George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was an English
civil engineer and mechanical engineer. Renowned as the "Father of
Railways", Stephenson was considered by the Victorians a great
example of diligent application and thirst for improvement. Self-help
Samuel Smiles particularly praised his achievements. His rail
gauge of 4 feet 8 1⁄2 inches (1,435 mm),
sometimes called "Stephenson gauge", is the standard gauge by name and
by convention for most of the world's railways.
Pioneered by Stephenson, rail transport was one of the most important
technological inventions of the 19th century and a key component of
the Industrial Revolution. Built by George and his son Robert's
Robert Stephenson and Company, the
Locomotion No. 1
Locomotion No. 1 is the
first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the
Stockton and Darlington Railway
Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George also built the first
public inter-city railway line in the world to use locomotives, the
Liverpool and Manchester Railway, which opened in 1830.
1 Early life
2 The miner's safety lamp
3 Early locomotives
4 Hetton Railway
5 Stockton and
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
7 Stephenson's skew arch bridge
8 Life at Alton Grange
9 Later career
10 Personal life
12 Memorials and commemorations
13 See also
15 Biographical works
16 External links
George Stephenson was born on 9 June 1781 in Wylam, Northumberland, 9
miles, which is 15 km west of Newcastle upon Tyne. He was the
second child of Robert and Mabel Stephenson, neither of whom could
read or write. Robert was the fireman for
Wylam Colliery pumping
engine, earning a very low wage, so there was no money for schooling.
At 17, Stephenson became an engineman at Water Row Pit in Newburn.
George realised the value of education and paid to study at night
school to learn reading, writing and arithmetic – he was illiterate
until the age of 18.
In 1801 he began work at Black Callerton Colliery as a 'brakesman',
controlling the winding gear at the pit. In 1802 he married Frances
Henderson and moved to Willington Quay, east of Newcastle. There he
worked as a brakesman while they lived in one room of a cottage.
George made shoes and mended clocks to supplement his income.
Dial Cottage, West Moor, Killingworth
Their first child Robert was born in 1803, and in 1804 they moved to
West Moor, near
Killingworth where George worked as a brakesman at
Killingworth Pit. Their second child, a daughter was born in July
1805. She was named Frances after her mother. The child died after
just 3 weeks and was buried in St Bartholomew's Parish Church near
In 1806 George's wife Frances died of consumption (tuberculosis). She
was buried in the same churchyard as their daughter on the 16th May
George decided to find work in Scotland and left Robert with a local
woman while he went to work in Montrose. After a few months he
returned, probably because his father was blinded in a mining
accident. He moved back into a cottage at
West Moor and his unmarried
sister Eleanor moved in to look after Robert. In 1811 the pumping
engine at High Pit was not working properly and Stephenson offered to
improve it. He did so with such success that he was promoted to
enginewright for the collieries at Killingworth, responsible for
maintaining and repairing all the colliery engines. He became an
expert in steam-driven machinery.
