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Gangtok
Gangtok
( /ˈɡæŋtɒk/ (help·info)) is a municipality, the capital and the largest town of the Indian state of Sikkim. It also is the headquarters of the East Sikkim
Sikkim
district. Gangtok
Gangtok
is located in the eastern Himalayan range, at an elevation of 1,650 m (5,410 ft). The town's population of 100,000 belongs to different ethnicities such as Nepalis, Lepchas and Bhutia. Nestled within higher peaks of the Himalaya
Himalaya
and enjoying a year-round mild temperate climate, Gangtok
Gangtok
is at the centre of Sikkim's tourism industry. Gangtok
Gangtok
rose to prominence as a popular Buddhist pilgrimage
Buddhist pilgrimage
site after the construction of the Enchey Monastery
Enchey Monastery
in 1840. In 1894, the ruling Sikkimese Chogyal, Thutob Namgyal, transferred the capital to Gangtok. In the early 20th century, Gangtok
Gangtok
became a major stopover on the trade route between Lhasa
Lhasa
in Tibet
Tibet
and cities such as Kolkata
Kolkata
(then Calcutta) in British India. After India
India
won its independence from Britain in 1947, Sikkim
Sikkim
chose to remain an independent monarchy, with Gangtok
Gangtok
as its capital. In 1975, after the integration with the union of India, Gangtok
Gangtok
was made India's 22nd state capital. The precise meaning of the name "Gangtok" is unclear, though the most popular meaning is "hill cut".[3] Today, Gangtok
Gangtok
is a centre of Tibetan Buddhist
Tibetan Buddhist
culture and learning, with the presence of several monasteries, religious educational institutions, and centres for Tibetology.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Economy 4 Civic administration 5 Utility services 6 Transport

6.1 Road 6.2 Rail 6.3 Air

7 Demographics 8 Culture

8.1 City institutions

9 Education 10 Media 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] See also: History of Sikkim Like the rest of Sikkim, not much is known about the early history of Gangtok.[4] The earliest records date from the construction of the hermitic Gangtok
Gangtok
monastery in 1716.[5] Gangtok
Gangtok
remained a small hamlet until the construction of the Enchey Monastery
Enchey Monastery
in 1840 made it a pilgrimage center. It became the capital of what was left of Sikkim after an English conquest in the mid-19th century in response to a hostage crisis. After the defeat of the Tibetans
Tibetans
by the British, Gangtok
Gangtok
became a major stopover in the trade between Tibet
Tibet
and British India
India
at the end of the 19th century.[6] Most of the roads and the telegraph in the area were built during this time. In 1894, Thutob Namgyal, the Sikkimese monarch under British rule, shifted the capital from Tumlong
Tumlong
to Gangtok, increasing the city's importance. A new grand palace along with other state buildings was built in the new capital. Following India's independence in 1947, Sikkim
Sikkim
became a nation-state with Gangtok
Gangtok
as its capital. Sikkim
Sikkim
came under the suzerainty of India, with the condition that it would retain its independence, by the treaty signed between the Chogyal
Chogyal
and the then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.[7] This pact gave the Indians control of external affairs on behalf of Sikkimese. Trade between India
India
and Tibet
Tibet
continued to flourish through the Nathula
Nathula
and Jelepla passes, offshoots of the ancient Silk Road
Silk Road
near Gangtok. These border passes were sealed after the Sino-Indian War
Sino-Indian War
in 1962, which deprived Gangtok
Gangtok
of its trading business.[8] The Nathula
Nathula
pass was finally opened for limited trade in 2006, fuelling hopes of economic boom.[9][10] In 1975, after years of political uncertainty and struggle, including riots, the monarchy was abrogated and Sikkim
Sikkim
became India's twenty-second state, with Gangtok
Gangtok
as its capital after a referendum. Gangtok
Gangtok
has witnessed annual landslides, resulting in loss of life and damage to property. The largest disaster occurred in June 1997, when 38 were killed and hundreds of buildings were destroyed.[11] Geography[edit]

Kanchenjunga, visible from Gangtok, is the world's third-tallest peak.

