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Genoa
Genoa
(/ˈdʒɛnoʊ.ə/ JEN-oh-ə; Italian: Genova [ˈdʒɛːnova] ( listen), locally [ˈdʒeːnova]; Ligurian: Zêna [ˈzeːna]; English, historically, and Latin: Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria
Liguria
and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits.[1] As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, which in 2015 became the Metropolitan City of Genoa,[2] counted 855,834 resident persons.[3] Over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera.[4] Located on the Gulf of Genoa
Genoa
in the Ligurian Sea, Genoa
Genoa
has historically been one of the most important ports on the Mediterranean: it is currently the busiest in Italy
Italy
and in the Mediterranean Sea and twelfth-busiest in the European Union.[5][6] Genoa
Genoa
has been nicknamed la Superba ("the proud one") due to its glorious past and impressive landmarks.[7] Part of the old town of Genoa
Genoa
was inscribed on the World Heritage List
World Heritage List
(UNESCO) in 2006 as Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli. The city's rich cultural history in art, music and cuisine allowed it to become the 2004 European Capital of Culture. It is the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, Renzo Piano and Grimaldo Canella, founder of the House of Grimaldi, among others. Genoa, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of Northwest Italy, is one of the country's major economic centers.[8][9] The city has hosted massive shipyards and steelworks since the 19th century, and its solid financial sector dates back to the Middle Ages. The Bank of Saint George, founded in 1407, is among the oldest in the world and has played an important role in the city's prosperity since the middle of the 15th century.[10][11] Today a number of leading Italian companies are based in the city, including Fincantieri, Selex ES,[12] Ansaldo Energia,[13] Ansaldo STS, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Piaggio Aerospace
Piaggio Aerospace
and Costa Cruises.

Contents

1 History 2 Flag 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Government

4.1 Municipal government

4.1.1 Administrative subdivision

5 Cityscape

5.1 Main sights 5.2 Churches 5.3 Buildings and palaces 5.4 Old harbour 5.5 Aquarium
Aquarium
of Genoa 5.6 Walls and fortresses 5.7 Parks 5.8 Promenades

6 Demographics 7 Economy

7.1 Erzelli
Erzelli
science technology park

8 Culture

8.1 Visual art 8.2 Literature 8.3 Music 8.4 Cinema 8.5 Language 8.6 Sports 8.7 Cuisine 8.8 People 8.9 Museums 8.10 Education and research 8.11 Science

9 Transport

9.1 Ports 9.2 Air transport 9.3 Public transport

10 International relations

10.1 Consulates

11 Notable people 12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Genoa
Genoa
and Timeline of Genoa Flag[edit]

St. George's flag flying on the Doge's Palace in Genoa

The flag of Genoa
Genoa
is a St. George's Cross, a red cross on a white field; thus, it is identical to the flag of England. The patron saint of Genoa
Genoa
was Saint Lawrence until at least 958, but the Genoese transferred their allegiance to Saint George
Saint George
at some point during the 11th or 12th century, most likely with the rising popularity of the "warrior saint" during the Crusades. Genoa
Genoa
also had a banner displaying a cross since at least 1218, possibly as early as 1113.[14] But the cross banner was not associated with the saint; indeed, the saint had his own flag, the vexillum beati Georgii (first mentioned 1198), a red flag showing George and the dragon. A depiction of this flag is shown in the Genoese annals under the year 1227. The Genoese flag with the red cross was used alongside this "Saint George's flag", from at least 1218, known as the insignia cruxata comunis Janue ("cross ensign of the commune of Genoa"). The saint's flag was the city's main war flag, but the cross flag was used alongside it in the 1240s.[15] The Saint George's flag (i.e. the flag depicting the saint) remained the main flag of Genoa
Genoa
at least until the 1280s. The flag now known as the "St. George's Cross" seems to have replaced it as Genoa's main flag at some point during the 14th century. The Book of Knowledge of All Kingdoms (c. 1385) shows it, inscribed with the word iustiçia, and described as:

And the lord of this place has as his ensign a white pennant with a red cross. At the top it is inscribed with 'justice', in this manner.[16]

Geography[edit]

A panoramic view of Genoa
Genoa
(click to enlarge)

The city of Genoa
Genoa
covers an area of 243 square kilometres (94 sq mi) between the Ligurian Sea
Ligurian Sea
and the Apennine Mountains. The city stretches along the coast for about 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the neighbourhood of Voltri
Voltri
to Nervi, and for 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the coast to the north along the valleys Polcevera
Polcevera
and Bisagno. The territory of Genoa
Genoa
is popularly divided into 5 main zones: the centre, the west, the east, the Polcevera
Polcevera
and the Bisagno Valley. Genoa
Genoa
is adjacent to two popular Ligurian vacation spots: Camogli
Camogli
and Portofino. In the metropolitan area of Genoa
Genoa
lies Aveto Natural Regional Park. Climate[edit] Genoa
Genoa
has a borderline oceanic (Cfb) and Mediterranean climate (Csa) in the Köppen climate classification, since only one summer month has less than 40 millimetres (1.57 in) of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as solely oceanic or Mediterranean; with a special note for the Genoa
Genoa
low. The average yearly temperature is around 19 °C (66 °F) during the day and 13 °C (55 °F) at night. In the coldest months: December, January and February, the average temperature is 12 °C (54 °F) during the day and 6 °C (43 °F) at night. In the warmest months – July and August – the average temperature is 27.5 °C (82 °F) during the day and 21 °C (70 °F) at night. The daily temperature range is limited, with an average range of about 6 °C (11 °F) between high and low temperatures. Genoa
Genoa
also sees significant moderation from the sea, in stark contrast to areas behind the Ligurian mountains such as Parma, where summers are hotter and winters are quite cold. Annually, the average 2.9 of nights recorded temperatures of ≤0 °C (32 °F) (mainly in January). The coldest temperature ever recorded was −8 °C (18 °F) on the night of February 2012; the highest temperature ever recorded during the day is 38.5 °C (101 °F) on the August 2015. Average annual number of days with temperatures of ≥30 °C (86 °F) is about 8, average four days in July and August.[17] Average annual temperature of the sea is 17.5 °C (64 °F), from 13 °C (55 °F) in the period January–March to 25 °C (77 °F) in August. In the period from June to October, the average sea temperature exceeds 19 °C (66 °F).[18] Genoa
Genoa
is also a windy city, especially during winter when northern winds often bring cool air from the Po Valley
Po Valley
(usually accompanied by lower temperatures, high pressure and clear skies). Another typical wind blows from southeast, mostly as a consequence of atlantic disturbances and storms, bringing humid and warmer air from the sea. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost every year, albeit big amounts in the city centre are rare.[19][20] Annual average relative humidity is 68%, ranging from 63% in February to 73% in May.[17] Sunshine hours total above 2,200 per year, from an average 4 hours of sunshine duration per day in winter to average 9 hours in summer. This value is an average between the northern half of Europe
Europe
and North Africa.[18]

Climate data for Genoa
Genoa
(1971–2000 normals)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 11.5 (52.7) 12.2 (54) 14.6 (58.3) 16.8 (62.2) 20.5 (68.9) 23.9 (75) 27.3 (81.1) 27.7 (81.9) 24.4 (75.9) 20.0 (68) 15.1 (59.2) 12.5 (54.5) 18.9 (66)

Daily mean °C (°F) 8.5 (47.3) 9.1 (48.4) 11.4 (52.5) 13.7 (56.7) 17.4 (63.3) 20.8 (69.4) 24.1 (75.4) 24.4 (75.9) 21.1 (70) 16.9 (62.4) 12.2 (54) 9.5 (49.1) 15.7 (60.3)

Average low °C (°F) 5.5 (41.9) 6.0 (42.8) 8.2 (46.8) 10.5 (50.9) 14.2 (57.6) 17.6 (63.7) 20.9 (69.6) 21.0 (69.8) 17.9 (64.2) 13.8 (56.8) 9.2 (48.6) 6.5 (43.7) 12.6 (54.7)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 101.8 (4.008) 74.0 (2.913) 81.7 (3.217) 88.0 (3.465) 72.4 (2.85) 58.2 (2.291) 24.2 (0.953) 69.3 (2.728) 136.4 (5.37) 171.3 (6.744) 108.8 (4.283) 93.1 (3.665) 1,079.2 (42.488)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7.7 5.6 6.9 8.1 7.0 5.0 2.8 5.0 6.0 8.0 7.1 6.5 75.7

Average snowy days 0.9 0.5 0.2 — — — — — — — — 0.7 2.3

Mean monthly sunshine hours 117.8 130.5 158.1 192.0 220.1 246.0 294.5 266.6 201.0 173.6 111.0 111.6 2,222.8

Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico,[17] data of sunshine hours[21]

Source #2: Rivista Ligure "La neve sulle coste del Maditerraneo" [22]

Government[edit] Municipal government[edit] The Municipal Council of Genoa
Genoa
is currently led by a right-wing majority, elected in June 2017. The mayor is Marco Bucci, expression of a right-wing alliance composed by Forza Italia, Lega Nord, Fratelli d'Italia and other minor lists. Administrative subdivision[edit]

The 9 districts of Genoa

The city of Genoa
Genoa
is subdivided into nine municipi (administrative districts), as approved by the Municipal Council in 2007.[23]

Municipio Population (% of total) Quartieri

Centro-Est 91,402 (15.0%) Prè, Molo, Maddalena, Oregina (it), Lagaccio (it), San Nicola, Castelletto, Manin, San Vincenzo (it), Carignano (it)

Centro-Ovest 66,626 (10.9%) Sampierdarena, Belvedere, Campasso, San Bartolomeo, San Teodoro (it), Angeli

Bassa Val Bisagno 78,791 (12.9%) San Fruttuoso (it), Sant’Agata, Marassi (it), Quezzi (it), Fereggiano, Forte Quezzi

Media Val Bisagno 58,742 (9.6%) Staglieno (it) (Parenzo, San Pantaleo), Molassana (it), Sant'Eusebio, Montesignano, Struppa (it) (Doria, Prato)

Valpolcevera 62,492 (10.3%) Rivarolo, Borzoli (it) Est, Certosa, Teglia, Begato, Bolzaneto, Morego, San Quirico (it), Pontedecimo

Medio Ponente 61,810 (10.1%) Sestri, Borzoli (it) Ovest, San Giovanni Battista, Cornigliano, Campi, Calcinara,

Ponente 63,027 (10.3%) Voltri, Crevari, Pra' (it), Palmaro, Ca’ Nuova, Pegli, Multedo (it), Castelluccio

Medio Levante 61,759 (10.1%) Foce (it), Brignole, San Martino (it), Chiappeto, Albaro, San Giuliano, Lido, Puggia

Levante 66,155 (10.8%) Sturla, Quarto, Quartara, Castagna, Quinto al Mare (it), Nervi, Apparizione (it), Borgoratti, San Desiderio (it), Bavari (it)

Cityscape[edit]

A view of Piazza de Ferrari

Nighttime view of the port of Genoa, which has brought trade, commerce and wealth to the city for centuries, greatly contributing to its cultural and historical heritage.