The miner's safety lamp
Further information: Safety lamp
Stephenson's safety lamp shown with Davy's lamp on the left
In 1815, aware of the explosions often caused in mines by naked
flames, Stephenson began to experiment with a safety lamp that would
burn in a gaseous atmosphere without causing an explosion. At the same
time, the eminent scientist and Cornishman
Humphry Davy was also
looking at the problem. Despite his lack of scientific knowledge,
Stephenson, by trial and error, devised a lamp in which the air
entered via tiny holes, through which the flames of the lamp could not
A month before Davy presented his design to the Royal Society,
Stephenson demonstrated his own lamp to two witnesses by taking it
Killingworth Colliery and holding it in front of a fissure from
which firedamp was issuing. The two designs differed; Davy's lamp was
surrounded by a screen of gauze, whereas Stephenson's prototype lamp
had a perforated plate contained in a glass cylinder. For his
invention Davy was awarded £2,000, whilst Stephenson was accused of
stealing the idea from Davy, because he was not seen as an adequate
scientist who could have produced the lamp by any approved scientific
Stephenson, having come from the North, spoke with a broad
Northumberland accent and not the 'Language of Parliament,' which made
him seem lowly. Realizing this, he made a point of educating his son
Robert in a private school, where he was taught the sciences his
father lacked, and so learnt to speak with a correct vocabulary and
accent. It was due to this, in their future dealings with Parliament,
that it became clear that the authorities preferred Robert to his
A local committee of enquiry gathered in support of Stephenson,
exonerated him, proved he had been working separately to create the
Geordie Lamp', and awarded him £1,000, but Davy and his supporters
refused to accept their findings, and would not see how an uneducated
man such as Stephenson could come up with the solution he had. In 1833
a House of Commons committee found that Stephenson had equal claim to
having invented the safety lamp. Davy went to his grave believing that
Stephenson had stolen his idea. The Stephenson lamp was used almost
exclusively in North East England, whereas the Davy lamp was used
everywhere else. The experience gave Stephenson a lifelong distrust of
London-based, theoretical, scientific experts.
In his book George and Robert Stephenson, the author L.T.C. Rolt
relates that opinion varied about the two lamps' efficiency: that the
Davy Lamp gave more light, but the
Geordie Lamp was thought to be
safer in a more gaseous atmosphere. He made reference to an incident
at Oaks Colliery in Barnsley where both lamps were in use. Following a
sudden strong influx of gas the tops of all the Davy Lamps became red
hot (which had in the past caused an explosion, and in so doing risked
another), whilst all the
Geordie Lamps simply went out.
There is a theory that it was Stephenson who indirectly gave the name
of Geordies to the people of the North East of England. By this
theory, the name of the
Geordie Lamp attached to the North East pit
men themselves. By 1866 any native of
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne could be
called a Geordie.
Richard Trevithick is credited with the first realistic
design for a steam locomotive in 1802. Later, he visited
built an engine there for a mine-owner. Several local men were
inspired by this, and designed their own engines.
Early Stephenson locomotive illustrated in Samuel Smiles' Lives of the
Described as an 1816
Killingworth Colliery locomotive, this is often
claimed to be Blücher, but more closely resembles the slightly later
Hetton colliery railway
Hetton colliery railway locomotives, and their 1852 replica Lyons,
which was still operating at Smiles' time. 
Stephenson designed his first locomotive in 1814, a travelling engine
designed for hauling coal on the
Killingworth wagonway named Blücher
after the Prussian general
Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher
Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher (It was
suggested the name sprang from Blücher's rapid march of his army in
support of Wellington at Waterloo).[i] Blücher was modelled on
Matthew Murray’s locomotive Willington, which George studied at
Kenton and Coxlodge colliery on Tyneside, and was constructed in the
colliery workshop behind Stephenson's home, Dial Cottage, on Great
Lime Road. The locomotive could haul 30 tons of coal up a hill at
4 mph (6.4 km/h), and was the first successful flanged-wheel
adhesion locomotive: its traction depended on contact between its
flanged wheels and the rail.
Altogether, Stephenson is said to have produced 16 locomotives at
Killingworth, although it has not proved possible to produce a
convincing list of all 16. Of those identified, most were built for
Killingworth or for the Hetton colliery railway. A six-wheeled
locomotive was built for the
Kilmarnock and Troon Railway
Kilmarnock and Troon Railway in 1817 but
was withdrawn from service because of damage to the cast-iron
rails. Another locomotive was supplied to Scott's Pit railroad at
Llansamlet, near Swansea, in 1819 but it too was withdrawn, apparently
because it was under-boilered and again caused damage to the track.
Fishbelly rail with half-lap joint, patented by Stephenson 1816
The new engines were too heavy to run on wooden rails or plate-way,
and iron edge rails were in their infancy, with cast iron exhibiting
excessive brittleness. Together with William Losh, Stephenson improved
the design of cast-iron edge rails to reduce breakage; rails were
briefly made by
Losh, Wilson and Bell
Losh, Wilson and Bell at their Walker ironworks.