Banjhakri Falls - Gangtok

Gangtok
Gangtok
is located at 27°19′57″N 88°36′50″E / 27.3325°N 88.6140°E / 27.3325; 88.6140 (coordinates of Gangtok head post office).[2] It is situated in the lower Himalayas
Himalayas
at an elevation of 1,650 m (5,410 ft).[12] The town lies on one side of a hill, with "The Ridge",[6][13] a promenade housing the Raj Bhawan, the governor's residence, at one end and the palace, situated at an altitude of about 1,800 m (5,900 ft), at the other. The city is flanked on east and west by two streams, namely Roro Chu and Ranikhola, respectively.[11] These two rivers divide the natural drainage into two parts, the eastern and western parts. Both the streams meet the Ranipul and flow south as the main Ranikhola
Ranikhola
before it joins the Teesta at Singtam.[11] Most of the roads are steep, with the buildings built on compacted ground alongside them.[14] Most of Sikkim, including Gangtok, is underlain by Precambrian
Precambrian
rocks which contains foliated phyllites and schists; slopes are therefore prone to frequent landslides.[15] Surface runoff of water by natural streams (jhora) and man-made drains has contributed to the risk of landslides.[11] According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the town falls under seismic zone-IV (on a scale of I to V, in order of increasing seismic activity), near the convergent boundary of the Indian and the Eurasian tectonic plates and is subject to frequent earthquakes. The hills are nestled within higher peaks and the snow-clad Himalayan ranges tower over the town from the distance. Mount Kanchenjunga
Kanchenjunga
(8,598 m or 28,208 ft)—the world's third-highest peak—is visible to the west of the city. The existence of steep slopes, vulnerability to landslides, large forest cover and inadequate access to most areas have been a major impediment to the natural and balanced growth of the city.[11] There are densely forested regions around Gangtok, consisting of temperate, deciduous forests of poplar, birch, oak, and elm, as well as evergreen, coniferous trees of the wet alpine zone.[15] Orchids
Orchids
are common, and rare varieties of orchids are featured in flower shows in the city. Bamboos are also abundant. In the lower reaches of the town, the vegetation gradually changes from alpine to temperate deciduous and subtropical.[15] Flowers such as sunflower, marigold, poinsettia, and others bloom, especially in November and December. Climate[edit]

Climate data for Gangtok

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 19.9 (67.8) 22.0 (71.6) 27.6 (81.7) 27.3 (81.1) 28.5 (83.3) 28.4 (83.1) 28.4 (83.1) 29.9 (85.8) 28.5 (83.3) 27.2 (81) 25.5 (77.9) 24.0 (75.2) 29.9 (85.8)

Average high °C (°F) 12.3 (54.1) 13.7 (56.7) 18.3 (64.9) 20.9 (69.6) 21.6 (70.9) 22.2 (72) 22.0 (71.6) 22.4 (72.3) 21.6 (70.9) 20.7 (69.3) 17.6 (63.7) 14.1 (57.4) 19.0 (66.2)

Average low °C (°F) 4.0 (39.2) 5.2 (41.4) 8.7 (47.7) 11.3 (52.3) 13.4 (56.1) 15.9 (60.6) 16.5 (61.7) 16.4 (61.5) 15.3 (59.5) 12.1 (53.8) 8.5 (47.3) 5.4 (41.7) 11.1 (52)

Record low °C (°F) −2.2 (28) −1.1 (30) 1.4 (34.5) 2.9 (37.2) 6.6 (43.9) 10.0 (50) 11.3 (52.3) 10.8 (51.4) 7.7 (45.9) 4.3 (39.7) 2.4 (36.3) −1.7 (28.9) −2.2 (28)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 30.9 (1.217) 79.1 (3.114) 116.0 (4.567) 289.2 (11.386) 552.6 (21.756) 603.1 (23.744) 649.6 (25.575) 574.0 (22.598) 487.7 (19.201) 181.1 (7.13) 40.0 (1.575) 22.7 (0.894) 3,626 (142.757)