Main sights[edit]

Doge's Palace, ancient seat of the government of the oligarchic republic

Palace of Saint George, built in 1260

Notable to the city are the Palazzi dei Rolli, included in UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli. The world-famous Strade Nuove are via Garibaldi (Strada Nuova), via Cairoli (Strada Nuovissima) and via Balbi (Strada Balbi). Among the most important palaces are the Palazzo Rosso, Palazzo Bianco, Palazzo Podestà o di Nicolosio Lomellino, Palazzo Reale, Palazzo Angelo Giovanni Spinola, Palazzo Pietro Spinola di San Luca and Palazzo Spinola di Pellicceria. Genoa's historic centre is articulated in a maze of squares and narrow caruggi (typical Genoese alleys). It joins a medieval dimension with following 16th century and Baroque interventions (the ancient Via Aurea, now Via Garibaldi). Near Via Garibaldi, through the public elevator Castelletto Levante, one can reach one of the most scenic places in the city, Belvedere Castelletto. The centre of Genoa
Genoa
is connected to its upper part by ancient paths caught between tall palaces, called creuze. Walking along these small paths one can reach magnificent places like the Santuario di Nostra Signora di Loreto. Very beautiful is the upper ring road so-called Circonvallazione a Monte that includes Corso Firenze, Corso Paganini, Corso Magenta, Via Solferino, and Corso Armellini. San Lorenzo cathedral has a splendid portal and the dome designed by Galeazzo Alessi. Inside is found the treasure of the Cathedral where among other objects there is also what is said to be the Holy Chalice. The symbols of the city are the Lanterna (the lighthouse) (117 metres (384 feet) high), old and standing lighthouse visible in the distance from the sea (beyond 30 kilometres (19 miles)), and the monumental fountain of Piazza De Ferrari, recently restored, out-and-out core of the city's life. Near Piazza De Ferrari
Piazza De Ferrari
and Teatro Carlo Felice
Teatro Carlo Felice
is the Mazzini Gallery, a typical nineteenth-century structure with many elegant shops and coffee bars. Another tourist destination is the ancient seaside district of Boccadasse
Boccadasse
(which means "the mouth of the donkey"), with its multicolour boats, set as a seal to Corso Italia, the promenade which runs along the Lido d'Albaro, and known for its ice-creams. After Boccadasse
Boccadasse
you can continue along the sea up to Sturla.

Medieval
Medieval
gates of Genoa
Genoa
are a rare survivor of the city's oldest buildings.

Royal Palace of Genoa, 16th century

Just out of the city centre, but still part of the 33 km (21 mi) of coast included in the municipality's territory, are Nervi, natural doorway to the Ligurian East Riviera, and Pegli, the point of access to the West Riviera. Nervi
Nervi
offers many attractions: the promenade overlooking the sea called Passeggiata Anita Garibaldi; parks covered with lush tropical vegetation; numerous villas and palaces open to the public that now house museums (like GAM-Galleria d'Arte Moderna, Raccolte Frugone Museum, Museo Giannettino Luxoro and Wolfsoniana). (see also Parchi di Nervi) The East Riviera of Genoa called Riviera di Levante is part of the Italian Riviera. East Riviera is full of interesting towns to visit, and then from Genoa
Genoa
to east are: Bogliasco, Pieve Ligure, Sori, Recco, Camogli, Portofino, Santa Margherita Ligure, Rapallo, Zoagli, Chiavari, Lavagna
Lavagna
and Sestri Levante. In the west, Pegli
Pegli
is the site of the famous Villa Durazzo-Pallavicini and Arenzano
Arenzano
is a seaside town at the foot of the Parco naturale regionale del Beigua. The new Genoa
Genoa
based its rebirth upon the restoration of the green areas of the immediate inland parts, among them the Parco naturale regionale del Beigua, and upon the construction of facilities such as the Aquarium
Aquarium
of Genoa
Genoa
in the Old Harbour - the biggest in Italy
Italy
and one of the major in Europe
Europe
- and its Marina
Marina
(the tourist small port which holds hundreds of pleasure boats). All of these are inside the restored Expo Area, arranged in occasion of the Columbian Celebrations of 1992. Near the city are Camogli
Camogli
and San Fruttuoso abbey
San Fruttuoso abbey
accessible by a daily ferry from the Old Harbour ( Porto
Porto
Antico) of Genoa. In the seabed in front of the San Fruttuoso abbey
San Fruttuoso abbey
there is the Christ of the Abyss. From the Old Harbour one can reach by boat other famous seaside places around Genoa
Genoa
such as Portofino
Portofino
or a little more distant, Lerici and the Cinque Terre. The regained pride gave back to the city the consciousness of being capable of looking to the future without forgetting its past. The resumption of several flourishing hand-crafting activities, far-back absent from the caruggi of the old town, is a direct evidence of it. The restoration of many of Genoa's churches and palaces in the 1980s and the 1990s contributed to the city's rebirth. A notable example the Renaissance, Basilica of Santa Maria Assunta, sitting on the top of the hill of Carignano and visible from almost every part of the city. The total restoration of Doge's Palace - once venue of dogi and senators and nowadays location of cultural events - and of the Old Harbour and the rebuilding of Teatro Carlo Felice, destroyed by the Second World War
Second World War
bombings that only spared the neoclassic pronao of the architect Carlo Barabino, were two more points of strength for the realisation of a new Genoa. Genoa
Genoa
could not renounce, especially as from the 1960s, to a great renewal, which as happened in several other metropolis, should necessarily get through the realisation of big council houses' complexes, whose quality, utility and functionality has been and still is controversial for those residents living there. Concerning this, the most known cases are those of the so-called "Biscione", a development in the shape of a long snake, situated on the hills of the populous district of Marassi, and the one of the group of houses known as "Le Lavatrici" (the washing machines), in the district of Prà. Beyond a complete restyling of the area, the ancient port zone nearby the Mandraccio opening, in Porta Siberia, was enriched by Genoese architect Renzo Piano
Renzo Piano
with a large sphere made of metal and glass, installed in the port's waters, not far from the Aquarium
Aquarium
of Genoa, and unveiled in 2001 in occasion of the G8 Summit
G8 Summit
held in Genoa. The sphere (called by the citizens "Piano's bubble" or "The Ball"), after hosting an exposition of fens from Genoa's Botanical Gardens, currently houses the reconstruction of a tropical environment, with several plants, little animals and butterflies. Piano also designed the subway stations and, in the hills area, the construction - in collaboration with UNESCO
UNESCO
- of Punta Nave, base of the Renzo Piano Building Workshop. Nearby the Old Harbour is the so-called "Matitone", a skyscraper in shape of a pencil, that lays side by side with the group of the WTC towers, core of the San Benigno development, today base of part of the Municipality's administration and of several companies. Churches[edit]

St. Lawrence Cathedral

St. Lawrence Cathedral (Cattedrale di San Lorenzo) is the city's cathedral, built in a Gothic-Romanesque style. Other notable historical churches are the Commandery of the Saint John's Order called Commenda di San Giovanni di Prè, San Matteo, San Donato, Santa Maria di Castello, Sant'Agostino (deconsecrated since the 19th century, sometimes is used for theatrical representations), Santo Stefano, Santi Vittore e Carlo, Basilica della Santissima Annunziata del Vastato, San Pietro in Banchi, Santa Maria delle Vigne, Nostra Signora della Consolazione, San Siro, Santa Maria Maddalena, Santa Maria Assunta di Carignano and Chiesa del Gesù. San Bartolomeo degli Armeni houses the Image of Edessa
Image of Edessa
and San Pancrazio after the World War II was entrusted to the ligurian delegation of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. These churches and basilicas are built in Romanesque (San Donato, Santa Maria di Castello, Commenda di San Giovanni di Pré), Gothic (San Matteo, Santo Stefano, Sant'Agostino), Baroque (San Siro) or Renaissance
Renaissance
(Santa Maria Assunta di Carignano, San Pietro in Banchi) appearance, or a mix of different styles (Nostra Signora della Consolazione, Santissima Annunziata del Vastato; this last has a Baroque interior and a Neoclassicist façade).