According to Rolt, Stephenson managed to solve the problem caused by
the weight of the engine on the primitive rails. He experimented with
a steam spring (to 'cushion' the weight using steam pressure acting on
pistons to support the locomotive frame), but soon followed the
practice of 'distributing' weight by using a number of wheels or
bogies. For the
Stockton and Darlington Railway
Stockton and Darlington Railway Stephenson used
wrought-iron malleable rails that he had found satisfactory,
notwithstanding the financial loss he suffered by not using his own
Stephenson was hired to build the 8-mile (13-km) Hetton colliery
railway in 1820. He used a combination of gravity on downward inclines
and locomotives for level and upward stretches. This, the first
railway using no animal power, opened in 1822. This line used a gauge
of 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm) which Stephenson had used
before at the
Other locomotives include:
1817–1824 The Duke for the Kilmarnock and Troon Railway
The No. 1 engine, called Locomotion, for the Stockton & Darlington
In 1821, a parliamentary bill was passed to allow the building of the
Stockton and Darlington Railway
Stockton and Darlington Railway (S&DR). The 25-mile (40 km)
railway connected collieries near
Bishop Auckland to the
River Tees at
Stockton, passing through
Darlington on the way. The original plan was
to use horses to draw coal carts on metal rails, but after company
director Edward Pease met Stephenson, he agreed to change the plans.
Stephenson surveyed the line in 1821, and assisted by his
eighteen-year-old son Robert, construction began the same year.
The Experiment – the first railway carriage
A manufacturer was needed to provide the locomotives for the line.
Pease and Stephenson had jointly established a company in Newcastle to
manufacture locomotives. It was set up as
Robert Stephenson and
Company, and George's son Robert was the managing director. A fourth
partner was Michael Longridge of Bedlington Ironworks. On an early
Robert Stephenson & Co was described as "Engineers,
Millwrights & Machinists, Brass & Iron Founders". In
September 1825 the works at Forth Street, Newcastle completed the
first locomotive for the railway: originally named Active, it was
renamed Locomotion and was followed by Hope, Diligence and Black
Stockton and Darlington Railway
Stockton and Darlington Railway opened on 27 September
1825. Driven by Stephenson, Locomotion hauled an 80-ton load of coal
and flour nine miles (14 km) in two hours, reaching a speed of 24
miles per hour (39 kilometres per hour) on one stretch. The first
purpose-built passenger car, Experiment, was attached and carried
dignitaries on the opening journey. It was the first time passenger
traffic had been run on a steam locomotive railway.
The rails used for the line were wrought-iron, produced by John
Birkinshaw at the Bedlington Ironworks.
Wrought-iron rails could be
produced in longer lengths than cast-iron and were less liable to
crack under the weight of heavy locomotives.
William Losh of Walker
Ironworks thought he had an agreement with Stephenson to supply
cast-iron rails, and Stephenson's decision caused a permanent rift
between them. The gauge Stephenson chose for the line was 4 feet
8 1⁄2 inches (1,435 mm) which subsequently was
adopted as the standard gauge for railways, not only in Britain, but
throughout the world.
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
George Stephenson at the National Railway Museum, York
First passenger railway, L&MR
Stephenson had ascertained by experiments at
Killingworth that half
the power of the locomotive was consumed by a gradient as little as 1
in 260. He concluded that railways should be kept as level as
possible. He used this knowledge while working on the Bolton and Leigh
Railway, and the
Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR),
executing a series of difficult cuttings, embankments and stone
viaducts to level their routes. Defective surveying of the original
route of the L&MR caused by hostility from some affected
landowners meant Stephenson encountered difficulty during
Parliamentary scrutiny of the original bill, especially under
cross-examination by Edward Hall Alderson. The bill was rejected and a
revised bill for a new alignment was submitted and passed in a
subsequent session. The revised alignment presented the problem of
crossing Chat Moss, an apparently bottomless peat bog, which
Stephenson overcame by unusual means, effectively floating the line
across it. The method he used was similar to that used by John
Metcalf who constructed many miles of road across marshes in the
Pennines, laying a foundation of heather and branches, which became
bound together by the weight of the passing coaches, with a layer of
stones on top.
