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GERMAN–OCCUPIED EUROPE or NAZI EUROPE refers to the sovereign countries of Europe
Europe
which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background

* 2 Occupied countries

* 2.1 Governments in exile

* 2.1.1 Allied governments in exile * 2.1.2 Axis governments in exile * 2.1.3 Neutral governments in exile

* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links

BACKGROUND

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Several German-occupied countries entered World War II
World War II
as Allies of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
or the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. Some were forced to surrender such as Czechoslovakia; others like Poland
Poland
(invaded on 1 September 1939) were conquered in battle and then occupied. In some cases, the legitimate governments went into exile , in other cases the governments-in-exile were formed by their citizens in other Allied countries. Some countries occupied by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
were officially neutral. Others were former members of the Axis powers
Axis powers
that were occupied by German forces at a later stage of the war.

OCCUPIED COUNTRIES

The countries occupied included all, or most of the following:

COUNTRY OR TERRITORY OF OCCUPATION PUPPET STATE(S) OR MILITARY ADMINISTRATION(S) TIMELINE OF OCCUPATION(S) GERMAN ANNEXED TERRITORY RESISTANCE MOVEMENT(S)

Albanian Kingdom Albanian Kingdom 8 September 1943 – December 1944 None Albanian resistance

Bailiwick of Guernsey
Guernsey
Military Administration in France
France
30 June 1940 – 9 May 1945 None Guernsey
Guernsey
people\'s resistance

Bailiwick of Jersey
Jersey
Military Administration in France
France
30 June 1940 – 9 May 1945 None Jersey
Jersey
people\'s resistance

Czechoslovak Republic -------------------------

Czecho-Slovak Republic -------------------------

Czechoslovak Republic Slovak Republic -------------------------

German Zone of Protection in Slovakia 1 October 1938 – 11 May 1945 Gau Bayreuth Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Reichsgau Niederdonau Reichsgau Oberdonau Reichsgau Sudetenland Czechoslovakian resistance

Federal State of Austria
Federal State of Austria
None 12 March 1938 – 9 May 1945 Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Kärnten Reichsgau Niederdonau Reichsgau Oberdonau Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Salzburg Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Steiermark Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Tirol-Vorarlberg Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Wien Austrian resistance

Free City of Danzig
Free City of Danzig
None 1 September 1939 – 9 May 1945 Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Danzig-West Prussia Danzig people\'s resistance

French Republic -------------------------

Free France
France
-------------------------

Provisional Government of the French Republic
Provisional Government of the French Republic
French State -------------------------

Military Administration in Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France
France
-------------------------

Military Administration in France
France
-------------------------

Realm Commissariat of Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France
France
10 May 1940 – 9 May 1945 Gau Baden Gau Western March Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Wallonien French resistance

Governorate of Montenegro German occupied territory of Montenegro 26 September 1943 – February 1945 None Yugoslav resistance

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Military Administration of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
-------------------------

Civil Administration Area of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
10 May 1940 – February 1945 Gau Moselland Luxembourg
Luxembourg
resistance

Independent State of Macedonia None 8 September 1944 – December 1944 None Yugoslav resistance

Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
German zone of influence 10 April 1941 – 9 May 1945 None Yugoslav resistance

Italian Islands of the Aegean
Italian Islands of the Aegean
Italian Islands of the Aegean
Italian Islands of the Aegean
8 September 1943 – 8 May 1945 None

Kingdom of Belgium
Belgium
Military Administration in Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France
France
-------------------------

Realm Commissariat of Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France
France
10 May 1940 – February 1945 Gau Cologne-Aachen

Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Wallonien Belgian resistance

Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
None 9 April 1940 – 5 May 1945 None Danish resistance

Kingdom of Greece
Kingdom of Greece
Military Administration in Greece
Greece

* Hellenic State

6 April 1941 – 8 May 1945 None Greek resistance

Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary

* Government of National Unity

19 March 1944 – May 1945 None Hungarian resistance

Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic

* Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral * Operational Zone of the Alpine Foothills