Santa Maria Assunta di Carignano

Another well known Genoese church is the shrine of Saint Francis of Paola, notable for the outer courtyard overlooking the port and the memorial to all those who died at sea. This church is of artistic mention in that the tile depictions of the Via Crucis Stations along the brick path to the church. Near Genoa
Genoa
is found the Shrine of Nostra Signora della Guardia, (the sanctuary is said to have inspired the writer Umberto Eco
Umberto Eco
in making his novel The Name of the Rose). Another interesting church in the neighborhoods of Genoa
Genoa
is San Siro di Struppa. The city was the birthplace of several popes (Innocent IV, Adrian V, Innocent VIII, and Benedict XV) and various saints (Syrus of Genoa, Romulus of Genoa, Catherine of Genoa, and Virginia Centurione Bracelli). The Archbishop of Genoa
Genoa
Jacobus de Voragine, wrote the Golden Legend. Also from Genoa
Genoa
were: Giovanni Paolo Oliva, the Superior General of the Society of Jesus; Girolamo Grimaldi-Cavalleroni, the Archbishop of Aix; Ausonio Franchi, priest, philosopher, and theologian; Cardinal Giuseppe Siri; and the priests Francesco Repetto, Giuseppe Dossetti, Gianni Baget Bozzo, and Andrea Gallo. The present archbishop of Genoa, Cardinal Angelo Bagnasco, comes from a Genoese family but was born in Pontevico, near Brescia (see also Archdiocese of Genoa). Buildings and palaces[edit]

Genoa Zena

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Official name Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli

Location Metropolitan City of Genoa, Province of Genoa, Italy
Italy

Coordinates 44°24′26″N 8°56′02″E / 44.407186°N 8.933983°E / 44.407186; 8.933983

Area 240.29 km2 (2.5865×109 sq ft)

Includes

Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli
Palazzi dei Rolli

Criteria Cultural: ii, iv

Reference 1211

Inscription 2006 (30th Session)

Website www.comune.genova.it

Location of Genoa

[edit on Wikidata]

The Mirror Gallery of the Royal Palace

The main features of central Genoa
Genoa
include Piazza De Ferrari, around which are sited the Opera and the Palace of the Doges. There is also a house where Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
is said to have lived as a child, really an 18th-century reconstruction of the original one, destroyed by the French naval bombing of 1684. The Palazzo di San Giorgio
Palazzo di San Giorgio
was the headquarters of the Bank of Saint George and here Marco Polo
Marco Polo
and Rustichello da Pisa composed The Travels of Marco Polo. The port of Genoa
Genoa
also contains an ancient lighthouse called "La Lanterna". Strada Nuova (now Via Garibaldi), in the old city, was inscribed on the World Heritage List
World Heritage List
in 2006. This district was designed in the mid-16th century to accommodate Mannerist palaces of the city's most eminent families. In Genoa
Genoa
there are 114 noble palaces (see also Rolli di Genova among these 42 are inscribed on the World Heritage List. Among the Palazzi dei Rolli
Palazzi dei Rolli
most famous are Palazzo Rosso
Palazzo Rosso
(now a museum), Palazzo Bianco, Palazzo Tursi, Palazzo Gerolamo Grimaldi, Palazzo Podestà, Palazzo Reale, Palazzo Angelo Giovanni Spinola, Palazzo Pietro Spinola di San Luca, Palazzo Spinola di Pellicceria, Palazzo Cicala. Palazzo Bianco
Palazzo Bianco
and Palazzo Rosso
Palazzo Rosso
are also known as Musei di Strada Nuova. The famous art college is also located on this street. The Genoese artistic renaissance begins with the construction of Villa del Principe commissioned by Andrea Doria: the architects were Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli
Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli
and Giovanni Ponzello, the interior was painted by Perino del Vaga
Perino del Vaga
and the garden fountain was realised by Taddeo Carlone. In 1548 Galeazzo Alessi, with the project of Villa Giustiniani-Cambiaso, designed a new prototype of Genoese palace that would be an inspiration to other architects working in Genoa
Genoa
as Bartolomeo Bianco, Pietro Antonio Corradi, Rocco Lurago, Giovan Battista Castello, and Bernardino Cantone. Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
wrote Palazzi di Genova
Palazzi di Genova
in 1622, a book dedicated to the palaces of Genoa. Scattered on the city there are many villas, built between the fifteenth and the twentieth centuries, and among the best known are: Villa Brignole Sale Duchessa di Galliera, Villa Durazzo-Pallavicini, Villa Doria Centurione, Villa Durazzo Bombrini, Villa Serra, Villa Giustiniani-Cambiaso, Villa Rossi Martini, Villa Imperiale Scassi, Villa Grimaldi, Villa Negrone Moro, Villa Rosazza, Villetta Di Negro, Villa delle Peschiere, Villa Imperiale, Villa Saluzzo Bombrini, and Villa Grimaldi Fassio. As it regards the 19th century remember the architects Ignazio Gardella (senior), and Carlo Barabino
Carlo Barabino
which among other things, realises together with Giovanni Battista Resasco, the Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno. The cemetery is renowned for its statues and sepulchral monuments that preserve the mortal remains of notable personalities, including Giuseppe Mazzini, Fabrizio De André, and Constance Lloyd
Constance Lloyd
(Oscar Wilde's wife). In the first half of the 19th century they are completed the Albergo dei Poveri and the Acquedotto storico. In 1901 Giovanni Antonio Porcheddu realises the Silos Granari. The city is rich in testimony of the Gothic Revival
Gothic Revival
like Albertis Castle, Castello Bruzzo, Villa Canali Gaslini and Mackenzie Castle designed by the architect Gino Coppedè. Genoa
Genoa
is also rich of Art Nouveau works, among which: Palazzo della Borsa, Via XX Settembre, Hotel Bristol Palace, Grand Hotel Miramare and Stazione marittima. Works of Rationalist architecture of the first half of the 20th century are Torre Piacentini and Piazza della Vittoria where Arco della Vittoria, both designed by the architect Marcello Piacentini. Other architects who have changed the face of Genoa
Genoa
in the 20th century are: Ignazio Gardella, Luigi Carlo Daneri who realised the Piazza Rossetti and the residential complex so-called Il Biscione, Mario Labò, Aldo Rossi, Ludovico Quaroni, Franco Albini
Franco Albini
who designed the interiors of Palazzo Rosso, and Piero Gambacciani. The Edoardo Chiossone Museum of Oriental Art, designed by Mario Labò, has one of the largest collections of Oriental art in Europe. Other architectural works to remember are: the Ponte Morandi by Riccardo Morandi, the Old Harbour's new-design with Aquarium, Bigo and Biosfera by Renzo Piano, the Palasport di Genova, the so-called Matitone, and the Padiglione B of Genoa
Genoa
Fair, by Jean Nouvel. Old harbour[edit]

The galleon Neptune in the Old Harbour

The old harbour ("porto antico" in Italian) is the ancient part of the port of Genoa. The harbour gave access to outside communities creating a good geographical situation for the city.[24] The city is spread out geographically along a section of the Liguria
Liguria
coast, which makes trading by ship possible. Before the development of car, train, and airplane travel, the main outside access for the city was the sea, as the surrounding mountains made trade north by land more difficult than coastal trade. Trade routes have always connected Genoa
Genoa
on an international scale, with increasingly farther reach starting from trade along Europe's coastline before the medieval period to today's connection across continents.[25] In its heyday the Genoese Navy
Genoese Navy
was a prominent power in the Mediterranean. As the Genoa
Genoa
harbour was so important to the merchants for their own economic success, other nearby harbours and ports were seen as competition for a landing point for foreign traders. In the 16th century, the Genovese worked to destroy the local shipping competition, the Savona
Savona
harbour.[24] Taking matters into their own hands, the Genoa
Genoa
merchants and the politically powerful in Genoa attacked the harbour of Savona
Savona
with stones.[24] This action was taken to preserve the economic stability and wealth of the city during the rise in prominence of Savona. The Genovese would go as far as to war with other coastal, trading cities such as Venice,[24] in order to protect the trade industry. Renzo Piano
Renzo Piano
redeveloped the area for public access, restoring the historical buildings (like the Cotton warehouses) and creating new landmarks like the Aquarium, the Bigo and recently the "Bolla" (the Sphere). The main touristic attractions of this area are the famous Aquarium
Aquarium
and the Museum of the Sea (MuMA). In 2007 these attracted almost 1.7 million visitors.[26] Aquarium
Aquarium
of Genoa[edit]

Aquarium
Aquarium
of Genoa
Genoa
and biosphere

The Aquarium
Aquarium
of Genoa
Genoa
(in Italian: Acquario di Genova) is the largest aquarium in Italy
Italy
and among the largest in Europe. Built for Genoa Expo '92, it is an educational, scientific and cultural centre. Its mission is to educate and raise public awareness as regards conservation, management and responsible use of aquatic environments. It welcomes over 1.2 million visitors a year. Control of the entire environment, including the temperature, filtration and lighting of the tanks was provided by local Automation Supplier Orsi Automazione, acquired in 2001 by Siemens. The Aquarium of Genoa
Genoa
is co-ordinating the AquaRing EU project. It also provides scientific expertise and a great deal of content for AquaRing, including documents, images, academic content and interactive online courses, via its Online Resource Centre.[27] Walls and fortresses[edit] Main article: Walls of Genoa

The Porta Soprana

The city of Genoa
Genoa
during its long history at least since the 9th century had been protected by different line of defensive walls. Large portions of these walls remain today, and Genoa
Genoa
has more and longer walls than any other city in Italy. The main city walls are known as "Ninth century walls", "Barbarossa Walls" (12th century), "Fourteenth century walls", "Sixteenth century walls" and "New Walls" ("Mura Nuove" in Italian). The more imposing walls, built in the first half of the 17th century on the ridge of hills around the city, have a length of almost 20 km (12 mi). Some fortresses stand along the perimeter of the "New Walls" or close them. Parks[edit] Main article: The Parks of Genoa

The gardens of Villa Durazzo-Pallavicini

Genoa
Genoa
has 82,000 square metres (880,000 square feet) of public parks in the city centre, such as Villetta Di Negro which is right in the heart of the town, overlooking the historical centre. Many bigger green spaces are situated outside the centre: in the east are the Parks of Nervi
Nervi
(96,000 square metres or 1,030,000 square feet) overlooking the sea, in the west the beautiful gardens of Villa Durazzo Pallavicini and its Giardino botanico Clelia Durazzo Grimaldi. (265,000 square metres or 2,850,000 square feet). The numerous villas and palaces of the city also have their own gardens, like Palazzo del Principe, Villa Doria, Palazzo Bianco
Palazzo Bianco
and Palazzo Tursi, Palazzo Nicolosio Lomellino, Albertis Castle, Villa Rosazza, Villa Croce, Villa Imperiale Cattaneo, Villa Bombrini, Villa Brignole Sale Duchessa di Galliera, Villa Serra and many more.[28] The city is surrounded by natural parks such as Parco naturale regionale dell'Antola, Parco naturale regionale del Beigua, Aveto Natural Regional Park and the Ligurian Sea
Ligurian Sea
Cetacean Sanctuary. Promenades[edit] Corso Italia runs for 2.5 km (1.6 mi) in the quartiere of Albaro, linking two neighbourhoods of Foce and Boccadasse. The promenade, which was built in 1908, overlooks the sea, towards the promontory of Portofino. The main landmarks are the small lighthouse of Punta Vagno, the San Giuliano Abbey, and the Lido of Albaro. Passeggiata Anita Garibaldi, promenade overlooking the sea and 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) long, Nervi. Promenade of the upper ring road, so-called "Circonvallazione a Monte" that includes: Corso Firenze, Corso Paganini, Corso Magenta, Via Solferino, Corso Armellini. Walks can be made from the centre of Genoa
Genoa
following one of the many ancient paths between tall palaces and the "Creuze" to reach the higher areas of the city where there are magnificent places like Belvedere Castelletto, the "Righi's district", the "Santuario di Nostra Signora di Loreto", the "Santuario della Madonnetta", the "Santuario di San Francesco da Paola". Monte Fasce
Monte Fasce
gives a complete view of the city. To reach the hinterland of Province of Genoa
Genoa
yoneou can use the Genoa - Casella Old Railway, characteristic 25 kilometres (16 miles) of railway between the Genoese mountains. Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1115 50,000 —    