As the L&MR approached completion in 1829, its directors arranged
a competition to decide who would build its locomotives, and the
Rainhill Trials were run in October 1829. Entries could weigh no more
than six tons and had to travel along the track for a total distance
of 60 miles (97 km). Stephenson's entry was Rocket, and its
performance in winning the contest made it famous. George's son Robert
had been working in South America from 1824 to 1827 and returned to
run the Forth Street Works while George was in
the construction of the line. Robert was responsible for the detailed
design of Rocket, although he was in constant postal communication
with his father, who made many suggestions. One significant
innovation, suggested by Henry Booth, treasurer of the L&MR, was
the use of a fire-tube boiler, invented by French engineer Marc Seguin
that gave improved heat exchange.
The opening ceremony of the L&MR, on 15 September 1830, drew
luminaries from the government and industry, including the Prime
Minister, the Duke of Wellington. The day started with a procession of
eight trains setting out from Liverpool. The parade was led by
Northumbrian driven by George Stephenson, and included Phoenix driven
by his son Robert, North Star driven by his brother Robert and Rocket
driven by assistant engineer Joseph Locke. The day was marred by the
death of William Huskisson, the Member of Parliament for Liverpool,
who was struck by Rocket. Stephenson evacuated the injured Huskisson
to Eccles with a train, but he died from his injuries. Despite the
tragedy, the railway was a resounding success. Stephenson became
famous, and was offered the position of chief engineer for a wide
variety of other railways.
Stephenson's skew arch bridge
A close-up of the technique
1830 also saw the grand opening of the skew bridge in Rainhill over
Liverpool and Manchester Railway. The bridge was the first to
cross any railway at an angle. It required the structure to be
constructed as two flat planes (overlapping in this case by 6 ft
(1.8 m)) between which the stonework forms a parallelogram shape
when viewed from above. It has the effect of flattening the arch and
the solution is to lay the bricks forming the arch at an angle to the
abutments (the piers on which the arches rest). The technique, which
results in a spiral effect in the arch masonry, provides extra
strength in the arch to compensate for the angled abutments.
The bridge is still in use at Rainhill station, and carries traffic on
the A57 (Warrington Road). The bridge is a listed structure.
Life at Alton Grange
Stephenson's House at Alton Grange
George Stephenson moved to the parish of Alton Grange (now part of
Ravenstone) in Leicestershire in 1830 from
Liverpool until 1838,
originally to consult on the Leicester and Swannington Railway, a line
primarily proposed to take coal from the western coal fields of the
county to Leicester. The promoters of the line Mr
William Stenson and
Mr John Ellis, had difficulties in raising the necessary capital as
the majority of local wealth had been invested in canals. Realising
the potential and need for the rail link Stephenson himself invested
£2,500 and raised the remaining capital through his network of
connections in Liverpool. His son Robert was made chief engineer with
the first part of the line opening in 1832.
During this same period the
Snibston estate in Leicestershire came up
for auction, it lay adjoining the proposed Swannington to Leicester
route and was believed to contain valuable coal reserves. Stephenson
realising the financial potential of the site, given its proximity to
the proposed rail link and the fact that the manufacturing town of
Leicester was then being supplied coal by canal from Derbyshire,
bought the estate.
Employing a previously used method of mining in the midlands called
tubbing to access the deep coal seams, his success could not have been
greater. Stephenson’s coal mine delivered the first rail cars of
coal into Leicester dramatically reducing the price of coal and saving
the city some £40,000 per annum.
