Gasherbrum II (Urdu: گاشر برم -2); surveyed as K4, is the
13th highest mountain in the world at 8,035 metres (26,362 ft)
above sea level. It is the third-highest peak of the
Gasherbrum massif, and is located in the Karakoram, on the border
Gilgit–Baltistan province, Pakistan, and Xinjiang, China.
The mountain was first climbed on July 7, 1956, by an Austrian
expedition which included Fritz Moravec, Josef Larch, and Hans
3 Climbing history
4 See also
6 Notes and references
7 Further reading
8 External links
Gasherbrum II is located on the border of Gilgit–Baltistan,
Pakistan, and Xinjiang, China. It is part of the
range in the Himalayas, and located at the top of the Baltoro
Glacier. With an elevation of 8,035 metres (26,362 ft) it is
the third-highest member of the
Gasherbrum group, behind
(8,080 metres or 26,510 feet) and
Broad Peak (8,051 metres or
Gasherbrum III is sometimes considered to be a
Gasherbrum II, because the former has a topographic
prominence of only 461 metres (1,512 ft).
In 1856, Thomas George Montgomerie, a member of the British Royal
Engineers and part of the Great Trigonometric Survey, sighted the
mountain and named it "K4", meaning the fourth mountain of
Karakoram. The name "Gasherbrum" comes from the Balti words rgasha
("beautiful") and brum ("mountain"); it does not, contrary to popular
belief, mean "shining wall", how Sir
William Martin Conway
William Martin Conway described
Gasherbrum IV on an 1892 exploration.
The mountains of the
Gasherbrum group were explored in 1909 by the
Duke of the Abruzzi
Duke of the Abruzzi and Vittorio Sella. The Abruzzi Glacier, a
tributary of the Baltoro Glacier, is named after the Duke.
Günter Dyhrenfurth and his International Himalayan
Expedition, including André Roch, explored
Gasherbrum I and II,
making it 6,250 metres (20,510 ft) up
The first ascent came on July 7, 1956, by Austrians Fritz Moravec,
Josef Larch and Hans Willenpart by the Southwest Ridge. After they set
up Camp I, they had to descend, and found the camp—and all their
supplies and food—buried by an avalanche when they returned. Despite
this, they decided to make a quick summit attempt. After opening up a
route, they left Camp III on July 6. The group spent the night in a
bivouac sack and reached the top at 11:30 am the next day.
In 1975, four expeditions successfully climbed
including Jean-Pierre Fresafond's French expedition, a Polish group
under Janusz Onyszkiewicz, and another Polish expedition led by Wanda
Four years later, a Chilean group claimed to have used the "normal"
route to reach the top. Several others, including Reinhard Karl, Hanns
Kurt Diemberger also reached the summit.
On July 24, 1982, Reinhold Messner, along with
Nazir Sabir and Sher
Khan, climbed the peak via the Southwest Ridge. During that
year, Messner also climbed two other eight-thousanders, Kangchenjunga
and Broad Peak, and attempted Cho Oyu. He wrote a book, 3 x 8000: My
Great Year in the Himalaya (German: 3 x 8000: Mein grosses
Himalaja-Jahr), about this.
In July 1984,
Reinhold Messner and
Hans Kammerlander reached both
Gasherbrum II and
Gasherbrum I without returning to base camp, in
In August 1984, a French expedition led by Daniel Croisot, reached
summit and achieved the integral first descent by ski of Gasherbrum
II, as witnessed and joined by Dominique Dock who was medical officer
for the expedition.
In August 1986,
Gasherbrum II was successfully ascended by a Slovene
expedition in only 32 hours from the base to the peak, with only 22
hours of climbing and 10 hours of rest at the altitude of 5900 m. This
was by far the fastest ascent until then.
In July 1996,
Jean-Christophe Lafaille climbed
Gasherbrum I and II in
four days, without stopping at
Base Camp in between.
Sebastian Haag and
Benedikt Böhm climbed
Gasherbrum II twice
within a week. At 8:00 am on July 29, they reached the top and then
skied down without abseiling or removing their skis. They rested for a
few days before leaving Camp I again on August 3. They started out
fast, reaching Camp IV in six hours, but 50 centimetres (20 in)
of fresh snow slowed them down, and they reached the summit after over
six hours of tough climbing. They descended on skis again, this time
made even more dangerous by packed-down snow and the risk of
avalanche. Despite this, they both made it safely back to Camp I in
under 17 hours, whereas a normal expedition takes four to seven
Karl Unterkircher and Daniele Bernasconi, two Italians, climbed
Gasherbrum II in 2007 in alpine style. They were the first to use the
North Face through China. The route had been attempted a year earlier
by a German–Swiss team, but they abandoned it after an avalanche.