Source #1: Meteorological Center, Gangtok[16]

Source #2: India
India
Meteorological Department (records)[17]

Banjhakri Falls and Energy Park
Banjhakri Falls and Energy Park
- Gangtok

River Teesta
River Teesta
is the lifeline of Gangtok

Gangtok
Gangtok
from Tibet
Tibet
Road

Gangtok
Gangtok
features a monsoon-influenced subtropical highland climate (Köppen: Cwb). Because of its elevation and sheltered environment, Gangtok
Gangtok
enjoys a mild, temperate climate all year round. Like most Himalayan towns, Gangtok
Gangtok
has five seasons: summer, monsoons, autumn, winter and spring. Temperatures range from an average maximum of 22 °C (72 °F) in summer to an average minimum of 4 °C (39 °F) in winter.[16] Summers (lasting from late April to June) are mild, with maximum temperatures rarely crossing 25 °C (77 °F). The monsoon season from June to September is characterised by intense torrential rains often causing landslides that block Gangtok's land access to the rest of the country. Rainfall starts to rise from pre-monsoon in May, and peaks during the monsoon, with July recording the highest monthly average of 649.6 mm (25.6 in).[16] In winter temperature averages between 4 °C (39 °F) and 7 °C (45 °F).[16] Snowfall is rare, and in recent times Gangtok
Gangtok
has received snow only in 1990, 2004, 2005 and January 2011.[15] Temperatures below freezing are also rare.[15] During this season the weather can be unstable, and change abruptly from bright sunshine and clear skies to heavy rain within a couple of hours. During spring and autumn the weather is generally sunny and mild. Owing to its elevation, Gangtok
Gangtok
is often enveloped in fog during the monsoon and winter months. Economy[edit] Gangtok
Gangtok
is the main base for Sikkim
Sikkim
tourism.[18] Summer and spring seasons are the most popular tourist seasons. Many of Gangtok's residents are employed directly and indirectly in the tourism industry, with many residents owning and working in hotels and restaurants.[19]

MG Marg (Road) is one of the main shopping and cultural activity streets in Gangtok

Ecotourism
Ecotourism
has emerged as an important economic activity in the region which includes trekking, mountaineering, river rafting and other nature oriented activities.[18] An estimated 351,000 tourists visited Sikkim
Sikkim
in 2007, generating revenue of about Rs 50 crores (Rs 500 millions).[19] The Nathula
Nathula
Pass, located about 50 km (31 mi) from Gangtok, used to be the primary route of the wool, fur and spice trade with Tibet
Tibet
and spurred economic growth for Gangtok
Gangtok
till the mid-20th century. In 1962, after the border was closed during the Sino-Indian War, Gangtok
Gangtok
fell into recession.[8] The pass was reopened in 2006 and trade through the pass is expected to boost the economy of Gangtok.[18] The Sikkim
Sikkim
government is keen to open a Lhasa–Gangtok bus service via Nathula
Nathula
pass.[20] Sikkim's mountainous terrain results in the lack of train or air links, limiting the area's potential for rapid industrial development.[18] The government is the largest employer in the city,[11] both directly and as contractors. Gangtok's economy does not have a large manufacturing base, but has a thriving Cottage industry
Cottage industry
in watch-making, country-made alcohol and handicrafts.[18] Among the handicrafts are the handmade paper industry made from various vegetable fibres or cotton rags. The main market in Gangtok
Gangtok
provides many of the state's rural residents a place to offer their produce during the harvest seasons. The majority of the private business community is made up of Marwaris
Marwaris
and Biharis. As part of Sikkim, Gangtok
Gangtok
enjoys the status of being an income-tax free region as per the state's 1948 Income tax law.[21] As Sikkim
Sikkim
is a frontier state, the Indian army
Indian army
maintains a large presence in the vicinity of Gangtok. This leads to a population of semi-permanent residents who bring money into the local economy.[22] The Sikkim
Sikkim
government started India's first online lottery Playwin to boost government income, but this was later closed by a ruling from the Sikkim
Sikkim
High Court.[23] Agriculture is a large employer in Sikkim
Sikkim
and in 2003 the Sikkim
Sikkim
state government declared the goal of converting the whole sector to organic production.[24] The goal of 100% organic was achieved in 2016.[24] This achievement offers new export opportunities to grow the agriculture sector, to achieve premium prices and new opportunities for agritourism.[24] Civic administration[edit]