1300 100,000 +100.0%

1400 100,000 +0.0%

1400+ 117,000 +17.0%

1861 242,447 +107.2%

1871 256,486 +5.8%

1881 289,234 +12.8%

1901 377,610 +30.6%

1911 465,496 +23.3%

1921 541,562 +16.3%

1931 590,736 +9.1%

1936 634,646 +7.4%

1951 688,447 +8.5%

1961 784,194 +13.9%

1971 816,872 +4.2%

1981 762,895 −6.6%

1991 678,771 −11.0%

2001 610,307 −10.1%

2011 608,493 −0.3%

2015 588,668 −3.3%

Source: ISTAT 2001[29][30][31]

At the beginning of 2011, there were 608,493 people residing in Genoa, of whom 47% were male and 53% were female. The city is characterised by rapid aging and a long history of demographic decline, that has shown a partial slowdown in the last decade. Genoa
Genoa
has the lowest birth rate and is the most aged of any large Italian city. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled only 14.12% of the population compared to pensioners who number 26.67%. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06% (minors) and 19.94% (pensioners). The median age of Genoa's residents is 47, compared to the Italian average of 42. The current birth rate of the city is only 7.49 births per 1,000 inhabitants, compared to the national average of 9.45. As of 2006[update], 94.23% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant group is from the Americas
Americas
(mostly Ecuador): 2.76%, other European nations (mostly Albania, Ukraine, the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and Romania): 1.37%, and North Africa: 0.62%. The city is predominantly Roman Catholic, with small numbers of Protestant
Protestant
adherents. Economy[edit] The Genoa
Genoa
metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $30.1 billion in 2011, or $33,003 per capita.[32]

San Benigno business district

Genoa
Genoa
exhibition centre

Ligurian agriculture has increased its specialisation pattern in high-quality products (flowers, wine, olive oil) and has thus managed to maintain the gross value-added per worker at a level much higher than the national average (the difference was about 42% in 1999).[33] The value of flower production represents over 75% of the agriculture sector turnover, followed by animal farming (11.2%) and vegetable growing (6.4%). Steel, once a major industry during the booming 1950s and 1960s, phased out after the late 1980s crisis, as Italy
Italy
moved away from the heavy industry to pursue more technologically advanced and less polluting productions. So the Ligurian industry has turned towards a widely diversified range of high-quality and high-tech products (food, shipbuilding (in Sestri Ponente
Sestri Ponente
and in metropolitan area - Sestri Levante), electrical engineering and electronics, petrochemicals, aerospace etc.). Nonetheless, the regions still maintains a flourishing shipbuilding sector (yacht construction and maintenance, cruise liner building, military shipyards).[33] In the services sector, the gross value-added per worker in Liguria
Liguria
is 4% above the national average. This is due to the increasing diffusion of modern technologies, particularly in commerce and tourism. A good motorway network (376 km (234 mi) in 2000) makes communications with the border regions relatively easy. The main motorway is located along the coastline, connecting the main ports of Nice
Nice
(in France), Savona, Genoa
Genoa
and La Spezia. The number of passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants (524 in 2001) is below the national average (584). On average, about 17 million tonnes of cargo are shipped from the main ports of the region and about 57 million tonnes enter the region.[33] The Port of Genoa, with a trade volume of 58.6 million tonnes[34] ranks first in Italy,[35] second in terms of twenty-foot equivalent units after the transshipment port of Gioia Tauro, with a trade volume of over 2 million TEUs.[36] The main destinations for the cargo-passenger traffic are Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Barcelona, and the Canary Islands. Some companies based in Genoa
Genoa
include Ansaldo STS, Ansaldo Energia, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Registro Italiano Navale, Banca Carige, SLAM, and Costa Cruises. Erzelli
Erzelli
science technology park[edit]

Skyscrapers in the Erzelli
Erzelli
GREAT campus in October 2013

The western area of Genoa
Genoa
hosts the Erzelli
Erzelli
GREAT Campus, an under construction science technology park which houses the high-tech corporations Siemens, Ericsson, Esaote, and robotics laboratories of the Italian Institute of Technology
Italian Institute of Technology
(IIT).[37] The Erzelli
Erzelli
GREAT Campus science park is ongoing a process of enlargement, and in the future will host the new Faculty of Engineering
Engineering
of University of Genoa. Culture[edit] Visual art[edit] See also: Genoese School
Genoese School
and Genoese Baroque and Rococo artists Genoese painters active in the 14th century include Barnaba da Modena and his local followers Nicolò da Voltri
Voltri
and at the same time, the sculptor Giovanni Pisano
Giovanni Pisano
reached Genoa
Genoa
to make the monument for Margaret of Brabant, whose remains are today housed in the Museum of Sant'Agostino. In the 16th century along with the flourishing trade between the Republic of Genoa
Genoa
and Flanders also grew the cultural exchanges. The painters Lucas and Cornelis de Wael
Cornelis de Wael
lived in Genoa
Genoa
for a long time, where they played the role of a magnet for many Flemish painters like Jaan Roos, Giacomo Legi, Jan Matsys, Andries van Eertvelt
Andries van Eertvelt
and Vincent Malo. This creative environment also attracted the two most important Flemish painters, Rubens
Rubens
and Van Dyck, who along with Bernardo Strozzi.[38] gave life to the Genoese Painting School of the 17th century.

Portrait of a Young Man, by Albrecht Dürer. Gallery of Palazzo Rosso.

Much of the city's art is found in its churches and palaces, where there are numerous Renaissance, Baroque and Rococo frescos. They are rich in works of art the Cathedral, the Chiesa del Gesù where The Circumcision and the "Miracles of St. Ignatius" by Rubens, the Assunzione della Vergine by Guido Reni. The Church of San Donato contains works of Barnaba da Modena, Nicolò da Voltri
Voltri
and Joos van Cleve,[38] the Church of Santo Stefano The Stoning of St. Stephen by Giulio Romano
Giulio Romano
and the Church of Santa Maria Assunta the sculptures by Filippo Parodi
Filippo Parodi
and Pierre Puget, very interesting is the Santa Maria di Castello. But most of the works are kept in the Palaces like Palazzo Bianco
Palazzo Bianco
where "Ecce Homo" by Caravaggio, "Susannah and the Elders" by Veronese, the "Garden Party in Albaro" by Magnasco. Palazzo Rosso where Portrait of Anton Giulio Brignole-Sale by van Dyck, Cleopatra morente by Guercino
Guercino
and works of Dürer, Bernardo Strozzi, Mattia Preti, Veronese. Palazzo Spinola di Pellicceria
Palazzo Spinola di Pellicceria
where the "Portrait of Giovanni Carlo Doria on Horseback" by Rubens
Rubens
and "Ecce Homo" by Antonello da Messina, (see also the series of Ecce Homo by Antonello da Messina). Palazzo Tursi
Tursi
where the Penitent Magdalene by Canova and Palazzo Reale
Palazzo Reale
which contains works of Strozzi, Gaulli, Tintoretto, van Dyck, Simon Vouet, Guercino. The most important Genoese painters are: "Luca Cambiaso", "Bernardo" and "Valerio Castello", "Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione", "Domenico" and "Paolo Gerolamo Piola", "Gregorio De Ferrari", "Bernardo Strozzi", "Giovanni Battista Gaulli" and "Alessandro Magnasco". Sculptors include Filippo Parodi, the wood sculptor Anton Maria Maragliano, Francesco Maria Schiaffino
Francesco Maria Schiaffino
and Agostino Carlini
Agostino Carlini
who was member of the Royal Academy.

Sculpture in the Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno.

In Genoa
Genoa
on February 14, 1404, the famous humanist author, architect, poet and philosopher Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti
was born. From Genoa
Genoa
was also Simonetta Vespucci
Simonetta Vespucci
considered the most beautiful woman of her time, we find portrayed in The Birth of Venus
The Birth of Venus
and Allegory of Primavera by Sandro Botticelli
Sandro Botticelli
and in Portrait of Simonetta Vespucci by Piero di Cosimo. Genoa
Genoa
is also famous for its numerous tapestries, which decorated the city's many salons. Whilst the patrician palaces and villas in the city were and still are austere and majestic, the interiors tended to be luxurious and elaborate, often full of tapestries, many of which were Flemish.[38] Famous is the Genoese lace
Genoese lace
called with its name of Turkish origin "Macramè". Very used in Genoa
Genoa
is the Cobblestone called "Risseu" and a kind of Azulejo
Azulejo
called "Laggioni". Genoa
Genoa
has been likened by many to a Mediterranean New York, perhaps for its high houses that in the Middle Ages were the equivalent of today's skyscrapers, perhaps for the sea route Genoa-New York which in past centuries has been travelled by millions of emigrants. The architect Renzo Picasso in his visionary designs reinforces this strange affinity between the two cities. In the Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno, you can admire some magnificent sculpture of the 19th century and early 20th century like Monteverde Angel
Monteverde Angel
by Giulio Monteverde, or works by artists such as "Augusto Rivalta", "Leonardo Bistolfi", "Edoardo Alfieri", "Santo Varni". Among the Genoese painters of the 19th century and of the first half of the 20th century remember: "Tammar Luxoro", "Ernesto Rayper", "Rubaldo Merello" and "Antonio Giuseppe Santagata", in Genoa
Genoa
also grows up the sculptor Francesco Messina. In 1967 the Genoese historian, critic and curator Germano Celant coined the term Arte Povera. "Enrico Accatino" was another important art theorist and Emanuele Luzzati
Emanuele Luzzati
was the production designer and illustrator like Lorenzo Mongiardino
Lorenzo Mongiardino
also him a production designer and architect. Two other important artists are Emilio Scanavino
Emilio Scanavino
and Vanessa Beecroft. In 1972 was founded in Rapallo
Rapallo
near Genoa
Genoa
the annual art exhibition International Cartoonists Exhibition. About this, we have to remember the illustrator and comics artist, Giovan Battista Carpi. Literature[edit]

