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Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
or Chinggis Khaan[note 3] (born Temüjin,[note 4] c. 1162 – August 18, 1227), was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he launched the Mongol invasions
Mongol invasions
that conquered most of Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Caucasus, and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations – especially in the Khwarazmian and Western Xia
Western Xia
controlled lands. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China. Before Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
died he assigned Ögedei Khan
Ögedei Khan
as his successor. Later his grandsons split his empire into khanates.[5] Genghis Khan died in 1227 after defeating the Western Xia. He was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolia.[6] His descendants extended the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
across most of Eurasia
Eurasia
by conquering or creating vassal states in all of modern-day China, Korea, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and substantial portions of Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia. Many of these invasions repeated the earlier large-scale slaughters of local populations. As a result, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and his empire have a fearsome reputation in local histories.[7] Beyond his military accomplishments, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
also advanced the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
in other ways. He decreed the adoption of the Uyghur script as the Mongol
Mongol
Empire's writing system. He also practiced meritocracy and encouraged religious tolerance in the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, and unified the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. Present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia.[8] Although known for the brutality of his campaigns[9] and considered by many to have been a genocidal ruler, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
is also credited with bringing the Silk Road
Silk Road
under one cohesive political environment. This brought communication and trade from Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
into Muslim Southwest Asia
Southwest Asia
and Christian Europe, thus expanding the horizons of all three cultural areas. His name is pronounced /ˈdʒɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/ or usually /ˈɡɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/;[10][11] Mongolian: Чингис хаан, Çingis hán; Mongolian pronunciation: [t͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋ] ( listen).

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Lineage 1.2 Birth 1.3 Early life and family

1.3.1 Wives and children

2 Uniting the Mongol
Mongol
confederations

2.1 Early attempts at power 2.2 Rift with Jamukha and defeat at Dalan Balzhut 2.3 Return to power 2.4 Rift with Toghrul 2.5 Sole ruler of the Mongol
Mongol
plains (1206)

3 Religion 4 Military campaigns

4.1 Western Xia
Western Xia
Dynasty 4.2 Jin dynasty 4.3 Qara Khitai 4.4 Khwarazmian Empire 4.5 Georgia, Crimea, Kievan Rus and Volga Bulgaria 4.6 Western Xia
Western Xia
and Jin Dynasty

5 Succession

5.1 Ögedei 5.2 Jochi

6 Death and burial 7 Mongol
Mongol
Empire

7.1 Politics and economics 7.2 Military 7.3 Khanates 7.4 After Genghis Khan

8 Perceptions

8.1 Positive

8.1.1 In Mongolia 8.1.2 In Japan

8.2 Mixed

8.2.1 In China

8.3 Negative

9 Descent 10 Physical appearance 11 Depictions in modern culture

11.1 Films 11.2 Television series 11.3 Poetry 11.4 Novels 11.5 Short stories 11.6 Music 11.7 Video games

12 Name and title

12.1 Name and spelling variations

13 Timeline 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References

16.1 Notes 16.2 Sources

17 Further reading

17.1 Primary sources

18 External links

Early life Lineage Main article: Family tree of Genghis Khan Temüjin was related on his father's side to Khabul Khan, Ambaghai, and Hotula Khan, who had headed the Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
confederation and were descendants of Bodonchar Munkhag
Bodonchar Munkhag
(c. 900). When the Jurchen Jin dynasty switched support from the Mongols
Mongols
to the Tatars
Tatars
in 1161, they destroyed Khabul Khan.[12][not in citation given] Temüjin's father, Yesügei
Yesügei
(leader of the Borjigin
Borjigin
clan and nephew to Ambaghai and Hotula Khan), emerged as the head of the ruling Mongol clan. This position was contested by the rival Tayichi'ud
Tayichi'ud
clan, who descended directly from Ambaghai. When the Tatars
Tatars
grew too powerful after 1161, the Jin switched their support from the Tatars
Tatars
to the Keraites. Birth

Autumn at the Onon River, Mongolia, the region where Temüjin was born and grew up.

Little is known about Temüjin's early life, due to the lack of contemporary written records. The few sources that give insight into this period often contradict. Temüjin's name was derived from the Mongol
Mongol
word temür meaning "of iron", while jin denotes agency.[13] Temüjin thus means "blacksmith".[14] Temüjin was probably born in 1162[2] in Delüün Boldog, near the mountain Burkhan Khaldun
Burkhan Khaldun
and the rivers Onon and Kherlen in modern-day northern Mongolia, close to the current capital Ulaanbaatar. The Secret History of the Mongols
Mongols
reports that Temüjin was born grasping a blood clot in his fist, a traditional sign that he was destined to become a great leader. He was the second son of his father Yesügei who was a Kiyad chief prominent in the Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
confederation and an ally of Toghrul
Toghrul
of the Keraite tribe.[15] Temüjin was the first son of his mother Hoelun. According to the Secret History, Temüjin was named after the Tatar
Tatar
chief Temüjin-üge whom his father had just captured. Yesukhei's clan was Borjigin
Borjigin
(Боржигин), and Hoelun
Hoelun
was from the Olkhunut sub-lineage of the Khongirad
Khongirad
tribe.[16][17] Like other tribes, they were nomads. Temüjin's noble background made it easier for him to solicit help from and eventually consolidate the other Mongol
Mongol
tribes.[citation needed] Early life and family Temüjin had three brothers Hasar, Hachiun, and Temüge, one sister Temülen, and two half-brothers Begter and Belgutei. Like many of the nomads of Mongolia, Temüjin's early life was difficult. His father arranged a marriage for him and delivered him at age nine to the family of his future wife Börte of the tribe Khongirad. Temüjin was to live there serving the head of the household Dai Setsen until the marriageable age of 12. While heading home, his father ran into the neighboring Tatars, who had long been Mongol
Mongol
enemies, and they offered him food that poisoned him. Upon learning this, Temüjin returned home to claim his father's position as chief. But the tribe refused this and abandoned the family, leaving it without protection.[18] For the next several years, the family lived in poverty, surviving mostly on wild fruits, ox carcasses, marmots, and other small game killed by Temüjin and his brothers. Temujin's older half-brother Begter began to exercise power as the eldest male in the family and would eventually have the right to claim Hoelun
Hoelun
(who was not his own mother) as wife.[19] Temujin's resentment erupted during one hunting excursion when Temüjin and his brother Khasar killed Begter.[19] In a raid around 1177, Temujin was captured by his father's former allies, the Tayichi'ud, and enslaved, reportedly with a cangue (a sort of portable stocks). With the help of a sympathetic guard, he escaped from the ger (yurt) at night by hiding in a river crevice.[citation needed] The escape earned Temüjin a reputation. Soon, Jelme and Bo'orchu
Bo'orchu
joined forces with him. They and the guard's son Chilaun eventually became generals of Genghis Khan. At this time, none of the tribal confederations of Mongolia
Mongolia
were united politically, and arranged marriages were often used to solidify temporary alliances. Temüjin grew up observing the tough political climate, which included tribal warfare, thievery, raids, corruption, and revenge between confederations, compounded by interference from abroad such as from China
China
to the south. Temüjin's mother Hoelun taught him many lessons, especially the need for strong alliances to ensure stability in Mongolia. Wives and children As previously arranged by his father, Temüjin married Börte of the Onggirat
Onggirat
tribe when he was around 16 in order to cement alliances between their two tribes. Soon after the marriage, Börte was kidnapped by the Merkits
Merkits
and reportedly given away as a wife. Temüjin rescued her with the help of his friend and future rival, Jamukha, and his protector, Toghrul
Toghrul
of the Keraite tribe. She gave birth to a son, Jochi
Jochi
(1185–1226), nine months later, clouding the issue of his parentage. Despite speculation over Jochi, Börte would be Temüjin's only empress, though he did follow tradition by taking several morganatic wives.[20] Börte had three more sons, Chagatai (1187–1241), Ögedei (1189–1241), and Tolui
Tolui
(1190–1232). Genghis later took about 500 secondary wives and "consorts", but Börte continued to be his life companion. He had many other children with those other wives, but they were excluded from succession, only Börte's sons being considered to be his heirs. However, a Tatar
Tatar
woman named Yisui, taken as a wife when her people were conquered by the Mongols, eventually came to be given almost as much prominence as Börte, despite originally being only one of his minor wives.[21][22] The names of at least six daughters are known, and while they played significant roles behind the scenes during his lifetime, no documents have survived that definitively provide the number or names of daughters born to the consorts of Genghis Khan.[23] Uniting the Mongol
Mongol
confederations See also: Proto- Mongols
Mongols
and List of medieval Mongol
Mongol
tribes and clans

The locations of the Mongolian tribes during the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1125)

