GEORGE III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January
1820) was King of
His life and with it his reign, which were longer than any other
British monarch before him, were marked by a series of military
conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, and
places farther afield in Africa, the Americas and Asia. Early in his
In the later part of his life, George III had recurrent, and
eventually permanent, mental illness . Although it has since been
suggested that he had the blood disease porphyria , the cause of his
illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was
established, and George III's eldest son, George,
Prince of Wales
Historical analysis of George III's life has gone through a "kaleidoscope of changing views" that have depended heavily on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them. Until it was reassessed in the second half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant; and in Britain he became "the scapegoat for the failure of imperialism".
* 1 Early life * 2 Marriage * 3 Early reign * 4 American War of Independence * 5 Constitutional struggle * 6 William Pitt * 7 French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars * 8 Later life * 9 Legacy
* 10 Titles, styles and arms
* 10.1 Titles and styles * 10.2 Arms
* 11 Issue * 12 Ancestry * 13 See also * 14 Notes
* 15 References
* 15.1 Bibliography
* 16 Further reading * 17 External links
George (right) with his brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany , and their tutor, Francis Ayscough , later Dean of Bristol , c. 1749
George was born in
George grew into a healthy but reserved and shy child. The family moved to Leicester Square , where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany , were educated together by private tutors. Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight. He was the first British monarch to study science systematically. Apart from chemistry and physics, his lessons included astronomy, mathematics, French, Latin, history, music, geography, commerce, agriculture and constitutional law, along with sporting and social accomplishments such as dancing, fencing, and riding. His religious education was wholly Anglican . At age 10 George took part in a family production of Joseph Addison 's play Cato and said in the new prologue: "What, tho' a boy! It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, in England bred". Historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear "to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated".
George's grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales,
and took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the
Prince of Wales
In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday,
the King offered him a grand establishment at St James\'s Palace , but
George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidant, Lord
Bute , who would later serve as Prime Minister . George's mother, now
In 1759, George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox , sister of the Duke of Richmond , but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and consequently must often act contrary to my passions." Nevertheless, attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother; Sophie married the Margrave of Bayreuth instead.
The following year, at the age of 22, George succeeded to the throne
when his grandfather, George II, died suddenly on 25 October 1760, two
weeks before his 77th birthday. The search for a suitable wife
intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal , St James\'s
Palace , the King married Princess
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz ,
whom he met on their wedding day. A fortnight later on 22 September
both were crowned at
George, in his accession speech to Parliament, proclaimed: "Born and educated in this country, I glory in the name of Britain". He inserted this phrase into the speech, written by Lord Hardwicke , in order to demonstrate his desire to distance himself from his German forebears, who were perceived as caring more for Hanover than for Britain.
Although his accession was at first welcomed by politicians of all
parties, the first years of his reign were marked by political
instability, largely generated as a result of disagreements over the
Seven Years\' War . George was also perceived as favouring Tory
ministers, which led to his denunciation by the Whigs as an autocrat.
On his accession, the Crown lands produced relatively little income;
most revenue was generated through taxes and excise duties. George
Crown Estate to Parliamentary control in return for a
civil list annuity for the support of his household and the expenses
of civil government. Claims that he used the income to reward
supporters with bribes and gifts are disputed by historians who say
such claims "rest on nothing but falsehoods put out by disgruntled
opposition". Debts amounting to over £3 million over the course of
George's reign were paid by Parliament, and the civil list annuity was
increased from time to time. He aided the
Royal Academy of Arts with
large grants from his private funds, and may have donated more than
half of his personal income to charity. Of his art collection, the
two most notable purchases are
In May 1762, the incumbent Whig government of the Duke of Newcastle
was replaced with one led by the Scottish
Later that year, the Royal Proclamation of 1763 placed a limit upon the westward expansion of the American colonies. The Proclamation aimed to divert colonial expansion to the north (to Nova Scotia) and to the south (Florida). The Proclamation Line did not bother the majority of settled farmers, but it was unpopular with a vocal minority and ultimately contributed to conflict between the colonists and the British government. With the American colonists generally unburdened by British taxes, the government thought it appropriate for them to pay towards the defence of the colonies against native uprisings and the possibility of French incursions. The central issue for the colonists was not the amount of taxes but whether Parliament could levy a tax without American approval, for there were no American seats in Parliament. The Americans protested that like all Englishmen they had rights to "no taxation without representation ". In 1765, Grenville introduced the Stamp Act , which levied a stamp duty on every document in the British colonies in North America. Since newspapers were printed on stamped paper, those most affected by the introduction of the duty were the most effective at producing propaganda opposing the tax. Meanwhile, the King had become exasperated at Grenville's attempts to reduce the King's prerogatives, and tried, unsuccessfully, to persuade William Pitt the Elder to accept the office of Prime Minister. After a brief illness, which may have presaged his illnesses to come, George settled on Lord Rockingham to form a ministry, and dismissed Grenville.
