert Pianist. London:
Gollancz. ISBN 978-0-575-03654-3. OCLC 12112836.
Eatock, Colin (2012). Remembering Glenn Gould: Twenty Interviews With
People Who Knew Him. Newcastle, Ontario: Penumbra Press.
Friedrich, Otto (1990) [Reprint. Originally published: New York:
Random House, 1989]. Glenn Gould: A Life and Variations. New York:
Random House. ISBN 978-0-679-73207-5. OCLC 21445409.
Gould, Glenn (1987). Page, Tim, ed. The
Glenn Gould Reader. Boston:
Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-14852-2. OCLC 751249764.
— (1999). Roberts, John Peter Lee, ed. The Art of Glenn Gould:
Reflections of a Musical Genius. Contributing author Roberts. Toronto:
Malcolm Lester Books. ISBN 978-1-894121-28-6.
Greenfield, Edward; Layton, Robert & March, Ivan (1988). The New
Penguin Guide to Compact Discs and Cassettes. London: Penguin Books.
ISBN 978-0-14-046829-8. OCLC 18804114.
Hafner, Katie (2009). A Romance on Three Legs : Glenn Gould's
Obsessive Quest for the Perfect Piano. Toronto: McClelland &
Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-3762-7. OCLC 0771037627.
Kingwell, Mark (2009). Extraordinary Canadians Glenn Gould. Toronto:
Penguin Canada. ISBN 978-0-670-06850-0.
Ostwald, Peter F. (1997). Glenn Gould: The Ecstasy and Tragedy of
Genius. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
ISBN 978-0-393-04077-7. OCLC 35586754.
Payzant, Geoffrey (1978). Glenn Gould: Music & Mind. Toronto;
London: Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 0-442-29802-1.
Gould, Glenn (1992). The
Glenn Gould Edition Richard Strauss:
Ophelia-Lieder: Three Songs after Shakespeare, Op. 67; Enoch Arden: A
Melodrama for Piano after Tennyson, Op.38; Piano Sonata, Op. 5; Five
Piano Pieces, Op. 3 (Booklet).
Glenn Gould &
Claude Rains &
Elisabeth Schwarzkopf. New York City: Sony Classical Records.
ASIN B0000028O4. UPC 07464526572.
Kieser, Karen (1993).
Glenn Gould Bach: original CBC broadcasts
(Booklet). Glenn Gould. Toronto: CBC Records. OCLC 609984589.
UPC 059582220054. Lay summary.
Koenig, Wolf & Kroitor, Roman (1959). Glenn Gould: Off the Record
(Documentary film. Originally produced in 1959 for the television
program Documentary '60). Montreal: National Film Board of Canada;
Image Entertainment (Distributor). OCLC 130741039.
UPC 014381206920. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
Koenig, Wolf & Kroitor, Roman (1959). Glenn Gould: On the Record
(Documentary film. Originally produced in 1959 for the television
program Documentary '60). Montreal: National Film Board of Canada;
Image Entertainment (Distributor). OCLC 130741039.
UPC 014381206920. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
Monsaingeon, Bruno (2002). Glenn Gould: the alchemist (DVD) (in
English, French, German, and Spanish). ORTF; EMI Classics
(Distributor). OCLC 52719241. UPC 724349012899. Retrieved 23
December 2011. Lay summary.
— (2006) [2005 Original release]. Glenn Gould: Au delà du temps
[Glenn Gould: hereafter] (DVD. Original release 2005) (in English,
Italian, Russian, French, German, Spanish, and Japanese). Paris:
Idéale Audience and Rhombus Media. OCLC 612160794.
UPC 899132000206. Retrieved 23 December 2011. Lay summary.
Stegemann, Michael (1993a). Bach: Partitas BWV 825–830; Preludes and
Fugues (Booklet). Glenn Gould. Sony Classical Records.
OCLC 222101706. SM2K 52597.
— (1993b). The
Glenn Gould Edition Gould Meets Menuhin:
Bach·Beethoven·Schoenberg (Front cover booklet).
Glenn Gould &
Yehudi Menuhin; English translation: Stewart Spencer. Sony Classical
Records. OCLC 30923019. UPC 5099705268827. That Menuhin ever
agreed to tackle Schoenberg's Phantasy shows how much he admired Gould
and how much he was prepared to learn from a man sixteen years younger
than himself: "Well, Glenn, I was very anxious to take you up on the
invitation to play it because I admire you. I know that you know more
about Schoenberg, and have a more genuine understanding of Schoenberg
perhaps than anyone else. And I'm always interested in learning about
something through the eyes of someone who understands it and loves
it." Whereas only a few months later, in January 1966, Gould's
Elisabeth Schwarzkopf turned into an outright
fiasco, since the soprano was totally unprepared to accept any of
Gould's interpretational idiosyncrasies, Menuhin was ready to embrace
the new perspectives opened up by an unorthodox view even in the case
of a work like Beethoven's Opus 96 Sonata, which of course he knew
better than Gould. "I admire this [i.e., the way you play], and I wish
Beethoven were here to hear you, because the way you do it is
absolutely convincing, as I feel. I don't have quite the courage to go
against the printed text or the indication in the score, which is
simply pianissimo. But there again, everything is a relative
Till, Eric (Producer / Director / Narrator) & Tovell, Vincent
(Producer / Director / Narrator) (1985) [First published as
Documentary film in 1985]. Evans, Wayne, ed. Glenn Gould: A Portrait
(VHS Videotape released 22 October 1991). West Long Branch: CBC
Kultur International Films (Distributor).
OCLC 22897163. UPC 032031118836. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
Cott, Jonathan (2005). Conversations with Glenn Gould. University of
Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-11623-9. OCLC 475021622.
Glenn Gould 1988: [printed explanatory text for] a Travelling
Exhibition Prepared by the
National Library of Canada
National Library of Canada and Touring with
the Assistance of the International Programme of the Department of
Communications. Ottawa, Ont.: National Library of Canada, 1988. N.B.:
Texts in English and in French in parallel columns. Without ISBN
Konieczny, Vladimir (2008). Glenn Gould: a musical force. Toronto:
Dundurn Press. ISBN 978-1-55002-819-5. OCLC 471481579.
Mantere, Juha Markus (2012). The Gould Variations: Technology,
Philosophy and Criticism in Glenn Gould’s Musical Thought and
Practice. Europäische Hochschulschriften. Reihe XXXVI, Bd. 266.
Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-3-631-62279-7.
Pagliari, Matteo (2012). Invenzione a due voci. Una conversazione con
Glenn Gould. Bologna: Albisani Editore.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Glenn Gould
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Glenn Gould.
Glenn Gould collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
Works by or about
Glenn Gould in libraries (
Glenn Gould at Find a Grave
ISNI: 0000 0001 1026 9386
BNF: cb11905521d (data)