In the early 13th century, the Central Asian plateau north of China was divided into several tribes of confederation, including Naimans, Merkits, Tatars, Khamag Mongols, and Keraites, that were all prominent and often unfriendly toward each other, as evidenced by random raids, revenge attacks, and plundering. Early attempts at power Temüjin began his ascent to power by offering himself as an ally (or, according to other sources, a vassal) to his father's anda (sworn brother or blood brother) Toghrul, who was Khan of the Keraites, and is better known by the Chinese title "Wang Khan", which the Jurchen Jin dynasty granted him in 1197. This relationship was first reinforced when Börte was captured by the Merkits. Temüjin turned to Toghrul
Toghrul
for support, and Toghrul
Toghrul
offered 20,000 of his Keraite warriors and suggested that Temüjin involve his childhood friend Jamukha, who had himself become Khan of his own tribe, the Jadaran.[24] Although the campaign recaptured Börte and utterly defeated the Merkits, it also paved the way for the split between Temüjin and Jamukha. Before this, they were blood brothers (anda) vowing to remain eternally faithful. Rift with Jamukha and defeat at Dalan Balzhut As Jamukha and Temüjin drifted apart in their friendship, each began consolidating power, and they became rivals. Jamukha supported the traditional Mongolian aristocracy, while Temüjin followed a meritocratic method, and attracted a broader range and lower class of followers.[25] Following his earlier defeat of the Merkits, and a proclamation by the shaman Kokochu that the Eternal Blue Sky had set aside the world for Temüjin, Temüjin began rising to power.[26] In 1186, Temüjin was elected khan of the Mongols. Threatened by this rise, Jamukha attacked Temujin in 1187 with an army of 30,000 troops. Temüjin gathered his followers to defend against the attack, but was decisively beaten in the Battle of Dalan Balzhut.[26][27] However, Jamukha horrified and alienated potential followers by boiling 70 young male captives alive in cauldrons.[28] Toghrul, as Temüjin's patron, was exiled to the Qara Khitai.[29] The life of Temüjin for the next 10 years is unclear, as historical records are mostly silent on that period.[29] Return to power Around the year 1197, the Jin initiated an attack against their formal vassal, the Tatars, with help from the Keraites
Keraites
and Mongols. Temüjin commanded part of this attack, and after victory, he and Toghrul
Toghrul
were restored by the Jin to positions of power.[29] The Jin bestowed Toghrul
Toghrul
with the honorable title of Ong Khan, and Temüjin with a lesser title of j'aut quri.[30] Around 1200, the main rivals of the Mongol
Mongol
confederation (traditionally the "Mongols") were the Naimans
Naimans
to the west, the Merkits
Merkits
to the north, the Tanguts
Tanguts
to the south, and the Jin to the east.

Jurchen inscription (1196) in Mongolia
Mongolia
relating to Genghis Khan's alliance with the Jin against the Tatars.

In his rule and his conquest of rival tribes, Temüjin broke with Mongol
Mongol
tradition in a few crucial ways. He delegated authority based on merit and loyalty, rather than family ties.[31] As an incentive for absolute obedience and the Yassa code of law, Temüjin promised civilians and soldiers wealth from future war spoils. When he defeated rival tribes, he did not drive away their soldiers and abandon their civilians. Instead, he took the conquered tribe under his protection and integrated its members into his own tribe. He would even have his mother adopt orphans from the conquered tribe, bringing them into his family. These political innovations inspired great loyalty among the conquered people, making Temüjin stronger with each victory.[31] Rift with Toghrul

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Senggum, son of Toghrul
Toghrul
(Wang Khan), envied Temüjin's growing power and affinity with his father. He allegedly planned to assassinate Temüjin. Although Toghrul
Toghrul
was allegedly saved on multiple occasions by Temüjin, he gave in to his son[32] and became uncooperative with Temüjin. Temüjin learned of Senggum's intentions and eventually defeated him and his loyalists.

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and Toghrul
Toghrul
Khan, illustration from a 15th-century Jami' al-tawarikh manuscript

One of the later ruptures between Temüjin and Toghrul
Toghrul
was Toghrul's refusal to give his daughter in marriage to Jochi, Temüjin's first son. This was disrespectful in Mongolian culture
Mongolian culture
and led to a war. Toghrul
Toghrul
allied with Jamukha, who already opposed Temüjin's forces. However, the dispute between Toghrul
Toghrul
and Jamukha, plus the desertion of a number of their allies to Temüjin, led to Toghrul's defeat. Jamukha escaped during the conflict. This defeat was a catalyst for the fall and eventual dissolution of the Keraite tribe. The next direct threat to Temüjin was the Naimans
Naimans
(Naiman Mongols), with whom Jamukha and his followers took refuge. The Naimans
Naimans
did not surrender, although enough sectors again voluntarily sided with Temüjin. In 1201, a khuruldai elected Jamukha as Gür Khan, "universal ruler", a title used by the rulers of the Qara Khitai. Jamukha's assumption of this title was the final breach with Temüjin, and Jamukha formed a coalition of tribes to oppose him. Before the conflict, several generals abandoned Jamukha, including Subutai, Jelme's well-known younger brother. After several battles, Jamukha was turned over to Temüjin by his own men in 1206. According to the Secret History, Temüjin again offered his friendship to Jamukha. Temüjin had killed the men who betrayed Jamukha, stating that he did not want disloyal men in his army. Jamukha refused the offer, saying that there can only be one sun in the sky, and he asked for a noble death. The custom was to die without spilling blood, specifically by having one's back broken. Jamukha requested this form of death, although he was known to have boiled his opponents' generals alive. Sole ruler of the Mongol
Mongol
plains (1206)

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Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
proclaimed Khagan
Khagan
of all Mongols. Illustration from a 15th-century Jami' al-tawarikh
Jami' al-tawarikh
manuscript.

Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
c. 1207

The part of the Merkit
Merkit
clan that sided with the Naimans
Naimans
were defeated by Subutai, who was by then a member of Temüjin's personal guard and later became one of Genghis Khan's most successful commanders. The Naimans' defeat left Temüjin as the sole ruler of the Mongol
Mongol
steppe – all the prominent confederations fell or united under his Mongol confederation. Accounts of Genghis Khan's life are marked by claims of a series of betrayals and conspiracies. These include rifts with his early allies such as Jamukha (who also wanted to be a ruler of Mongol
Mongol
tribes) and Wang Khan
Wang Khan
(his and his father's ally), his son Jochi, and problems with the most important shaman, who allegedly tried to drive a wedge between him and his loyal brother Khasar. His military strategies showed a deep interest in gathering intelligence and understanding the motivations of his rivals, exemplified by his extensive spy network and Yam route systems. He seemed to be a quick student, adopting new technologies and ideas that he encountered, such as siege warfare from the Chinese. He was also ruthless, demonstrated by his tactic of measuring against the linchpin, used against the tribes led by Jamukha. As a result, by 1206, Temüjin had managed to unite or subdue the Merkits, Naimans, Mongols, Keraites, Tatars, Uyghurs, and other disparate smaller tribes under his rule. This was a monumental feat. It resulted in peace between previously warring tribes, and a single political and military force. The union became known as the Mongols. At a Khuruldai, a council of Mongol
Mongol
chiefs, Temüjin was acknowledged as Khan of the consolidated tribes and took the new title "Genghis Khan". The title Khagan
Khagan
was conferred posthumously by his son and successor Ögedei
Ögedei
who took the title for himself (as he was also to be posthumously declared the founder of the Yuan dynasty). Religion Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
was a tengrist, but was religiously tolerant and interested in learning philosophical and moral lessons from other religions. He consulted Buddhist monks, Muslims, Christian missionaries, and the Taoist monk Qiu Chuji.[33] Genghis Khan, and the following Yuan Emperors forbade Islamic practices like Halal
Halal
butchering, forcing Mongol
Mongol
methods of butchering animals on Muslims, and other restrictive decrees continued. Muslims had to slaughter sheep in secret.[34] Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
explicitly called Muslims and Jews
Jews
"slaves", and demanded that they follow the Mongol method of eating rather than the halal method. Circumcision
Circumcision
was also forbidden. Jews
Jews
were also affected, and forbidden by the Mongols
Mongols
to eat Kosher.[35]

Among all the [subject] alien peoples only the Hui-hui say "we do not eat Mongol
Mongol
food". [Cinggis Qa'an replied:] "By the aid of heaven we have pacified you; you are our slaves. Yet you do not eat our food or drink. How can this be right?" He thereupon made them eat. "If you slaughter sheep, you will be considered guilty of a crime." He issued a regulation to that effect ... [In 1279/1280 under Qubilai] all the Muslims say: "if someone else slaughters [the animal] we do not eat". Because the poor people are upset by this, from now on, Musuluman [Muslim] Huihui and Zhuhu [Jewish] Huihui, no matter who kills [the animal] will eat [it] and must cease slaughtering sheep themselves, and cease the rite of circumcision.[36]

Military campaigns

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See also: Mongol invasions
Mongol invasions
and conquests Western Xia
Western Xia
Dynasty Main article: Mongol
Mongol
conquest of Western Xia During the 1206 political rise of Genghis Khan, the Mongol
Mongol
Empire created by Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and his allies shared its western borders with the Western Xia
Western Xia
dynasty of the Tanguts. To the east and south was the Jin dynasty, founded by the Manchurian Jurchens, who ruled northern China
China
as well as being the traditional overlords of the Mongolian tribes for centuries.

Battle between Mongol
Mongol
warriors and the Chinese

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
entering Beijing.

