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Garlic
Garlic
( Allium
Allium
sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive,[2] and Chinese onion.[3] Garlic
Garlic
is native to Central Asia
Central Asia
and northeastern Iran, and has long been a common seasoning worldwide, with a history of several thousand years of human consumption and use.[1][2] It was known to ancient Egyptians, and has been used both as a food flavoring and as a traditional medicine.[4][5]

Contents

1 Description 2 Origin and major types

2.1 European garlic

3 Subspecies and varieties 4 Cultivation

4.1 Diseases

5 Production 6 Uses

6.1 Culinary uses

6.1.1 Regions

6.2 Storage 6.3 Historical use 6.4 Nutrients 6.5 Research

6.5.1 Cardiovascular 6.5.2 Cancer 6.5.3 Common cold

6.6 Other uses 6.7 Adverse effects and toxicology 6.8 Spiritual and religious uses

7 Properties 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

Description[edit] Allium
Allium
sativum is a bulbous plant. It grows up to 1.2 m (4 ft) in height. Its hardiness is USDA Zone 8. It produces hermaphrodite flowers. It is pollinated by bees and other insects.[6] Origin and major types[edit] Allium
Allium
sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalized. The "wild garlic", "crow garlic", and "field garlic" of Britain are members of the species Allium
Allium
ursinum, Allium
Allium
vineale, and Allium
Allium
oleraceum, respectively. Identification of the wild progenitor of common garlic is difficult, due to the sterility of its many cultivars which may all be descended from the species Allium longicuspis, which grows wild in central and southwestern Asia.[7][8][9] In North America, Allium
Allium
vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium
Allium
canadense, known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion", are common weeds in fields.[10] So-called elephant garlic is actually a wild leek ( Allium
Allium
ampeloprasum), and not a true garlic. Single clove garlic (also called pearl or solo garlic) originated in the Yunnan
Yunnan
province of China. European garlic[edit]

Flower head

There are a number of garlics with Protected Geographical Status
Protected Geographical Status
in Europe; these include:

Name Source

Aglio Rosso di Nubia
Aglio Rosso di Nubia
(Red Garlic
Garlic
of Nubia) Nubia-Paceco, Provincia di Trapani, Sicily, Italy

Aglio Bianco Polesano Veneto, Italy (PDO)[11]

Aglio di Voghiera Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna, Italy (PDO)

Ail blanc de Lomagne Lomagne in the Gascony, France (PGI)[12]

Ail de la Drôme Drôme, France (PGI)

Ail rose de Lautrec, a rose/pink garlic Lautrec, France (PGI)

Ajo Morado de las Pedroñeras, a rose/pink garlic Las Pedroñeras, Spain (PGI)

Italian garlic

Bulbils

Subspecies and varieties[edit] There are two subspecies of A. sativum,[13] ten major groups of varieties, and hundreds of varieties or cultivars.

A. sativum var. ophioscorodon (Link) Döll, called Ophioscorodon, or hard-necked garlic, includes porcelain garlics, rocambole garlic, and purple stripe garlics. It is sometimes considered to be a separate species, Allium
Allium
ophioscorodon G.Don. A. sativum var. sativum, or soft-necked garlic, includes artichoke garlic, silverskin garlic, and creole garlic.

Cultivation[edit] Garlic
Garlic
is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates.[14] While sexual propagation of garlic is possible, nearly all of the garlic in cultivation is propagated asexually, by planting individual cloves in the ground.[8] In colder climates, cloves are planted in the autumn, about six weeks before the soil freezes, and harvested in late spring or early summer. The cloves must be planted deep enough to prevent freeze/thaw, which causes mold or white rot.[15] Garlic
Garlic
plants can be grown closely together, leaving enough space for the bulbs to mature, and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. Garlic
Garlic
does well in loose, dry, well-drained soils in sunny locations, and is hardy throughout USDA climate zones 4–9. When selecting garlic for planting, it is important to pick large bulbs from which to separate cloves. Large cloves, along with proper spacing in the planting bed, will also improve bulb size. Garlic
Garlic
plants prefer to grow in a soil with a high organic material content, but are capable of growing in a wide range of soil conditions and pH levels.[8] There are different varieties or subspecies of garlic, most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic.[14] The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the choice of type, as garlic can be day-length sensitive. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates and produces relatively large cloves, whereas softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator and produces small, tightly-packed cloves.[14] Garlic
Garlic
scapes are removed to focus all the garlic's energy into bulb growth. The scapes can be eaten raw or cooked.[15][16] Diseases[edit] Garlic
Garlic
plants are usually hardy and not affected by many pests or diseases. Garlic
Garlic
plants are said to repel rabbits and moles.[3] However, pathogens that affect garlic are nematodes and wood-decay fungus, which remain in the soil indefinitely after the ground has become infected.[8] Garlic
Garlic
may also suffer from pink root, a typically non-fatal disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red,[17] leek rot or downy mildew.[14] The larvae of the leek moth attack garlic by mining into the leaves or bulbs.[18] Production[edit]

Garlic
Garlic
production, 2016

Country Production (tonnes)

 China

21,197,131

 India

1,400,000

 Bangladesh

381,851

 Egypt

280,216

 South Korea

275,549

 Russia

262,211

World

26,573,001

May include official, semi-official or estimated data Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation[19]

Main article: Garlic
Garlic
production in China In 2016, world production of garlic was 26.6 million tonnes, with China
China
alone accounting for 80% of the total (table). India
India
was the second largest producer with 5% of world production.[19] Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered in Gilroy, California, which calls itself the " Garlic
Garlic
Capital of the World".[20] Uses[edit] Culinary uses[edit]

