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(i)

German-occupied Europe
Europe
refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regimes.[1]

Contents

1 Background 2 Occupied countries

2.1 Governments in exile

2.1.1 Allied governments in exile 2.1.2 Axis governments in exile 2.1.3 Neutral governments in exile

3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External links

Background[edit] Several German occupied countries entered World War II
World War II
as Allies of the United Kingdom[2] or the Soviet Union.[3] Some were forced to surrender before outbreak of the war such as Czechoslovakia;[4] others like Poland
Poland
(invaded on 1 September 1939)[1] were conquered in battle and then occupied. In some cases, the legitimate governments went into exile, in other cases the governments-in-exile were formed by their citizens in other Allied countries.[5] Some countries occupied by Nazi Germany were officially neutral. Others were former members of the Axis powers
Axis powers
that were occupied by German forces at a later stage of the war.[6][7] Occupied countries[edit] The countries occupied included all, or most of the following:

Country or territory of occupation Puppet state(s) or military administration(s) Timeline of occupation(s) German annexed territory Resistance movement(s)

Albanian Kingdom Albanian Kingdom 8 September 1943  – 29 November 1944 None Albanian resistance

Guernsey Military Administration in France 30 June 1940  – 16 May 1945 None Guernsey
Guernsey
people's resistance

Jersey Military Administration in France 1 July 1940  – 9 May 1945 None Jersey
Jersey
people's resistance

Czechoslovak Republic

Czecho-Slovak Republic

Czechoslovak Republic

Slovak Republic

German Zone of Protection in Slovakia

1 October 1938  – 11 May 1945 Gau Bayreuth Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Niederdonau Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Oberdonau Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Sudetenland Czechoslovakian resistance

Federal State of Austria None 12 March 1938  – 9 May 1945 Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Kärnten Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Niederdonau Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Oberdonau Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Salzburg Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Steiermark Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Tirol-Vorarlberg Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Wien Austrian resistance

Free City of Danzig None 1 September 1939  – 9 May 1945 Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Danzig-West Prussia Danzig people's resistance

French Republic

Free France

Provisional Government of the French Republic

French State

Military Administration in Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France

Military Administration in France

Realm Commissariat of Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France

10 May 1940  – 9 May 1945 Gau Baden Gau Westmark Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Wallonien French resistance

Governorate of Montenegro German occupied territory of Montenegro 26 September 1943  – February 1945 None Yugoslav resistance

Luxembourg Military Administration of Luxembourg

Civil Administration Area of Luxembourg

10 May 1940  – February 1945 Gau Moselland Luxembourg
Luxembourg
resistance

Independent State of Macedonia None 8 September 1944  – December 1944 None Yugoslav resistance

Independent State of Croatia German zone of influence 10 April 1941  – 9 May 1945 None Yugoslav resistance

Italian Islands of the Aegean Italian Islands of the Aegean 8 September 1943  – 8 May 1945 None

Belgium Military Administration in Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France

Realm Commissariat of Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France

10 May 1940  – February 1945 Gau Cologne-Aachen Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Wallonien

Belgian resistance

Denmark None 9 April 1940  – 5 May 1945 None Danish resistance

Kingdom of Greece Military Administration in Greece

Hellenic State

6 April 1941  – 8 May 1945 None Greek resistance

Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Hungary

Government of National Unity

19 March 1944  – May 1945 None Hungarian resistance

Kingdom of Italy Italian Social Republic

Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral Operational Zone of the Alpine Foothills

Military Administration in Kotor

8 September 1943  – 2 May 1945 None Italian resistance

Norway Realm Commissariat for the Occupied Norwegian Territories

National Government

9 April 1940  – 8 May 1945 None Norwegian resistance

Netherlands Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories 10 May 1940  – 20 May 1945 None Dutch resistance

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Republic of Užice

Bihać Republic

Albanian Kingdom

German occupied territory of Montenegro

Independent State of Croatia

German zone of influence

Independent State of Macedonia

Military Administration in Kotor

Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia

Commissioner Government Government of National Salvation

6 April 1941  – 15 May 1945 Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Kärnten Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Steiermark Yugoslav resistance

Monaco None 8 September 1943  – 3 September 1944 None

Finland None 15 September 1944  – 25 April 1945 None Finnish resistance

Republic of Lithuania

Provisional Government of Lithuania

Reich Commissariat East 22 March 1939  – 21 July 1940

23 June 1941  – 5 August 1941

Gau East Prussia Lithuanian resistance

Republic of Poland Military Administration in Poland

Reich Commissariat East

Reich Commissariat Ukraine

1 September 1939  – 9 May 1945 Bezirk Bialystok Gau East Prussia Gau Niederschlesien General Government Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Danzig-West Prussia Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Wartheland Polish resistance