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
organized his people, army, and his state to first prepare for war with Western Xia, or Xi Xia, which was close to the Mongolian lands. He correctly believed that the more powerful young ruler of the Jin dynasty would not come to the aid of Xi Xia. When the Tanguts
Tanguts
requested help from the Jin dynasty, they were refused.[32] Despite initial difficulties in capturing its well-defended cities, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
managed to force the emperor of Xi Xia to submit to vassal status. Jin dynasty Main article: Mongol
Mongol
conquest of the Jin dynasty In 1211, after the conquest of Western Xia, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
planned again to conquer the Jin dynasty. Wanyan Jiujin, the field commander of the Jin army, made a tactical mistake in not attacking the Mongols
Mongols
at the first opportunity. Instead, the Jin commander sent a messenger, Ming'an, to the Mongol
Mongol
side, who defected and told the Mongols
Mongols
that the Jin army was waiting on the other side of the pass. At this engagement fought at Yehuling, the Mongols
Mongols
massacred hundreds of thousands of Jin troops. In 1215, Genghis besieged, captured, and sacked the Jin capital of Zhongdu (modern-day Beijing). This forced the Jin ruler, Emperor Xuanzong, to move his capital south to Kaifeng, abandoning the northern half of his empire to the Mongols. Between 1232 and 1233, Kaifeng
Kaifeng
fell to the Mongols
Mongols
under the reign of Genghis's third son, Ögedei
Ögedei
Khan. The Jin dynasty collapsed in 1234, after the siege of Caizhou. Qara Khitai Main article: Qara Khitai Kuchlug, the deposed Khan of the Naiman confederation that Temüjin defeated and folded into his Mongol
Mongol
Empire, fled west and usurped the khanate of Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
(also known as the Western Liao, as it was originally established as remnants of the Liao dynasty). Genghis Khan decided to conquer the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
and defeat Kuchlug, possibly to take him out of power. By this time the Mongol
Mongol
army was exhausted from ten years of continuous campaigning in China
China
against the Western Xia and Jin dynasty. Therefore, Genghis sent only two tumen (20,000 soldiers) against Kuchlug, under his younger general, Jebe, known as "The Arrow". With such a small force, the invading Mongols
Mongols
were forced to change strategies and resort to inciting internal revolt among Kuchlug's supporters, leaving the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
more vulnerable to Mongol conquest. As a result, Kuchlug's army was defeated west of Kashgar. Kuchlug
Kuchlug
fled again, but was soon hunted down by Jebe's army and executed. By 1218, as a result of the defeat of Qara Khitai, the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
and its control extended as far west as Lake Balkhash, which bordered Khwarazmia, a Muslim
Muslim
state that reached the Caspian Sea to the west and Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to the south. Khwarazmian Empire Main article: Mongol
Mongol
conquest of Khwarezmia In the early 13th century, the Khwarazmian dynasty
Khwarazmian dynasty
was governed by Shah
Shah
Ala ad-Din Muhammad. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
saw the potential advantage in Khwarazmia as a commercial trading partner using the Silk Road, and he initially sent a 500-man caravan to establish official trade ties with the empire. However, Inalchuq, the governor of the Khwarazmian city of Otrar, attacked the caravan, claiming that the caravan contained spies and therefore was a conspiracy against Khwarazmia. The situation became further complicated because the governor later refused to make repayments for the looting of the caravans and hand over the perpetrators. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
then sent a second group of three ambassadors (two Mongols
Mongols
and a Muslim) to meet the Shah
Shah
himself, instead of the governor Inalchuq. The Shah
Shah
had all the men shaved and the Muslim
Muslim
beheaded and sent his head back with the two remaining ambassadors. Outraged, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
planned one of his largest invasion campaigns by organizing together around 100,000 soldiers (10 tumens), his most capable generals and some of his sons. He left a commander and number of troops in China, designated his successors to be his family members and likely appointed Ögedei
Ögedei
to be his immediate successor and then went out to Khwarazmia.

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
watches in amazement as the Khwarezmi Jalal ad-Din prepares to ford the Indus.

The Mongol
Mongol
army under Genghis Khan, generals and his sons crossed the Tien Shan mountains by entering the area controlled by the Khwarazmian Empire. After compiling intelligence from many sources Genghis Khan carefully prepared his army, which was divided into three groups. His son Jochi
Jochi
led the first division into the northeast of Khwarazmia. The second division under Jebe marched secretly to the southeast part of Khwarazmia to form, with the first division, a pincer attack on Samarkand. The third division under Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and Tolui
Tolui
marched to the northwest and attacked Khwarazmia from that direction. The Shah's army was split by diverse internecine feuds and by the Shah's decision to divide his army into small groups concentrated in various cities. This fragmentation was decisive in Khwarazmia's defeats, as it allowed the Mongols, although exhausted from the long journey, to immediately set about defeating small fractions of the Khwarazmian forces instead of facing a unified defense. The Mongol army quickly seized the town of Otrar, relying on superior strategy and tactics. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
ordered the wholesale massacre of many of the civilians, enslaved the rest of the population and executed Inalchuq by pouring molten silver into his ears and eyes, as retribution for his actions. Near the end of the battle the Shah
Shah
fled rather than surrender. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
ordered Subutai
Subutai
and Jebe to hunt him down, giving them 20,000 men and two years to do this. The Shah died under mysterious circumstances on a small island within his empire. The Mongols' conquest, even by their own standards, was brutal. After the capital Samarkand
Samarkand
fell, the capital was moved to Bukhara
Bukhara
by the remaining men, while Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
ordered two of his generals and their forces to completely destroy the remnants of the Khwarazmian Empire, including not only royal buildings, but entire towns, populations, and even vast swaths of farmland.

Significant conquests and movements of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and his generals

The Mongols
Mongols
attacked Samarkand
Samarkand
using captured enemies as body shields. After several days only a few remaining soldiers, loyal supporters of the Shah, held out in the citadel. After the fortress fell, Genghis supposedly reneged on his surrender terms and executed every soldier that had taken arms against him at Samarkand. The people of Samarkand were ordered to evacuate and assemble in a plain outside the city, where they were killed and pyramids of severed heads raised as a symbol of victory.[37] Ata-Malik Juvayni, a high official in the service of the Mongol
Mongol
empire, wrote that in Termez, on the Oxus, "all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, and divided in accordance with their usual custom, then they were all slain".[37] The city of Bukhara
Bukhara
was not heavily fortified, with a moat and a single wall, and the citadel typical of Khwarazmian cities. The city leaders opened the gates to the Mongols, though a unit of Turkish defenders held the city's citadel for another twelve days. Survivors from the citadel were executed, artisans and craftsmen were sent back to Mongolia, young men who had not fought were drafted into the Mongolian army and the rest of the population was sent into slavery. As the Mongol
Mongol
soldiers looted the city, a fire broke out, razing most of the city to the ground.[38] Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
had the city's surviving population assemble in the main mosque of the town, where he declared that he was the flail of God, sent to punish them for their sins. Meanwhile, the wealthy trading city of Urgench was still in the hands of Khwarazmian forces. The assault on Urgench proved to be the most difficult battle of the Mongol
Mongol
invasion and the city fell only after the defenders put up a stout defense, fighting block for block. Mongolian casualties were higher than normal, due to the unaccustomed difficulty of adapting Mongolian tactics to city fighting. As usual, the artisans were sent back to Mongolia, young women and children were given to the Mongol
Mongol
soldiers as slaves, and the rest of the population was massacred. The Persian scholar Juvayni states that 50,000 Mongol
Mongol
soldiers were given the task of executing twenty-four Urgench citizens each, which would mean that 1.2 million people were killed. The sacking of Urgench is considered one of the bloodiest massacres in human history. In the meantime, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
selected his third son Ögedei
Ögedei
as his successor before his army set out, and specified that subsequent Khans should be his direct descendants. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
had left Muqali, one of his most trusted generals, in command of all Mongol
Mongol
forces in Jin China
China
while he battled the Khwarezmid Empire
Khwarezmid Empire
to the west. Georgia, Crimea, Kievan Rus and Volga Bulgaria Main articles: Mongol invasions
Mongol invasions
of Georgia and Armenia
Armenia
and Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria

Mongol
Mongol
"Great Khans" coin, minted in 1221 at Balk, Afghanistan, AH 618

After the defeat of the Khwarazmian Empire in 1220, Genghis Khan gathered his forces in Persia and Armenia
Armenia
to return to the Mongolian steppes. Under the suggestion of Subutai, the Mongol
Mongol
army was split into two forces. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
led the main army on a raid through Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and northern India towards Mongolia, while another 20,000 (two tumen) contingent marched through the Caucasus
Caucasus
and into Russia under generals Jebe and Subutai. They pushed deep into Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan. The Mongols
Mongols
defeated the kingdom of Georgia, sacked the Genoese trade-fortress of Caffa
Caffa
in Crimea
Crimea
and overwintered near the Black Sea. Heading home, Subutai's forces attacked the allied forces of the Cuman–Kipchaks and the poorly coordinated 80,000 Kievan Rus' troops led by Mstislav the Bold
Mstislav the Bold
of Halych
Halych
and Mstislav III of Kiev who went out to stop the Mongols' actions in the area. Subutai
Subutai
sent emissaries to the Slavic princes calling for a separate peace, but the emissaries were executed. At the Battle of Kalka River
Battle of Kalka River
in 1223, Subutai's forces defeated the larger Kievan force. They may have been defeated by the neighbouring Volga Bulgars
Volga Bulgars
at the Battle of Samara Bend. There is no historical record except a short account by the Arab historian Ibn al-Athir, writing in Mosul some 1100 miles away from the event.[39] Various historical secondary sources – Morgan, Chambers, Grousset – state that the Mongols
Mongols
actually defeated the Bulgars, Chambers even going so far as to say that the Bulgars had made up stories to tell the (recently crushed) Russians that they had beaten the Mongols
Mongols
and driven them from their territory.[39] The Russian princes then sued for peace. Subutai
Subutai
agreed but was in no mood to pardon the princes. As was customary in Mongol
Mongol
society for nobility, the Russian princes were given a bloodless death. Subutai
Subutai
had a large wooden platform constructed on which he ate his meals along with his other generals. Six Russian princes, including Mstislav III of Kiev, were put under this platform and crushed to death. The Mongols
Mongols
learned from captives of the abundant green pastures beyond the Bulgar territory, allowing for the planning for conquest of Hungary and Europe. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
recalled Subutai
Subutai
back to Mongolia soon afterwards, and Jebe died on the road back to Samarkand. The famous cavalry expedition led by Subutai
Subutai
and Jebe, in which they encircled the entire Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
defeating all armies in their path, remains unparalleled to this day, and word of the Mongol
Mongol
triumphs began to trickle to other nations, particularly Europe. These two campaigns are generally regarded as reconnaissance campaigns that tried to get the feel of the political and cultural elements of the regions. In 1225 both divisions returned to Mongolia. These invasions added Transoxiana
Transoxiana
and Persia to an already formidable empire while destroying any resistance along the way. Later under Genghis Khan's grandson Batu and the Golden Horde, the Mongols
Mongols
returned to conquer Volga Bulgaria and Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
in 1237, concluding the campaign in 1240. Western Xia
Western Xia
and Jin Dynasty Main article: Mongol
Mongol
invasion of China