Stephenson remained at Alton Grange until 1838 before moving to Tapton
House in Derbyshire. 
The next ten years were the busiest of Stephenson's life as he was
besieged with requests from railway promoters. Many of the first
American railroad builders came to Newcastle to learn from Stephenson
and the first dozen or so locomotives utilised there were purchased
from the Stephenson shops. Stephenson's conservative views on the
capabilities of locomotives meant he favoured circuitous routes and
civil engineering that were more costly than his successors thought
necessary. For example, rather than the
West Coast Main Line
West Coast Main Line taking
the direct route favoured by
Joseph Locke over Shap between Lancaster
and Carlisle, Stephenson was in favour of a longer sea-level route via
Ulverston and Whitehaven. Locke's route was built.
Stephenson tended to be more casual in estimating costs and paperwork
in general. He worked with
Joseph Locke on the Grand Junction Railway
with half of the line allocated to each man. Stephenson's estimates
and organising ability proved inferior to those of Locke and the
board's dissatisfaction led to Stephenson's resignation causing a rift
between them which was never healed.
Despite Stephenson's loss of some routes to competitors due to his
caution, he was offered more work than he could cope with, and was
unable to accept all that was offered. He worked on the North Midland
Derby to Leeds, the
York and North Midland line from
Normanton to York, the Manchester and Leeds, the Birmingham and Derby,
the Sheffield and Rotherham among many others.
Stephenson became a reassuring name rather than a cutting-edge
technical adviser. He was the first president of the
Institution of Mechanical Engineers
Institution of Mechanical Engineers on its formation in 1847. By this
time he had settled into semi-retirement, supervising his mining
Derbyshire – tunnelling for the North Midland Railway
revealed coal seams, and Stephenson put money into their exploitation.
George first courted Elizabeth (Betty) Hindmarsh, a farmer's daughter
from Black Callerton, whom he met secretly in her orchard. Her father
refused marriage because of Stephenson's lowly status as a miner.
George next paid attention to Anne Henderson where he lodged with her
family, but she rejected him and he transferred his attentions to her
sister Frances (Fanny), who was nine years his senior. George and
Fanny married at
Newburn Church on 28 November 1802. They had two
children Robert (1803) and Fanny (1805) but the latter died within
months. George's wife died, probably of tuberculosis, the year after.
While George was working in Scotland, Robert was brought up by a
succession of neighbours and then by George's unmarried sister Eleanor
(Nelly), who lived with them in
Killingworth on George's return.
On 29 March 1820, George (now considerably wealthier) married Betty
Hindmarsh at Newburn. The marriage seems to have been happy, but there
were no children and Betty died in 1845.
On 11 January 1848, at St John's Church in Shrewsbury, Shropshire,
George married for the third time, to Ellen Gregory, another farmer's
daughter originally from
Bakewell in Derbyshire, who had been his
housekeeper. Six months after his wedding, George contracted pleurisy
and died, aged 67, on 12 August 1848 at
Tapton House in Chesterfield,
Derbyshire. He was buried at Holy Trinity Church, Chesterfield,
alongside his second wife.
Described by Rolt as a generous man, Stephenson financially supported
the wives and families of several who had died in his employment, due
to accident or misadventure, some within his family, and some not. He
was also a keen gardener throughout his life; during his last years at
Tapton House, he built hothouses in the estate gardens, growing exotic
fruits and vegetables in a 'not too friendly' rivalry with Joseph
Paxton's father, head gardener at nearby Chatsworth House, twice
beating the master of the craft.
George Stephenson had two children. His son Robert was born on 16
October 1803. Robert married Frances Sanderson, daughter of a City of
London professional John Sanderson, on 17 June 1829. Robert died in
1859 having no children.
Robert Stephenson expanded on the work of his
father and became a major railway engineer himself. Abroad, Robert was
involved in the Alexandria–Cairo railway that later connected with
the Suez Canal. George Stephenson's daughter was born in 1805 but died
within weeks of her birth. Descendants of the wider Stephenson family
continue to live in
Wylam (Stephenson's birthplace) today. Also
relatives connected by his marriage live in Derbyshire. Some
descendants later emigrated to Perth, Australia, with later
generations remaining to this day.