Garlic
Garlic
being crushed using a garlic press

String of garlic

Garlic
Garlic
is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. The garlic plant's bulb is the most commonly used part of the plant. With the exception of the single clove types, garlic bulbs are normally divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. Garlic cloves are used for consumption (raw or cooked) or for medicinal purposes. They have a characteristic pungent, spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking.[21] Other parts of the garlic plant are also edible. The leaves and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are sometimes eaten. They are milder in flavor than the bulbs,[3] and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. Immature garlic is sometimes pulled, rather like a scallion, and sold as "green garlic".[22] When green garlic is allowed to grow past the "scallion" stage, but not permitted to fully mature, it may produce a garlic "round", a bulb like a boiling onion, but not separated into cloves like a mature bulb.[23] It imparts a garlic flavor and aroma in food, minus the spiciness. Green garlic is often chopped and stir-fried or cooked in soup or hot pot in Southeast Asian (i.e. Vietnamese, Thai, Myanmar, Lao, Cambodian, Singaporean), and Chinese cookery, and is very abundant and low-priced. Additionally, the immature flower stalks (scapes) of the hardneck and elephant types are sometimes marketed for uses similar to asparagus in stir-fries.[8] Inedible or rarely eaten parts of the garlic plant include the "skin" covering each clove and root cluster. The papery, protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant are generally discarded during preparation for most culinary uses, though in Korea immature whole heads are sometimes prepared with the tender skins intact.[24] The root cluster attached to the basal plate of the bulb is the only part not typically considered palatable in any form. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb, coat the cloves by dribbling olive oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them, and roast them in an oven. Garlic
Garlic
softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb, or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. In Korea, heads of garlic are heated over the course of several weeks; the resulting product, called black garlic, is sweet and syrupy, and is now being sold in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Garlic
Garlic
may be applied to different kinds of bread, usually in a medium of butter or oil, to create a variety of classic dishes, such as garlic bread, garlic toast, bruschetta, crostini and canapé. The flavor varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. It is often paired with onion, tomato, or ginger. Immature scapes are tender and edible. They are also known as "garlic spears", "stems", or "tops". Scapes generally have a milder taste than the cloves. They are often used in stir frying or braised like asparagus.[16] Garlic
Garlic
leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. The leaves are cut, cleaned, and then stir-fried with eggs, meat, or vegetables. Garlic powder
Garlic powder
has a different taste from fresh garlic. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic, 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is approximate to one clove of garlic.

Green garlic

Garlic
Garlic
cloves pickled by simply storing them in vinegar in a refrigerator. This also yields garlic-infused vinegar to use in recipes or as a condiment.[25]

Regions[edit] Garlic
Garlic
is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions, including eastern Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, northern Africa, southern Europe, and parts of Latin America.[26] Latin
Latin
American seasonings, particularly, use garlic in sofritos and mofongos.[27] Oils can be flavored with garlic cloves. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables, meats, breads and pasta. Garlic, along with fish sauce, chopped fresh chilis, lime juice, sugar, and water, is a basic essential item in dipping fish sauce, a highly used dipping sauce condiment used in Indochina. In East and Southeast Asia, chili oil with garlic is a popular dipping sauce, especially for meat and seafood. Tuong ot toi Viet Nam
Tuong ot toi Viet Nam
(Vietnam chili garlic sauce) is a highly popular condiment and dip across North America and Asia. In some cuisines, the young bulbs are pickled for three to six weeks in a mixture of sugar, salt, and spices. In eastern Europe, the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. Laba garlic, prepared by soaking garlic in vinegar, is a type of pickled garlic served with dumplings in northern China
China
to celebrate the Chinese New Year.[2] Garlic
Garlic
is essential in Middle Eastern and Arabic cooking, with its presence in many food items. In Levantine countries such as Jordan, Palestine, and Lebanon, garlic is traditionally crushed together with olive oil, and occasionally salt, to create a Middle Eastern garlic sauce called Toum
Toum
(تُوم; meaning "garlic" in Arabic). While not exclusively served with meats, toum is commonly paired with chicken, or other meat dishes such as shawarma. Garlic
Garlic
is also a key component in hummus, an Arabic dip composed of chickpeas, tahini, garlic, lemon juice, and salt. Lightly smoked garlic is used in British and European cuisine. It is particularly prized for stuffing poultry and game, and in soups and stews. Mixing garlic with egg yolks and olive oil produces aioli. Garlic, oil, and a chunky base produce skordalia. Blending garlic, almond, oil, and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. Tzatziki, yogurt mixed with garlic and salt is a common sauce in Eastern Mediterranean cuisines. Storage[edit]

A basket of garlic bulbs.

Domestically, garlic is stored warm [above 18 °C (64 °F)] and dry to keep it dormant (to inhibit sprouting). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands called plaits or grappes. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[28] Commercially, garlic is stored at 0 °C (32 °F), in a dry, low-humidity environment. Garlic
Garlic
will keep longer if the tops remain attached.[8] Garlic
Garlic
is often kept in oil to produce flavored oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling which may include rancidity and growth of Clostridium botulinum.[29] Acidification with a mild solution of vinegar minimizes bacterial growth.[29] Refrigeration does not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil, requiring use within one month to avoid bacterial spoilage.[29] Historical use[edit]

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale)

The use of garlic in China
China
dates back thousands of years.[2] It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen
Galen
eulogized it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), discussed it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor. Garlic
Garlic
was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate
Hecate
(Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man). According to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. In his Natural History, Pliny gives a list of scenarios in which garlic was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). In the 17th century Dr Thomas Sydenham
Thomas Sydenham
valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and William Cullen's Materia Medica of 1789 [30] found some dropsies cured by it alone. Garlic
Garlic
was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe.[31] When the English came to America, they brought their anti-garlic attitude with them, and it took almost three hundred years - likely because of continuing puritanism influence - for this viewpoint to diminish, though garlic was used as a folk medicine.[31] Translations of the c. 1300 Assize of Weights and Measures indicate a passage as dealing with standardized units of garlic production, sale, and taxation—the hundred of 15 ropes of 15 heads each[32]—but the Latin
Latin
version of the text refers to herring rather than garlic.[33] Garlic
Garlic
was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World Wars I and II.[34] Nutrients[edit]

Garlic, raw

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 623 kJ (149 kcal)

