Genuine progress indicator
Genuine progress indicator (GPI) is a metric that has been suggested
to replace, or supplement, gross domestic product (GDP). The GPI is
designed to take fuller account of the well-being of a nation, only a
part of which pertains to the size of the nation's economy, by
incorporating environmental and social factors which are not measured
by GDP. For instance, some models of GPI decrease in value when the
poverty rate increases. The GPI separates the concept of societal
progress from economic growth.
The GPI is used in ecological economics, "green" economics,
sustainability and more inclusive types of economics. It factors in
environmental and carbon footprints that businesses produce or
eliminate, including in the forms of resource depletion, pollution and
long-term environmental damage. GDP is increased twice when
pollution is created, since it increases once upon creation (as a
side-effect of some valuable process) and again when the pollution is
cleaned up; in contrast, GPI counts the initial pollution as a loss
rather than a gain, generally equal to the amount it will cost to
clean up later plus the cost of any negative impact the pollution will
have in the mean time. While quantifying costs and benefits of these
environmental and social externalities is a difficult task,
"Earthster-type databases could bring more precision and currency to
GPI's metrics." It has been noted that such data may also be
embraced by those who attempt to "internalize externalities" by making
companies pay the costs of the pollution they create (rather than
having the government or society at large bear those costs) "by taxing
their goods proportionally to their negative ecological and social
GPI is an attempt to measure whether the environmental impact and
social costs of economic production and consumption in a country are
negative or positive factors in overall health and well-being. By
accounting for the costs borne by the society as a whole to repair or
control pollution and poverty, GPI balances GDP spending against
external costs. GPI advocates claim that it can more reliably measure
economic progress, as it distinguishes between the overall "shift in
the 'value basis' of a product, adding its ecological impacts into the
equation".:Ch. 10.3 Comparatively speaking, the relationship
between GDP and GPI is analogous to the relationship between the gross
profit of a company and the net profit; the net profit is the gross
profit minus the costs incurred, while the GPI is the GDP (value of
all goods and services produced) minus the environmental and social
costs. Accordingly, the GPI will be zero if the financial costs of
poverty and pollution equal the financial gains in production of goods
and services, all other factors being constant.
2 Theoretical foundation
2.1 "Income" vs. "capital depletion"
3 In legislative decisions
6 Development in the United States
7 Development in Finland
8 Development in Finland regions
10 Supporting countries and groups
11 See also
13 Further reading
13.1 News articles
13.2 Scientific articles and books
14 External links
Most economists assess progress in people's welfare by comparing the
gross domestic product over time—that is, by adding up the annual
dollar value of all goods and services produced within a country over
successive years. However, GDP was not intended to be used for such
purpose. It is prone to productivism or consumerism, over-valuing
production and consumption of goods, and not reflecting improvement in
human well-being. It also does not distinguish between money spent for
new production and money spent to repair negative outcomes from
previous expenditure. For example, it would treat as equivalent one
million dollars spent to build new homes and one million dollars spent
in aid relief to those whose homes have been destroyed, despite these
expenditures arguably not representing the same kind of progress. This
is relevant for example when considering the true costs of development
that destroys wetlands and hence exacerbate flood damages. Simon
Kuznets, the inventor of the concept of GDP, noted in his first report
to the US Congress in 1934:
the welfare of a nation can scarcely be inferred from a measure of
national income. If the GDP is up, why is America down? Distinctions
must be kept in mind between quantity and quality of growth, between
costs and returns, and between the short and long run. Goals for more
growth should specify more growth of what and for what.
Some[who?] have argued that an adequate measure must also take into
account ecological yield and the ability of nature to provide
services, and that these things are part of a more inclusive ideal of
progress, which transcends the traditional focus on raw industrial
The need for a GPI to supplement biased indicators such as GDP was
highlighted by analyses of uneconomic growth in the 1980s, notably
that of Marilyn Waring, who studied biases in the UN System of
National Accounts.
By the early 1990s, there was a consensus in human development theory
and ecological economics that growth in money supply was actually
reflective of a loss of well-being: that lacks of essential natural
and social services were being paid for in cash and that this was
expanding the economy but degrading life.