-------------------------

Military Administration in Kotor 8 September 1943 – 2 May 1945 None Italian resistance

Kingdom of Norway
Norway
Realm Commissariat for the Occupied Norwegian Territories

* National Government

9 April 1940 – 8 May 1945 None Norwegian resistance

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories 10 May 1940 – 20 May 1945 None Dutch resistance

Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
-------------------------

Republic of Užice -------------------------

Bihać Republic Albanian Kingdom -------------------------

German occupied territory of Montenegro -------------------------

Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia

* German zone of influence

-------------------------

Independent State of Macedonia -------------------------

Military Administration in Kotor -------------------------

Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia

* Commissioner Government * Government of National Salvation
Government of National Salvation

6 April 1941 – 15 May 1945 Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Kärnten Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Steiermark Yugoslav resistance

Principality of Monaco
Monaco
None 8 September 1943 – 3 September 1944 None

Republic of Finland
Finland
None 15 September 1944 – 25 April 1945 None Finnish resistance

Republic of Lithuania
Lithuania
-------------------------

Provisional Government of Lithuania
Lithuania
Reich Commissariat East 22 March 1939 – 21 July 1940 -------------------------

23 June 1941 – 5 August 1941 Gau East Prussia Lithuanian resistance

Republic of Poland
Poland
Military Administration in Poland
Military Administration in Poland
-------------------------

Reich Commissariat East -------------------------

Reich Commissariat Ukraine
Ukraine
1 September 1939 – 9 May 1945 Bezirk Bialystok Gau East Prussia Gau Niederschlesien General Government Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Danzig-West Prussia Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Wartheland Polish resistance

Republic of San Marino
San Marino
None 17 September 1944 – 20 September 1944 None

Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia Commissioner Government -------------------------

Government of National Salvation
Government of National Salvation
April 30, 1941 – January 1945 None Serbian resistance

Slovak Republic German Zone of Protection in Slovakia 23 March 1939 – May 1945 None Slovakian resistance

Territory of the Saar Basin
Territory of the Saar Basin
None 1 March 1935 – April 1945 Gau Palatinate-Saar

Gau Saar-Palatinate Gau Westmark
Gau Westmark
Saar Basin people\'s resistance

Ukrainian National Government Reich Commissariat Ukraine
Ukraine
30 June 1941 – September 1941 General Government Ukrainian resistance

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Military Administration in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
-------------------------

Reich Commissariat East -------------------------

Reich Commissariat Ukraine
Ukraine
22 June 1941 – 10 May 1945 Bezirk Bialystok General Government Soviet resistance

GOVERNMENTS IN EXILE

Allied Governments In Exile

GOVERNMENT IN EXILE CAPITAL IN EXILE TIMELINE OF EXILE OCCUPIER(S)

Austrian Democratic Union London
London
1941 – 1945 German Reich/Greater German Reich

Free France
France
London (1940 – 1941)

Algiers
Algiers
, Algeria (1942 – August 31, 1944) 1940 – August 31, 1944 French State

German Reich/Greater German Reich Military Administration in Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France
France
Reich Commissariat of Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France
France

Government of the Republic of Poland
Poland
in exile Paris (September 29/30, 1939 – 1940) Angers
Angers
, French Republic (1940 – June 12, 1940)

London (June 12, 1940 – 1990) September 29/30, 1939 – December 22, 1990 German Reich/Greater German Reich

Reich Commissariat East Reich Commissariat Ukraine
Ukraine
Slovak Republic Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
People\'s Republic of Poland
Poland

Kingdom of Belgium
Belgium
London (October 22, 1940 – September 8, 1944) October 22, 1940 – September 8, 1944 German Reich/Greater German Reich

Military Administration in Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France
France
Reich Commissariat of Belgium
Belgium
and Northern France
France

Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark

1943 – 1945 German Reich/Greater German Reich

Kingdom of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
London 1940 – 1944 German Reich/Greater German Reich