Carbohydrates

33.06 g

Sugars 1 g

Dietary fiber 2.1 g

Fat

0.5 g

Protein

6.36 g

Vitamins

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(17%) 0.2 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(9%) 0.11 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(5%) 0.7 mg

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5)

(12%) 0.596 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(95%) 1.235 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(1%) 3 μg

Vitamin
Vitamin
C

(38%) 31.2 mg

Minerals

Calcium

(18%) 181 mg

Iron

(13%) 1.7 mg

Magnesium

(7%) 25 mg

Manganese

(80%) 1.672 mg

Phosphorus

(22%) 153 mg

Potassium

(9%) 401 mg

Sodium

(1%) 17 mg

Zinc

(12%) 1.16 mg

Other constituents

Water 59 g

selenium 14.2 μg

Link to USDA Database entry

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

In the typical serving size of 1–3 cloves (3–9 grams), garlic provides no significant nutritional value, with the content of all essential nutrients below 10% of the Daily Value (DV) (table).[35] When expressed per 100 grams, garlic contains several nutrients in rich amounts (20% or more of the DV), including vitamins B6 and C, and the dietary minerals manganese and phosphorus. Per 100 gram serving, garlic is also a moderate source (10–19% DV) of certain B vitamins, including thiamin and pantothenic acid, as well as the dietary minerals, calcium, iron, and zinc (table). The composition of raw garlic is 59% water, 33% carbohydrates, 6% protein, 2% dietary fiber, and less than 1% fat.[35] Research[edit] Cardiovascular[edit] Much clinical research has been conducted to determine the effect of garlic on preventing cardiovascular diseases and on various biomarkers of cardiovascular health, but as of 2015, the results were contradictory and it was not known if there are any effects.[36][37][38][39][40] A 2016 meta-analysis indicated there was no effect of garlic consumption on blood levels of lipoprotein(a), a marker of atherosclerosis.[41] Because garlic might reduce platelet aggregation, people taking anticoagulant medication are cautioned about consuming garlic.[42][43][44] Cancer[edit] A 2016 meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies found a moderate inverse association between garlic intake and some cancers of the upper digestive tract.[45] Another meta-analysis found decreased rates of stomach cancer associated with garlic intake, but cited confounding factors as limitations for interpreting these studies.[46] Further meta-analyses found similar results on the incidence of stomach cancer by consuming allium vegetables including garlic.[47][48] A 2014 meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies found that garlic consumption was associated with a lower risk of stomach cancer in Korean people.[49] A 2016 meta-analysis found no effect of garlic on colorectal cancer.[50] A 2014 meta-analysis found garlic supplements or allium vegetables to have no effect on colorectal cancers.[51] A 2013 meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies found limited evidence for an association between higher garlic consumption and reduced risk of prostate cancer, but the studies were suspected as having publication bias.[52] A 2013 meta-analysis of epidemiological studies found garlic intake to be associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer.[53] Common cold[edit] A 2014 Cochrane review[54] found insufficient evidence to determine the effects of garlic in preventing or treating the common cold.[54] Other reviews concluded a similar absence of high-quality evidence for garlic having a significant effect on the common cold.[42][55] Other uses[edit] The sticky juice within the bulb cloves is used as an adhesive in mending glass and porcelain.[3] An environmentally benign garlic-derived polysulfide product is approved for use in the European Union (under Annex 1 of 91/414) and the UK as a nematicide and insecticide, including for use for control of cabbage root fly and red mite in poultry.[56] Garlic
Garlic
is used as a fish and meat preservative, and displays antimicrobial effects at temperatures as high as 120 degree Celsius.[57][58] Adverse effects and toxicology[edit] Garlic
Garlic
is known to cause bad breath (halitosis) and body odor, described as a pungent "garlicky" smell to sweat. This is caused by allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a volatile liquid which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic-derived sulfur compounds; from the blood it travels to the lungs[2] (and from there to the mouth, causing bad breath; see garlic breath) and skin, where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Studies have shown sipping milk at the same time as consuming garlic can significantly neutralize bad breath.[59] Mixing garlic with milk in the mouth before swallowing reduced the odor better than drinking milk afterward.[59] Plain water, mushrooms and basil may also reduce the odor; the mix of fat and water found in milk, however, was the most effective.[59] The green, dry "folds" in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic, produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl polysulfides, and vinyldithiins.[2] Aged garlic lacks allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to garlic and other species of Allium.[2] Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and, in rare cases, anaphylaxis. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyl disulfide, allylpropyldisulfide, allylmercaptan and allicin, all of which are present in garlic. People who suffer from garlic allergies are often sensitive to many other plants, including onions, chives, leeks, shallots, garden lilies, ginger, and bananas. Several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes, including naturopathic uses and acne treatment, indicate care must be taken for these uses, usually testing a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic.[60] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns, including burns to children, topical use of raw garlic, as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities, is discouraged. In particular, topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable.[61] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation are largely unknown, and no FDA-approved study has been performed. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort, sweating, dizziness, allergic reactions, bleeding, and menstrual irregularities.[5] Some breastfeeding mothers have found, after consuming garlic, that their babies can be slow to feed, and have noted a garlic odor coming from them.[62][63] If higher-than-recommended doses of garlic are taken with anticoagulant medications, this can lead to a higher risk of bleeding.[64] Garlic
Garlic
may interact with warfarin, antiplatelets, saquinavir, antihypertensives, calcium channel blockers, the quinolone family of antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, and hypoglycemic drugs, as well as other medications.[62] Alliums might be toxic to cats or dogs.[65] Spiritual and religious uses[edit] In myths, garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. In Europe, many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic, perhaps owing to its reputation in folk medicine.[5] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons, werewolves, and vampires. To ward off vampires, garlic could be worn, hung in windows, or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes.[66][67] In the foundation myth of the ancient Korean kingdom of Gojoseon, eating nothing but 20 cloves of garlic and a bundle of Korean mugwort for 100 days let a bear be transformed into a woman.[68] In Iranian countries which celebrate Nowruz
Nowruz
(Persian calendar New Year) such as Iran, the Caucasus
Caucasus
countries, Afghanistan, and Central Asian countries such as Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Uzbekistan, garlic is one of the items in a Seven-Seen
Seven-Seen
table, a traditional New Year's display. In Islam, it is recommended not to eat raw garlic prior to going to the mosque. This is based on several hadith.[69][70] In both Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism, garlic is thought to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. Some devout Hindus
Hindus
generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods, while less devout followers may only observe this for religious festivities and events. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. In some Buddhist
Buddhist
traditions, garlic – along with the other five "pungent spices" – is understood to stimulate sexual and aggressive drives to the detriment of meditation practice. In Mahayana Buddhism, monks and nuns are not allowed to consume garlic or other pungent spices such as chili, which are deemed as being "earthly pleasures" and are viewed as promoting aggression due to their spiciness and pungency. Properties[edit]