The matter remains controversial and is a main issue between advocates
of green economics and neoclassical economics. Neoclassical economists
understand the limitations of GDP for measuring human well-being but
nevertheless regard GDP as an important, though imperfect, measure of
economic output and would be wary of too close an identification of
GDP growth with aggregate human welfare. However, GDP tends to be
reported as synonymous with economic progress by journalists and
politicians, and the GPI seeks to correct this shorthand by providing
a more encompassing measure.
Some economists, notably Herman Daly, John B. Cobb and Philip
Lawn, have asserted that a country's growth, increased goods
production, and expanding services have both "costs" and
"benefits"—not just the "benefits" that contribute to GDP. They
assert that, in some situations, expanded production facilities damage
the health, culture, and welfare of people. Growth that was in excess
of sustainable norms (e.g., of ecological yield) had to be considered
to be uneconomic. According to the "threshold hypothesis", developed
by Manfred Max-Neef, "when macroeconomic systems expand beyond a
certain size, the additional benefits of growth are exceeded by the
attendant costs" (Max-Neef 1995). This hypothesis is borne out in data
comparing GDP/capita with GPI/capita from 17 countries. The graph
demonstrates that, while GDP does increase overall well-being to a
point, beyond $7,000 GDP/capita the increase in GPI is reduced or
remains stagnant. Similar trends can be seen when comparing GDP to
life satisfaction as well as in a Gallup Poll published in 2008.
According to Lawn's model, the "costs" of economic activity include
the following potential harmful effects:
Cost of resource depletion
Cost of crime
Cost of ozone depletion
Cost of family breakdown
Cost of air, water, and noise pollution
Loss of farmland
Loss of wetlands
Robert Costanza also around 1995 of nature's services and
their value showed that a great deal of degradation of nature's
ability to clear waste, prevent erosion, pollinate crops, etc., was
being done in the name of monetary profit opportunity: this was adding
to GDP but causing a great deal of long term risk in the form of
mudslides, reduced yields, lost species, water pollution, etc. Such
effects have been very marked in areas that suffered serious
deforestation, notably Haiti, Indonesia, and some coastal mangrove
India and South America. Some of the worst land abuses for
instance have been shrimp farming operations that destroyed mangroves,
evicted families, left coastal lands salted and useless for
agriculture, but generated a significant cash profit for those who
were able to control the export market in shrimp. This has become a
signal example to those who contest the idea that GDP growth is
GPI systems generally try to take account of these problems by
incorporating sustainability: whether a country's economic activity
over a year has left the country with a better or worse future
possibility of repeating at least the same level of economic activity
in the long run. For example, agricultural activity that uses
replenishing water resources, such as river runoff, would score a
higher GPI than the same level of agricultural activity that
drastically lowers the water table by pumping irrigation water from
"Income" vs. "capital depletion"
Hicks (1946) pointed out that the practical purpose of calculating
income is to indicate the maximum amount that people can produce and
consume without undermining their capacity to produce and consume the
same amount in the future. From a national income perspective, it is
necessary to answer the following question: "Can a nation's entire GDP
be consumed without undermining its ability to produce and consume the
same GDP in the future?" This question is largely ignored in
contemporary economics but fits under the idea of sustainability.
In legislative decisions
The best-known attempts to apply the concepts of GPI to legislative
decisions are probably the Atlantic indicator invented by Ronald
Colman for Atlantic Canada, the
Alberta GPI created by ecological
economist Mark Anielski to measure the long-term economic, social
and environmental sustainability of the province of
Alberta and the
"environmental and sustainable development indicators" used by the
Government of Canada
Government of Canada to measure its own progress to achieving
well-being goals: its Environment and Sustainable Development
Indicators Initiative (Canada) is an effort to justify state
services in GPI terms. It assigns the Commissioner for the Environment
and Sustainable Development (Canada), an officer in the
Auditor-General of Canada's office, to perform the analysis and report
to the House of Commons. However, Canada continues to state its
overall budgetary targets in terms of reducing its debt to GDP ratio,
which implies that GDP increase and debt reduction in some combination
are its main priorities.
European Union (EU) the
Metropole efforts and the London Health
Observatory methods are equivalents focused mostly on urban lifestyle.