Golden Legend, 1290

"Anonymous of Genoa" was one of the first authors in Liguria
Liguria
and Italy who wrote verses in the Vernacular. It explained that in Genoa
Genoa
Marco Polo and Rustichello da Pisa, in the prisons of Palazzo San Giorgio, wrote The Travels of Marco Polo. The Golden Legend
Golden Legend
is a collection of hagiographies written by the Archbishop of Genoa
Genoa
Jacobus de Voragine. To animate the Genoese literary environment of the 16th century were Gabriello Chiabrera
Gabriello Chiabrera
and "Ansaldo Cebà", the latter best known for his correspondence with Sara Copia Sullam. The city has been the birthplace of the historian Caffaro di Rustico da Caschifellone, of the poet "Martin Piaggio", of the famous historian, philosopher and journalist Giuseppe Mazzini, of the writer Piero Jahier, of the poet Nobel Prize Eugenio Montale. The writer and translator Fernanda Pivano, the journalist "Vito Elio Petrucci" and the poet Edoardo Sanguineti, the literary critic Carlo Bo
Carlo Bo
instead was born in Sestri Levante near Genoa. We have also remember the dialet poet Edoardo Firpo and the symbolist Ceccardo Roccatagliata Ceccardi. The city of Genoa
Genoa
has been an inspiration to many writers and poets among which: Dino Campana, Camillo Sbarbaro, Gaspare Invrea who wrote "The mouth of the wolf" and Giorgio Caproni. Between the alleys of the historical centre there is the Old Libreria Bozzi. The "Berio Civic Library" houses the precious manuscript entitled "The Durazzo Book of Hours". In the first half of the 20th century, the Mazzini Gallery's was a meeting place of many artists, writers and intellectuals among which Guido Gozzano, Salvatore Quasimodo, Camillo Sbarbaro, Francesco Messina, Pierangelo Baratono, Eugenio Montale. In the thirties of the 20th century was active in Genoa
Genoa
the Circoli magazine and after the World War II the "Il Gallo" magazine. Coveted and known from the 1960s to the 1980s was the Genoese literary lounge animated by the writer Minnie Alzona. Since 1995, all the months of June take place in Genoa
Genoa
the Genoa's International Poetry Festival, conceived by Claudio Pozzani with the help of Massimo Bacigalupo. Music[edit] Main article: Music of Genoa

The neoclassical Teatro Carlo Felice

Genoa
Genoa
was a centre of Occitanie
Occitanie
culture in Italy
Italy
and for this reason it developed an important school of troubadours: Lanfranc Cigala, Jacme Grils, Bonifaci Calvo, Luchetto Gattilusio, Guillelma de Rosers, andSimon Doria. Genoa
Genoa
is the birthplace of the composer Simone Molinaro, violinist and composer Niccolò Paganini, violinist Camillo Sivori
Camillo Sivori
and composer Cesare Pugni. In addition, the famous violin maker Paolo de Barbieri. Paganini's violin, Il Cannone Guarnerius, is kept in Palazzo Tursi. The city is the site of the Niccolò Paganini
Niccolò Paganini
Music Conservatory. Alessandro Stradella, a composer of the middle baroque, lived in Genoa and was assassinated in 1682. Felice Romani
Felice Romani
was a poet who wrote many librettos for the opera composers like Gaetano Donizetti
Gaetano Donizetti
and Vincenzo Bellini. Giovanni Ruffini was another poet known for writing the libretto of the opera Don Pasquale
Don Pasquale
for its composer. In 1847, Goffredo Mameli
Goffredo Mameli
and Michele Novaro
Michele Novaro
composed "Il Canto degli Italiani". In 1857, debuted the work of Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
entitled Simon Boccanegra inspired by the first Doge of Genoa, Simone Boccanegra. Genoa
Genoa
is also the birthplace of the condcuctor Fabio Luisi
Fabio Luisi
and of many opera singers like Giuseppe Taddei, Margherita Carosio, Luciana Serra, and Daniela Dessì. The Teatro Carlo Felice
Teatro Carlo Felice
was built in 1828 in the city in the Piazza De Ferrari, and named for the monarch of the then Kingdom of Sardinia (which included the present regions of Sardinia, Piedmont
Piedmont
and Liguria). The theatre was the centre of music and social life in the 19th century. On various occasions in the history of the theatre, presentations have been conducted by Mascagni, Richard Strauss, Hindemith and Stravinsky. Other Genoese theaters are the Politeama Genovese, Teatro Stabile di Genova, Teatro della Tosse and Teatro Gustavo Modena. On the occasion of the Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
celebration in 1992, new musical life was given to the area around the old port, including the restoration of the house of Paganini and presentations of the trallalero, the traditional singing of Genoese dock workers. The trallalero, traditional music in the Genoese dialect, is a polyphonic vocal music, performed by five men and several songs. The trallalero are ancient songs that have their roots in the Mediterranean tradition. Another aspect of the traditional Genoese music is the "Nostalgic Song". The principal authors and singers of the Nostalgic Song in Genoese dialect are Mario Cappello who wrote the piece "Ma se ghe penso" (English: "But if I think about it"), a memory of Genoa
Genoa
by an emigrant to Argentina, Giuseppe Marzari, Agostino Dodero up to I Trilli, Piero Parodi, "Buby Senarega", Franca Lai. The traditional Nostalgic Song will have a great influence on the so-called Scuola Genovese of singer-songwriters that in some cases will mix the nostalgic feeling with pop and jazz atmospheres. The singer Natalino Otto
Natalino Otto
started the swing genre in Italy
Italy
and his friend and colleague Pippo Barzizza
Pippo Barzizza
was a composer, arranger, conductor and music director. Other musicians, composers and arrangers are Angelo Francesco Lavagnino, Gian Piero Reverberi, Gian Franco Reverberi, Oscar Prudente, Pivio and Aldo De Scalzi. Genoa
Genoa
in the second half of the 20th century was famous for an important school of Italian singer-songwriters, so-called Scuola Genovese, that includes Umberto Bindi, Luigi Tenco", "Gino Paoli", "Bruno Lauzi", "Fabrizio de André, Ivano Fossati, Angelo Branduardi" and Francesco Baccini. Nino Ferrer
Nino Ferrer
was also born in Genoa. In the 70s there were formed in Genoa
Genoa
numerous bands of Italian progressive rock like New Trolls, Picchio dal Pozzo, Latte e Miele, and Delirium. Today we point the band Buio Pesto
Buio Pesto
and The Banshee band. Some songs about the city of Genoa
Genoa
are part of Italian popular culture, like "Via del Campo" and "La Città Vecchia" by Fabrizio de André, "Genova per noi" by Paolo Conte, "La Casa in Via del Campo" the song also sung by Amalia Rodrigues
Amalia Rodrigues
and "Piazza Alimonda" the song about the facts of Genoa
Genoa
2001 by Francesco Guccini. Fabrizio de André
Fabrizio de André
in 1984 released the album Crêuza de mä, totally written in Genoese dialect. I Madrigalisti di Genova is a vocal and instrumental group formed in 1958 which specialised in medieval and Renaissance
Renaissance
repertoire The city has numerous music festivals, among which are Concerts at San Fruttuoso abbey, Premio Paganini, I Concerti di San Torpete, International Music Festival Genova, We Love Jazz, Gezmatz Festival & Workshop, and Goa-Boa Festival. In the town of Santa Margherita Ligure the ancient abbey of Cervara is often the site of chamber music. Giovine Orchestra Genovese, one of the oldest concert societies in Italy, was founded in Genoa
Genoa
in 1912. Cinema[edit] Genoa
Genoa
has been the set for many films and especially for the genre called Polizieschi. Notable directors born in Genoa
Genoa
include Pietro Germi and Giuliano Montaldo, the actors: Gilberto Govi, Vittorio Gassman, Paolo Villaggio, Alberto Lupo, the actresses: Lina Volonghi, Delia Boccardo, Rosanna Schiaffino, Eleonora Rossi Drago, Marcella Michelangeli and the pornographic actress Moana Pozzi. Before actor Bartolomeo Pagano's cinema career, he was a camallo, which means stevedore, at the port of Genoa. His cinema career began with the film Cabiria, one of the first and most famous kolossal. In 1985 were filmed in Genoa
Genoa
some scenes of Pirates by Roman Polanski, finished shooting they left in the Old Harbour the galleon Neptune. Some films set in Genoa:

Agata and the Storm Amore che vieni, amore che vai, from the novel Un destino ridicolo Attention! Bandits! Behind Closed Shutters The Blue-Eyed Bandit Carlo Giuliani, Boy The Case of the Bloody Iris The Conspiracy in Genoa Days and Clouds Di che segno sei? Diaz - Don't Clean Up This Blood Father and Son General Della Rovere Genova High Crime In the Beginning There Was Underwear The Magistrate Mare Matto Mark Shoots First Mean Frank and Crazy Tony Merciless Man The Mouth of the Wolf Onde The Police Serve the Citizens? Processo contro ignoti Scent of a Woman Street Law Stregati The Walls of Malapaga The Yellow Rolls-Royce

Language[edit] Main article: Genoese dialect The Genoese dialect (Zeneize) is the most important dialect of the Ligurian language, and is commonly spoken in Genoa
Genoa
alongside Italian. Ligurian is listed by Ethnologue
Ethnologue
as a language in its own right, of the Romance branch, the Ligurian Romance language, and not to be confused with the ancient Ligurian language. Like the languages of Lombardy, Piedmont, and surrounding regions, it is of Gallo-Italic derivation. Sports[edit]