Britain led the world in the development of railways which acted as a
stimulus for the
Industrial Revolution by facilitating the transport
of raw materials and manufactured goods. George Stephenson, with his
work on the
Stockton and Darlington Railway
Stockton and Darlington Railway and the
Manchester Railway, paved the way for the railway engineers who
followed, such as his son Robert, his assistant
Joseph Locke who
carried out much work on his own account and Isambard Kingdom Brunel.
Stephenson was farsighted in realising that the individual lines being
built would eventually be joined together, and would need to have the
same gauge. The standard gauge used throughout much of the world is
due to him. In 2002, Stephenson was named in the BBC's television show
and list of the
100 Greatest Britons
100 Greatest Britons following a UK-wide vote, placing
at no. 65.
Memorials and commemorations
George Stephenson statue,
Chesterfield March 2011
George Stephenson's Birthplace
George Stephenson's Birthplace is an 18th-century historic house
museum in the village of Wylam, and is operated by the National Trust.
Dial Cottage at West Moor, his home from 1804, remains but the museum
that once operated here is shut.
Chesterfield Museum in Chesterfield, Derbyshire, has a gallery of
Stephenson memorabilia, including straight thick glass tubes he
invented for growing straight cucumbers. The museum is in the
Stephenson Memorial Hall not far from both Stephenson's final home
Tapton House and Holy Trinity Church within which is his vault. In
Liverpool, where he lived at 34 Upper Parliament Street, a City of
Liverpool Heritage Plaque is situated next to the front door.
George Stephenson College, founded in 2001 on the University of
Durham's Queen's Campus in Stockton-on-Tees, is named after him. Also
named after him and his son is
George Stephenson High School in
Killingworth, Stephenson Memorial Primary School in Howdon, the
Stephenson Railway Museum
Stephenson Railway Museum in
North Shields and the Stephenson
Locomotive Society. The Stephenson Centre, an SEBD Unit of Beaumont
Hill School in Darlington, is named after him. His last home in
Chesterfield is now part of
Chesterfield College and is called
Tapton House Campus.
As a tribute to his life and works, a bronze statue of Stephenson was
Chesterfield railway station (in the town where Stephenson
spent the last ten years of his life) on 28 October 2005, marking the
completion of improvements to the station. At the event a full-size
working replica of the Rocket was on show, which then spent two days
on public display at the
Chesterfield Market Festival. A statue of him
dressed in classical robes stands in Neville Street, Newcastle, facing
the buildings that house the Literary and Philosophical Society of
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne and the North of England Institute of Mining and
Mechanical Engineers, near Newcastle railway station. The statue was
sculpted in 1862 by
John Graham Lough
John Graham Lough and is listed Grade II.
From 1990 until 2003, Stephenson's portrait appeared on the reverse of
Series E £5 notes issued by the Bank of England. Stephenson's face is
shown alongside an engraving of the Rocket steam engine and the Skerne
Bridge on the Stockton to
In popular media, Stephenson was portrayed by actor
Gawn Grainger on
television in the 1985
Doctor Who serial The Mark of the Rani.
History of Science and Technology
Robert Stephenson and Company
^ Recent scholarship holds that Stephenson's My Lord of 1814 pre-dated
^ "Plaque unveiled for 'Father of Railways' George Stephenson". BBC. 9
December 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2016. Engineer and inventor George
Stephenson, regarded as the Father of Railways
^ Kirby, M. W. (1984). "Stephenson, George (1781–1848)". Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography (2 ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford
^ "Robert Stephenson, Engineer 1803–1859". Northumbria Trail.
Institution of Civil Engineers.