Lord Rockingham, with the support of Pitt and the King, repealed
Grenville's unpopular Stamp Act, but his government was weak and he
was replaced in 1766 by Pitt, whom George created
Earl of Chatham
George was deeply devout and spent hours in prayer, but his piety was not shared by his brothers. George was appalled by what he saw as their loose morals. In 1770, his brother Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn , was exposed as an adulterer, and the following year Cumberland married a young widow, Anne Horton . The King considered her inappropriate as a royal bride: she was from a lower social class and German law barred any children of the couple from the Hanoverian succession. George insisted on a new law that essentially forbade members of the Royal Family from legally marrying without the consent of the Sovereign. The subsequent bill was unpopular in Parliament, including among George's own ministers, but passed as the Royal Marriages Act 1772 . Shortly afterward, another of George's brothers, Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh , revealed he had been secretly married to Maria, Countess Waldegrave , the illegitimate daughter of Sir Edward Walpole . The news confirmed George's opinion that he had been right to introduce the law: Maria was related to his political opponents. Neither lady was ever received at court.
Lord North's government was chiefly concerned with discontent in
America. To assuage American opinion most of the custom duties were
withdrawn, except for the tea duty, which in George's words was "one
tax to keep up the right ". In 1773, the tea ships moored in Boston
Harbor were boarded by colonists and the tea thrown overboard, an
event that became known as the
Boston Tea Party
AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
The American War of Independence was the culmination of the civil and
George III is often accused of obstinately trying to keep Great
Britain at war with the revolutionaries in America, despite the
opinions of his own ministers. In the words of the Victorian author
George Trevelyan , the King was determined "never to acknowledge the
independence of the Americans, and to punish their contumacy by the
indefinite prolongation of a war which promised to be eternal." The
King wanted to "keep the rebels harassed, anxious, and poor, until the
day when, by a natural and inevitable process, discontent and
disappointment were converted into penitence and remorse". However,
more recent historians defend George by saying in the context of the
times no king would willingly surrender such a large territory, and
his conduct was far less ruthless than contemporary monarchs in
Europe. After Saratoga, both Parliament and the British people were
in favour of the war; recruitment ran at high levels and although
political opponents were vocal, they remained a small minority. With
the setbacks in America, Prime Minister Lord North asked to transfer
power to Lord Chatham , whom he thought more capable, but George
refused to do so; he suggested instead that Chatham serve as a
subordinate minister in Lord North's administration, but Chatham
refused to cooperate. He died later in the same year. In early 1778,
France (Britain's chief rival) signed a treaty of alliance with the
United States and the conflict escalated. The United States and France
were soon joined by Spain and the
Dutch Republic , while Britain had
no major allies of its own. Lord Gower and Lord Weymouth both resigned
from the government. Lord North again requested that he also be
allowed to resign, but he stayed in office at George III's insistence.
Opposition to the costly war was increasing, and in June 1780
contributed to disturbances in
As late as the
Siege of Charleston in 1780, Loyalists could still
believe in their eventual victory, as British troops inflicted heavy
defeats on the Continental forces at the
Battle of Camden
With the collapse of Lord North's ministry in 1782, the Whig Lord Rockingham became Prime Minister for the second time, but died within months. The King then appointed Lord Shelburne to replace him. Charles James Fox , however, refused to serve under Shelburne, and demanded the appointment of the Duke of Portland . In 1783, the House of Commons forced Shelburne from office and his government was replaced by the Fox–North Coalition . The Duke of Portland became Prime Minister, with Fox and Lord North, as Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary respectively. In A new way to pay the National Debt (1786), James Gillray caricatured King George III and Queen Charlotte awash with treasury funds to cover royal debts, with Pitt handing him another money bag .