San Marino None 17 September 1944  – 20 September 1944 None

Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia Commissioner Government

Government of National Salvation

April 30, 1941  – January 1945 None Serbian resistance

Slovak Republic German Zone of Protection in Slovakia 23 March 1939  – May 1945 None Slovakian resistance

Territory of the Saar Basin None 1 March 1935  – April 1945 Gau Palatinate-Saar Gau Saar-Palatinate Gau Westmark

Saar Basin people's resistance

Ukrainian National Government Reich Commissariat Ukraine 30 June 1941  – September 1941 General Government Ukrainian resistance

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Military Administration in the Soviet Union

Reich Commissariat East

Reich Commissariat Ukraine

22 June 1941  – 10 May 1945 Bezirk Bialystok General Government Soviet resistance

Governments in exile[edit] Allied governments in exile[edit]

Government in exile Capital in exile Timeline of exile Occupier(s)

Austrian Democratic Union London 1941 – 1945 German Reich/Greater German Reich

Free France London (1940 – 1941) Algiers, Algeria (1942 – August 31, 1944)

1940 – August 31, 1944 French State German Reich/Greater German Reich Military Administration in Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France Reich Commissariat of Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France

Government of the Republic of Poland
Poland
in exile Paris (September 29/30, 1939 – 1940) Angers, French Republic (1940 – June 12, 1940) London (June 12, 1940 – 1990)

September 29/30, 1939 – December 22, 1990 German Reich/Greater German Reich Reich Commissariat East Reich Commissariat Ukraine Slovak Republic Union of Soviet Socialist Republics People's Republic of Poland

Belgium London (October 22, 1940 – September 8, 1944) October 22, 1940 – September 8, 1944 German Reich/Greater German Reich Military Administration in Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France Reich Commissariat of Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France

Denmark

1943 – 1945 German Reich/Greater German Reich

Luxembourg London 1940 – 1944 German Reich/Greater German Reich

Kingdom of Greece Cairo, Egypt April 29, 1941 – October 12, 1944 German Reich/Greater German Reich Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Bulgaria

Norway London June 7, 1940 – May 31, 1945 Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Norwegian Territories

Kingdom of Yugoslavia London June 7, 1941 – March 7, 1945 Albanian Kingdom Commissioner Government German occupied territory of Montenegro German Reich/Greater German Reich Government of National Salvation Independent State of Croatia Independent Macedonia Kingdom of Bulgaria Kingdom of Hungary Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia

Netherlands London 1940 – 1945 Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories

Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia Paris (October 2, 1939 – 1940) London (1940 – 1941) Aston Abbotts, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1941 – 1945)

October 2, 1939 – May 8, 1945 German Reich/Greater German Reich Kingdom of Hungary Slovak Republic

Axis governments in exile[edit]

Government in exile Capital in exile Timeline of exile Occupier(s)

Bulgarian government-in-exile Vienna, Greater German Reich September 16, 1944 – May 10, 1945 Kingdom of Bulgaria

French State Sigmaringen, Greater German Reich 1944 – April 22, 1945 Provisional Government of the French Republic

Montenegrin State Council Zagreb, Independent State of Croatia 1944 – May 8, 1945 Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Neutral governments in exile[edit]

Government in exile Capital in exile Timeline of exile Occupier(s)

Belarusian Democratic Republic Prague, Czechoslovak Republic (1923 – 1938)

Prague, Czecho-Slovak Republic (1938 – 1939)

Prague, German Reich/Greater German Reich (1939 – 1945)

1919 – present German Reich/Greater German Reich Realm Commissariat East Realm Commissariat Ukraine Republic of Poland Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Republic of Estonia Stockholm, Kingdom of Sweden (1944 – August 20, 1991)

New York City, United States
United States
of America

June 17, 1940 – August 20, 1991 Realm Commissariat East Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Ukrainian People's Republic Warsaw, Republic of Poland (1920 – 1939)

Prague, German Reich/Greater German Reich (1939 – 1944)

1920 – August 22, 1992 German Reich/Greater German Reich Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Romania Realm Commissariat Ukraine Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

See also[edit]

