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GASHERBRUM II (Urdu : گاشر برم -2‎); surveyed as K4, is the 13th highest mountain in the world at 8,035 metres (26,362 ft) above sea level. It is the third-highest peak of the Gasherbrum massif , and is located in the Karakoram
Karakoram
, on the border between Gilgit–Baltistan
Gilgit–Baltistan
province, Pakistan
Pakistan
, and Xinjiang
Xinjiang
, China
China
. The mountain was first climbed on July 7, 1956, by an Austrian expedition which included Fritz Moravec , Josef Larch, and Hans Willenpart.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography * 2 Naming * 3 Climbing history * 4 See also * 5 Bibliography * 6 Notes and references * 7 Further reading * 8 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Gasherbrum II is located on the border of Gilgit–Baltistan
Gilgit–Baltistan
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, and Xinjiang
Xinjiang
, China
China
. It is part of the Karakoram
Karakoram
mountain range in the Himalayas
Himalayas
, and located at the top of the Baltoro Glacier . With an elevation of 8,035 metres (26,362 ft) it is the third-highest member of the Gasherbrum group, behind Gasherbrum I (8,080 metres or 26,510 feet) and Broad Peak
Broad Peak
(8,051 metres or 26,414 feet). Gasherbrum III is sometimes considered to be a subpeak of Gasherbrum II, because the former has a topographic prominence of only 461 metres (1,512 ft).

NAMING

In 1856, Thomas George Montgomerie , a member of the British Royal Engineers and part of the Great Trigonometric Survey , sighted the mountain and named it "K4", meaning the fourth mountain of Karakoram
Karakoram
. The name "Gasherbrum" comes from the Balti words rgasha ("beautiful") and brum ("mountain"); it does not, contrary to popular belief, mean "shining wall", how Sir William Martin Conway described nearby Gasherbrum IV on an 1892 exploration.

CLIMBING HISTORY

The mountains of the Gasherbrum group were explored in 1909 by the Duke of the Abruzzi
Duke of the Abruzzi
and Vittorio Sella . The Abruzzi Glacier, a tributary of the Baltoro Glacier, is named after the Duke.

In 1934, Günter Dyhrenfurth and his International Himalayan Expedition, including André Roch , explored Gasherbrum I and II, making it 6,250 metres (20,510 ft) up Gasherbrum II.

The first ascent came on July 7, 1956, by Austrians Fritz Moravec , Josef Larch and Hans Willenpart by the Southwest Ridge. After they set up Camp I, they had to descend, and found the camp—and all their supplies and food—buried by an avalanche when they returned. Despite this, they decided to make a quick summit attempt. After opening up a route, they left Camp III on July 6. The group spent the night in a bivouac sack and reached the top at 11:30 am the next day.

In 1975, four expeditions successfully climbed Gasherbrum II, including Jean-Pierre Fresafond's French expedition, a Polish group under Janusz Onyszkiewicz , and another Polish expedition led by Wanda Rutkiewicz .

Four years later, a Chilean group claimed to have used the "normal" route to reach the top. Several others, including Reinhard Karl , Hanns Schell, and Kurt Diemberger
Kurt Diemberger
also reached the summit.

On July 24, 1982, Reinhold Messner
Reinhold Messner
, along with Nazir Sabir and Sher Khan, climbed the peak via the Southwest Ridge. During that year, Messner also climbed two other eight-thousanders, Kangchenjunga
Kangchenjunga
and Broad Peak
Broad Peak
, and attempted Cho Oyu
Cho Oyu
. He wrote a book, 3 x 8000: My Great Year in the Himalaya (German : 3 x 8000: Mein grosses Himalaja-Jahr), about this.

In July 1984, Reinhold Messner
Reinhold Messner
and Hans Kammerlander reached both Gasherbrum II and Hidden Peak without returning to base camp, in alpine style.

In August 1984, a French expedition led by Daniel Croisot, CAF Besançon, reached summit and achieved the integral 1st descent by ski of Gasherbrum 2, as witnessed and joined by Dr Dominique Dock who was medical officer for the expedition.

In August 1986, Gasherbrum II was successfully ascended by a Slovene expedition in only 32 hours from the base to the peak, with only 22 hours of climbing and 10 hours of rest at the altitude of 5900 m. This was by far the fastest ascent until then.

In July 1996, Jean-Christophe Lafaille climbed Gasherbrum I and II in four days, without stopping at Base Camp in between.

In 2006, Sebastian Haag and Benedikt Böhm climbed Gasherbrum II twice within a week. At 8:00 am on July 29, they reached the top and then skied down without abseiling or removing their skis. They rested for a few days before leaving Base 1 again on August 3. They started out fast, reaching Camp IV in six hours, but 50 centimetres (20 in) of fresh snow slowed them down, and they reached the summit after over six hours of tough climbing. They descended on skis again, this time made even more dangerous by packed-down snow and the risk of avalanche. Despite this, they both made it safely back to Camp I in under 17 hours, whereas a normal expedition takes four to seven days.