The "White Hall" complex on "The Ridge" houses the residences of the Chief Minister and Governor
Governor
of Sikkim.

Sikkim
Sikkim
Legislative Assembly in Gangtok. Fog
Fog
is common in Gangtok.

Gangtok
Gangtok
is administered by the Gangtok
Gangtok
Municipal Corporation
Municipal Corporation
along with the various departments of the Government of Sikkim, particularly the Urban Development and Housing Department (UDHD) and the Public Health Engineering Department (PHED).[11][25] These departments provide municipal functions such as garbage disposal, water supply, tax collection, license allotments, and civic infrastructure. An administrator appointed by the state government heads the UDHD.[26] As the headquarters of East Sikkim
Sikkim
district, Gangtok
Gangtok
houses the offices of the district collector, an administrator appointed by the Union Government of India. Gangtok
Gangtok
is also the seat of the Sikkim
Sikkim
High Court, which is India's smallest High Court in terms of area and population of jurisdiction.[27] Gangtok
Gangtok
does not have its own police commissionerate like other major cities in India. Instead, it comes under the jurisdiction of the state police, which is headed by a Director General of Police, although an Inspector General of Police oversees the town.[28] Sikkim
Sikkim
is known for its very low crime rate.[29] Rongyek jail in Gangtok
Gangtok
is Sikkim's only central jail.[30] Gangtok
Gangtok
is within the Sikkim
Sikkim
Lok Sabha constituency that elects a member to the Lok Sabha (Lower House) of the Indian Parliament. The city elects one member in the Sikkim
Sikkim
state legislative assembly, the Vidhan Sabha. The Sikkim
Sikkim
Democratic Front (SDF) won both the parliamentary election in 2009 and the state assembly seat in the 2009 state assembly polls.[31][32] Utility services[edit]

An Overhead view of Gangtok
Gangtok
from the ropeway facility

Dro-dul Chorten - Gangtok, Sikkim

Electricity is supplied by the power department of the Government of Sikkim. Gangtok
Gangtok
has a nearly uninterrupted electricity supply due to Sikkim's numerous hydroelectric power stations. The rural roads around Gangtok
Gangtok
are maintained by the Border Roads Organisation, a division of the Indian army. Several roads in Gangtok
Gangtok
are reported to be in a poor condition,[11] whereas building construction activities continue almost unrestrained in this city lacking proper land infrastructure.[11] Most households are supplied by the central water system maintained and operated by the PHED.[11] The main source of PHED water supply is the Rateychu River, located about 16 km (9.9 mi) from the city, at an altitude of 2,621 m (8,599 ft). Its water treatment plant is located at Selep. The river Rateychu is snow-fed and has perennial streams. Since there is no habitation in the catchment area except for a small army settlement, there is little environmental degradation and the water is of very good quality.[11] 40 seasonal local springs are used by the Rural Management and Development Department of Sikkim
Sikkim
Government to supply water to outlying rural areas. Around 40% of the population has access to sewers.[11] However, only the toilet waste is connected to the sewer while sullage is discharged into the drains.[11] Without a proper sanitation system, the practice of disposing sewage through septic tanks and directly discharging into Jhoras and open drains is prevalent.[11] The entire city drains into the two rivers, Ranikhola
Ranikhola
and Roro Chu, through numerous small streams and Jhoras. Ranikhola
Ranikhola
and Roro Chu
Roro Chu
rivers confluence with Teesta River, the major source of drinking water to the population downstream. The densely populated urban area of Gangtok
Gangtok
does not have a combined drainage system to drain out the storm water and waste water from the buildings.[11] The estimated solid waste generated in Gangtok
Gangtok
city is approximately 45 tonnes.[11] Only around 40% of this is collected by UDHD, while the remainder is indiscriminately thrown into Jhora, streets and valleys.[11] The collected waste is disposed in a dump located about 20 km (12 mi) from the city. There is no waste collection from inaccessible areas where vehicles cannot reach, nor does any system of collection of waste exist in the adjoining rural areas. The city is under a statewide ban on the use of polythene bags.[11] Transport[edit]