Alliin, a sulfur-containing compound found in garlic.

Fresh or crushed garlic yields the sulfur-containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallyl polysulfides, vinyldithiins, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, saponins, flavonoids, and Maillard reaction
Maillard reaction
products, which are not sulfur-containing compounds. The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids (cytosol).[citation needed] The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to react over time. Among the members of the onion family, garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products, making garlic much more potent than onion, shallot, or leeks.[71] Although many humans enjoy the taste of garlic, these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism, deterring animals such as birds, insects, and worms from eating the plant.[72] Because of this, people throughout history have used garlic to keep away insects such as mosquitoes and slugs.[citation needed] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. Allicin
Allicin
has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. This chemical opens thermo-transient receptor potential channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin, thus mellowing its spiciness.[72] Allicin, along with its decomposition products diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide, are major contributors to the characteristic odor of garlic, with other allicin-derived compounds, such as vinyldithiins and ajoene.[2] Because of its strong odor, garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". When eaten in quantity, garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and garlic breath the following day. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized, forming allyl methyl sulfide. Allyl methyl sulfide
Allyl methyl sulfide
(AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. It is carried to the lungs and the skin, where it is excreted. Since digestion takes several hours, and release of AMS several hours more, the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time.[2] The well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is allegedly alleviated by eating fresh parsley.[73] The herb is, therefore, included in many garlic recipes, such as pistou, persillade, and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream, it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent, but no clinically reported evidence suggests it is actually effective.[74] Abundant sulfur compounds in garlic are also responsible for turning garlic green or blue during pickling and cooking. Under these conditions (i.e. acidity, heat) the sulfur-containing compound alliinase react with common amino acids to make pyrroles, clusters of carbon-nitrogen rings.[75][76] These rings can be linked together into polypyrrole molecules. Ring structures absorb particular wavelengths of light and thus appear colored. The two-pyrrole molecule looks red, the three-pyrrole molecule looks blue and the four-pyrrole molecule looks green (like chlorophyll, a tetrapyrrole). Like chlorophyll, the pyrrole pigments are safe to eat.[77] Upon cutting, similar to a color change in onion caused by reactions of amino acids with sulfur compounds,[78] garlic can turn green.[79][80] Gallery[edit]

chopped garlic

A bulb of garlic, not separated from the stem.

garlic plant

Peeled garlic

Garlic
Garlic
from a recent harvest

Garlic
Garlic
Press and Garlic
Garlic
paste

Blended garlic confit

See also[edit]

Garlic
Garlic
festivals Garlic
Garlic
Is as Good as Ten Mothers. Directed by Les Blank. Garlic
Garlic
oil Garlic
Garlic
sauce Herbalism International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants List of garlic dishes Pyruvate scale

Garlic
Garlic
powder

References[edit]