Western Xia
Western Xia
dynasty, Jin/Jurchen dynasty, Song dynasty
Song dynasty
and Kingdom of Dali in 1142

The vassal emperor of the Tanguts
Tanguts
(Western Xia) had earlier refused to take part in the Mongol
Mongol
war against the Khwarezmid Empire. Western Xia and the defeated Jin dynasty formed a coalition to resist the Mongols, counting on the campaign against the Khwarazmians to preclude the Mongols
Mongols
from responding effectively. In 1226, immediately after returning from the west, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
began a retaliatory attack on the Tanguts. His armies quickly took Heisui, Ganzhou, and Suzhou (not the Suzhou in Jiangsu province), and in the autumn he took Xiliang-fu. One of the Tangut generals challenged the Mongols
Mongols
to a battle near Helan Mountains
Helan Mountains
but was defeated. In November, Genghis laid siege to the Tangut city Lingzhou and crossed the Yellow River, defeating the Tangut relief army. According to legend, it was here that Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
reportedly saw a line of five stars arranged in the sky and interpreted it as an omen of his victory. In 1227, Genghis Khan's army attacked and destroyed the Tangut capital of Ning Hia and continued to advance, seizing Lintiao-fu, Xining province, Xindu-fu, and Deshun province in quick succession in the spring. At Deshun, the Tangut general Ma Jianlong put up a fierce resistance for several days and personally led charges against the invaders outside the city gate. Ma Jianlong later died from wounds received from arrows in battle. Genghis Khan, after conquering Deshun, went to Liupanshan (Qingshui County, Gansu
Gansu
Province) to escape the severe summer. The new Tangut emperor quickly surrendered to the Mongols, and the rest of the Tanguts
Tanguts
officially surrendered soon after. Not happy with their betrayal and resistance, Genghis Khan ordered the entire imperial family to be executed, effectively ending the Tangut lineage. Succession

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and three of his four sons. Illustration from a 15th-century Jami' al-tawarikh
Jami' al-tawarikh
manuscript

The succession of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
was already a significant topic during the later years of his reign, as he reached old age. The long running paternity discussion about Genghis's oldest son Jochi
Jochi
was particularly contentious because of the seniority of Jochi
Jochi
among the brothers. According to traditional historical accounts, the issue over Jochi's paternity was voiced most strongly by Chagatai. In The Secret History of the Mongols, just before the invasion of the Khwarezmid Empire
Khwarezmid Empire
by Genghis Khan, Chagatai declared before his father and brothers that he would never accept Jochi
Jochi
as Genghis Khan's successor. In response to this tension,[40] and possibly for other reasons, Ögedei
Ögedei
was appointed as successor. Ögedei Main article: Ögedei
Ögedei
Khan Ögedei
Ögedei
Khan, born Ögedei
Ögedei
(c. 1185[41] – December 11, 1241) was the third son of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and second Great Khan
Great Khan
(Khagan) of the Mongol Empire. He continued the expansion that his father had begun and was a world figure when the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
reached its farthest extent west and south during the invasions of Europe and Asia. Jochi Main article: Jochi Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
was aware of the friction between his sons (particularly between Chagatai and Jochi) and worried of possible conflict between them if he died. He therefore decided to divide his empire among his sons and make all of them Khan in their own right, while appointing one of his sons as his successor. Chagatai was considered unstable due to his temper and rash behavior, because of statements he made that he would not follow Jochi
Jochi
if he were to become his father's successor. Tolui, Genghis Khan's youngest son, was not suitable since in Mongol culture, youngest sons were not given much responsibility due to their age. If Jochi
Jochi
were to become successor, it was likely that Chagatai would engage in warfare with him and collapse the empire. Therefore, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
decided to give the throne to Ögedei. Ögedei
Ögedei
was seen by Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
as dependable in character and relatively stable and down to earth and would be a neutral candidate that might defuse the situation between his brothers. Jochi
Jochi
died in 1226, during his father's lifetime. Some scholars, notably Ratchnevsky, have commented on the possibility that Jochi
Jochi
was secretly poisoned by an order from Genghis Khan. Rashid al-Din reports that the great Khan sent for his sons in the spring of 1223, and while his brothers heeded the order, Jochi
Jochi
remained in Khorasan. Juzjani suggests that the disagreement arose from a quarrel between Jochi
Jochi
and his brothers in the siege of Urgench. Jochi
Jochi
had attempted to protect Urgench from destruction, as it belonged to territory allocated to him as a fief. He concludes his story with the clearly apocryphal statement by Jochi: " Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
is mad to have massacred so many people and laid waste so many lands. I would be doing a service if I killed my father when he is hunting, made an alliance with Sultan Muhammad, brought this land to life and gave assistance and support to the Muslims." Juzjani claims that it was in response to hearing of these plans that Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
ordered his son secretly poisoned; however, as Sultan Muhammad was already dead in 1223, the accuracy of this story is questionable.[42] Death and burial Main article: Tomb of Genghis Khan

Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
in 1227 at Genghis Khan's death

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
died in August 1227, during the fall of Yinchuan, which is the capital of Western Xia. The exact cause of his death remains a mystery, and is variously attributed to being killed in action against the Western Xia, illness, falling from his horse, or wounds sustained in hunting or battle.[43][44][45] According to The Secret History of the Mongols, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
fell from his horse while hunting and died because of the injury. He was already old and tired from his journeys. The Galician–Volhynian Chronicle alleges he was killed by the Western Xia
Western Xia
in battle, while Marco Polo
Marco Polo
wrote that he died after the infection of an arrow wound he received during his final campaign.[46] Later Mongol
Mongol
chronicles connect Genghis's death with a Western Xia princess taken as war booty. One chronicle from the early 17th century even relates the legend that the princess hid a small dagger and stabbed him, though some Mongol
Mongol
authors have doubted this version and suspected it to be an invention by the rival Oirads.[47] Years before his death, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
asked to be buried without markings, according to the customs of his tribe. After he died, his body was returned to Mongolia
Mongolia
and presumably to his birthplace in Khentii Aimag, where many assume he is buried somewhere close to the Onon River
Onon River
and the Burkhan Khaldun
Burkhan Khaldun
mountain (part of the Kentii mountain range). According to legend, the funeral escort killed anyone and anything across their path to conceal where he was finally buried. The Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Mausoleum, constructed many years after his death, is his memorial, but not his burial site.

The Genghis Khan Mausoleum
Genghis Khan Mausoleum
in the town of Ejin Horo Banner, Inner Mongolia, China

In 1939 Chinese Nationalist soldiers took the mausoleum from its position at the 'Lord's Enclosure' (Mongolian: Edsen Khoroo) in Mongolia
Mongolia
to protect it from Japanese troops. It was taken through Communist-held territory in Yan'an
Yan'an
some 900 km (560 mi) on carts to safety at a Buddhist monastery, the Dongshan Dafo Dian, where it remained for ten years. In 1949, as Communist troops advanced, the Nationalist soldiers moved it another 200 km (120 mi) farther west to the famous Tibetan monastery of Kumbum Monastery
Kumbum Monastery
or Ta'er Shi near Xining, which soon fell under Communist control. In early 1954, Genghis Khan's bier and relics were returned to the Lord's Enclosure in Mongolia. By 1956 a new temple was erected there to house them.[48] In 1968 during the Cultural Revolution, Red Guards destroyed almost everything of value. The "relics" were remade in the 1970s and a great marble statue of Genghis was completed in 1989.[49] On October 6, 2004, a joint Japanese-Mongolian archaeological dig uncovered what is believed to be Genghis Khan's palace in rural Mongolia, which raises the possibility of actually locating the ruler's long-lost burial site.[50] Folklore says that a river was diverted over his grave to make it impossible to find (the same manner of burial as the Sumerian King Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
of Uruk and Atilla the Hun). Other tales state that his grave was stampeded over by many horses, and that trees were then planted over the site, and the permafrost also did its part in hiding the burial site. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
left behind an army of more than 129,000 men; 28,000 were given to his various brothers and his sons. Tolui, his youngest son, inherited more than 100,000 men. This force contained the bulk of the elite Mongolian cavalry. By tradition, the youngest son inherits his father's property. Jochi, Chagatai, Ögedei
Ögedei
Khan, and Kulan's son Gelejian received armies of 4,000 men each. His mother and the descendants of his three brothers received 3,000 men each. Mongol
Mongol
Empire Main article: Mongol
Mongol
Empire Politics and economics Main article: Organization of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
under Genghis Khan