During the attempt they fixed around 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) of
rope. They arrived at the summit around 8:00 pm on July 20, after
spending the night in a bivouac shelter. A third member, Michele
Compagnoni, grandson of Achille Compagnoni, turned back just 150
metres (490 ft) before the summit. The team reunited and
descended down the normal, northwest route.
On February 2, 2011, Cory Richards, Denis Urubko, and Simone Moro
became the first to ascend
Gasherbrum II in winter. Despite being
buried by a class-four avalanche, they reached the summit at 11:30 am,
without supplemental oxygen or porters. Richards, who was the first
American to climb an eight-thousander in winter, filmed the
expedition, which he turned into the film Cold.
List of mountains in China
List of mountains in Pakistan
List of highest mountains
Dyhrenfurth, G. O. (1955). To the Third Pole. London.
ISBN 978-1-4465-4447-1. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
Isserman, Maurice; Weaver, Stewart Angas (2010). Fallen Giants: A
History of Himalayan Mountaineering from the Age of Empire to the Age
of Extremes. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-16420-6.
Retrieved 27 March 2013.
Messner, Reinhold (1999). All 14 Eight-Thousanders. The Mountaineers
Books. ISBN 978-0-89886-660-5. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
Notes and references
^ a b c d "
Gasherbrum II". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 9 March
^ a b "Trekking Routes - Highest peaks". cknp.org. Retrieved
^ a b c "
Gasherbrum II". Peakware.com. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
Karakoram and India/
peaklist.org. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 2013-03-09.
Gasherbrum II". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
^ Seyfferth, Guenter (5 March 2013). "Die Berge des Himalaya" (in
German). himalaya-info.org. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
Gasherbrum I, China/Pakistan". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 30 March
^ "Broad Peak, China/Pakistan". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 30 March
^ Dyhrenfurth 1955, p. 199.
Gasherbrum III". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
^ a b Green, Stewart. "
Gasherbrum II: 13th Highest Mountain in the
World". About.com. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
Gasherbrum I". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
Gasherbrum IV Photo Gallery Home". Mountains of Travel Photos. June
2011. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
^ Dyhrenfurth 1955, p. 187.
^ Filippi, Filippo de; di Savoia, Luigi Amedeo (1912).
Western Himalaya 1909: An Account of the Expedition of H.R.H. Prince
Luigi Amadeo of Savoy, Duke of the Abruzzi. New York: E. P. Dutton.
Retrieved 27 March 2013.
^ a b c d e f Messner 1999, p. 128.
^ Dyhrenfurth 1955, p. 198.
Gasherbrum II Photo Gallery Home". Mountains of Travel Photos. June
2011. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
^ Isserman, pp. 327–328
^ Hussain, Manzoor (July 2, 2000). "
Nazir Sabir - The Mountaineer and
Pakistan & Gulf Economist. Retrieved 15 March
^ Chessler, Michael. "Who is Reinhold Messner?". Traditional
Mountaineering. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
^ Grošelj, Viki (17 November 2012). "Gašerbrum, najnižji med
štirinajstimi najvišjimi vrhovi sveta" [Gasherbrum: The Lowest Among
the Fourteen Highest Peaks of the World]. Delo.si (in Slovenian).
American Alpine Club (1997). 1997 American Alpine Journal. The
Mountaineers Books. p. 329. ISBN 978-1-933056-44-9.
ISSN 0065-6925. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
^ "Cool: Speed climb and successful ski down
Gasherbrum ll" (PDF).
Expedition Manaslu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December
2012. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
^ Winter, Stefan (2006). "Germans summit G2 and then ski down: great
pictures!". EverestNews.com. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
^ MacDonald, Dougald. "Italians Climb G-II's North Face". Climbing.
Retrieved 24 January 2014.
^ Griffin, Linsay (30 July 2007). "Italians climb Chinese face of
Gasherbrum II". Alpinist. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
^ MacDonald, Dougald (2 February 2011). "First Winter Ascent of
Gasherbrum II". Climbing. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
^ Cahall, Fitz. "Climber Cory Richards". National Geographic
Adventure. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
Moravec, Fritz (1958). Weiße Berge, schwarze Menschen (in German).
Vienna: Österreichischer Bundesverlag.
Soriano, Rosa Real (2001).
Gasherbrum II: Expedición "Cinc Segles" de
la Universitat de Valčncia (in Spanish). University of Valencia.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Gasherbrum II on Himalaya-Info.org (German)
Gasherbrum II on Summitpost
Gasherbrum II: A Journey to 26,360 Feet in the
December 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
Gasherbrum II-express debrief: The first German ski descent of G2; a
17-hour round trip
Cold on IMDb
Cold on YouTube
Annapurna I East
Annapurna I Middle Peak
List of ski descents
List of climbers
List of deaths