^ a b " Allium
Allium
sativum L". Kewscience; Plants of the World Online; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. Retrieved 2017-05-26.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Block, E. (2010). Garlic
Garlic
and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 0-85404-190-7.  ^ a b c d "AllergyNet — Allergy Advisor Find". Allallergy.net. Archived from the original on June 15, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2010.  ^ Simonetti, G. (1990). Schuler, S., ed. Simon & Schuster's Guide to Herbs and Spices. Simon & Schuster, Inc. ISBN 0-671-73489-X.  ^ a b c " Garlic
Garlic
('' Allium
Allium
sativum'' L.)". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. April 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2016.  ^ Meredith, Ted Jordan
Jordan
and Drucker, Avram. Growing Garlic
Garlic
from True Seed. Garlic
Garlic
Analecta. Retrieved May 24, 2014. ^ Zohary, D., Hopf, M. (2000) Domestication of plants in the Old World, 3rd edition, Oxford: University Press, ISBN 0-19-850357-1, p. 197 ^ a b c d e f "Small Farm News Archive". Sfc.ucdavis.edu. Archived from the original on March 13, 2007. Retrieved April 14, 2010.  ^ Salunkhe, D.K.; Kadam, S.S. (1998). Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. Marcel Dekker. p. 397. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4.  ^ McGee p. 112 ^ Protected Designation of Origin ^ Protected Geographical Indication ^ " Allium
Allium
sativum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service
(ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved December 10, 2017.  ^ a b c d "Garlic". The Royal Horticultural Society, London, UK. 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.  ^ a b "The Cult of the Cloves". New York Times. September 29, 2010. Retrieved October 5, 2010. You sow it in fall, not spring. The plant often forms strange curling stalks, or 'scapes', with odd nodules called umbels. These rococo growths contain their own minicloves called bulbils.  ^ a b "A Garlic
Garlic
Festival Without a Single Clove". New York Times. June 18, 2008. Retrieved October 5, 2010. Garlic
Garlic
scapes are pencil thin and exuberantly loopy, and emanate a clean and mildly garlicky scent. … They had a gently spicy undertone and an exquisitely fresh green, mellow taste. Unlike regular garlic, which needs some kind of vehicle to carry its intense flavor to the mouth, scapes are self-sufficient; vegetable and aromatic all in one.  ^ "UC IPM: UC Management Guidelines for Pink Root on Onion
Onion
and Garlic". Ipm.ucdavis.edu. Retrieved April 14, 2010.  ^ Landry, Jean-François (June 2007). "Taxonomic review of the leek moth genus Acrolepiopsis (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae) in North America". The Canadian Entomologist. 139 (3): 319–353. doi:10.4039/n06-098. ISSN 1918-3240.  ^ a b " Garlic
Garlic
production in 2016: Crops/World Regions/Production Quantity (from pick lists)". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2018.  ^ "City of Gilroy: a community with a spice for life". City of Gilroy, California. 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2017.  ^ Katzer, G (August 8, 2009). " Garlic
Garlic
( Allium
Allium
sativum L.)". Retrieved December 2, 2012.  ^ Thompson, S. (1995) The Kitchen Garden. Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-37476-1. p. 144. ^ Thompson, S. (1995) The Kitchen Garden. Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-37476-1. p. 145. ^ Amanda. "Glossary of Foods and Food Terms in Korea". Food-links.com. Retrieved April 14, 2010.  ^ McClellan, Marisa (1 November 2011). "In a Pickle: Pickled Garlic". Serious Eats. Retrieved 7 October 2015.  ^ Spivey, Diane. " Latin
Latin
American and Caribbean Food and Cuisine". go.galegroup.com. Gale Group. Retrieved 30 March 2017.  ^ Root, Zella Palmer Cuadra; photographs by Natalie (2013). New Orleans con sabor Latino : the history and passion of Latino cooking (Online-Ausg. ed.). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-62103-984-6.  ^ University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. "Garlic: Safe Methods to Store, Preserve and Enjoy" (PDF). UC ANR. Retrieved February 28, 2014.  ^ a b c "Safe Homemade Flavored and Infused Oils". Food Safety Facts. Orono, ME: Cooperative Extension Publications, University of Maine. 2011.  ^ Cullen 1789, vol.ii. p. 174. ^ a b Renoux, Victoria (2005-01-01). For the Love of Garlic: The Complete Guide to Garlic
Garlic
Cuisine. Square One Publishers, Inc. pp. 21–25. ISBN 9780757000874.  ^ Statutes of the Realm, Vol. I, London: G. Eyre & A. Strahan, 1810, p. 204  ^ Ruffhead, Owen, ed. (1763a), The Statutes at Large, Vol. I: From Magna Charta to the End of the Reign of King Henry the Sixth. To which is prefixed, A Table of the Titles of all the Publick and Private Statutes during that Time, London: Mark Basket for the Crown, pp. 148–149 . (in English) & (in Latin) & (in Norman) ^ "Health effects of garlic. American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman, July 1, 2005". Aafp.org. Retrieved February 28, 2014.  ^ a b "Nutrition facts for raw garlic, USDA National Nutrient Database, version SR-21". Conde Nast. 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2014.  ^ Wang, Hai-Peng; Yang, Jing; Qin, Li-Qiang; Yang, Xiang-Jun (1 March 2015). "Effect of garlic on blood pressure: a meta-analysis". Journal of Clinical Hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.). 17 (3): 223–231. doi:10.1111/jch.12473. ISSN 1751-7176. PMID 25557383.  ^ Rohner, Andres; Ried, Karin; Sobenin, Igor A.; Bucher, Heiner C.; Nordmann, Alain J. (1 March 2015). "A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of garlic preparations on blood pressure in individuals with hypertension". American Journal of Hypertension. 28 (3): 414–423. doi:10.1093/ajh/hpu165. ISSN 1941-7225. PMID 25239480.  ^ Xiong, X. J.; Wang, P. Q.; Li, S. J.; Li, X. K.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Wang, J. (15 March 2015). " Garlic
Garlic
for hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Phytomedicine. 22 (3): 352–361. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2014.12.013. ISSN 1618-095X. PMID 25837272.  ^ Ried K, Toben C, Fakler P (May 2013). "Effect of garlic on serum lipids: an updated meta-analysis". Nutrition Reviews. 71 (5): 282–99. doi:10.1111/nure.12012. PMID 23590705.  ^ Stabler SN, Tejani AM, Huynh F, Fowkes C (August 2012). " Garlic
Garlic
for the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8 (8): CD007653. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007653.pub2. PMID 22895963.  ^ Sahebkar, A; Serban, C; Ursoniu, S; Banach, M (2016). "Effect of garlic on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials". Nutrition. 32 (1): 33–40. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2015.06.009. PMID 26522661.  ^ a b " Garlic
Garlic
at a glance". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2014.  ^ Rahman K (November 2007). "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". Mol Nutr Food Res. 51 (11): 1335–44. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700058. PMID 17966136.  ^ Borrelli F, Capasso R, Izzo AA (November 2007). " Garlic
Garlic
(Allium sativum L.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". Mol Nutr Food Res. 51 (11): 1386–97. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700072. PMID 17918162.  ^ Guercio, Valentina; Turati, Federica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Galeone, Carlotta; Tavani, Alessandra (1 January 2016). " Allium
Allium