Mongol
Mongol
Empire

The Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
was governed by a civilian and military code, called the Yassa, created by Genghis Khan. The Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
did not emphasize the importance of ethnicity and race in the administrative realm, instead adopting an approach grounded in meritocracy. The exception was the role of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and his family. The Mongol Empire was one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse empires in history, as befitted its size. Many of the empire's nomadic inhabitants considered themselves Mongols
Mongols
in military and civilian life, including Mongols, Turks and others and included many diverse Khans of various ethnicities as part of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
such as Muhammad Khan. There were tax exemptions for religious figures and, to some extent, teachers and doctors. The Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
practiced religious tolerance because Mongol
Mongol
tradition had long held that religion was a personal concept, and not subject to law or interference.[citation needed] Sometime before the rise of Genghis Khan, Ong Khan, his mentor and eventual rival, had converted to Nestorian Christianity. Various Mongol
Mongol
tribes were Shamanist, Buddhist or Christian. Religious tolerance was thus a well established concept on the Asian steppe. Modern Mongolian historians say that towards the end of his life, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
attempted to create a civil state under the Great Yassa that would have established the legal equality of all individuals, including women.[51] However, there is no evidence of this, or of the lifting of discriminatory policies towards sedentary peoples such as the Chinese. Women played a relatively important role in the Mongol Empire and in the family, for example Töregene Khatun was briefly in charge of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
while the next male leader Khagan
Khagan
was being chosen. Modern scholars refer to the alleged policy of encouraging trade and communication as the Pax Mongolica
Pax Mongolica
(Mongol Peace). Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
realised that he needed people who could govern cities and states conquered by him. He also realised that such administrators could not be found among his Mongol
Mongol
people because they were nomads and thus had no experience governing cities. For this purpose Genghis Khan invited a Khitan prince, Chu'Tsai, who worked for the Jin and had been captured by the Mongol
Mongol
army after the Jin dynasty was defeated. Jin had captured power by displacing Khitan. Genghis told Chu'Tsai, who was a lineal descendant of Khitan rulers, that he had avenged Chu'Tsai's forefathers. Chu'Tsai responded that his father served the Jin dynasty honestly and so did he; also he did not consider his own father his enemy, so the question of revenge did not apply. This reply impressed Genghis Khan. Chu'Tsai administered parts of the Mongol Empire and became a confidant of the successive Mongol
Mongol
Khans. Military Main article: Mongol
Mongol
military tactics and organization

Reenactment of Mongol
Mongol
battle

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
put absolute trust in his generals, such as Muqali, Jebe and Subutai, and regarded them as close advisors, often extending them the same privileges and trust normally reserved for close family members. He allowed them to make decisions on their own when they embarked on campaigns far from the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
capital Karakorum. Muqali, a trusted lieutenant, was given command of the Mongol
Mongol
forces against the Jin dynasty while Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
was fighting in Central Asia, and Subutai
Subutai
and Jebe were allowed to pursue the Great Raid into the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Kievan Rus', an idea they had presented to the Khagan on their own initiative. While granting his generals a great deal of autonomy in making command decisions, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
also expected unwavering loyalty from them. The Mongol
Mongol
military was also successful in siege warfare, cutting off resources for cities and towns by diverting certain rivers, taking enemy prisoners and driving them in front of the army, and adopting new ideas, techniques and tools from the people they conquered, particularly in employing Muslim
Muslim
and Chinese siege engines and engineers to aid the Mongol
Mongol
cavalry in capturing cities. Another standard tactic of the Mongol
Mongol
military was the commonly practiced feigned retreat to break enemy formations and to lure small enemy groups away from the larger group and defended position for ambush and counterattack. Another important aspect of the military organization of Genghis Khan was the communications and supply route or Yam, adapted from previous Chinese models. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
dedicated special attention to this in order to speed up the gathering of military intelligence and official communications. To this end, Yam waystations were established all over the empire.[52] Khanates Several years before his death, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
divided his empire among his sons Ögedei, Chagatai, Tolui, and Jochi
Jochi
(Jochi's death several months before Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
meant that his lands were instead split between his sons, Batu and Orda) into several Khanates designed as sub-territories: their Khans were expected to follow the Great Khan, who was, initially, Ögedei.

Modern-day location of capital Kharakhorum

Following are the Khanates as Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
assigned them:

Empire of the Great Khan: Ögedei
Ögedei
Khan, as Great Khan, took most of Eastern Asia, including China; this territory later to comprise the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
under Kublai Khan. Mongol
Mongol
homeland (present day Mongolia, including Karakorum): Tolui Khan, being the youngest son, received a small territory near the Mongol
Mongol
homeland, following Mongol
Mongol
custom. Chagatai Khanate: Chagatai Khan, Genghis Khan's second son, was given Central Asia
Central Asia
and northern Iran. Blue Horde to Batu Khan, and White Horde to Orda Khan, both were later combined into the Kipchak Khanate, or Khanate of the Golden Horde, under Toqtamysh. Genghis Khan's eldest son, Jochi, had received most of the distant Russia and Ruthenia. Because Jochi
Jochi
died before Genghis Khan, his territory was further split up between his sons. Batu Khan launched an invasion of Russia, and later Hungary and Poland, and crushed several armies before being summoned back by the news of Ögedei's death.

After Genghis Khan See also: List of Mongol
Mongol
rulers

Genghis Khan's son and successor, Ögedei
Ögedei
Khan

Contrary to popular belief, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
did not conquer the whole area of the eventual Mongol
Mongol
Empire. At the time of his death in 1227, the empire stretched from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to the Sea of Japan. Its expansion continued for one or more generations. Under Genghis's successor Ögedei Khan
Ögedei Khan
the speed of expansion reached its peak. Mongol armies pushed into Persia, finished off the Western Xia
Western Xia
and the remnants of the Khwarezmids, clashed with the imperial Song dynasty
Song dynasty
of China, and eventually took control of all of China
China
in 1279. They also pushed further into Russia and eastern Europe. Perceptions Like other notable conquerors, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
is portrayed differently by conquered peoples than those who conquered with him. Negative views persist in histories written by many cultures from different geographical regions. They often cite the systematic slaughter of civilians in conquered regions, cruelties and destruction by Mongol armies. Other authors also cite positive aspects of Genghis Khan's conquests. Positive

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
on the reverse of a Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
100 Tenge coin. The coin was minted as a collectable to honor the warlord, and is not used in common transactions.

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
is credited with bringing the Silk Road
Silk Road
under one cohesive political environment. This allowed increased communication and trade between the West, Middle East and Asia, thus expanding the horizons of all three cultural areas. Some historians have noted that Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
instituted certain levels of meritocracy in his rule, was tolerant of religions and explained his policies clearly to all his soldiers.[53] In Turkey, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
is considered a great military leader, and it is popular for male children to carry his title as name.[54] In Mongolia Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
had been revered for centuries by Mongols
Mongols
and certain other ethnic groups such as Turks, largely because of his association with Mongol
Mongol
statehood, political and military organization, and his victories in war. He eventually evolved into a larger-than-life figure chiefly among the Mongols
Mongols
and is still considered the symbol of Mongolian culture. During the communist period in Mongolia, Genghis was often described as a reactionary, and positive statements about him were avoided.[55] In 1962, the erection of a monument at his birthplace and a conference held in commemoration of his 800th birthday led to criticism from the Soviet Union and the dismissal of secretary Tömör-Ochir of the ruling Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party Central Committee.

Portrait on a hillside in Ulaanbaatar, 2006

In the early 1990s, the memory of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
underwent a powerful revival, partly in reaction to its suppression during the Mongolian People's Republic period. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
became one of the central figures of the national identity. He is considered positively by Mongolians for his role in uniting warring tribes. For example, Mongolians often refer to their country as "Genghis Khan's Mongolia", to themselves as "Genghis Khan's children", and to Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
as the "father of the Mongols" especially among the younger generation. However, there is a chasm in the perception of his brutality. Mongolians maintain that the historical records written by non-Mongolians are unfairly biased against Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and that his butchery is exaggerated, while his positive role is underrated.[56] In Mongolia
Mongolia
today, Genghis Khan's name and likeness appear on products, streets, buildings, and other places. His face can be found on everyday commodities, from liquor bottles to candy, and on the largest denominations of 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 Mongolian tögrög
Mongolian tögrög
(₮). Mongolia's main international airport in Ulaanbaatar
Ulaanbaatar
is named Chinggis Khaan International Airport. Major Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
statues stand before the parliament[57] and near Ulaanbaatar. There have been repeated discussions about regulating the use of his name and image to avoid trivialization.[58]

President Elbegdorj's second inauguration on 10 July 2013, in front of the monument to Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
at the Government Palace in Ulaanbaatar