Drang nach Osten
Drang nach Osten
("The Drive Eastward") Lebensraum
Lebensraum
("Living Space") Neuordnung
Neuordnung
("New Order") Areas annexed by Nazi Germany Pan-Germanism Greater Germanic Reich Reorganization of occupied dioceses during World War II Atlantic Wall European Theatre of World War II List of Nazi-German concentration camps Wehrbauer

References[edit]

^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, German occupied Europe. World War II. Retrieved 1 September 2015 from the Internet Archive. ^ Prazmowska, Anita (1995-03-23). Britain and Poland
Poland
1939-1943: The Betrayed Ally. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521483858.  ^ Moorhouse, Roger (2014-10-14). The Devils' Alliance: Hitler's Pact with Stalin, 1939-1941. Basic Books. ISBN 9780465054923.  ^ Goldstein, Erik; Lukes, Igor (2012-10-12). The Munich Crisis, 1938: Prelude to World War II. Routledge. ISBN 9781136328329.  ^ Conway, Martin; Gotovitch, José (2001-08-30). Europe
Europe
in Exile: European Exile Communities in Britain 1940-45. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9781782389910.  ^ Hanson, Victor Davis (2017-10-17). The Second World Wars: How the First Global Conflict Was Fought and Won. Basic Books. ISBN 9780465093199.  ^ Cornelius, Deborah S. (2011). Hungary in World War II: Caught in the Cauldron. Fordham Univ Press. ISBN 9780823233434. 

Bibliography[edit]

Mazower, Mark (2008). Hitler's Empire: Nazi Rule in Occupied Europe. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 9780713996814. 

External links[edit]

Map of Europe
Europe
in 1942 http://www.worldwar2history.info/war/Allies.html http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/events/germany_advances_through_europe http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/nazioccupationʘ

v t e

History of World War II
World War II
by region and country

Africa

Belgian Congo British Somaliland Egypt French West Africa French Somaliland Gold Coast Kenya Liberia Nyasaland Madagascar South Africa Southern Rhodesia Tunisia

North America

Canada Cuba El Salvador Greenland Mexico Newfoundland Panama United States

Arizona Nevada New Mexico Puerto Rico

South America

Argentina Brazil British Guiana Colombia Latin America Uruguay Venezuela

Asia

Burma Ceylon China Dutch East Indies Hong Kong India Indochina Iran Iraq Japan

Manchukuo

Malaya Mongolia Nepal Philippines Sarawak, Brunei, Labuan, and British North Borneo Singapore Thailand Turkey

Europe

Albania Austria Belgium Bulgaria Czechoslovakia Denmark Estonia Finland France

Basque Country

Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Soviet Union

Azerbaijan Belarus Ukraine

Spain

Galicia

Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom

British Empire Channel Islands Gibraltar

Vatican City Yugoslavia

Oceania

Australia Nauru New Zealand

v t e

Countries occupied by Germany during World War II

Albania Austria Belgium Channel Islands Czechoslovakia

Bohemia and Moravia Slovakia

Denmark Egypt France Greece Hungary Italy Luxembourg Monaco Netherlands Norway Poland San Marino Soviet Union

Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Ukraine

Tunisia Yugoslavia

Croatia Macedonia Montenegro Serbia

See also: Areas annexed by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Reichskommissariat
Reichskommissariat
• Military administrations •

v t e

Administrative territories of Nazi Germany, 1939–1945

Administrative divisions

Areas annexed by Nazi Germany Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia General Government

Military administrations

Adriatic Littoral (1943–1945) Alpine Foothills (1943–1945) Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France
France
(1940–1944) France
France
(1940–1945) Greece
Greece
(1941–1945) Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(1940) Serbia (1941–1944) Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1941–1944) Poland
Poland
(1939)

Reichskommissariat

Founded

Norwegen (1940–1945) Niederlande (1940–1945) Ostland (1941–1945) Ukraine
Ukraine
(1941–1944) Belgien-Nordfrankreich (1944)

Planned

Don-Wolga Moskowien Kaukasus Turkestan

Administrations within or including Soviet territory shown in italics.

v t e

World War II

Asia and the Pacific

China South-East Asia North and Central Pacific South-West Pacific

Europe

Western Eastern

Mediterranean and Middle East

North Africa East Africa Italy

West Africa Atlantic North America South America

Casualties Military engagements Conferences Commanders

Participants

Allies (leaders)