The EU and Canadian efforts are among the most advanced in any of the
OECD nations, but there are parallel efforts to measure quality
of life or standard of living in health (not strictly wealth) terms in
all developed nations. This has also been a recent focus of the labour
The calculation of GPI presented in the simplified form is the
GPI = A + B - C - D + I
A is income weighted private consumption
B is value of non-market services generating welfare
C is private defensive cost of natural deterioration
D is cost of deterioration of nature and natural resources
I is increase in capital stock and balance of international trade
The GPI indicator is based on the concept of sustainable income,
presented by economist
John Hicks (1948). The sustainable income is
the amount a person or an economy can consume during one period
without decreasing his or her consumption during the next period. In
the same manner, GPI depicts the state of welfare in the society by
taking into account the ability to maintain welfare on at least the
same level in the future.
The Genuine Progress Indicator is measured by 26 indicators which can
be divided into three main categories: Economic, Environmental, and
Social. Some regions, nations, or states may adjust the verbiage
slightly to accommodate their particular scenario. For example, the
GPI template uses the phrase "Carbon Dioxide Emissions Damage" whereas
the state of
Maryland uses "Cost of Climate Change" because it
also accounts for other greenhouse gases (GHG) such as methane and
Personal Consumption Expenditures
The bulk of GDP as well, consumption informs the baseline from which
the rest of the indicators will be added or subtracted.
Using the Gini index, published by World Bank, and the Income
Distribution Index (IDI), its relative change over time.
Adjusted Personal Consumption
Formula=(Personal consumption/IDI) x 100. Forms the base number from
which the remaining indicators are added or subtracted.
Cost of Consumer Durables
Calculated as a cost to avoid double counting the value provided by
the durables themselves.
Value of Consumer Durables
Household appliances, cars, etc. are not used up in one year and are
considered a part of household capital. Their value is depreciated
over a number of years.
Cost of Underemployment
Encompasses the chronically unemployed, discouraged workers,
involuntary part-time workers and others with work-life restraints
(lack of childcare or transportation).
Net Capital Investment
Capital investment in foreign markets minus incoming investments from
other countries. If lending (+) if borrowing (-).
Cost of Water Pollution
Damage to water quality from things such as chemicals or nutrients,
and the costs of erosion/sedimentation in waterways.
Cost of Air Pollution
Includes damage to vegetation, degradation of materials, cost of
clean-up from soot or acid rain, and resulting reduced property
values, wage differentials and aesthetics.
Cost of Noise Pollution
Noise from traffic and factories can cause hearing loss and sleep
Loss of Wetlands
Valuates the services given up when wetlands are lost to development
i.e. buffering of weather, habitat, water purification.
Loss of farmland, soil quality or degradation
Due to urbanization, soil erosion and compaction. This indicator is
measured cumulatively to account for all years of production lost as
it compromises self-sufficient food supply.
Loss of Primary Forest and damage from logging roads
Loss of biodiversity, soil quality, water purification, carbon
sequestration, recreation etc. Cumulative affect year over year.
Increases in severe weather is causing billions in damages. A value of
$93USD/metric ton of CO2 emitted is used, based on a meta-analysis
Richard Tol (2005) of 103 separate studies of costs of
Cost of Ozone Depletion
Our protective layer in the atmosphere. Depletion can lead to
increased cases of cancer, cataracts and plant decline. Weighed at
Depletion of Non-Renewables
These cannot be renewed in a lifetime. Depletion is measured against
cost of implementing and substituting with renewable resources.
Value of Housework and Parenting
Child care, repairs and maintenance are valued equivalent to the
amount a household would have to pay for the service.
Cost of Family Changes
Social dysfunction presents itself early in family life. Care is taken
to avoid double counting goods and services duplicated due to
Cost of Crime
Medical expenses, property damages, psychological care and security
measures to prevent crime are all included in this indicator.
Cost of Household
Cost to residents to clean the air and water in their own household
i.e. air and water filters.
Value of Volunteer Work
Valued as a contribution to social welfare. Neighborhoods and
communities can find an informal safety net through their peers and
Compared to 1969 hours of leisure. Recognizes that increased output of
goods and services can lead to loss of valuable leisure time for
family, chores or otherwise.
Value of Higher Education
Accounts for the contribution resulting knowledge, productivity, civic
engagement, savings, and health; a "social spillover," set to $16,000
Value of Highways and Streets
Annual value of services contributed from the use of streets &
highways. Valued at 7.5% of net stock of local, state and federal
Cost of Commuting
Money spent to pay for the transportation and time lost in transit as
opposed to other more enjoyable activities.