^ a b c
Samuel Smiles (1862). "Chapter III: Engineman at Willington
Quay and Killingworth.". Lives of the Engineers: George and Robert
Stephenson. 5: The Locomotive – George and Robert Stephenson.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Davies, Hunter (1975). George Stephenson.
Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-76934-0.
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed.). Oxford, England:
Oxford University Press. 1989.
^ Bailey, Michael R. (2014). "The
George Stephenson Types, 1820s".
Loco Motion. The History Press. p. 31.
^ Smiles (1857)
^ Reynolds, Paul (2003). "George Stephenson's 1819 Llansamlet
locomotive". In Lewis, M.J.T. Early Railways 2: papers from the Second
International Early Railways Conference. London: Newcomen Society.
^ Nock, Oswald (1955). "Building the first main lines". The Railway
Engineers. London: Batsford. p. 62.
^ Jones, Robin (2013). The Rocket Men. Mortons Media Group.
p. 33. ISBN 978-1909128255.
^ Ellis, Chris; Morse, Greg (2010). Steaming through Britain. London:
Conway. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-84486-121-7.
^ Smiles 1862, p. 244
^ "Railway History". Rainhill Parish Council.
^ Simmons, Jack; Biddle, Gordon (1997). The Oxford companion to
British railway history. Oxford University Press. pp. 45–47.
^ The Life of George &
Robert Stephenson by Samuel Smile 1857
Samuel Smiles disputes this account, saying that Miss Hindmarsh's
brother assured him that she didn't meet him before 1818 or 19. See
Lives of the Engineers 1862 vol 3. p116 (footnote).
^ "100 great Britons – A complete list". Daily Mail. 21 August 2002.
Retrieved 2 August 2012.
^ "NZ2770: Dial Cottage (George Stephenson's Cottage), Westmoor".
^ https://www.flickr.com/photos/pinzac55/7267455114/ Flickr image
taken inside Dial Cottage in 1994.
^ "SK3871: Stephenson Memorial Hall". Geograph. Retrieved 13 May
George Stephenson Monument". northumbria.onfo.
^ "Withdrawn banknotes reference guide". Bank of England. Retrieved 17
^ "The Mark of the Rani". BBC. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
Smiles, Samuel (1857). The Life of George Stephenson. London.
Davies, Hunter (2004). George Stephenson: The Remarkable Life of the
Founder of Railways. Stroud: Sutton Publishing.
Rolt, L.T.C. (1960). George and Robert Stephenson: The Railway
Revolution. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-007646-2.
Ross, David (2010). George and Robert Stephenson: A Passion for
Success. Stroud: History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-5277-7.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to George Stephenson.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: George Stephenson
Reproduction of 1853 biographical chapter by J R Leifchild
Professional and academic associations
President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers
Institution of Mechanical Engineers
Part A: Journal of Power and Energy
Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture
Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science
Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering
Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit
Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering
Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering
Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology
Part K: Journal of Multi-body Dynamics
Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications
Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment
Part N: Journal of Nanoengineering and Nanosystems
Part O: Journal of Risk and Reliability
Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
Engineering Heritage Awards
James Watt International Gold Medal
Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology
Institution of Railway Signal Engineers
Pre-1830 steam locomotives
Cugnot's fardier à vapeur (1769)
Murdoch's model steam carriage (1784)
Puffing Devil (1801)
London Steam Carriage
London Steam Carriage (1803)
The Coalbrookdale locomotive (1803)
The Pen-y-Darren locomotive (1804)
The Newcastle locomotive (1805)
Catch Me Who Can
Catch Me Who Can (1808)
Puffing Billy (1813)
Steam Horse (1813)
Wylam Dilly (1815)
Steam Elephant (1815)
Locomotion No. 1
Locomotion No. 1 (1825)
The Royal George (1827)
Lancashire Witch (1828)
Stourbridge Lion (1829)
Rainhill Trials locomotives
John Urpeth Rastrick
History of steam road vehicles
History of rail transport in Great Britain to 1830
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