Gangtok
Gangtok
cable car

Road[edit]

The Teesta River
Teesta River
runs along the National Highway 31A connecting Gangtok
Gangtok
to Siliguri

National Highway 31A by the night.

Taxis are the most widely available public transport within Gangtok.[15] Most of the residents stay within a few kilometres of the town centre[33] and many have their own vehicles such as two-wheelers and cars.[34] The share of personal vehicles and taxis combined is 98% of Gangtok's total vehicles, a high percentage when compared to other Indian cities.[15] City buses comprise less than one percent of vehicles.[15] Those travelling longer distances generally make use of share-jeeps, a kind of public taxis. Four wheel drives are used to easily navigate the steep slopes of the roads. The 1 km (0.6 mi) long cable car with three stops connects lower Gangtok suburbs with Sikkim
Sikkim
Legislative assembly in central Gangtok
Gangtok
and the upper suburbs.[35] Gangtok
Gangtok
is connected to the rest of India
India
by an all-weather metalled highway, National Highway 10,[36] earlier known as National Highway 31A, which links Gangtok
Gangtok
to Siliguri, located 114 km (71 mi) away in the neighbouring state of West Bengal. The highway also provides a link to the neighbouring hill station towns of Darjeeling and Kalimpong, which are the nearest urban areas. Regular jeep, van, and bus services link these towns to Gangtok. Gangtok
Gangtok
is a linear city that has developed along the arterial roads, especially National Highway 31A.[11] Most of the road length in Gangtok
Gangtok
is of two lane undivided carriageway with footpath on one side of the road and drain on the other. The steep gradient of the different road stretches coupled with a spiral road configuration constrain the smooth flow of vehicular as well as pedestrian traffic.[11] Rail[edit] The nearest railhead connected to the rest of India
India
is the station of New Jalpaiguri
New Jalpaiguri
in Siliguri, situated 124 km (77 mi) away from Gangtok. Work has commenced for a broad gauge railway link from Sevoke in West Bengal
West Bengal
to Rangpo
Rangpo
in Sikkim[37] that is planned for extension to Gangtok.[38] Air[edit] The closest airport is Bagdogra Airport
Bagdogra Airport
(IATA airport code IXB) in Siliguri, 16 km (10 mi) from Siliguri
Siliguri
Town.[citation needed] Pakyong Airport, a Greenfield project, is under construction southeast of Gangtok.[citation needed] Demographics[edit]

Gangtok
Gangtok
population 

Census Pop.

1951 2,744

1961 6,848

149.6%

1971 13,308

94.3%

1981 36,747

176.1%

1991 25,024

-31.9%

2001 29,354

17.3%

2011 98,658

236.1%

Population 1951–2011.[18] Negative growth attributed to reduction of notified town limits.