Cost of Auto Accidents
Damage and loss as a result of traffic accidents. Increased traffic
densities are a direct result of industrialization and wealth
Development in the United States
Non-profit organizations and universities have measured the GPI of
Vermont, Maryland, Colorado, Ohio, and Utah. These efforts have
incited government action in some states. As of 2014, Vermont,
Maryland, Washington and Hawai'i have passed state government
initiatives to consider GPI in budgeting decisions, with a focus
on long-term cost and benefits.
In 2009, the state of
Maryland formed a coalition of representatives
from several state government departments in search of a metric that
would factor social well-being into the more traditional gross product
indicators of the economy. The metric would help determine the
sustainability of growth and economic progress against social and
environmental factors typically left out of national indicators. The
GPI was chosen as a comprehensive measure of sustainability as it has
a well-accepted scientific methodology that can be adopted by other
states and compared over time. Maryland's GPI trends are
comparable to other states and nations that have measured their GPI in
Gross State Product (GSP) and GPI have diverged over the past
four decades where GSP has increased more rapidly than GPI. While
economic elements of GPI have increased overall (with a significant
drop off during the Great Recession), social well-being has stagnated,
with any values added being cancelled out by costs deducted, and
environmental indicators, while improving slightly, are always
considered costs. Combined, these elements bring the GPI below
GSP. However, Maryland's GPI did increase by two points from 2010
The calculation methodology of GPI was first adapted to US data in the
late-1990s. Results show that GDP has increased substantially. At
the same time, the GPI has stagnated. Thus, according to GPI theory,
economic growth in the US, i.e., the growth of GDP, has not increased
the welfare of the people during last 30 years. So far, GPI
time-series have been calculated for the US and Australia as well as
for several of their states. In addition, GPI has been calculated for
Austria, Canada, Chile, France, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands,
Scotland, and the rest of the UK.
Development in Finland
The GPI time-series 1945 to 2011 for Finland have been calculated by
Statistics Finland. The calculation closely followed the US
methodology. The results show that in the 1970s and 1980s economic
growth, as measured by GDP, clearly increased welfare, measured by the
GPI. After the economic recession of the early-1990s the GDP continued
to grow, but the GPI stayed on a lower level. This indicates a
widening gap between the trends of GDP and GPI that began in the
early-1990s. In the 1990s and 2000s the growth of GDP has not
benefited the average Finn. If measured by GPI, sustainable economic
welfare has actually decreased due to environmental hazards that have
accumulated in the environment. The Finnish GPI time series have
been updated by Dr Jukka Hoffrén at Statistics Finland.
Development in Finland regions
Within EU's Interreg IV C FRESH Project (Forwarding Regional
Environmental Sustainable Hierarchies) GPI time-series were calculated
to Päijät-Häme, Kainuu and South-Ostrobotnia (Etelä-Pohjanmaa)
regions in 2009-2010. During 2011 these calculations were
completed with GPI calculations for the Lappland, Northern
Ostrobothnia (Pohjois-Pohjanmaa) and Central-Ostrobothnia
GDP is held up as a value neutral measure. It is relatively
straightfoward to measure compared to GPI. Competing measures like GPI
define well-being to mean things that the definers ideologically
support. Therefore, opponents of GPI claim that GPI cannot function to
measure the goals of a diverse, plural society. Supporters of GDP as a
measure of societal well-being claim that competing measures such as
GPI are more vulnerable to political manipulation.
This article or section may contain misleading parts. Please help
clarify this article according to any suggestions provided on the talk
page. (August 2012)
Finnish economists Mika Maliranta and Niku Määttänen write that the
problem of alternative development indexes is their attempt to combine
things that are incommensurable. It is hard to say what they exactly
indicate and difficult to make decisions based on them. They can be
compared to an indicator that shows the mean of a car's velocity and
the amount of fuel left.
They add that it indeed seems as if the economy has to grow in order
for the people to even remain as happy as they are at present. In
Japan, for example, the degree of happiness expressed by the citizens
in polls has been declining since the early 1990s, the period when
Japan's economic growth stagnated.