The King disliked Fox intensely, for his politics as well as his
character; he thought Fox was unprincipled and a bad influence on the
Prince of Wales. George III was distressed at having to appoint
ministers not of his liking, but the Portland ministry quickly built
up a majority in the House of Commons, and could not be displaced
easily. He was further dismayed when the government introduced the
India Bill, which proposed to reform the government of India by
transferring political power from the
East India Company
The Three Youngest Daughters of King George III by John Singleton Copley , c. 1785 Gold guinea of George III, 1789
For George III, Pitt's appointment was a great victory. It proved that he was able to appoint Prime Ministers on the basis of his own interpretation of the public mood without having to follow the choice of the current majority in the House of Commons. Throughout Pitt's ministry, George supported many of Pitt's political aims and created new peers at an unprecedented rate to increase the number of Pitt's supporters in the House of Lords. During and after Pitt's ministry, George III was extremely popular in Britain. The British people admired him for his piety, and for remaining faithful to his wife. He was fond of his children, and was devastated at the death of two of his sons in infancy in 1782 and 1783 respectively. Nevertheless, he set his children a strict regimen. They were expected to attend rigorous lessons from seven in the morning, and to lead lives of religious observance and virtue. When his children strayed from George's own principles of righteousness, as his sons did as young adults, he was dismayed and disappointed.
By this time George's health was deteriorating. He had a mental
illness, characterised by acute mania, which was possibly a symptom of
the genetic disease porphyria , although this has been questioned.
A study of samples of the King's hair published in 2005 revealed high
levels of arsenic , a possible trigger for the disease. The source of
the arsenic is not known, but it could have been a component of
medicines or cosmetics. The King may have had a brief episode of
disease in 1765, but a longer episode began in the summer of 1788. At
the end of the parliamentary session, he went to
In the reconvened Parliament, Fox and Pitt wrangled over the terms of
a regency during the King's incapacity. While both agreed that it
would be most reasonable for George III's eldest son and heir apparent
, the Prince of Wales, to act as regent, to Pitt’s consternation Fox
suggested that it was the Prince of Wales's absolute right to act on
his ill father's behalf with full powers. Pitt, fearing he would be
removed from office if the
Prince of Wales
FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY AND NAPOLEONIC WARS
After George’s recovery, his popularity, and that of Pitt, continued to increase at the expense of Fox and the Prince of Wales. His humane and understanding treatment of two insane assailants, Margaret Nicholson in 1786 and John Frith in 1790, contributed to his popularity. James Hadfield 's failed attempt to shoot the King in the Drury Lane Theatre on 15 May 1800 was not political in origin but motivated by the apocalyptic delusions of Hadfield and Bannister Truelock . George seemed unperturbed by the incident, so much so that he fell asleep in the interval.
French Revolution of 1789, in which the French monarchy had been
overthrown, worried many British landowners. France declared war on
A brief lull in hostilities allowed Pitt to concentrate effort on
Ireland, where there had been an uprising and attempted French landing
in 1798. In 1800, the British and Irish Parliaments passed an Act of
Union that took effect on 1 January 1801 and united
George did not consider the peace with France as real; in his view it
was an "experiment". In 1803, the war resumed but public opinion
distrusted Addington to lead the nation in war, and instead favoured
Pitt. An invasion of England by
In 1804, George's recurrent illness returned; after his recovery, Addington resigned and Pitt regained power. Pitt sought to appoint Fox to his ministry, but George III refused. Lord Grenville perceived an injustice to Fox, and refused to join the new ministry. Pitt concentrated on forming a coalition with Austria, Russia, and Sweden. This Third Coalition , however, met the same fate as the First and Second Coalitions, collapsing in 1805. The setbacks in Europe took a toll on Pitt's health and he died in 1806, reopening the question of who should serve in the ministry. Lord Grenville became Prime Minister, and his " Ministry of All the Talents " included Fox. The King was conciliatory towards Fox, after being forced to capitulate over his appointment. After Fox's death in September 1806, the King and ministry were in open conflict. To boost recruitment, the ministry proposed a measure in February 1807 whereby Roman Catholics would be allowed to serve in all ranks of the Armed Forces. George instructed them not only to drop the measure, but also to agree never to set up such a measure again. The ministers agreed to drop the measure then pending, but refused to bind themselves in the future. They were dismissed and replaced by the Duke of Portland as the nominal Prime Minister, with actual power being held by the Chancellor of the Exchequer , Spencer Perceval . Parliament was dissolved, and the subsequent election gave the ministry a strong majority in the House of Commons. George III made no further major political decisions during his reign; the replacement of the Duke of Portland by Perceval in 1809 was of little actual significance.