Luigi Ferraris Stadium

There are two major football teams in Genoa: Genoa
Genoa
C.F.C. and U.C. Sampdoria; the former is the oldest football club operating in Italy, (History of Genoa
Genoa
C.F.C.). The football section of the club was founded in 1893 by James Richardson Spensley, an English doctor. Genoa 1893 has won 9 championships (between 1898 and 1924) and 1 Italy
Italy
Cup (season 1936/1937). U.C. Sampdoria
U.C. Sampdoria
was founded in 1946 from the merger of two existing clubs, Andrea Doria
Andrea Doria
(founded in 1895) and Sampierdarenese (founded in 1911). Sampdoria has won one Italian championship (Serie A – Season 1990–1991), 4 Italy
Italy
Cups, 1 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1989/90 and 1 Italian Super Cup. Both Genoa
Genoa
C.F.C. and U.C. Sampdoria
U.C. Sampdoria
play their home games in the Luigi Ferraris Stadium, which holds 36,536 spectators. Deeply felt is the derby called Derby della Lanterna. Takes place in Genoa
Genoa
the international tournament AON Open Challenger. In rugby union the city is represented by CUS Genova Rugby, which is the rugby union team of the University of Genoa
Genoa
Sports Centre. CUS Genova had their peak in 1971-1973 when the team was runner-up of the Italian Serie A for three consecutive seasons and contested unsuccessfully the title to Petrarca Rugby. Amongst the CUS Genova players who represented Italy
Italy
at international level the most relevant were Marco Bollesan and Agostino Puppo. In 1947 was founded the CUS Genova Hockey
CUS Genova Hockey
and in 1968 the basketball club Athletic Genova. The city hosts the FIFA World Cup in 1934 and in 1990, in 1988 the European Karate Championships and in 1992 the European Athletics Indoor Championships. In 2003 was inaugurated the indoor sporting arena, Vaillant Palace The city lends its name to a particular type of a sailing boat so-called Genoa
Genoa
sail, in 2007 the city hosts the Tall Ships' Races. Cuisine[edit]

This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. You can help. The discussion page may contain suggestions. (September 2017)

Pesto, a popular Genoese sauce

Popular sauces of Genoese cuisine include Pesto
Pesto
sauce, garlic sauce called Agliata, "Walnut Sauce" called Salsa di noci, Green sauce, Pesto
Pesto
di fave, Pasta d'acciughe and the meat sauce called U Toccu. Genovese sauce
Genovese sauce
instead is the contribution of Genoa
Genoa
to the Neapolitan cuisine. The Genoese tradition includes many varieties of pasta as Trenette, Corzetti
Corzetti
(see also Corsetti), Trofie, Pansoti, Croxetti
Croxetti
and also: "Farinata", Panissa, Cuculli. Key ingredient of Genoese cuisine is the Prescinsêua used among other things to prepare the Torta pasqualina and the Barbagiuai and still Focaccia con le cipolle, Farinata
Farinata
di zucca, Focaccette al formaggio and the Focaccia con il formaggio which means "Focaccia with cheese" that is even being considered for European Union
European Union
PGI status. Other key ingredients are many varieties of fish as Sardines, Anchovies
Anchovies
(see also Acciughe ripiene and Acciughe sotto sale), Garfish, Swordfish, Tuna, Octopus, Squid, Mussels, the Stoccafisso which means Stockfish
Stockfish
(see also Brandacujun), the Musciame
Musciame
and Gianchetti. Other elements of Genoese cuisine include the Ligurian Olive Oil, the cheeses like Brös, U Cabanin, San Stè cheese, Giuncata, the sausages like Testa in cassetta, Salame cotto and the Salame genovese di Sant'Olcese
Sant'Olcese
which is the style of Genoa
Genoa
salami. Fresh pasta (usually trofie) or trenette with pesto sauce is probably the most iconic among Genoese dishes. Pesto
Pesto
sauce is prepared with fresh Genovese basil, pine nuts, grated parmesan, garlic and olive oil pounded together.[39] Liguria
Liguria
wine such as Pigato, Vermentino, Sciacchetrà, Rossese and Ciliegiolo del Tigullio are popular. Dishes of Genoese tradition include the Tripe
Tripe
cooked in various recipes like Sbira, the Polpettone di melanzane, the Tomaxelle, the Minestrone alla genovese,[40] the Bagnun, the fish-consisting Ciuppin (the precursor to San Francisco's Cioppino), the Buridda, the Seppie in zimino, the Preboggion. Two sophisticated recipes of Genoese cuisine are: the Cappon magro
Cappon magro
and the Cima alla genovese (a song by Fabrizio De André
Fabrizio De André
is titled 'A Çimma and is dedicated to this Genoese recipe). Originating in Genoa is Pandolce that gave rise to Genoa
Genoa
cake. The city lands its name to a special paste used to prepare cakes and pastries called Genoise
Genoise
and to the Pain de Gênes. In Genoa
Genoa
there are many food markets in typical nineteenth-century iron structures as Mercato del Ferro, Mercato Dinegro, Mercato di Via Prè, Mercato di piazza Sarzano, Mercato del Carmine, Mercato della Foce, Mercato Romagnosi. The Mercato Orientale instead is in masonry and has a circular structure. People[edit]

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Christopher Columbus

Genoa
Genoa
has left an extraordinary impression on many noted personalities. Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
loved Genoa
Genoa
and wrote some of his works there. Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
and Ezra Pound
Ezra Pound
lived near Genoa
Genoa
in Rapallo. Anton Chekhov
Anton Chekhov
said that Genoa
Genoa
"is the most beautiful city in the world," and Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
wrote: "I have never seen anything like this Genoa! it is something indescribably beautiful". Among the personalities of the 19th and 20th centuries who wrote about Genoa
Genoa
were Heinrich Heine, Osip Mandelstam, Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen, Mary Shelley, Oscar Wilde, Charles Dickens, Mark Twain, Joseph Conrad, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, Gustave Flaubert, Alexandre Dumas, Louis Énault, Valery Larbaud, Albert Camus, Paul Valéry, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Paul Klee. Giuseppe Verdi, Giacomo Puccini, and Pietro Mascagni. Verdi in his work, Simon Boccanegra, is inspired by the medieval history of the city. The poets Dino Campana, Camillo Sbarbaro and Giorgio Caproni have made Genoa
Genoa
a recurring element of their poetic work. Famous Genoese include Sinibaldo and Ottobuono Fieschi (Popes Innocent IV and Adrian V), Giovanni Battista Cybo (Pope Innocent VIII) and Giacomo della Chiesa (Pope Benedict XV), navigators Christopher Columbus, Antonio de Noli, Enrico Alberto d'Albertis, Enrico de Candia (Henry, Count of Malta) and Andrea Doria, composers Niccolò Paganini and Michele Novaro, Italian patriots Giuseppe Mazzini, Goffredo Mameli and Nino Bixio, writer and translator Fernanda Pivano, poet Edoardo Sanguineti, Communist politician Palmiro Togliatti, architect Renzo Piano, art curator and critic Germano Celant, Physics 2002 Nobel Prize winner Riccardo Giacconi, Literature 1975 Nobel Prize winner Eugenio Montale, the court painter Giovanni Maria delle Piane (Il Mulinaretto) from the Delle Piane family, artists Vanessa Beecroft, Enrico Accatino, comedians Gilberto Govi, Paolo Villaggio, Beppe Grillo, Luca Bizzarri, Paolo Kessisoglu and Maurizio Crozza; singer-songwriters Fabrizio de André, Ivano Fossati, Umberto Bindi, Bruno Lauzi
Bruno Lauzi
and Francesco Baccini, while Luigi Tenco
Luigi Tenco
and Gino Paoli
Gino Paoli
are also known as Genoese singer-songwriters, although they are respectively from Cassine
Cassine
and Monfalcone; actor Vittorio Gassman, and actress Moana Pozzi, Giorgio Parodi who conceived the motorcycle company Moto Guzzi with Carlo Guzzi and Giovanni Ravelli. Some reports say the navigator and explorer Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) was also from Genoa, others say he was from Savona. Saints from Genoa
Genoa
include Romulus, Syrus, Catherine of Genoa. Among the latest generations, musicians like Andrea Bacchetti, Giulio Plotino, Sergio Ciomei, Lorenzo Cavasanti, Stefano Bagliano and Fabrizio Cipriani, as well as academics and authors like Michele Giugliano and Roberto Dillon, help in keeping the name of the city on the international spotlight in different fields among the arts, technology and culture. Museums[edit]

Accademia Ligustica di Belle Arti Albertis Castle Doge's Palace, Genoa Edoardo Chiossone Museum of Oriental Art Galata-Museo del Mare GAM-Galleria d'Arte Moderna Lighthouse
Lighthouse
of Genoa Mackenzie Castle Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova Museo diocesano Museo di Santa Maria di Castello Museo Giannettino Luxoro Museum of Contemporary Art Villa Croce Museo del Risorgimento e istituto mazziniano Museo di Sant'Agostino Museo navale di Pegli Palazzo Bianco Palazzo Reale Palazzo Rosso Palazzi dei Rolli Palazzo Spinola di Pellicceria Raccolte Frugone Villa Durazzo-Pallavicini Wolfsoniana

Education and research[edit]

University of Genoa's main building

The first organised forms of higher education in Genoa
Genoa
date back to the 13th century when private colleges were entitled to award degrees in Medicine, Philosophy, Theology, Law, Arts.[41] Today the University of Genoa, founded in the 15th century, is one of the largest in Italy, with 11 faculties, 51 departments and 14 libraries. In 2007–2008, the University had 41,000 students and 6,540 graduates.[42] Genoa
Genoa
is also home to other Colleges, Academies or Museums:

The University of Genoa The CNR Area della Ricerca di Genova The Accademia ligustica di belle arti The Antonio de Noli Academic Society The Accademia Ligure di scienze e lettere The Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia The ISICT-istituto superiore di studi in tecnologie dell'informazione e della comunicazione The Renzo Piano
Renzo Piano
Building Workshop The OBR Open Building Research The Accademia Italiana della Marina
Marina
Mercantile The "Niccolò Paganini" Conservatory The Italian Hydrographic Institute The Deledda International School The Deutsche Schule Genua The Genoa
Genoa
Comics Academy The International School in Genoa The Russian Ballet
Russian Ballet
College

