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Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II (Urdu: گاشر برم -2‬‎); surveyed as K4, is the 13th highest mountain in the world at 8,035 metres (26,362 ft) above sea level.[1][2][3][5] It is the third-highest peak of the Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
massif, and is located in the Karakoram, on the border between Gilgit–Baltistan
Gilgit–Baltistan
province, Pakistan, and Xinjiang, China.[3] The mountain was first climbed on July 7, 1956, by an Austrian expedition which included Fritz Moravec, Josef Larch, and Hans Willenpart.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Naming 3 Climbing history 4 See also 5 Bibliography 6 Notes and references 7 Further reading 8 External links

Geography[edit] Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II is located on the border of Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan, and Xinjiang, China. It is part of the Karakoram
Karakoram
mountain range in the Himalayas, and located at the top of the Baltoro Glacier.[6] With an elevation of 8,035 metres (26,362 ft) it is the third-highest member of the Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
group, behind Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
I (8,080 metres or 26,510 feet)[7] and Broad Peak
Broad Peak
(8,051 metres or 26,414 feet).[8] Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
III is sometimes considered to be a subpeak of Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II,[9] because the former has a topographic prominence of only 461 metres (1,512 ft).[10] Naming[edit] In 1856, Thomas George Montgomerie, a member of the British Royal Engineers and part of the Great Trigonometric Survey, sighted the mountain and named it "K4", meaning the fourth mountain of Karakoram.[11] The name "Gasherbrum" comes from the Balti words rgasha ("beautiful") and brum ("mountain"); it does not, contrary to popular belief, mean "shining wall", how Sir William Martin Conway
William Martin Conway
described nearby Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
IV on an 1892 exploration.[11][12][13][14] Climbing history[edit] The mountains of the Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
group were explored in 1909 by the Duke of the Abruzzi
Duke of the Abruzzi
and Vittorio Sella. The Abruzzi Glacier, a tributary of the Baltoro Glacier, is named after the Duke.[15][16] In 1934, Günter Dyhrenfurth and his International Himalayan Expedition, including André Roch, explored Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
I and II, making it 6,250 metres (20,510 ft) up Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II.[16][17] The first ascent came on July 7, 1956, by Austrians Fritz Moravec, Josef Larch and Hans Willenpart by the Southwest Ridge. After they set up Camp I, they had to descend, and found the camp—and all their supplies and food—buried by an avalanche when they returned. Despite this, they decided to make a quick summit attempt. After opening up a route, they left Camp III on July 6. The group spent the night in a bivouac sack and reached the top at 11:30 am the next day.[16][18][19] In 1975, four expeditions successfully climbed Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II, including Jean-Pierre Fresafond's French expedition, a Polish group under Janusz Onyszkiewicz, and another Polish expedition led by Wanda Rutkiewicz.[16] Four years later, a Chilean group claimed to have used the "normal" route to reach the top. Several others, including Reinhard Karl, Hanns Schell, and Kurt Diemberger
Kurt Diemberger
also reached the summit.[16] On July 24, 1982, Reinhold Messner, along with Nazir Sabir
Nazir Sabir
and Sher Khan, climbed the peak via the Southwest Ridge.[16][20] During that year, Messner also climbed two other eight-thousanders, Kangchenjunga and Broad Peak, and attempted Cho Oyu. He wrote a book, 3 x 8000: My Great Year in the Himalaya (German: 3 x 8000: Mein grosses Himalaja-Jahr), about this.[21] In July 1984, Reinhold Messner
Reinhold Messner
and Hans Kammerlander
Hans Kammerlander
reached both Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II and Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
I without returning to base camp, in alpine style. In August 1984, a French expedition led by Daniel Croisot, reached summit and achieved the integral first descent by ski of Gasherbrum II, as witnessed and joined by Dominique Dock who was medical officer for the expedition. In August 1986, Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II was successfully ascended by a Slovene expedition in only 32 hours from the base to the peak, with only 22 hours of climbing and 10 hours of rest at the altitude of 5900 m. This was by far the fastest ascent until then.[22] In July 1996, Jean-Christophe Lafaille
Jean-Christophe Lafaille
climbed Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
I and II in four days, without stopping at Base Camp
Base Camp
in between.[23] In 2006, Sebastian Haag and Benedikt Böhm climbed Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II twice within a week. At 8:00 am on July 29, they reached the top and then skied down without abseiling or removing their skis. They rested for a few days before leaving Camp I again on August 3. They started out fast, reaching Camp IV in six hours, but 50 centimetres (20 in) of fresh snow slowed them down, and they reached the summit after over six hours of tough climbing. They descended on skis again, this time made even more dangerous by packed-down snow and the risk of avalanche. Despite this, they both made it safely back to Camp I in under 17 hours, whereas a normal expedition takes four to seven days.[24][25] Karl Unterkircher
Karl Unterkircher
and Daniele Bernasconi, two Italians, climbed Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II in 2007 in alpine style. They were the first to use the North Face through China. The route had been attempted a year earlier by a German–Swiss team, but they abandoned it after an avalanche. During the attempt they fixed around 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) of rope. They arrived at the summit around 8:00 pm on July 20, after spending the night in a bivouac shelter. A third member, Michele Compagnoni, grandson of Achille Compagnoni, turned back just 150 metres (490 ft) before the summit. The team reunited and descended down the normal, northwest route.[26][27] On February 2, 2011, Cory Richards, Denis Urubko, and Simone Moro became the first to ascend Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II in winter. Despite being buried by a class-four avalanche, they reached the summit at 11:30 am, without supplemental oxygen or porters. Richards, who was the first American to climb an eight-thousander in winter, filmed the expedition, which he turned into the film Cold.[28][29] See also[edit]