Engraving by Henry Meyer of George III in later life
In late 1810, at the height of his popularity, already virtually
blind with cataracts and in pain from rheumatism , George became
dangerously ill. In his view the malady had been triggered by stress
over the death of his youngest and favourite daughter, Princess Amelia
. The Princess's nurse reported that "the scenes of distress and
crying every day ... were melancholy beyond description." He accepted
the need for the Regency Act of 1811 , and the
Prince of Wales
Spencer Perceval was assassinated in 1812 and was
replaced by Lord Liverpool . Liverpool oversaw British victory in the
Napoleonic Wars. The subsequent
Congress of Vienna
Meanwhile, George's health deteriorated. He developed dementia , and became completely blind and increasingly deaf. He was incapable of knowing or understanding either that he was declared King of Hanover in 1814, or that his wife died in 1818. At Christmas 1819, he spoke nonsense for 58 hours, and for the last few weeks of his life was unable to walk. He died at Windsor Castle at 8:38 pm on 29 January 1820, six days after the death of his fourth son, the Duke of Kent . His favourite son, Frederick, Duke of York , was with him. George III was buried on 16 February in St George\'s Chapel, Windsor Castle .
George was succeeded by two of his sons George IV and William IV , who both died without surviving legitimate children, leaving the throne to the only legitimate child of the Duke of Kent, Victoria , the last monarch of the House of Hanover.
George III lived for 81 years and 239 days and reigned for 59 years
and 96 days: both his life and his reign were longer than those of any
of his predecessors. Only Victoria and
George III was dubbed "Farmer George" by satirists, at first to mock
his interest in mundane matters rather than politics, but later to
contrast his homely thrift with his son's grandiosity and to portray
him as a man of the people. Under George III, the British
Agricultural Revolution reached its peak and great advances were made
in fields such as science and industry. There was unprecedented growth
in the rural population, which in turn provided much of the workforce
for the concurrent
George III hoped that "the tongue of malice may not paint my intentions in those colours she admires, nor the sycophant extoll me beyond what I deserve", but in the popular mind George III has been both demonised and praised. While very popular at the start of his reign, by the mid-1770s George had lost the loyalty of revolutionary American colonists, though it has been estimated that as many as half of the colonists remained loyal. The grievances in the United States Declaration of Independence were presented as "repeated injuries and usurpations" that he had committed to establish an "absolute Tyranny" over the colonies. The Declaration's wording has contributed to the American public's perception of George as a tyrant. Contemporary accounts of George III's life fall into two camps: one demonstrating "attitudes dominant in the latter part of the reign, when the King had become a revered symbol of national resistance to French ideas and French power", while the other "derived their views of the King from the bitter partisan strife of the first two decades of the reign, and they expressed in their works the views of the opposition".
Building on the latter of these two assessments, British historians of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, such as Trevelyan and Erskine May , promoted hostile interpretations of George III's life. However, in the mid-twentieth century the work of Lewis Namier , who thought George was "much maligned", started a re-evaluation of the man and his reign. Scholars of the later twentieth century, such as Butterfield and Pares, and Macalpine and Hunter, are inclined to treat George sympathetically, seeing him as a victim of circumstance and illness. Butterfield rejected the arguments of his Victorian predecessors with withering disdain: "Erskine May must be a good example of the way in which an historian may fall into error through an excess of brilliance. His capacity for synthesis, and his ability to dovetail the various parts of the evidence ... carried him into a more profound and complicated elaboration of error than some of his more pedestrian predecessors ... he inserted a doctrinal element into his history which, granted his original aberrations, was calculated to project the lines of his error, carrying his work still further from centrality or truth." In pursuing war with the American colonists, George III believed he was defending the right of an elected Parliament to levy taxes, rather than seeking to expand his own power or prerogatives. In the opinion of modern scholars, during the long reign of George III the monarchy continued to lose its political power, and grew as the embodiment of national morality.
TITLES, STYLES AND ARMS
TITLES AND STYLES
* 4 JUNE 1738 – 31 MARCH 1751: His Royal Highness Prince George * 31 MARCH 1751 – 20 APRIL 1751: His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh * 20 APRIL 1751 – 25 OCTOBER 1760: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales * 25 OCTOBER 1760 – 29 JANUARY 1820: His Majesty The King
In Great Britain, George III used the official style "George the Third, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith , and so forth". In 1801, when Great Britain united with Ireland , he dropped the title of king of France, which had been used for every English monarch since Edward III\'s claim to the French throne in the medieval period. His style became "George the Third, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith."