Supporting countries and groups
Canada planning applications. GDP has functioned as an "income
sheet". GPI will function as a "balance sheet," taking into
consideration that some income sources are very costly and contribute
a negative profit overall.
Redefining Progress. Reports and analyses. A non-profit
organization with headquarters in Oakland, California.
Beyond GDP is an initiative of the European Union, Club of Rome,
WWF and OECD.
Broad measures of economic progress
Disability-adjusted life year
Full cost accounting
Green national product
Green gross domestic product
Green gross domestic product (Green GDP)
Gender-related Development Index
Global Peace Index
Gross National Happiness
Happy Planet Index
Happy Planet Index (HPI)
Human Development Index
Human Development Index (HDI)
ISEW (Index of sustainable economic welfare)
Progressive utilization theory
Legatum Prosperity Index
Living planet index
Law of social cycle
Millennium Development Goals
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
Subjective life satisfaction
World Values Survey (WVS)
^ a b c d e Bensel, Terrence; Turk, Jon (2011). Contemporary
Environmental Issues. Bridgepoint Education. 1935966154.
^ "Beyond GDP International Conference" (PDF). OECD. Organisation for
Economic Cooperation and Development. Retrieved 13 December
^ "For the Common Good by
Herman Daly & John Cobb Jr. - A Book
Review by Scott London". scottlondon.com.
^ "Initiative Details". iisd.org.
^ Kubiszewski, Ida; Costanza, Robert; Franco, Carol; Lawn, Philip;
Talberth, John; Jackson, Tim; Aymler, Camille (30 April 2013). "Beyond
GDP: Measuring and achieving global genuine progress". Ecological
Economics. 93: 57–68. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.04.019.
^ Deaton, Angus. "Ph.D." Gallup. Gallup. Retrieved 10 December
^ Lawn, Philip A. (2003). "A theoretical foundation to support the
Index of Sustainable Economic
Welfare (ISEW), Genuine Progress
Indicator (GPI), and other related indexes". Ecological Economics. 44
(1): 105–118. doi:10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00258-6.
^ "GPI Atlantic". gpiatlantic.org.
^ Mark Anielski Archived 2011-07-07 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Environment and Sustainable Development Indicators Initiative
(Canada) Archived 2008-12-10 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Commissioner for the Environment and Sustainable Development
Maryland GPI Indicators".
Maryland Genuine Progress Indicator. MD
DNR. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29. Retrieved
^ "Genuine Progress Indicator". Genuine Progress: Beyond GDP. Genuine
Progress. Archived from the original on 2014-10-21. Retrieved
^ "MD-GPI Background & Methodology".
Maryland Genuine Progress
Indicator. MDDNR. Archived from the original on 28 November 2014.
Retrieved 16 November 2014.
Maryland Genuine Progress Indicator Overview".
Progress Indicator. MD DNR. Archived from the original on 28 November
2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
^ "Governor O'Malley Hosts GPI Summit". maryland.gov.
^ "Energy and material flows". Docstoc.com.
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on
2013-11-05. Retrieved 2012-05-10.
^ Goossens, Yanne. "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development" (PDF).
European Parliament. Committee on the Environment, Public
Food Safety (EVNI). Retrieved 27 September 2015.
^ "Politiikanteon ohjaamiseen ei tarvita 'onnellisuusmittareita'",
professor Mika Maliranta and research manager Niku Määttänen,
Helsingin Sanomat 2011-02-06, page C6
^ Canada planning applications Archived 2004-09-13 at the Wayback
^ Redefining Progress Archived 2004-09-10 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Redefining Progress - Research and Publications".
^ Beyond GDP
"Advantage or Illusion: Is Alberta's Progress Sustainable?" by Mark
Anielski. Encompass Vol. 5, No. 5, July/August 2001.
"The Growth Consensus Unravels" by Jonathan Rowe. Dollars and Sense,
July–August 1999, pp. 15–18, 33.
"Real Wealth: The Genuine Progress Indicator Could Provide an
Environmental Measure of the Planet's Health" by Linda Baker. E
Magazine, May/June 1999, pp. 37–41.
"The GDP Myth: Why 'Growth' Isn't Always a Good Thing" by Jonathan
Rowe, and Judith Silverstein. Washington Monthly, March 1999,
"Economic Issues" by Lusi Song, Troy Martin, and Timothy Polo. 4EM
Taylor, May 28, 2008, pp. 1–3.