According to the Provisional Population Totals 2011 census of India, the population of Gangtok
Gangtok
Municipal Corporation
Municipal Corporation
has been estimated to be 98,658. Males constituted 53% of the population and females 47%. The Gangtok
Gangtok
subdivision of the East Sikkim
Sikkim
district had a population of 281,293, Gangtok
Gangtok
has an average literacy rate of 82.17%, higher than the national average of 74%: male literacy is 85.33%, and female literacy is 78.68.[39] About 8% of Gangtok's population live in the nine notified slums and squatter settlements, all on Government land. More people live in areas that depict slum-like characteristics but have not been notified as slums yet because they have developed on private land.[40] Of the total urban population of Sikkim, Gangtok Municipal Corporation
Municipal Corporation
has a share of 55.5%. Including Gangtok, East District has a share of 88% of the total urban population. The quality of life, the pace of development and availability of basic infrastructure and employment prospects has been the major cause for rapid migration to the city. With this migration, the urban services are under pressure, intensified by the lack of availability of suitable land for infrastructure development.[11] Ethnic Nepalis, who settled in the region during British rule,[41] comprise the majority of Gangtok's residents. Lepchas, native to the land, and Bhutias also constitute a sizeable portion of the populace.[41] Additionally, a large number of Tibetans
Tibetans
have immigrated to the town. Immigrant resident communities not native to the region include the Marwaris,[11] who own most of the shops; the Biharis, who are employed in mostly blue collar jobs and the Bengalis. Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
are the most significant religions in Gangtok.[18] Gangtok
Gangtok
also has a sizeable Christian population and a small Muslim
Muslim
minority.[18] The North East Presbyterian Church, Roman Catholic Church and Anjuman Mosque in Gangtok
Gangtok
are places of worship for the religious minorities.[42] The town has not been communist, having never witnessed any sort of inter-religious strife in its history.[43] Nepali is the most widely spoken language in Sikkim
Sikkim
as well as Gangtok.[44] English and Hindi
Hindi
being the official language of Sikkim
Sikkim
and India
India
respectively, are also widely spoken and understood in most of Sikkim, particularly in Gangtok.[45][46] Other languages spoken in Gangtok
Gangtok
include Bhutia
Bhutia
(Sikkimese), Tibetan and Lepcha. Culture[edit]

The Namgyal Institute of Tibetology
Tibetology
Museum displays rare Lepcha tapestries, masks and Buddhist
Buddhist
statues.

Apart from the major religious festivals of Dashain, Tihar, Christmas, Holi
Holi
etc., the diverse ethnic populace of the town celebrates several local festivals. The Lepchas and Bhutias celebrate new year in January, while Tibetans
Tibetans
celebrate the new year (Losar) with "Devil Dance" in January–February. The Maghe sankranti, Ram Navami
Ram Navami
are some of the important Nepalese festivals. Chotrul Duchen, Buddha Jayanti, the birthday of the Dalai Lama, Loosong, Bhumchu, Saga Dawa, Lhabab Duechen and Drupka Teshi are some other festivals, some distinct to local culture and others shared with the rest of India, Nepal, Bhutan and Tibet.[18][47]

Rumtek Monastery, located on the outskirts of Gangtokone, is one of Buddhism's holiest monasteries.

A popular food in Gangtok
Gangtok
is the momo,[48] a steamed dumpling containing pork, beef and vegetables cooked in a doughy wrapping and served with watery soup. Wai-Wai is a packaged snack consisting of noodles which are eaten either dry or in soup form. A form of noodle called thukpa,[48] served in soup form is also popular in Gangtok. Other noodle-based foods such as the chowmein, thenthuk, fakthu, gyathuk and wonton are available. Other traditional Sikkimese cuisine include shah-phaley (Sikkimese patties with spiced minced meat in a crisp samosa-like case) and Gack-ko soup.[49] Restaurants offer a wide variety of traditional Indian, continental and Chinese cuisines to cater to the tourists. Churpee, a kind of hard cheese made from cow's or yak's milk is sometimes chewed. Chhang is a local frothy millet beer traditionally served in bamboo tankards and drunk through bamboo or cane straws.[49] Football (soccer), cricket and archery are the most popular sports in Gangtok.[18] The Paljor Stadium, which hosts football matches, is the sole sporting ground in the city. Thangka—a notable handicraft—is an elaborately hand painted religious scroll in brilliant colours drawn on fabric hung in a monastery or a family altar and occasionally carried by monks in ceremonial processions.[47] Chhaams are vividly costumed monastic dances performed on ceremonial and festive occasions, especially in the monasteries during the Tibetan new year.[47] City institutions[edit]

Temple of the Maharajas, Gangtok. 1938

The Himalayan black bear
Himalayan black bear
is seen here in the Himalayan Zoological Park.