In Germany, he was "Duke of Brunswick and
Before his succession, George was granted the royal arms differenced
by a label of five points Azure , the centre point bearing a
fleur-de-lis Or on 27 July 1749. Upon his father's death, and along
with the dukedom of Edinburgh and the position of heir-apparent, he
inherited his difference of a plain label of three points
From his succession until 1800, George bore the royal arms: Quarterly
Following the Acts of Union 1800 , the royal arms were amended, dropping the French quartering. They became: Quarterly, I and IV England; II Scotland; III Ireland; overall an escutcheon of Hanover surmounted by an electoral bonnet. In 1816, after the Electorate of Hanover became a kingdom, the electoral bonnet was changed to a crown.
Coat of arms from 1749 to 1751 *
Coat of arms from 1751 to 1760 as
Prince of Wales
Coat of arms used from 1760 to 1801 as King of
Coat of arms used from 1801 to 1816 as King of the United Kingdom *
Coat of arms used from 1816 until death, also as King of Hanover
See also: Descendants of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
HOUSE OF HANOVER
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany William IV
Charlotte, Queen of Württemberg
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and
Strathearn Princess Augusta Sophia Elizabeth, Landgravine of
Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover Prince Augustus
Frederick, Duke of Sussex
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
* v * t * e
NAME BIRTH DEATH NOTES
12 August 1762
26 June 1830
Prince of Wales
21 August 1765
20 June 1837
Duke of Clarence and St Andrews; married 1818, Princess Adelaide of
Saxe-Meiningen ; no surviving legitimate issue, but had illegitimate
Dorothea Jordan ; descendants include
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
2 November 1767
23 January 1820
Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld ; Queen
Victoria was his daughter; descendants include
Princess Augusta Sophia 8 November 1768 22 September 1840 Never married, no issue
Princess Elizabeth 22 May 1770 10 January 1840 Married 1818, Frederick, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg ; no issue
Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover
5 June 1771
18 November 1851
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale 1799–1851; married 1815,
Princess Friederike of Mecklenburg-Strelitz ; had issue; descendants
Constantine II of Greece
Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex 27 January 1773 21 April 1843 (1) Married in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772 , Lady Augusta Murray ; had issue; marriage annulled 1794 (2) Married 1831, Lady Cecilia Buggin (later Duchess of Inverness in her own right); no issue
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh 25 April 1776 30 April 1857 Married 1816, Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh ; no issue
Princess Sophia 3 November 1777 27 May 1848 Never married
Prince Octavius 23 February 1779 3 May 1783 Died in childhood
Prince Alfred 22 September 1780 20 August 1782 Died in childhood
Princess Amelia 7 August 1783 2 November 1810 Never married, no issue
ANCESTORS OF GEORGE III OF THE UNITED KINGDOM
16. Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-
17. Sophia, Princess Palatine of the Rhine
18. George William, Duke of Brunswick-
19. Éléonore Desmier d\'Olbreuse
21. Countess Sophia Margaret of Oettingen-Oettingen
1. GEORGE III OF THE UNITED KINGDOM
26. Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels (=30)
27. Anna Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (=31)
30. Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels (=26)
15. Sophia of Saxe-Weissenfels
31. Anna Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (=27)
The Madness of George III , a 1991 play by
Alan Bennett ,
Nigel Hawthorne as George III
The Madness of King George
* ^ King of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 onwards, following the Acts of Union 1800 . * ^ King of Hanover from 12 October 1814 onwards. * ^ A B 24 May in the Old Style Julian calendar in use in Great Britain until 1752. * ^ George was falsely said to have married a Quakeress named Hannah Lightfoot on 17 April 1759, prior to his marriage to Charlotte, and to have had at least one child by her. However, Lightfoot had married Isaac Axford in 1753, and had died in or before 1759, so there could have been no legal marriage or children. The jury at the 1866 trial of Lavinia Ryves , the daughter of imposter Olivia Serres who pretended to be "Princess Olive of Cumberland", unanimously found that a supposed marriage certificate produced by Ryves was a forgery. * ^ For example, the letters of Horace Walpole written at the time of the accession defended George but Walpole's later memoirs were hostile. * ^ An American taxpayer would pay a maximum of sixpence a year, compared to an average of twenty-five shillings (50 times as much) in England. In 1763, the total revenue from America amounted to about £1 800, while the estimated annual cost of the military in America was put at £225 000. By 1767, it had risen to £400 000.
* ^ A B C "George III". Official website of the British monarchy.