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
is regarded as one of the prominent leaders in Mongolia's history.[59] He is responsible for the emergence of the Mongols
Mongols
as a political and ethnic identity because there was no unified identity between the tribes that had cultural similarity. He reinforced many Mongol
Mongol
traditions and provided stability and unity during a time of almost endemic warfare between tribes. He is also credited for introducing the traditional Mongolian script
Mongolian script
and creating the first written Mongolian code of law, the Ikh Zasag ("Great Administration").[60] Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj
Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj
has noted that the Ikh Zasag heavily punished corruption and bribery,[61] and he considers Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
a teacher for anti-corruption efforts who sought equal protection under the law for all citizens regardless of status or wealth. On the 850th anniversary of Genghis's birth, the President stated "Chinggis ... was a man who deeply realized that the justice begins and consolidates with the equality of law, and not with the distinctions between people. He was a man who knew that the good laws and rules lived longer than fancy palaces."[62] In summary, Mongolians see him as the fundamental figure in the founding of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
and therefore the basis for Mongolia
Mongolia
as a country. As of 2012[update], Elbegdorj issued a decree establishing Genghis Khan's birthday as a national holiday on the first day of winter (according to the Mongolian lunar calendar).[63] In Japan Japanese like Kenchō Suyematsu have claimed that the ethnic Japanese Minamoto no Yoshitsune
Minamoto no Yoshitsune
was Genghis Khan.[64] Mixed In China

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Monument in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China

There are conflicting views of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in the People's Republic of China. The legacy of Genghis and his successors, who completed the conquest of China
China
after 65 years of struggle, remains a mixed topic.[citation needed] China
China
suffered a drastic decline in population.[65] The population of north China
China
decreased from 50 million in the 1195 census to 8.5 million in the Mongol
Mongol
census of 1235–36. An unknown number of people migrated to Southern China
China
in this period.[66] In Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
there are a monument and buildings dedicated to him and considerable number of ethnic Mongols
Mongols
in the area with a population of around 5 million, almost twice the population of Mongolia. While Genghis never conquered all of China, his grandson Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
completed that conquest and established the Yuan dynasty that is often credited with re-uniting China. There has been much artwork and literature praising Genghis as a military leader and political genius. The Mongol-established Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
left an indelible imprint on Chinese political and social structures for subsequent generations with literature during the preceding Jin dynasty relatively fewer. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
supported the Chinese Daoist sect leader Qiu Chuji
Qiu Chuji
and after personally meeting him in what is now Afghanistan, gave him control of all religious affairs in northern China. Negative Main article: Destruction under the Mongol
Mongol
Empire

Invasions like the Battle of Baghdad
Baghdad
by his grandson are treated as brutal and are seen negatively in Iraq. This illustration is from a 14th-century Jami' al-tawarikh
Jami' al-tawarikh
manuscript.

In the Middle East, and particularly in Iran, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
is almost universally condemned as a destructive and genocidal warlord who caused enormous destruction to the population of these areas.[67] Steven R. Ward wrote that "Overall, the Mongol
Mongol
violence and depredations killed up to three-fourths of the population of the Iranian Plateau, possibly 10 to 15 million people. Some historians have estimated that Iran's population did not again reach its pre- Mongol
Mongol
levels until the mid-20th century."[68] In Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(along with other non-Turkic Muslim
Muslim
countries), he is generally viewed unfavorably, though some groups display ambivalence as it is believed that the Hazara of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
are descendants of a large Mongol
Mongol
garrison stationed there.[69][70] The invasions of Merv, Samarkand, Urgench, Nishapur, Bamyan, Balkh
Balkh
and Herat
Herat
among others caused mass murders, such as when large portions of Khorasan Province
Khorasan Province
were completely destroyed. His descendant Hulagu Khan destroyed much of Iran's north and sacked Baghdad, although his forces were halted by the Mamluks of Egypt. Hulagu's descendant Ghazan Khan once returned to beat the Mamluks and briefly gain the control of Syria, but were eventually defeated. According to the works of the Persian historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, the Mongols
Mongols
killed more than 70,000 people in Merv
Merv
and more than 190,000 in Nishapur. In 1237, Batu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan, launched an invasion into Kievan Rus'. Over the course of three years, the Mongols
Mongols
annihilated all of the major cities of Eastern Europe with the exception of Novgorod
Novgorod
and Pskov.[71] Giovanni de Plano Carpini, the Pope's envoy to the Mongol
Mongol
Great Khan, travelled through Kiev
Kiev
in February 1246 and wrote:

“ They [the Mongols] attacked Russia, where they made great havoc, destroying cities and fortresses and slaughtering men; and they laid siege to Kiev, the capital of Russia; after they had besieged the city for a long time, they took it and put the inhabitants to death. When we were journeying through that land we came across countless skulls and bones of dead men lying about on the ground. Kiev
Kiev
had been a very large and thickly populated town, but now it has been reduced almost to nothing, for there are at the present time scarce two hundred houses there and the inhabitants are kept in complete slavery.[72] ”

The Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Hungary. The dismounted Mongols, with captured women, are on the left, the Hungarians, with one saved woman, on the right.

Among the Iranian peoples, Genghis Khan, along with Hulagu
Hulagu
and Timur are among the most despised conquerors in the region.[73][74] Although the famous Mughal emperors
Mughal emperors
were proud descendants of Genghis Khan and particularly Timur, they clearly distanced themselves from the Mongol
Mongol
atrocities committed against the Khwarizim Shahs, Turks, Persians, the citizens of Baghdad
Baghdad
and Damascus, Nishapur, Bukhara
Bukhara
and historical figures such as Attar of Nishapur
Nishapur
and many other notable Muslims. However, Mughal Emperors directly patronized the legacies of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and Timur; together their names were synonymous with the names of other distinguished personalities particularly among the Muslim
Muslim
populations of South Asia. In much of Russia, Middle East, Korea, China, Ukraine, Poland and Hungary, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and his regime are blamed for considerable destruction and loss of population. Descent Main article: Descent from Genghis Khan In addition to most of the Mongol
Mongol
nobility up to the 20th century, the Mughal emperor Babur's mother was a descendant. Timur
Timur
(also known as Tamerlane), the 14th century military leader, and many other nobilities of central Asian countries claimed descent from Genghis Khan. During the Soviet purge most of the Mongol
Mongol
nobility in Mongolia were purged. Physical appearance

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
on the Mongolian 1,000 tögrög banknote

The closest depiction generally accepted by most historians is the portrait currently in the National Palace Museum
National Palace Museum
in Taipei, Taiwan, which was drawn under the supervision of his grandson Khubilai during the Mongol
Mongol
Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
and depicts Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
with typical Mongol features.[75] Depictions in modern culture

Statue of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
at his mausoleum, China

There have been several films, novels and other adaptation works on the Mongolian ruler.

Mural of siege warfare, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Exhibit in San Jose, California, US

Portrait of Genghis Khan, 2012

Films

Genghis Khan, a 1950 Philippine film directed by Manuel Conde. Changez Khan, a 1957 Indian film directed by Kedar Kapoor. Changez Khan, a 1958 Pakistani film. The Conqueror, released in 1956 and starring John Wayne
John Wayne
as Temüjin and Susan Hayward
Susan Hayward
as Börte. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
a 1965 film starring Omar Sharif. Under The Eternal Blue Sky, a Mongolian film directed by Baljinnyam, which was released in 1990. Starring Agvaantserengiin Enkhtaivan as Temüjin. Genghis Khan, an unfinished 1992 film starring Richard Tyson, Charlton Heston and Pat Morita. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
- A Proud Son Of Heaven, a 1998 film made in Mongolian, with English subtitles. Genghis Khan: To the Ends of the Earth and Sea, also known as The Descendant of Gray Wolf, a Japanese-Mongolian film released in 2007. Mongol, a film by Sergei Bodrov
Sergei Bodrov
released in 2007. (Academy Award nominee for Best Foreign Language Film). No Right to Die - Chinggis Khaan, a Mongolian film released in 2008. By the Will of Genghis Khan, a Russian film released in 2009. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
makes a cameo in Suicide Squad: Hell to Pay as one of the many names which Vandal Savage
Vandal Savage
adopted in history.

Television series

Genghis Khan, a 1987 Hong Kong television series produced by TVB, starring Alex Man. Genghis Khan, a 1987 Hong Kong television series produced by ATV, starring Tony Liu. Genghis Khan, a 2004 Chinese-Mongolian co-produced television series, starring Ba Sen, who is a descendant of Genghis Khan's second son Chagatai.

Poetry

The End of Genghis, a poem by F. L. Lucas, in which the dying Khan, attended by his Khitan counsellor Yelü Chucai, looks back on his life.[76]

Novels

Jenghiz Khan and Batu Khan
Batu Khan
by Vasili Yan, trans. L. E. Britton, publisher. Hutchinson The Conqueror series of novels by Conn Iggulden Steppe by Piers Anthony Jenghiz Khan in Telugu (Indian language) by Thenneti Suri Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
(Last incarnation) in Metro 2033 by Dmitry Glukhovsky

Short stories

The Private Life of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
by Douglas Adams
Douglas Adams
and Graham Chapman

Music

West German pop band Dschinghis Khan
Dschinghis Khan
took its name from the German-language spelling of Genghis Khan, "Dschingis Khan". They participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 1979
Eurovision Song Contest 1979
with their song of the same name.

Video games

Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings Aoki Ookami to Shiroki Mejika IV: Genghis Khan Crusader Kings 2 Deadliest Warrior: Legends Sid Meier's Civilization

Name and title There are many theories about the origins of Temüjin's title. Since people of the Mongol
Mongol
nation later associated the name with ching (Mongolian for strength), such confusion is obvious, though it does not follow etymology.