The Italian Institute of Technology
Italian Institute of Technology
was established in 2003 jointly by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research and the Italian Minister of Economy and Finance, to promote excellence in basic and applied research. The main fields of research of the Institute are Neuroscience, Robotics, Nanotechnology, Drug discovery. The central research labs and headquarters are located in Morego, in the neighbourhood of Bolzaneto.[43] Clemson University, based in South Carolina, United States
United States
has a villa in Genoa
Genoa
where architecture students and students in related fields can attend for a semester or year-long study program. Florida International University
Florida International University
(FIU), based in Miami, Florida, United States
United States
also has a small campus in Genoa, with the University of Genoa, which offers classes within the FIU School of Architecture. Science[edit] Genoa
Genoa
is the birthplace of "Giovanni Battista Baliani" and "Vincentio Reinieri" of the geneticist "Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza" of the astrophysicist, Nobel Prize, "Riccardo Giacconi" and of the astronaut Franco Malerba. The city is home to the Erzelli
Erzelli
Hi-Tech Park, to the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, to the "Istituto idrografico della Marina" and annually hosts the Festival della Scienza. The city has an important tradition in the fields of the geology, paleontology, botany and naturalistic studies, among the most eminent personalities remember: "Lorenzo Pareto", "Luigi d'Albertis", "Enrico Alberto d'Albertis", "Giacomo Doria" and "Arturo Issel", we point the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Genova. Very important and renowned is the Istituto Giannina Gaslini. In 1846 the city hosts the eighth "Meeting of Italian Scientists" and in 1902 Luigi Carnera discovers an asteroid and called it "485 Genua", dedicating it to the Latin name of Genoa. Transport[edit]

A view of the commercial port of Genoa

Ports[edit] Main article: Port of Genoa

Panorama of port of Genoa

Several cruise and ferry lines serve the passenger terminals in the old port, with a traffic of 3.2 million passengers in 2007.[44] MSC Cruises
MSC Cruises
chose Genoa
Genoa
as one of its main home ports, in competition with the Genoese company Costa Cruises, which moved its home port to Savona. The quays of the passenger terminals extend over an area of 250,000 square metres (2,700,000 square feet), with 5 equipped berths for cruise vessels and 13 for ferries, for an annual capacity of 4 million ferry passengers, 1.5 million cars and 250,000 trucks.[45] The historical maritime station of Ponte dei Mille is today a technologically advanced cruise terminal, with facilities designed after the world's most modern airports, to ensure fast embarking and disembarking of latest generation ships carrying thousand passengers. A third cruise terminal is currently under construction in the redesigned area of Ponte Parodi, once a quay used for grain traffic. The Costa Concordia cruise ship, owned by Costs Cruises, is now docked at the port and will be soon be dismantled.[46] Air transport[edit] Main article: Genoa
Genoa
Cristoforo Colombo Airport

Genoa
Genoa
airport is built on an artificial peninsula.

The Airport of Genoa
Genoa
(IATA: GOA, ICAO: LIMJ) is built on an artificial peninsula, 4 NM (7.4 km; 4.6 mi) west[47] of the city. The airport is currently operated by Aeroporto di Genova S.P.A., which has recently upgraded the airport complex, that now connects Genoa with several daily flights to Rome, Naples, Paris, London, Madrid
Madrid
and Munich. In 2008, 1,202,168 passengers travelled through the airport,[48] with an increase of international destinations and charter flights. Public transport[edit] Main article: Railway stations in Genoa

Genoa's metropolitan system

The main railway stations are Genoa
Genoa
Brignole and Genoa
Genoa
Principe, the first situated in the east side of the city centre, close to the business districts and the exhibition centre, while the second is in the west side, close to the port, the university and the historical centre. From these two stations depart the main trains connecting Genoa
Genoa
to France, Turin, Milan
Milan
and Rome.

Genova Brignole railway station

Genoa's third most important station is Genoa
Genoa
Sampierdarena, which serves the densely populated neighbourhood of Sampierdarena. A total of 23 other local stations serve the other neighbourhoods, on the 30-kilometre-long coast line from Nervi
Nervi
to Voltri, and on the northern line through Bolzaneto
Bolzaneto
and the Polcevera
Polcevera
Valley. The municipal administration of Genoa
Genoa
is projecting to transform these urban railway lines to be part of the rapid transit system, which now consists of a light metro which connects Brin to the city centre and is called the Metropolitana di Genova ( Genoa
Genoa
Metro). The metro line has been recently extended to Brignole Station, with the opening of the new station in December 2012. The Corvetto station between De Ferrari and Brignole is currently passed-through. A possible further extension towards the eastern, densely populated boroughs was planned, but the municipal administration is keen to improve the public transport investing in new tram lines instead of completing the extension of the light metro.[49] The current stations of the metro line are Brin-Certosa, Dinegro, Principe, Darsena, San Giorgio, Sant'Agostino and De Ferrari, and the line is 5.3 km (3.3 mi) long.

Genova Piazza Principe railway station

The city's hilly nature has influenced transport provision, and the city is served by three funicular railways (the Zecca–Righi funicular, the Sant'Anna funicular
Sant'Anna funicular
and the Quezzi funicular), a rack railway the Principe–Granarolo rack railway, and 10 public lifts.[50] The city's metro, bus and trolleybus network is operated by AMT (Azienda Mobilità e Trasporti S.p.A.). There is also the Drin Bus - demand responsive transport service (DRT) that connects the hilly, low-density areas of Genoa.[51][52][53] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Genova, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 54 min. 10% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 12 min, while 13% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4 km, while 2% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[54] International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy Genoa
Genoa
is twinned with:[55]

Baltimore, United States Columbus, United States Odesa, Ukraine Marseille, France Rijeka, Croatia Beyoğlu, Turkey

Genoa
Genoa
has bilateral agreements with the following sister cities:[55][dead link]

Guayaquil, Ecuador Havana, Cuba Barcelona, Spain Dalian, China Marseille, France Belém, Brazil Athens, Greece Lille, France Saint Petersburg, Russia Yekaterinburg, Russia Acqui Terme, Italy Moscow, Russia Varna, Bulgaria Mantua, Italy Cremona, Italy Ovada, Italy Constanța, Romania Turin, Italy Deva, Romania Siena, Italy Odesa, Ukraine Kyiv, Ukraine Nice, France La Paz, Bolivia Azuchi, Japan Bogotá, Colombia Valparaíso, Chile Buenos Aires, Argentina Capo di Ponte, Italy Castelsardo, Italy Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Tursi, Italy Pointe Noire, Congo Kaolack, Senegal Lattakia, Syria Galata, Turkey Hebron, Palestine El Mina, Lebanon Pizzo Calabro, Italy Polokwane, South Africa Sousse, Tunisia Lyon, France Sumqayıt, Azerbaijan[56]

Consulates[edit]

Albania Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Democratic Republic of the Congo Ecuador El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Estonia Finland France Gabon Great Britain Germany Greece Guinea Haiti Honduras Hungary Monaco Netherlands Norway Panama Peru Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino
San Marino
Republic Senegal South Africa Sweden Switzerland Thailand Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine Uruguay United States

Notable people[edit] Main articles: List of people from Genoa
Genoa
and Category:People from Genoa See also[edit]

Italy
Italy
portal

Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli List of tallest buildings in Genoa MT Haven
MT Haven
Amoco Haven tanker disaster List of diplomats of Great Britain to the Republic of Genoa

References[edit]

^ "UNdata". United Nations. United Nations Statistic Division. 3 February 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017.  ^ "Addio alle vecchie Province". Il Sole 24 ORE. Il Sole 24 Ore. Retrieved 24 March 2017.  ^ "Resident population and present population". Istat Statistics. ISTAT. Retrieved 24 March 2017.  ^ Urbanismi in Italia, 2011 ^ "Genoa". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. Retrieved 24 March 2017.  ^ "Maritime ports freight and passenger statistics". Eurostat. Eurostat. Retrieved 24 March 2017.  ^ "Genoa: a bloody history, a beguiling present Italy". London: Times Online. 2004-04-25. Retrieved 2009-04-11.  ^ ‘ Genoa
Genoa
Economy’, World66.com. ^ ‘Italy: Industry’, Encyclopedia of the Nations, Advameg, Inc. ^ Macesich, George (2000). Issues in Money and Banking. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-275-96777-2.  ^ Alta Macadam, Northern Italy: From the Alps to Bologna, Blue Guides, 10th edn. (London: A. & C. Black, 1997). ^ Selex ES: Company profile LinkedIn Corporation. ^ Ansaldo Energia: Company profile LinkedIn Corporation. ^ Perrin, British Flags, 1922, 22-25. ^ Aldo Ziggioto, "Genova", in Vexilla Italica 1, XX (1993); Aldo Ziggioto, "Le Bandiere degli Stati Italiani", in Armi Antiche 1994, cited after Pier Paolo Lugli, 18 July 2000 on Flags of the World. ^ transcription after the edition by Joaquín Rubio Tovar (2005). ^ a b c Tabelle climatiche 1971-2000 della stazione meteorologica di Genova- Sestri Ponente
Sestri Ponente
dall'Atlante Climatico 1971-2000 - Servizio Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare ^ a b " Genoa
Genoa
Climate Guide".  ^ "La neve sulle coste del Mediterraneo".  ^ "Appunti di statistica meteorologica".  ^ "Visualizzazione tabella CLINO della stazione / CLINO Averages Listed for the station Genova (1961-1990)". Archived from the original on October 8, 2006.  ^ Roberto Pedemonte (May 2012). "La neve sulle coste del Maditerraneo (seconda parte)". Rivista Ligure (in Italian). Genoa. 12 (44). Retrieved 2014-06-28.  ^ "Testo del Regolamento sul sito del Comune
Comune
di Genova". Retrieved 2009-04-11.  ^ a b c d Shaw, C. (2012). Genoa. In A. Gamberini & I. Lazzarini (Eds.). The Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
State. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press ^ Tonizzi, Maria Elisabetta. "Genoa." History of World Trade Since 1450, edited by John J. McCusker, vol. 1, Macmillan Reference USA, 2006, pp. 311-312. Gale Virtual Reference Library. ^ Fonte: Il Secolo XIX, 17 ottobre 2008, pag. 25 ^ "AquaRing – home" (in Italian). Web.archive.org. 2007-10-12. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2009-07-25.  ^ "Tourism – Comune
Comune
di Genova". Turismo.comune.genova.it. Retrieved 2009-04-11.  ^ Abu-Lughod, J.L. (1991). Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350. Oxford University Press. p. 125. ISBN 9780195067743. Retrieved 2014-12-03.  ^ Spruyt, H. (1996). The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems Change. Princeton University Press. p. 132. ISBN 9780691029108. Retrieved 2014-12-03.  ^ Scott, T. (2012). The City-State in Europe, 1000-1600: Hinterland, Territory, Region. OUP Oxford. p. 17. ISBN 9780199274604. Retrieved 2014-12-03.  ^ "Global city GDP 2011". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 2013-06-04.  ^ a b c "Eurostat". Circa.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 2008-09-16. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ "Autorità Portuale di Genova – Traffico porto". Porto.genova.it. Archived from the original on 2008-12-02. Retrieved 2008-12-26.  ^ "Inf_07_05_Statistiche dei trasporti marittimi 2002-2004" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-27. Retrieved 2008-12-26.  ^ " Genoa
Genoa
Port Yearbook 2012". Genoa
Genoa
Port Authority. Retrieved 19 November 2013.  ^ Great-Campus.it - official website ^ a b c "Art And Culture In And Around Genoa". Premier.net. Retrieved 2011-04-12.  ^ " Pesto
Pesto
Genovese". Mangiareinliguria.it. Retrieved 2011-04-12.  ^ "Article about Genoese Cuisine on the site http". //www.portofinoworld.com. 2009-03-24. Retrieved 2011-04-12.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "A brief history of the University of Genoa". Orientamento.studenti.unige.it. Retrieved 2009-01-19.  ^ Facts and figures Archived July 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., University of Genoa ^ "The Italian Institute of Technology
Italian Institute of Technology
(IIT)". Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved June 1, 2016.  ^ Genoa
Genoa
Port Authority Archived December 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Autorità Portuale di Genova – Passeggeri". Porto.genova.it. Archived from the original on 2009-06-08. Retrieved 2008-12-26.  ^ "Costa Concordia makes final voyage to its scrapyard grave". news.com.au. Retrieved 2014-12-03.  ^ "EAD Basic". Ead.eurocontrol.int. Retrieved 2011-04-12.  ^ "Official traffic statistics from Assaeroporti". Assaeroporti.it. Retrieved 2011-04-12.  ^ "Mobility Point and local press". Mobilitypoint.it. 2007-08-22. Retrieved 2009-04-11.  ^ "Al vostro servizio" [At your service] (in Italian). AMT Genova. Retrieved 2015-05-26.  ^ "Azienda Mobilità e Trasporti Spa". Amt.genova.it. Retrieved 2011-04-12.  ^ "SII – Sustainability Innovation Inventory" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-04-12.  ^ "drt bus video preview". Drtbus.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-04-12.  ^ "Genova Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017.  Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 28, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013. , Comune
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di Genova - International[dead link] ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of Genoa (it)