Mountains portal Pakistan
Pakistan
portal China
China
portal

Eight-thousander List of mountains in China List of mountains in Pakistan List of highest mountains

Bibliography[edit]

Dyhrenfurth, G. O. (1955). To the Third Pole. London. ISBN 978-1-4465-4447-1. Retrieved 28 March 2013.  Isserman, Maurice; Weaver, Stewart Angas (2010). Fallen Giants: A History of Himalayan Mountaineering from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-16420-6. Retrieved 27 March 2013.  Messner, Reinhold (1999). All 14 Eight-Thousanders. The Mountaineers Books. ISBN 978-0-89886-660-5. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 

Notes and references[edit]

^ a b c d " Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 9 March 2013.  ^ a b "Trekking Routes - Highest peaks". cknp.org. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ a b c " Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II". Peakware.com. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ " Karakoram
Karakoram
and India/ Pakistan
Pakistan
Himalayas
Himalayas
Ultra-Prominences". peaklist.org. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 2013-03-09.  ^ " Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 9 March 2013.  ^ Seyfferth, Guenter (5 March 2013). "Die Berge des Himalaya" (in German). himalaya-info.org. Retrieved 11 March 2013.  ^ " Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
I, China/Pakistan". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 30 March 2013.  ^ "Broad Peak, China/Pakistan". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 30 March 2013.  ^ Dyhrenfurth 1955, p. 199. ^ " Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
III". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  ^ a b Green, Stewart. " Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II: 13th Highest Mountain in the World". About.com. Retrieved 10 March 2013.  ^ " Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
I". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 9 March 2013.  ^ " Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
IV Photo Gallery Home". Mountains of Travel Photos. June 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2013.  ^ Dyhrenfurth 1955, p. 187. ^ Filippi, Filippo de; di Savoia, Luigi Amedeo (1912). Karakoram
Karakoram
and Western Himalaya 1909: An Account of the Expedition of H.R.H. Prince Luigi Amadeo of Savoy, Duke of the Abruzzi. New York: E. P. Dutton. Retrieved 27 March 2013.  ^ a b c d e f Messner 1999, p. 128. ^ Dyhrenfurth 1955, p. 198. ^ " Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II Photo Gallery Home". Mountains of Travel Photos. June 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2013.  ^ Isserman, pp. 327–328 ^ Hussain, Manzoor (July 2, 2000). " Nazir Sabir
Nazir Sabir
- The Mountaineer and A Fighter". Pakistan
Pakistan
& Gulf Economist. Retrieved 15 March 2013.  ^ Chessler, Michael. "Who is Reinhold Messner?". Traditional Mountaineering. Retrieved 30 March 2013.  ^ Grošelj, Viki (17 November 2012). "Gašerbrum, najnižji med štirinajstimi najvišjimi vrhovi sveta" [Gasherbrum: The Lowest Among the Fourteen Highest Peaks of the World]. Delo.si (in Slovenian). ISSN 0350-7521.  ^ American Alpine Club (1997). 1997 American Alpine Journal. The Mountaineers Books. p. 329. ISBN 978-1-933056-44-9. ISSN 0065-6925. Retrieved 10 March 2013.  ^ "Cool: Speed climb and successful ski down Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
ll" (PDF). Expedition Manaslu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  ^ Winter, Stefan (2006). "Germans summit G2 and then ski down: great pictures!". EverestNews.com. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  ^ MacDonald, Dougald. "Italians Climb G-II's North Face". Climbing. Retrieved 24 January 2014.  ^ Griffin, Linsay (30 July 2007). "Italians climb Chinese face of Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II". Alpinist. Retrieved 15 March 2013.  ^ MacDonald, Dougald (2 February 2011). "First Winter Ascent of Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II". Climbing. Retrieved 10 March 2013.  ^ Cahall, Fitz. "Climber Cory Richards". National Geographic Adventure. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Moravec, Fritz (1958). Weiße Berge, schwarze Menschen (in German). Vienna: Österreichischer Bundesverlag.  Soriano, Rosa Real (2001). Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II: Expedición "Cinc Segles" de la Universitat de Valčncia (in Spanish). University of Valencia. ISBN 978-84-370-4938-0. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II.

Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II on Himalaya-Info.org (German) Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II on Summitpost Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II: A Journey to 26,360 Feet in the Karakoram
Karakoram
Archived December 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Gasherbrum
Gasherbrum
II-express debrief: The first German ski descent of G2; a 17-hour round trip Cold on IMDb Cold on YouTube

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