The gate of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Mausoleum, Ordos, Inner Mongolia

One theory suggests the name stems from a palatalised version of the Mongolian and Turkic word tenggis, meaning "ocean", "oceanic" or "wide-spreading". ( Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
and ocean were called tenggis by the Mongols. However, it seems that if they had meant to call Genghis tenggis they could have said, and written, "Tenggis Khan", which they did not.) Zhèng (Chinese: 正) meaning "right", "just", or "true", would have received the Mongolian adjectival modifier -s, creating "Jenggis", which in medieval romanization would be written "Genghis". It is likely that the 13th century Mongolian pronunciation would have closely matched "Chinggis".[77] The English spelling "Genghis" is of unclear origin. Weatherford claims it derives from a spelling used in original Persian reports. Even at this time some Iranians pronounce his name as "Ghengiss". However, review of historical Persian sources does not confirm this.[78] According to the Secret History of the Mongols, Temüjin was named after a powerful warrior of the Tatar
Tatar
tribe that his father Yesügei had taken prisoner. The name "Temüjin" is believed to derive from the word temür, Turkic for iron (modern Mongolian: төмөр, tömör). The name would imply a blacksmith or a man strong like iron. No evidence has survived to indicate that Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
had any exceptional training or reputation as a blacksmith. But the latter interpretation (a man strong like iron) is supported by the names of Genghis Khan's siblings, Temülin and Temüge, which are derived from the same root word. Name and spelling variations Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
(/ˈɡɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn, ˈdʒɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/;[79][80] Mongolian: [tʃiŋɡɪs xaːŋ] ( listen)) is spelled in variety of ways in different languages such as Mongolian Chinggis Khaan, English Chinghiz, Chinghis, and Chingiz, Chinese: 成吉思汗; pinyin: Chéngjísī Hán, Turkic: Cengiz Han, Çingiz Xan, Çingiz Han, Chingizxon, Çıñğız Xan, Chengez Khan, Chinggis Khan, Chinggis Xaan, Chingis Khan, Jenghis Khan, Chinggis Qan, Djingis Kahn, Russian: Чингисхан (Čingiskhan) or Чингиз-хан (Čingiz-khan), etc. Temüjin is written in Chinese as simplified Chinese: 铁木真; traditional Chinese: 鐵木眞; pinyin: Tiěmùzhēn. When Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
established the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in 1271, he had his grandfather Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
placed on the official record as the founder of the dynasty or Taizu (Chinese: 太祖). Thus, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
is also referred to as Yuan Taizu (Emperor Taizu of Yuan, Chinese: 元太祖) in Chinese historiography. Timeline

Monument in Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia, China

Probably 1155, 1162, or 1167: Temüjin was born in the Khentii mountains. When Temüjin was nine, his father Yesükhei
Yesükhei
was poisoned by Tatars, leaving Temüjin and his family destitute. c. 1184: Temüjin's wife Börte was kidnapped by Merkits; he called on blood brother Jamukha and Wang Khan
Wang Khan
for aid, and they rescued her. c. 1185: First son Jochi
Jochi
was born; leading to doubt about his paternity later among Genghis's children, because he was born shortly after Börte's rescue from the Merkits. 1190: Temüjin united the Mongol
Mongol
tribes, became leader, and devised code of law Yassa. 1201: Victory over Jamukha's Jadarans. 1202: Adopted as Wang Khan's heir after successful campaigns against Tatars. 1203: Victory over Wang Khan's Keraites. Wang Khan
Wang Khan
himself killed by accident by allied Naimans. 1204: Victory over Naimans
Naimans
(all these confederations unite and become the Mongols). 1206: Jamukha was killed. Temüjin was given the title Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
by his followers in a Kurultai (around 40 years of age). 1207–1210: Genghis led operations against the Western Xia, which comprises much of northwestern China
China
and parts of Tibet. Western Xia ruler submitted to Genghis Khan. During this period, the Uyghurs
Uyghurs
also submitted peacefully to the Mongols
Mongols
and became valued administrators throughout the empire. 1211: After the kurultai, Genghis led his armies against the Jin dynasty ruling northern China. 1215: Beijing
Beijing
fell; Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
turned to west and the Khara-Kitan Khanate. 1219–1222: Conquered Khwarezmid Empire. 1226: Started the campaign against the Western Xia
Western Xia
for forming coalition against the Mongols, the second battle with the Western Xia. 1227: Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
died after conquering the Tangut people. Cause of death is uncertain.

See also

List of medieval Mongolian tribes and clans List of Mongolian monarchs Family tree of Genghis Khan Rags to riches

Notes

^ /təˈmuːdʒɪn/; Mongolian: Тэмүжин Temüjin [tʰemutʃiŋ] ( listen); Middle Mongolian: Temüjin;[1] traditional Chinese: 鐵木真; simplified Chinese: 铁木真; pinyin: Tiěmùzhēn; Wade–Giles: T'ieh3-mu4-chen1 ^ Chinese: 成吉思汗; pinyin: Chéngjísī Hán; Wade–Giles: Ch'eng2-chi2-szu1 Han4 ^ While his name is most commonly rendered as "Genghis" in English, historians of the Mongol
Mongol
empire generally prefer the spelling "Chinggis", which more closely approximates the name's correct pronunciation.[4] ^ Sometimes also written in English as "Temuchin" or "Temujin".

References Notes

^ "Central Asiatic Journal". Central Asiatic Journal. O. Harrassowitz. 5: 239. 1959. Retrieved July 29, 2011.  ^ a b Rashid al-Din asserts that Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
was born in 1155, while the Yuanshi (元史, History of the Yuan dynasty) records his year of birth as 1162. According to Ratchnevsky, accepting a birth in 1155 would render Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
a father at the age of 30 and would imply that he personally commanded the expedition against the Tanguts
Tanguts
at the age of 72. Also, according to the Altan Tobci, Genghis Khan's sister, Temülin, was nine years younger than he; but the Secret History relates that Temülin was an infant during the attack by the Merkits, during which Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
would have been 18, had he been born in 1155. Zhao Hong reports in his travelogue that the Mongols
Mongols
he questioned did not know and had never known their ages. ^ Ratchnevsky, Paul (1991). Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy. Blackwell Publishing. p. 142. ISBN 0-631-16785-4. It is possible, however, to say with certainty that Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
died in August 1227; only in specifying the actual day of his death do our sources disagree.  ^ Morgan, David (2007). The Mongols
Mongols
(2 ed.). Blackwell Publishing. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-4051-3539-9.  ^ Saunders, John Joseph (2001) [First published 1972]. History of the Mongol
Mongol
Conquests. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1766-7.  ^ John Man (2004). Genghis Khan: Life, Death, and Resurrection (reprint, illustrated ed.). Bantam. pp. 254–55. ISBN 0-312-36624-8. Retrieved May 17, 2014.  ^ Ian Jeffries (2007). Mongolia: a guide to economic and political developments. Taylor & Francis. pp. 5–7. ISBN 0-415-42545-X ^ "Genghis Khan". North Georgia College and State University. Archived from the original on March 6, 2010. Retrieved January 26, 2010.  ^ Peter Taylor (May 27, 2015). "The World's Richest Terror Army". BBC. Beheadings and mass slaughter are the hallmark of IS – whole villages massacred, women cast into slavery. But this butchery is not random. It is callous and calculated, as former British intelligence officer Alastair Crooke points out: 'They in fact in some ways copy Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and the Mongol
Mongol
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Sources

Hildinger, Erik (1997). Warriors Of The Steppe: Military History Of Central Asia, 500 BC To 1700 AD. Cambridge: De Capo Press. ISBN 0-7867-3114-1.  Lane, George (2004). Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and Mongol
Mongol
Rule. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32528-6.  Man, John (2004). Genghis Khan: Life, Death and Resurrection. London; New York: Bantam Press. ISBN 0-593-05044-4.  Ratchnevsky, Paul (1991). Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy [Čingis-Khan: sein Leben und Wirken]. tr. & ed. Thomas Nivison Haining. Oxford, UK; Cambridge, Massachusetts, US: B. Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-16785-4. 