Gino Benvenuti. Le repubbliche marinare. Amalfi, Pisa, Genova e Venezia. Netwon Compton, Rome, 1989. Steven A. Epstein; Genoa
Genoa
& the Genoese, 958–1528 University of North Carolina Press, 1996; online edition Steven A. Epstein; "Labour and Port Life in Medieval
Medieval
Genoa." Mediterranean Historical Review. 3 (1988): 114–40. Steven A. Epstein; "Business Cycles and the Sense of Time in Medieval Genoa." Business History Review 62 (1988): 238–60. Face Richard. "Secular History in Twelfth-Century Italy: Caffaro of Genoa." Journal of Medieval
Medieval
History 6 (1980): 169–84. Hughes Diane Owen. "Kinsmen and Neighbors in Medieval
Medieval
Genoa." In The Medieval
Medieval
City, edited by Harry A. Miskimin, David Herlihy, and Adam L. Udovitch, 1977, 3–28. Hughes Diane Owen. "Urban Growth and Family Structure in Medieval Genoa." Past and Present 66 (1975): 3–28. Lopez Robert S. "Genoa." In Dictionary of the Middle Ages, pp. 383–87. 1982. Vitale Vito. Breviario della storia di Genova. Vols. 1–2. Genoa, 1955. Giuseppe Felloni – Guido Laura "Genova e la storia della finanza: una serie di primati ?" " Genoa
Genoa
and the history of finance: a series of firsts ?" 9 November 2004, ISBN 88-87822-16-6 (www.giuseppefelloni.it) Van Doosselaere, Quentin, Commercial Agreements and Social Dynamics in Medieval
Medieval
Genoa
Genoa
(New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009). Гавриленко О. А., Сівальньов О. М., Цибулькін В. В. Генуезька спадщина на теренах України; етнодержавознавчий вимір. — Харків: Точка, 2017.— 260 с. — ISBN 978-617-669-209-6

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Genoa.

Staglieno: A monumental cemetery

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Genoa.

Official Site Genova2015.org - Official Site http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1211

v t e

Comuni of the Metropolitan City of Genoa

Arenzano Avegno Bargagli Bogliasco Borzonasca Busalla Camogli Campo Ligure Campomorone Carasco Casarza Ligure Casella Castiglione Chiavarese Ceranesi Chiavari Cicagna Cogoleto Cogorno Coreglia Ligure Crocefieschi Davagna Fascia Favale di Malvaro Fontanigorda Genoa Gorreto Isola del Cantone Lavagna Leivi Lorsica Lumarzo Masone Mele Mezzanego Mignanego Mocònesi Moneglia Montebruno Montoggio Ne Neirone Orero Pieve Ligure Portofino Propata Rapallo Recco Rezzoaglio Ronco Scrivia Rondanina Rossiglione Rovegno San Colombano Certénoli Sant'Olcese Santa Margherita Ligure Santo Stefano d'Aveto Savignone Serra Riccò Sestri Levante Sori Tiglieto Torriglia Tribogna Uscio Valbrevenna Vobbia Zoagli

v t e

Regional capitals of Italy

   

L'Aquila, Abruzzo Aosta, Aosta
Aosta
Valley Bari, Apulia Potenza, Basilicata

Catanzaro, Calabria Naples, Campania Bologna, Emilia-Romagna Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Rome, Lazio Genoa, Liguria Milan, Lombardy Ancona, Marche

Campobasso, Molise Turin, Piedmont Cagliari, Sardinia Palermo, Sicily

Trento, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Florence, Tuscany Perugia, Umbria Venice, Veneto

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City
Luxembourg City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Italy

Northwest

Crespi d'Adda Genoa Mantua
Mantua
and Sabbioneta Monte San Giorgio1 Porto
Porto
Venere, Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto, Cinque Terre

Corniglia Manarola Monterosso al Mare Riomaggiore Vernazza

Residences of the Royal House of Savoy

Castle of Moncalieri Castle of Racconigi Castle of Rivoli Castello del Valentino Royal Palace of Turin Palazzo Carignano Palazzo Madama, Turin Palace of Venaria Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi Villa della Regina

Rhaetian Railway
Rhaetian Railway
in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1 Rock Drawings in Valcamonica Sacri Monti of Piedmont
Piedmont
and Lombardy Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont: Langhe- Roero
Roero
and Monferrato

Northeast

Aquileia The Dolomites Ferrara Modena
Modena
Cathedral, Torre della Ghirlandina
Torre della Ghirlandina
and Piazza Grande, Modena Orto botanico di Padova Ravenna Venice Verona City of Vicenza
Vicenza
and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto

Central

Assisi Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi Etruscan Necropolises of Cerveteri
Cerveteri
and Tarquinia Florence Hadrian's Villa Medici villas Piazza del Duomo, Pisa Pienza Rome2 San Gimignano Siena Urbino Val d'Orcia Villa d'Este

South

Alberobello Amalfi Coast Castel del Monte, Apulia Cilento
Cilento
and Vallo di Diano
Vallo di Diano
National Park, Paestum
Paestum
and Velia, Certosa di Padula Herculaneum Oplontis
Oplontis
and Villa Poppaea Naples Palace of Caserta, Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
and San Leucio
San Leucio
Complex Pompeii Sassi di Matera

Islands

Aeolian Islands Arab-Norman Palermo
Palermo
and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale Archaeological Area of Agrigento Barumini nuraghes Mount Etna Syracuse and Necropolis of Pantalica Val di Noto

Caltagirone Catania Militello in Val di Catania Modica Noto Palazzolo Acreide Ragusa Scicli

Villa Romana del Casale

Countrywide

Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)

Brescia Cividale del Friuli Castelseprio Spoleto Temple of Clitumnus
Temple of Clitumnus
located at Campello sul Clitunno Santa Sofia located at Benevento Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
located at Monte Sant'Angelo

Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3 Primeval Beech Forests of Europe4 Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries5

Bergamo Palmanova Peschiera del Garda

1 Shared with Switzerland 2 Shared with the Holy See 3 Shared with Austria, France, Germany, Slovenia, and Switzerland 4 Shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain
Spain
and Ukraine 5 Shared with Croatia
Croatia
and Montenegro

v t e

Maritime republics

Amalfi Ancona Gaeta Genoa Noli Pisa Ragusa Venice

v t e

Cities in Italy
Italy
by population

1,000,000+

Rome Milan

500,000+

Naples Turin Palermo Genoa

200,000+

Bari Bologna Catania Florence Messina Padua Trieste Venice Verona

100,000+

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125409416 ISNI: 0000 0001 2285 1461 GND: 4020185-5 HDS: 6625 NDL: 0084

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Time at 25450173.033333, Busy percent: 30
***************** NOT Too Busy at 25450173.033333 3../logs/periodic-service_log.txt
1440 = task['interval'];
25451341.5 = task['next-exec'];
0 = task['last-exec'];
daily-work.php = task['exec'];
25450173.033333 Time.

10080 = task['interval'];
25459981.5 = task['next-exec'];
0 = task['last-exec'];
weekly-work.php = task['exec'];
25450173.033333 Time.

30 = task['interval'];
25450202.433333 = task['next-exec'];
25450172.433333 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicStats.php = task['exec'];
25450173.033333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25451341.5 = task['next-exec'];
0 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicBuild.php = task['exec'];
25450173.033333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25451341.5 = task['next-exec'];
0 = task['last-exec'];
build-sitemap-xml.php = task['exec'];
25450173.033333 Time.

60 = task['interval'];
25450202.683333 = task['next-exec'];
25450142.683333 = task['last-exec'];
cleanup.php = task['exec'];
25450173.033333 Time.

15 = task['interval'];
25450188.033333 = task['next-exec'];
25450173.033333 = task['last-exec'];
parse-contents.php = task['exec'];
25450173.033333 Time.