Australia Belgium Brazil Canada China Cuba Czechoslovakia Denmark Ethiopia France Free France
France
(from June 1940) Greece India Italy (from September 1943) Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Philippines (Commonwealth) Poland South Africa Southern Rhodesia Soviet Union United Kingdom United States

Puerto Rico

Yugoslavia

Axis and Axis-aligned (leaders)

Albania Bulgaria Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China Independent State of Croatia Finland Germany Hungary Free India Iraq Italy (until September 1943) Italian Social Republic Japan Manchukuo Philippines (Second Republic) Romania Slovakia Thailand Vichy France

Armed neutrality

Resistance

Albania Austria Belgium Bulgaria Czech lands Denmark Estonia Ethiopia France Germany Greece Hong Kong Italy Japan Jewish Korea Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malaya Netherlands Northeast China Norway Philippines Poland

Anti-communist

Romania Thailand Soviet Union Slovakia Western Ukraine Vietnam Yugoslavia

Monarchists

Timeline

Prelude

Africa Asia Europe

1939

Poland Phoney War Winter War Atlantic Changsha China

1940

Weserübung Netherlands Belgium France

Armistice of 22 June 1940

Britain North Africa West Africa British Somaliland North China Baltic States Moldova Indochina Greece Compass

1941

East Africa Yugoslavia Shanggao Greece Crete Iraq Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Barbarossa) Finland Lithuania Syria and Lebanon Kiev Iran Leningrad Gorky Moscow Sevastopol Pearl Harbor

The outbreak of the Pacific War

Hong Kong Philippines Changsha Malaya Borneo (1941–42)

1942

Burma Changsha Java Sea Coral Sea Gazala Dutch Harbor Attu (occupation) Kiska Zhejiang-Jiangxi Midway Rzhev Blue Stalingrad Singapore Dieppe El Alamein Guadalcanal Torch

1943

Tunisia Kursk Smolensk Gorky Solomon Islands Attu Sicily Cottage Lower Dnieper Italy

Armistice of Cassibile

Gilbert and Marshall Islands Burma Northern Burma and Western Yunnan Changde

1944

Monte Cassino / Shingle Narva Korsun–Cherkassy Tempest Ichi-Go Overlord Neptune Normandy Mariana and Palau Bagration Western Ukraine Tannenberg Line Warsaw Eastern Romania Belgrade Paris Dragoon Gothic Line Market Garden Estonia Crossbow Pointblank Lapland Hungary Leyte Ardennes

Bodenplatte

Philippines (1944–1945) Burma (1944–45)

1945

Vistula–Oder Iwo Jima Western invasion of Germany Okinawa Italy (Spring 1945) Borneo Syrmian Front Berlin Czechoslovakia Budapest West Hunan Guangxi Surrender of Germany Project Hula Manchuria Manila Borneo Taipei Atomic bombings

Debate

Kuril Islands

Shumshu

Surrender of Japan

End of World War II
World War II
in Asia

Aspects

General

Famines

Bengal famine of 1943 Chinese famine of 1942–43 Greek Famine of 1941-1944 Dutch famine of 1944–45 Vietnamese Famine of 1945

Air warfare of World War II Blitzkrieg Comparative military ranks Cryptography Diplomacy Home front

United States Australian United Kingdom

Lend-Lease Manhattan Project Military awards Military equipment Military production Nazi plunder Opposition Technology

Allied cooperation

Total war Strategic bombing Puppet states Women Art and World War II

Aftermath

Expulsion of Germans Operation Paperclip Operation Osoaviakhim Operation Keelhaul Occupation of Germany Territorial changes of Germany Soviet occupations

Romania Poland Hungary Baltic States

Occupation of Japan First Indochina War Indonesian National Revolution Cold War Decolonization Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany Popular culture

War crimes

Allied war crimes

Soviet war crimes British war crimes United States
United States
war crimes

German (Forced labour) / Wehrmacht war crimes

Holocaust Aftermath Response Prosecution

Italian war crimes Japanese war crimes

Unit 731 Prosecution

Croatian war crimes

against the Serbs against the Jews

Romanian war crimes

Wartime sexual violence

German military brothels Camp brothels Rape during the occupation of Japan Sook Ching Comfort women Rape of Nanking Rape of Manila Rape during the occupation of Germany Rape during the liberation of France Rape during the liberation of Poland

Prisoners

Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union German prisoners of war in the United States Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Japanese prisoners of war in World War II German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war Polish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Romanian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Soviet prisoners of war in Finland

Bibliograp

.