Further reading

Library resources about Genghis Khan

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Brent, Peter (1976). The Mongol
Mongol
Empire: Genghis Khan: His Triumph and His Legacy. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. ISBN 0-297-77137-X.  Bretschneider, Emilii (2002). Mediæval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources; Fragments Towards the Knowledge of the Geography & History of Central & Western Asia. This Elibron Classics book is a facsimile reprint of an 1888 edition by Trübner & Co., London. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 978-1-4021-9303-3.  Cable, Mildred; Francesca French (1943). The Gobi Desert. London: Landsborough Publications.  Chapin, David (2012). Long Lines: Ten of the World's Longest Continuous Family Lineages. College Station, Texas: VirtualBookWorm.com. ISBN 978-1-60264-933-0.  Charney, Israel W. (ed.) (1994). Genocide: A Critical Bibliographic Review. New York: Facts on File
File
Publications. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Farale, Dominique (2002). De Gengis Khan à Qoubilaï Khan : la grande chevauchée mongole. Campagnes & stratégies (in French). Paris: Economica. ISBN 2-7178-4537-2.  Farale, Dominique (2007). La Russie et les Turco-Mongols : 15 siècles de guerre (in French). Paris: Economica. ISBN 978-2-7178-5429-9.  "Genghis Khan". Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia. World Almanac Education Group. 2005. Archived from the original on January 13, 2006. Retrieved May 22, 2008.  Via the Internet Archive's copy of the History Channel Web site. Smitha, Frank E. " Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and the Mongols". Macrohistory and World Report. Retrieved June 30, 2005.  Kennedy, Hugh (2002). Mongols, Huns & Vikings. London: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-35292-6.  Kradin, Nikolay; Tatiana Skrynnikova (2006). Imperiia Chingis-khana (Chinggis Khan Empire) (in Russian). Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura. ISBN 5-02-018521-3.  (summary in English) Kradin, Nikolay; Tatiana Skrynnikova (2006). "Why do we call Chinggis Khan's Polity 'an Empire'". Ab Imperio. 7 (1): 89–118. 5-89423-110-8.  Lamb, Harold (1927). Genghis Khan: The Emperor of All Men. New York: R. M. McBride & company.  Lister, R. P. (2000). Genghis Khan. Lanham, Maryland: Cooper Square Press. ISBN 0-8154-1052-2.  Man, John (1999). Gobi: Tracking the Desert. London; New Haven, Conn: Weidenfeld & Nicolson; Yale University Press. ISBN 0-7538-0161-2.  Martin, Henry Desmond (1950). The Rise of Chingis Khan and his Conquest of North China. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.  May, Timothy (2001). " Mongol
Mongol
Arms". Explorations in Empire: Pre-Modern Imperialism Tutorial: The Mongols. San Antonio College History Department. Archived from the original on May 18, 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2008.  Morgan, David (1986). The Mongols. The Peoples of Europe. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-17563-6.  Stevens, Keith. "Heirs to Discord: The Supratribal Aspirations of Jamukha, Toghrul, and Temüjin" at the Internet ArchivePDF (72.1 KB) Retrieved May 22, 2008. Stewart, Stanley (2001). In the Empire of Genghis Khan: A Journey among Nomads. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-653027-3.  Turnbull, Stephen (2003). Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
& the Mongol
Mongol
Conquests 1190–1400. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-523-6.  Valentino, Benjamin A. (2004). Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide
Genocide
in the Twentieth Century. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-3965-5. 

Primary sources

Juvaynī, Alā al-Dīn Atā Malik, 1226–1283 (1997). Genghis Khan: The History of the World-Conqueror [Tarīkh-i jahāngushā]. tr. John Andrew Boyle. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97654-3. 

Juvaini, 'ala-ad-Din 'Ata-Malik (1958). History of the World-Conqueror. tr. John Andrew Boyle. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 361. Retrieved April 16, 2012. 

Rashid al-Din Tabib (1995). A Compendium of Chronicles: Rashid al-Din's Illustrated History of the World Jami' al-Tawarikh. The Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art, Vol. XXVII. Sheila S. Blair (ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-727627-X.  Rashid al-Din Tabib (1971). The Successors of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
(extracts from Jami' Al-Tawarikh). UNESCO Collection of Representative Works: Persian heritage series. tr. from the Persian by John Andrew Boyle. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-03351-6.  The Secret History of the Mongols: A Mongolian Epic Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century [Yuan chao bi shi]. Brill's Inner Asian Library vol. 7. tr. Igor de Rachewiltz. Leiden; Boston: Brill. 2004. ISBN 90-04-13159-0. 

External links

Find more aboutGenghis Khanat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
( Mongol
Mongol
ruler) at Encyclopædia Britannica Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
on In Our Time at the BBC. Welcome to The Realm of the Mongols Parts of this biography were taken from the Area Handbook series at the Library of Congress Estimates of Mongol
Mongol
warfare casualties Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
on the Web (directory of some 250 resources) 'Ala' al-Din 'Ata Malik Juvayni A History of the World-Conqueror Ghengis Genghis Khan, Ata-Malik Juvayni and Rashid-al-Din Hamadani The History of Genghizcan the Great, First Emperor of the Antient Moguls and Tartars "Genghis Khan's Secret Weapon Was Rain", National Geographic, Roff Smith, March 10, 2014

Genghis Khan House of Borjigin
Borjigin
(1206–1635) Born: c. 1162 Died: 1227

Regnal titles

Preceded by Hotula Khan Khagan
Khagan
of Khamag Mongol 1189–1206 Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
ended, succeeded by Mongol
Mongol
Empire

New title Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
established

Khagan
Khagan
of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire 1206–1227 Succeeded by Tolui As regent

v t e

Khagans of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire

Early Great Khans

Genghis Khan Tolui
Tolui
Khan (as Regent) Ögedei
Ögedei
Khan Töregene Khatun (as Regent) Güyük Khan Oghul Qaimish (as Regent) Möngke Khan Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
/ Ariq Böke

Yuan (Kublaid) Great Khans

Kublai Khan Temür Khan Külüg Khan Buyantu Khan Gegeen Khan Yesün Temür Khan Ragibagh Khan Jayaatu Khan Khutughtu Khan Rinchinbal Khan Ukhaantu Khan

v t e

Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
(1206–1368)

Terminology

Titles

Khagan Khan Khatun Khanum Jinong Khong Tayiji Noyan Tarkhan

Political Military

Jarlig Örtöö Orda Pax Mongolica Yassa Kurultai Paiza / Gerege Manghit / Mangudai Tümen Kheshig

Politics Organization Life

Topics

Administrative divisions and vassals Banner (Bunchuk) Invasions and conquests Destructiveness Imperial Seal Military tactics
Military tactics
and organization Organization under Genghis Khan Religion Society and economy

House of Borjigin House of Ögedei Mongol
Mongol
Armenia Byzantine– Mongol
Mongol
alliance Franco- Mongol
Mongol
alliance List of Mongol
Mongol
and Tatar
Tatar
raids against Rus' Mongol
Mongol
and Tatar
Tatar
states in Europe

Khanates

Yuan dynasty Chagatai Khanate

House of Ögedei

Golden Horde

Wings

Ilkhanate

Major cities

Almalik Avarga Azov
Azov
(Azaq) Bukhara Bolghar Karakorum Dadu Majar Maragheh Qarshi Samarkand Sarai Batu/Berke Saray-Jük Shangdu
Shangdu
(Xanadu) Soltaniyeh Tabriz Ukek Xacitarxan

Campaigns Battles

Asia

Central

Siberia (1207) Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
(1216–18) Khwarezmia
Khwarezmia
(1218–1221)

East

Western Xia
Western Xia
(1205 / 1207 / 1209–10 / 1225–27) Northern China
China
and Manchuria (1211–34) Southern China
China
(1235–79) Kingdom of Dali
Kingdom of Dali
(1253–56) Tibet
Tibet
(1236 / 1240 / 1252) Korea
Korea
(1231–60) Japan (1274 / 1281) Sakhalin (1264–1308)

Southeast

Burma (1277 / 1283 / 1287) Java (1293) Vietnam (1257 / 1284–88) Burma (1300–02)

South

India (1221–1327)

Europe

Georgia (1220–22 / 1226–31 / 1237–64) Chechnya (1237–1300s) Volga Bulgaria (1229–36) Rus' (1223 / 1236–40) Poland and Bohemia (1240–41) Hungary (1241-42) Serbia (1242) Bulgaria (1242) Latin Empire (1242) Lithuania (1258-59) Poland (1259–60) Thrace (1264-65) Hungary (1285–86) Poland (1287–88) Serbia (1291) Poland (1340-1341)

Middle East

Anatolia (1241–43) Iraq (1258) Syria (1260–1323) Palestine (1260 / 1301)

Civil wars

Division of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire Toluid Civil War
Toluid Civil War
(1260–64) Berke– Hulagu
Hulagu
war (1262) Kaidu–Kublai war
Kaidu–Kublai war
(1268–1301) Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war
Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war
(1314–1318)

People

Great Khans

Genghis Khan Tolui
Tolui
(regent) Ögedei
Ögedei
Khan Töregene Khatun (regent) Güyük Khan Oghul Qaimish (regent) Möngke Khan Kublai Khan (Khagans of the Yuan)

Khans

Jochi Batu Khan Sartaq Khan Orda Khan Berke Toqta Öz Beg Khan Chagatai Khan Duwa Kebek Hulagu Abaqa Arghun Ghazan

Military

Subutai Jebe Muqali Negudar Bo'orchu Guo Kan Borokhula Jelme Chilaun Khubilai Aju Bayan Kadan Boroldai Nogai Khan

Timeline of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire

v t e

List of emperors of the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
(1271–1368)

Early Mongol
Mongol
rulers posthumously promoted by Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
as Yuan emperors

Taizu Ruizong (regent) Taizong Dingzong Xianzong

Enthronement of Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
in 1260 as Khagan, officially assuming the role of Emperor of China
China
as Yuan Shizu starting in 1271 Following conquest of Southern Song dynasty
Song dynasty
in 1279 ruled all of China

Shizu Chengzong Wuzong Renzong Yingzong Taiding Emperor Tianshun Emperor Wenzong Mingzong Ningzong Huizong (Emperor Shun)

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan → Ming → Qing → ROC / PRC

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100172770 LCCN: n82024842 ISNI: 0000 0001 1810 1908 GND: 118527576 SELIBR: 49380 SUDOC: 029332850 BNF: cb12098160c (data) NLA: 35118014 NDL: 00625007 BNE: XX945

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