vegetables and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: a meta-analysis of observational studies". Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 60 (1): 212–222. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201500587. ISSN 1613-4133. PMID 26464065.  ^ Zhou, Yong; Zhuang, Wen; Hu, Wen; Liu, Guan-Jian; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Wu, Xiao-Ting (1 July 2011). "Consumption of large amounts of Allium vegetables reduces risk for gastric cancer in a meta-analysis". Gastroenterology. 141 (1): 80–89. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2011.03.057. ISSN 1528-0012. PMID 21473867.  ^ Kodali, R. T.; Eslick, Guy D. (1 January 2015). "Meta-analysis: Does garlic intake reduce risk of gastric cancer?". Nutrition and Cancer. 67 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1080/01635581.2015.967873. ISSN 1532-7914. PMID 25411831.  ^ Turati, Federica; Guercio, Valentina; Pelucchi, Claudio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Galeone, Carlotta (1 September 2014). " Colorectal cancer
Colorectal cancer
and adenomatous polyps in relation to allium vegetables intake: a meta-analysis of observational studies". Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 58 (9): 1907–1914. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201400169. ISSN 1613-4133. PMID 24976533.  ^ Woo HD, Park S, Oh K, Kim HJ, Shin HR, Moon HK, Kim J (2014). "Diet and cancer risk in the Korean population: a meta-analysis" (PDF). Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 15 (19): 8509–19. doi:10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.19.8509. PMID 25339056.  ^ Chiavarini, Manuela; Minelli, Liliana; Fabiani, Roberto (1 February 2016). " Garlic
Garlic
consumption and colorectal cancer risk in man: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Public Health Nutrition. 19 (2): 308–317. doi:10.1017/S1368980015001263. ISSN 1475-2727. PMID 25945653.  ^ Zhu, Beibei; Zou, Li; Qi, Lu; Zhong, Rong; Miao, Xiaoping (1 December 2014). " Allium
Allium
vegetables and garlic supplements do not reduce risk of colorectal cancer, based on meta-analysis of prospective studies". Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 12 (12): 1991–2001.e1–4; quiz e121. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2014.03.019. ISSN 1542-7714. PMID 24681077.  ^ Zhou XF, Ding ZS, Liu NB (2013). " Allium
Allium
vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: evidence from 132,192 subjects" (PDF). Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 14 (7): 4131–4. doi:10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.7.4131. PMID 23991965. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 30, 2015.  ^ Zhou, Xiao-Feng; Ding, Zhen-Shan; Liu, Nai-Bo (1 January 2013). " Allium
Allium
vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: evidence from 132,192 subjects". Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. 14 (7): 4131–4134. doi:10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.7.4131. ISSN 1513-7368. PMID 23991965.  ^ a b Lissiman, E.; Bhasale, A.L.; Cohen, M. (November 2014). "Garlic for the common cold". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 11 (11): CD006206. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006206.pub4. PMID 25386977.  ^ Allan GM, Arroll B (February 2014). "Prevention and treatment of the common cold: making sense of the evidence". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 186 (3): 190–9. doi:10.1503/cmaj.121442. PMC 3928210 . PMID 24468694.  ^ Anwar, A.; Groom, M.; Sadler-Bridge, D. (2009). "Garlic: from nature's ancient food to nematicide" (PDF). Pesticide News. 84 (June): 18–20.  ^ Ranjan S, Dasgupta N, Saha P, Rakshit M, Ramalingam C (2012). "Comparative study of antibacterial activity of garlic and cinnamon at different temperature and its application on preservation of fish". Advances in Applied Science Research. 3 (1): 495–501. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Verma V, Singh R, Tiwari RK, Srivastava N, Verma A (2012). "Antibacterial activity of extracts of Citrus, Allium
Allium
& Punica against food borne spoilage" (PDF). Asian Journal of Plant
Plant
Science and Research. 2 (4): 503–509. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b c "Drinking a glass of milk can stop garlic breath". BBC News. August 31, 2010. Retrieved August 31, 2010.  ^ Baruchin AM, Sagi A, Yoffe B, Ronen M (2001). " Garlic
Garlic
burns". Burns. 27 (7): 781–2. doi:10.1016/S0305-4179(01)00039-0. PMID 11600262.  ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). " Garlic
Garlic
burns". Pediatrics. 91 (3): 658–9. PMID 8441577.  ^ a b Hogg, Jennifer (December 13, 2002). " Garlic
Garlic
Supplements" (PDF). Complementary Medicines Summary. UK Medicines Information, National Health Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 26, 2007. Retrieved July 7, 2007.  ^ "Garlic". Drugs.com. February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.  ^ Brown DG, Wilkerson EC, Love WE (March 2015). "A review of traditional and novel oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy for dermatologists and dermatologic surgeons". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 72 (3): 524–34. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2014.10.027. PMID 25486915.  ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets Archived January 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. ^ McNally, R.T. (1994). In Search of Dracula. Houghton Mifflin. pp. 120–122. ISBN 0-395-65783-0.  ^ Pickering, D. (2003). Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. Sterling Publishing. p. 211. ISBN 0-304-36561-0.  ^ Pettid, Michael J. (2008). Korean Cuisine: An Illustrated History. London: Reaktion Books. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-86189-348-2.  ^ " Hadith
Hadith
– Book of Call to Prayers (Adhaan) – Sahih al-Bukhari — Sunnah.com – Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.  ^ " Hadith
Hadith
– The Book of Mosques and Places of Prayer – Sahih Muslim — Sunnah.com – Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.  ^ McGee, pp. 310–311 ^ a b Macpherson LJ, Geierstanger BH, Viswanath V, Bandell M, Eid SR, Hwang SW, Patapoutian A (2005). "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". Current Biology. 15 (10): 929–34. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.04.018. PMID 15916949.  ^ "garlic". Food Dictionary, Epicurious.com. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2010.  ^ Rutledge, C. Roxanne; Day, Jonathan F. "Mosquito Repellents". Edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013.  ^ Shinsuke Imai; Kaori Akita; Muneaki Tomotake; Hiroshi Sawada (2006). "Model Studies on Precursor System Generating Blue Pigment in Onion and Garlic". J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (3): 848–852. doi:10.1021/jf051980f. PMID 16448193.  ^ Jungeun Cho; Seung Koo Lee; B.S. Patil; Eun Jin Lee; Kil Sun Yoo. "Separation of blue pigments in crushed garlic cloves: the color-forming potential of individual amino acids". II International Symposium on Human Health Effects of Fruits and Vegetables: FAVHEALTH 2007.  ^ McGee, Harold (December 2006). "When Science Sniffs Around the Kitchen". curiouscook.com.  ^ Lee, Eun Jin; Rezenom, Yohannes H.; Russell, David H.; Patil, Bhimanagouda S.; Yoo, Kil Sun (2012-04-01). "Elucidation of chemical structures of pink-red pigments responsible for 'pinking' in macerated onion ( Allium
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cepa L.) using HPLC–DAD and tandem mass spectrometry". Food Chemistry. 131 (3): 852–861. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.09.059.  ^ Cho, Jungeun; Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Seung Koo; Patil, Bhimanagouda S. (2009-01-01). "Identification of Candidate Amino Acids Involved in the Formation of Blue Pigments in Crushed Garlic
Garlic
Cloves ( Allium
Allium
sativum L.)". Journal of Food Science. 74 (1): C11–C16. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00986.x. ISSN 1750-3841. PMID 19200080.  ^ Lukes, T. M. (1986-11-01). "Factors Governing the Greening of Garlic Puree". Journal of Food Science. 51 (6): 1577–1577. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1986.tb13869.x. ISSN 1750-3841. 