"Why Bigger Isn´t Better: The Genuine Progress Indicator - 1999
Update" by Clifford Cobb, Gary Sue Goodman, and Mathis Wackernagel,
Redefining Progress, November 1999
Scientific articles and books
A. Charles, C. Burbidge, H. Boyd and A. Lavers. 2009. Fisheries and
the Marine Environment in Nova Scotia: Searching for Sustainability
and Resilience. GPI Atlantic. Halifax, Nova Scotia. Web:
Colman, Ronald. 2003. Economic Value of Civic and Voluntary Work. GPI
Atlantic. Halifax, Nova Scotia. Web:
Anielski, M, M. Griffiths, D. Pollock, A. Taylor, J. Wilson, S.
Sustainability Trends 2000: Genuine Progress
Indicators Report 1961 to 1999. Pembina Institute for Appropriate
Development. April 2001.
Alberta Genuine Progress Indicators Reports)
Anielski, M. 2001. The
Alberta GPI Blueprint: The Genuine Progress
Indicator (GPI) Sustainable Well-Being Accounting System. Pembina
Institute for Appropriate Development. September
2001.http://www.anielski.com/Publications.htm (see the
Progress Indicators Reports)
Anielski, M. and C. Soskolne. 2001. "Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI)
Accounting: Relating Ecological Integrity to Human
Well-Being." Paper in Just Ecological Integrity: The Ethics of
Maintaining Planetary Life, eds. Peter Miller and Laura Westra.
Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield: pp. 83–97.
Costanza, R., Erickson, J.D., Fligger, K., Adams, A., Adams, C.,
Altschuler, B., Balter, S., Fisher, B., Hike, J., Kelly, J., Kerr, T.,
McCauley, M., Montone, K., Rauch, M., Schmiedeskamp, K., Saxton, D.,
Sparacino, L., Tusinski, W. and L. Williams. 2004. "Estimates of the
Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) for Vermont, Chittenden County, and
Burlington, from 1950 to 2000." Ecological
Economics 51: 139-155.
Daly, H., 1996. Beyond Growth: The
Economics of Sustainable
Development. Beacon Press, Boston.
Daly, H. & Cobb, J., 1989. For the Common Good. Beacon Press,
Delang, C. O., Yu, Yi H. 2015. "Measuring
Welfare beyond Economics:
The genuine progress of Hong Kong and Singapore". London: Routledge.
Fisher, I., 1906. Nature of Capital and Income. A.M. Kelly, New York.
Hicks, J., 1946. Value and Capital, Second Edition. Clarendon, London.
Lawn, P.A. (2003). "A theoretical foundation to support the Index of
Welfare (ISEW), Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI),
and other related indexes". Ecological Economics. 44: 105–118.
Max-Neef, M. (1995). "
Economic growth and quality of life". Ecological
Economics. 15: 115–118. doi:10.1016/0921-8009(95)00064-X.
Redefining Progress, 1995. "Gross production vs genuine progress".
Excerpt from the Genuine Progress Indicator: Summary of Data and
Methodology. Redefining Progress, San Francisco.
L. Pannozzo, R. Colman, N. Ayer, T. Charles, C. Burbidge, D. Sawyer,
S. Stiebert, A. Savelson, C. Dodds. (2009). The 2008 Nova Scotia GPI
Accounts; Indicators of Genuine Progress . GPI Atlantic. Halifax, Nova
Scotia. Web: http://www.gpiatlantic.org/pdf/integrated/gpi2008.pdf
Social and environmental accountability
Corporate accountability / behaviour / social responsibility
Extended producer responsibility
Principles for Responsible Investment
UN Global Compact
Double bottom line
Ethical Positioning Index
Impact assessment (environmental
Genuine progress indicator
Social return on investment
Environmental full-cost accounting / impact assessment /
management system / profit-and-loss account
Pollutant release and transfer register
Sustainability accounting / measurement / metrics and
indices / standards and certification / supply chain
Toxics Release Inventory
Triple bottom line
Global Reporting Initiative
Fair trade (certification)
Community interest company
Conflict of interest
Environmental pricing reform
Environmental, social and corporate governance
Health impact assessment
Market governance mechanism
Socially responsible investing
Supply chain management