Kingdom of Greece
Kingdom of Greece
Cairo, Egypt April 29, 1941 – October 12, 1944 German Reich/Greater German Reich

Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Bulgaria
Bulgaria

Kingdom of Norway
Norway
London June 7, 1940 – May 31, 1945 Realm Commissariat for the Occupied Norwegian Territories

Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
London June 7, 1941 – March 7, 1945 Albanian Kingdom

Commissioner Government German occupied territory of Montenegro German Reich/Greater German Reich Government of National Salvation
Government of National Salvation
Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
Independent Macedonia Kingdom of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
London 1940 – 1945 Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories

Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
Paris (October 2, 1939 – 1940)

London (1940 – 1941) Aston Abbotts , United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1941 – 1945) October 2, 1939 – May 8, 1945 German Reich/Greater German Reich

Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
Slovak Republic

Axis Governments In Exile

GOVERNMENT IN EXILE CAPITAL IN EXILE TIMELINE OF EXILE OCCUPIER(S)

Bulgarian government-in-exile Vienna
Vienna
, Greater German Reich September 16, 1944 – May 10, 1945 Kingdom of Bulgaria
Bulgaria

French State Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
, Greater German Reich 1944 – April 22, 1945 Provisional Government of the French Republic
Provisional Government of the French Republic

Montenegrin State Council Zagreb
Zagreb
, Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
1944 – May 8, 1945 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Neutral Governments In Exile

GOVERNMENT IN EXILE CAPITAL IN EXILE TIMELINE OF EXILE OCCUPIER(S)

Belarusian Democratic Republic Prague
Prague
, Czechoslovak Republic (1923 – 1938) -------------------------

Prague
Prague
, Czecho-Slovak Republic (1938 – 1939) -------------------------

Prague
Prague
, German Reich/Greater German Reich (1939 – 1945) 1919 – present German Reich/Greater German Reich

Realm Commissariat East Realm Commissariat Ukraine
Ukraine
Republic of Poland
Poland
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Republic of Estonia
Estonia
Stockholm
Stockholm
, Kingdom of Sweden
Sweden
(1944 – August 20, 1991) -------------------------

New York City
New York City
, United States
United States
of America June 17, 1940 – August 20, 1991 Realm Commissariat East

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Republic of Lithuania
Lithuania
Bern
Bern
, Swiss Confederation
Swiss Confederation
-------------------------

London
London
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland -------------------------

Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, United States
United States
of America -------------------------

Vatican City
Vatican City
State -------------------------

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
, Argentine Republic
Argentine Republic
June 15, 1940 – March 11, 1990 Realm Commissariat East

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Republic of Latvia
Latvia

London
London
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland -------------------------

Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, United States
United States
of America June 17, 1940 – August 21, 1991 Realm Commissariat East

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Ukrainian People\'s Republic Warsaw
Warsaw
, Republic of Poland
Poland
(1920 – 1939) -------------------------

Prague
Prague
, German Reich/Greater German Reich (1939 – 1944) 1920 – August 22, 1992 German Reich/Greater German Reich

Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Romania
Romania
Realm Commissariat Ukraine
Ukraine
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

SEE ALSO

* Drang nach Osten ("The Drive Eastward") * Lebensraum
Lebensraum
("Living Space") * Neuordnung ("New Order") * Areas annexed by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Pan-Germanism
Pan-Germanism
* Greater Germanic Reich
Greater Germanic Reich
* Reorganization of occupied dioceses during World War II * Atlantic Wall * European Theatre of World War II
European Theatre of World War II
* List of Nazi-German concentration camps * Wehrbauer
Wehrbauer

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Encyclopædia Britannica, German occupied Europe. World War II. Retrieved 1 September 2015 from the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Mazower, Mark (2008). Hitler's Empire: Nazi Rule in Occupied Europe. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 9780713996814 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Map of Europe
Europe
in 1942 * http://www.worldwar2history.info/war/Allies.html

.