Bibliography[edit]

McGee, Harold (2004). "The Onion
Onion
Family: Onions, Garlic, Leeks". On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Scribner. pp. 310–3. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 

External links[edit]

Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on

Garlic

The Wikibook Horticulture has a page on the topic of: Garlic

The Wikibook Ethnomedicine has a page on the topic of: Garlic

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Allium
Allium
sativum.

Data related to Allium
Allium
sativum at Wikispecies The dictionary definition of garlic at Wiktionary

v t e

Allium

Allium
Allium
species Chives Garlic Leek Onion

Onion
Onion
cultivars

Calçot Cocktail Common / Bulb

Yellow Red White

Pearl Potato Scallion Shallot Sweet Tree Vidalia Welsh

Onion
Onion
species

Allium…

…abramsii …acuminatum …aflatunense …ampeloprasum …amplectens …anceps …atrorubens …bisceptrum …bolanderi …burlewii …caeruleum …campanulatum …cernuum …chinense …cratericola …crispum …cristophii …koreanum …monanthum …platycaule …praecox …punctum …sanbornii …shevockii …siskiyouense …sphaerocephalon …stellatum …stipitatum …textile …tribracteatum …tricoccum …triquetrum …tuolumnense …unifolium …validum …victorialis …yosemitense

Onion
Onion
food

List of onion dishes Blooming Fried Onion
Onion
cake Onion
Onion
ring Pickled Sogan-dolma

Garlic
Garlic
cultivars

Elephant Garlic
Garlic
chives Snow Mountain Solo

Garlic
Garlic
species

Allium…

…canadense …drummondii …moly …neapolitanum …nigrum …roseum …sphaerocephalon …triquetrum …ursinum …vineale

Garlic
Garlic
food

List of garlic dishes Black garlic Persillade Pistou Garlic
Garlic
oil Garlic
Garlic
press Garlic
Garlic
bread Garlic
Garlic
chutney Beurre à la bourguignonne (garlic butter) Garlic
Garlic
soup

Garlic
Garlic
and onion constituents

Allicin Diallyl disulfide Diallyl trisulfide Allyl mercaptan

Related

Garlic Is as Good as Ten Mothers (1980 documentary)

Category Commons

v t e

Culinary herbs and spices

Herbs

Angelica Basil

holy Thai

Bay leaf Indian bay leaf (tejpat) Boldo Borage Chervil Chives

garlic / Chinese

Cicely Coriander
Coriander
leaf / Cilantro

Bolivian Vietnamese (rau răm)

Culantro Cress Curry leaf Dill Epazote Hemp Hoja santa Houttuynia cordata
Houttuynia cordata
(giấp cá) Hyssop Jimbu Kinh gioi (Vietnamese balm) Kkaennip Lavender Lemon balm Lemon grass Lemon myrtle Lemon verbena Limnophila aromatica
Limnophila aromatica
(rice-paddy herb) Lovage Marjoram Mint Mugwort Mitsuba Oregano Parsley Perilla Rosemary Rue Sage Savory Sanshō leaf Shiso Sorrel Tarragon Thyme Woodruff

Spices

Aonori
Aonori
(ground seaweed) Ajwain Allspice Amchoor (mango powder) Anise

star

Asafoetida Camphor Caraway Cardamom

black

Cassia Celery
Celery
powder Celery
Celery
seed Charoli Chenpi Cinnamon Clove Coriander
Coriander
seed Cubeb Cumin

Nigella sativa Bunium persicum

Deulkkae Dill /  Dill
Dill
seed Fennel Fenugreek

blue

Fingerroot (krachai) Galangal

greater lesser

Garlic Ginger Aromatic ginger (kencur) Golpar Grains of Paradise Grains of Selim Horseradish Juniper berry Kokum Korarima Dried lime Liquorice Litsea cubeba Mace Mango-ginger Mastic Mahleb Mustard

black brown white

Nigella (kalonji) Njangsa Nutmeg Pomegranate
Pomegranate
seed (anardana) Poppy seed Radhuni Rose Saffron Salt Sarsaparilla Sassafras Sesame Shiso
Shiso
seeds / berries Sumac Tamarind Tonka bean Turmeric Uzazi Vanilla Voatsiperifery Wasabi Yuzu
Yuzu
zest Zedoary Zereshk Zest

Peppers

Alligator Brazilian Chili

Cayenne Paprika

Long Peruvian Sichuan (huājiāo) Japanese pricklyash Tasmanian Peppercorn (black / green / white)

Mixtures

Adjika Advieh Baharat Beau monde seasoning Berbere Bouquet garni Buknu Chaat masala Chaunk Chili powder Cinnamon
Cinnamon
sugar Crab boil Curry powder Doubanjiang Douchi Duqqa Fines herbes Five-spice powder Garam masala Garlic
Garlic
powder Garlic
Garlic
salt Gochujang Harissa Hawaij Herbes de Provence Idli podi Jamaican jerk spice Khmeli suneli Lemon pepper Mitmita Mixed spice Montreal steak seasoning Mulling spices Old Bay Seasoning Onion
Onion
powder Panch phoron Persillade Powder-douce Pumpkin pie spice Qâlat daqqa Quatre épices Ras el hanout Recado rojo Sharena sol Shichimi Tabil Tandoori masala Vadouvan Yuzukoshō Za'atar