Royal Household. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
* ^ Brooke, p. 314; Fraser, p. 277
* ^ Butterfield, p. 9
* ^ Brooke, p. 269
* ^ Hibbert, p. 8
* ^ "No. 7712". The
* ^ Kelso, Paul (6 March 2000). "The royal family and the public
* ^ Brooke, p. 387
* ^ Carretta, pp. 92–93, 267–273, 302–305, 317
* ^ Watson, pp. 10–11
* ^ Brooke, p. 90
* ^ Carretta, pp. 99–101, 123–126
* ^ Ayling, p. 247
* ^ Reitan, p. viii
* ^ Reitan, pp. xii–xiii
* ^ Macalpine, Ida; Hunter, Richard A. (1991) . George III and the
Mad-Business. Pimlico. ISBN 978-0-7126-5279-7 .
* ^ Butterfield, p. 152
* ^ Brooke, pp. 175–176
* ^ The
* ^ A B Brooke, p. 390
* ^ Velde, François (19 April 2008). "Marks of Cadency in the
British Royal Family". Heraldica. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
* ^ See, for example, Berry, William (1810). An introduction to
heraldry containing the rudiments of the science. pp. 110–111.
* ^ Pinches, John Harvey; Pinches, Rosemary (1974). The Royal
Heraldry of England. Heraldry Today. Slough, Buckinghamshire: Hollen
Street Press. pp. 215–216. ISBN 0-900455-25-X .
* ^ "No. 15324". The
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* Benjamin, Lewis Saul (1907). Farmer George. Pitman and Sons.
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* Butterfield, Herbert (1957). George III and the Historians.
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* Cannon, John; Griffiths, Ralph (1988). The Oxford Illustrated
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* Colley, Linda (1994). Britons: Forging the Nation 1707–1837.
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* Fraser, Antonia (1975). The Lives of the Kings and Queen of
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* Hibbert, Christopher (1999). George III: A Personal History.
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* Medley, Dudley Julius (1902). A Student\'s Manual of English
* O'Shaughnessy, Andrew Jackson (2014). The Men Who Lost America:
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* Röhl, John C. G. ; Warren, Martin; Hunt, David (1998). Purple
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* Sedgwick, Romney (ed.; 1903). Letters from George III to Lord
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* Simms, Brendan; Riotte, Torsten (2007). The Hanoverian Dimension
in British History, 1714–1837. Cambridge University Press.
* Thomas, Peter D. G. (1985). "George III and the American
Revolution". History. 70 (228): 16–31. doi
* Trevelyan, George (1912). George the Third and Charles Fox: The
Concluding Part of the American Revolution. New York: Longmans, Green.
* Watson, J. Steven (1960). The Reign of George III, 1760–1815.
London: Oxford University Press.
* Weir, Alison (1996). Britain's Royal Families: The Complete
Genealogy, Revised edition. London: Random House. ISBN 0-7126-7448-9 .
* Wheeler, H. F. B.; Broadley, A. M. (1908).
* Black, Jeremy (Fall 1996). "Could the British Have Won the American War of Independence?" Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research. 74 (299): 145–154. online 90-minute video lecture given at Ohio State in 2006; requires Real Player * Ditchfield, G. M. (2002). George III: An Essay in Monarchy. Basingstoke: Palgrave. ISBN 0-333-91962-9 . * Hecht, J. Jean (1966). "The Reign of George III in Recent Historiography". In: Elizabeth Chapin Furber, ed. Changing views on British history: essays on historical writing since 1939, pp. 206–234. Harvard University Press. * Macalpine, Ida; Hunter, Richard (1966). "The \'insanity\' of King George III: a classic case of porphyria" . Br. Med. J. 1 (5479): 65–71. PMC 1843211 . PMID 5323262 . doi :10.1136/bmj.1.5479.65 . * Macalpine, I.; Hunter, R.; Rimington, C. (1968). " Porphyria in the Royal Houses of Stuart, Hanover, and Prussia" (PDF). British Medical Journal. 1 (5583): 7–18. PMC 1984936 . PMID 4866084 . doi :10.1136/bmj.1.5583.7 . * Namier, Lewis B. (1955). "King George III: A Study in Personality" in Personalities and Power. London: Hamish Hamilton. * O'Shaughnessy, Andrew Jackson (Spring 2004). "'If Others Will Not Be Active, I Must Drive': George III and the American Revolution". Early American Studies. 2 (1): iii, 1–46. doi :10.1353/eam.2007.0037 . * Robertson, Charles Grant (1911). England under the Hanoverians. London: Methuen. * Smith, Robert A. (1984). "Reinterpreting the Reign of George III". In: Richard Schlatter, ed. Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing since 1966, pp. 197–254. Rutgers University Press.
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