Karl Unterkircher
Karl Unterkircher
and Daniele Bernasconi, two Italians, climbed Gasherbrum II in 2007 in alpine style . They were the first to use the North Face through China. The route had been attempted a year earlier by a German–Swiss team, but they abandoned it after an avalanche. During the attempt they fixed around 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) of rope. They arrived at the summit around 8:00 pm on July 20, after spending the night in a bivouac shelter . A third member, Michele Compagnoni, grandson of Achille Compagnoni
Achille Compagnoni
, turned back just 150 metres (490 ft) before the summit. The team reunited and descended down the normal, northwest route.

On February 2, 2011, Cory Richards, Denis Urubko , and Simone Moro became the first to ascend Gasherbrum II in winter. Despite being buried by a class-four avalanche , they reached the summit at 11:30 am, without supplemental oxygen or porters . Richards, who was the first American to climb an eight-thousander in winter, filmed the expedition, which he turned into the film Cold.

SEE ALSO

* Mountains portal * Pakistan
Pakistan
portal * China
China
portal

* Eight-thousander
Eight-thousander
* List of mountains in China
China
* List of mountains in Pakistan
Pakistan
* List of highest mountains
List of highest mountains

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Dyhrenfurth, G. O. (1955). To the Third Pole. London. ISBN 978-1-4465-4447-1 . Retrieved 28 March 2013. * Isserman, Maurice ; Weaver, Stewart Angas (2010). Fallen Giants: A History of Himalayan Mountaineering from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes. Yale University Press
Yale University Press
. ISBN 978-0-300-16420-6 . Retrieved 27 March 2013. * Messner, Reinhold (1999). All 14 Eight-Thousanders. The Mountaineers Books . ISBN 978-0-89886-660-5 . Retrieved 24 January 2014.

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D " Gasherbrum II". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 9 March 2013. * ^ A B "Trekking Routes - Highest peaks". cknp.org. Retrieved 2014-08-24. * ^ A B C " Gasherbrum II". Peakware.com. Retrieved 2014-08-24. * ^ " Karakoram
Karakoram
and India/ Pakistan
Pakistan
Himalayas
Himalayas
Ultra-Prominences". peaklist.org. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 2013-03-09. * ^ " Gasherbrum II". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 9 March 2013. * ^ Seyfferth, Guenter (5 March 2013). "Die Berge des Himalaya" (in German). himalaya-info.org. Retrieved 11 March 2013. * ^ " Gasherbrum I, China/Pakistan". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 30 March 2013. * ^ "Broad Peak, China/Pakistan". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 30 March 2013. * ^ Dyhrenfurth 1955 , p. 199. * ^ " Gasherbrum III". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 24 March 2013. * ^ A B Green, Stewart. " Gasherbrum II: 13th Highest Mountain in the World". About.com
About.com
. Retrieved 10 March 2013. * ^ " Gasherbrum I". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 9 March 2013. * ^ " Gasherbrum IV Photo Gallery Home". Mountains of Travel Photos. June 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2013. * ^ Dyhrenfurth 1955 , p. 187. * ^ Filippi, Filippo de; di Savoia, Luigi Amedeo (1912). Karakoram and Western Himalaya 1909: An Account of the Expedition of H.R.H. Prince Luigi Amadeo of Savoy, Duke of the Abruzzi. New York: E. P. Dutton . Retrieved 27 March 2013. * ^ A B C D E F Messner 1999 , p. 128. * ^ Dyhrenfurth 1955 , p. 198. * ^ " Gasherbrum II Photo Gallery Home". Mountains of Travel Photos. June 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2013. * ^ Isserman, pp. 327–328 * ^ Hussain, Manzoor (July 2, 2000). " Nazir Sabir - The Mountaineer and A Fighter". Pakistan
Pakistan
& Gulf Economist . Retrieved 15 March 2013. * ^ Chessler, Michael. "Who is Reinhold Messner?". Traditional Mountaineering. Retrieved 30 March 2013. * ^ Grošelj, Viki (17 November 2012). "Gašerbrum, najnižji med štirinajstimi najvišjimi vrhovi sveta" . Delo.si (in Slovenian). ISSN 0350-7521 . * ^ American Alpine Club (1997). 1997 American Alpine Journal. The Mountaineers Books. p. 329. ISBN 978-1-933056-44-9 . ISSN 0065-6925 . Retrieved 10 March 2013. * ^ "Cool: Speed climb and successful ski down Gasherbrum ll" (PDF). Expedition Manaslu. Retrieved 16 March 2013. * ^ Winter, Stefan (2006). "Germans summit G2 and then ski down: great pictures!". EverestNews.com. Retrieved 16 March 2013. * ^ MacDonald, Dougald. "Italians Climb G-II\'s North Face". Climbing . Retrieved 24 January 2014. * ^ Griffin, Linsay (30 July 2007). "Italians climb Chinese face of Gasherbrum II". Alpinist . Retrieved 15 March 2013. * ^ MacDonald, Dougald (2 February 2011). "First Winter Ascent of Gasherbrum II". Climbing . Retrieved 10 March 2013. * ^ Cahall, Fitz. "Climber Cory Richards". National Geographic Adventure . Retrieved 10 March 2013.

FURTHER READING

* Moravec, Fritz (1958). Weiße Berge, schwarze Menschen (in German). Vienna: Österreichischer Bundesverlag. * Soriano, Rosa Real (2001). Gasherbrum II: Expedición "Cinc Segles" de la Universitat de Valčncia (in Spanish). University of Valencia . ISBN 978-84-370-4938-0 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia

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