Lists and related topics

Lists of herbs and spices

Culinary Australian Bangladeshi Indian Pakistani

Related topics

Chinese herbology Herbal tea Marination Spice
Spice
rub

v t e

TRP channel modulators

TRPA

Activators

4-Hydroxynonenal 4-Oxo-2-nonenal 4,5-EET 12S-HpETE 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 α- Sanshool
Sanshool
(ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Acrolein Allicin
Allicin
(garlic) Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
(mustard, radish, horseradish, wasabi) AM404 Bradykinin Cannabichromene
Cannabichromene
(cannabis) Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(cannabis) Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(cannabis) Cinnamaldehyde
Cinnamaldehyde
(cinnamon) CR gas
CR gas
(dibenzoxazepine; DBO) CS gas
CS gas
(2-chlorobenzal malononitrile) Curcumin
Curcumin
(turmeric) Dehydroligustilide (celery) Diallyl disulfide Dicentrine
Dicentrine
( Lindera
Lindera
spp.) Farnesyl thiosalicylic acid Formalin Gingerols (ginger) Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Hydrogen peroxide Icilin Isothiocyanate Ligustilide (celery, Angelica acutiloba) Linalool
Linalool
(Sichuan pepper, thyme) Methylglyoxal Methyl salicylate
Methyl salicylate
(wintergreen) N-Methylmaleimide Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Oleocanthal
Oleocanthal
(olive oil) Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
(Pacific yew) Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) PF-4840154 Phenacyl chloride Polygodial
Polygodial
(Dorrigo pepper) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tear gases Tetrahydrocannabinol
Tetrahydrocannabinol
(cannabis) Thiopropanal S-oxide
Thiopropanal S-oxide
(onion) Umbellulone
Umbellulone
(Umbellularia californica) WIN 55,212-2

Blockers

Dehydroligustilide (celery) Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Ruthenium red

TRPC

Activators

Adhyperforin
Adhyperforin
(St John's wort) Diacyl glycerol GSK1702934A Hyperforin
Hyperforin
(St John's wort) Substance P

Blockers

DCDPC DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GSK417651A GSK2293017A Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate Progesterone Pyr3 Tolfenamic acid

TRPM

Activators

ADP-ribose BCTC Calcium
Calcium
(intracellular) Cold Coolact P Cooling Agent 10 CPS-369 Eucalyptol
Eucalyptol
(eucalyptus) Frescolat MGA Frescolat ML Geraniol Hydroxycitronellal Icilin Linalool Menthol
Menthol
(mint) PMD 38 Pregnenolone sulfate Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Steviol glycosides (e.g., stevioside) (Stevia rebaudiana) Sweet tastants (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose; indirectly) Thio-BCTC WS-3 WS-12 WS-23

Blockers

Capsazepine Clotrimazole DCDPC Flufenamic acid Meclofenamic acid Mefenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Niflumic acid Ruthenium red Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Tolfenamic acid TPPO

TRPML

Activators

MK6-83 PI(3,5)P2 SF-22

TRPP

Activators

Triptolide
Triptolide
(Tripterygium wilfordii)

Blockers

Ruthenium red

TRPV

Activators

2-APB 5',6'-EET 9-HODE 9-oxoODE 12S-HETE 12S-HpETE 13-HODE 13-oxoODE 20-HETE α- Sanshool
Sanshool
(ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Allicin
Allicin
(garlic) AM404 Anandamide Bisandrographolide (Andrographis paniculata) Camphor
Camphor
(camphor laurel, rosemary, camphorweed, African blue basil, camphor basil) Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(cannabis) Cannabidivarin
Cannabidivarin
(cannabis) Capsaicin
Capsaicin
(chili pepper) Carvacrol
Carvacrol
(oregano, thyme, pepperwort, wild bergamot, others) DHEA Diacyl glycerol Dihydrocapsaicin
Dihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Estradiol Eugenol
Eugenol
(basil, clove) Evodiamine
Evodiamine
(Euodia ruticarpa) Gingerols (ginger) GSK1016790A Heat Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Homocapsaicin
Homocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Homodihydrocapsaicin
Homodihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Incensole
Incensole
(incense) Lysophosphatidic acid Low pH (acidic conditions) Menthol
Menthol
(mint) N-Arachidonoyl dopamine N-Oleoyldopamine N-Oleoylethanolamide Nonivamide
Nonivamide
(PAVA) (PAVA spray) Nordihydrocapsaicin
Nordihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
(Pacific yew) Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) Phorbol esters
Phorbol esters
(e.g., 4α-PDD) Piperine
Piperine
(black pepper, long pepper) Polygodial
Polygodial
(Dorrigo pepper) Probenecid Protons RhTx Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Resiniferatoxin
Resiniferatoxin
(RTX) (Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tetrahydrocannabivarin
Tetrahydrocannabivarin
(cannabis) Thymol
Thymol
(thyme, oregano) Tinyatoxin
Tinyatoxin
(Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Tramadol Vanillin
Vanillin
(vanilla) Zucapsaicin

Blockers

α- Spinasterol
Spinasterol
( Vernonia
Vernonia
tweediana) AMG-517 Asivatrep BCTC Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(cannabis) Cannabigerolic acid (cannabis) Cannabigerovarin (cannabis) Cannabinol
Cannabinol
(cannabis) Capsazepine DCDPC DHEA DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GRC-6211 HC-067047 Lanthanum Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid NGD-8243 Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate RN-1734 RN-9893 Ruthenium red SB-705498 Tivanisiran Tolfenamic acid

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q23400 APDB: 14043 EoL: 1084926 EPPO: ALLSA FNA: 200027526 FoC: 200027526 GBIF: 2856681 GRIN: 2368 iNaturalist: 75363 IPNI: 528796-1 ITIS: 42652 NCBI: 4682 Plant
Plant
List: kew-296499 PLANTS: ALSA2 Tropicos: 18401720 VASCAN: 2486 WCSP: 296499

Authority control

.