The Do-drul Chorten, built in 1945, is a famous Buddhist
Buddhist
stupa within Gangtok
Gangtok
city limits.

A centre of Buddhist
Buddhist
learning and culture, Gangtok's most notable Buddhist
Buddhist
institutions are the Enchey monastery,[3] the Do-drul Chorten stupa complex and the Rumtek Monastery. The Enchey monastery
Enchey monastery
is the city's oldest monastery and is the seat of the Nyingma order.[42] The two-hundred-year-old baroque monastery houses images of gods, goddesses, and other religious artifacts.[42] In the month of January, the Chaam, or masked dance, is performed with great fanfare. The Dro-dul Chorten is a stupa which was constructed in 1945 by Trulshik Rimpoché, head of the Nyingma order
Nyingma order
of Tibetan Buddhism.[42] Inside this stupa are complete set of relics, holy books, and mantras. Surrounding the edifice are 108 Mani Lhakor, or prayer wheels.[42] The complex also houses a religious school. The Rumtek Monastery
Rumtek Monastery
on the outskirts of the town is one of Buddhism's most sacred monasteries. The monastery is the seat of the Kagyu order,[50] one of the major Tibetan sects, and houses some of the world's most sacred and rare Tibetan Buddhist
Tibetan Buddhist
scriptures and religious objects in its reliquary. Constructed in the 1960s, the building is modeled after a similar monastery in Lhasa, Tibet. Rumtek was the focus of international media attention in 2000 after the seventeenth Karmapa, one of the four holiest lamas, fled Lhasa
Lhasa
and sought refuge in the monastery.[51][52] The Namgyal Institute of Tibetology, better known as the Tibetology Museum, houses a huge collection of masks, Buddhist
Buddhist
scriptures, statues, and tapestries.[53] It has over two hundred Buddhist
Buddhist
icons, and is a centre of study of Buddhist
Buddhist
philosophy. The Thakurbari Temple, located in the heart of the city, established in 1935 on a prime piece of land donated by the then Maharaja
Maharaja
of Sikkim
Sikkim
is one of the oldest and best known Hindu
Hindu
temple in the city.[54][55] The Ganesh Tok and the Hanuman
Hanuman
Tok, dedicated to the Hindu
Hindu
gods Ganpati and Hanuman
Hanuman
and housing important Hindu
Hindu
deities, are located in the upper reaches of the city.[56][57] The Himalayan Zoological Park exhibits the fauna of the Himalayas
Himalayas
in their natural habitats. The zoo features the Himalayan black bear, red pandas, the barking deer, the snow leopard, the leopard cat, Tibetan wolf, masked palm civet and the spotted deer, amongst the others.[58] Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
Botanical Gardens, near Rumtek, houses many species of orchid and as many as fifty different species of tree, including many oaks.[59] Education[edit] Gangtok's schools are either run by the state government or by private and religious organizations. Schools mainly use English and Nepali as their medium of instruction. The schools are either affiliated with the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, Central Board of Secondary Education or the National Institute of Open Schooling. Notable schools include the Tashi Namgyal Academy,[60] Paljor Namgyal Girls School, Taktse International School
Taktse International School
and Kendriya Vidyalaya.[61] Colleges conferring graduate degrees include Sikkim
Sikkim
Government College, Sikkim
Sikkim
Government Law College and Damber Singh College.[11] Sikkim
Sikkim
University established in 2007 is functioning in Gangtok; the university has been allotted land in neighbouring Yang Yang town for establishment of its own campus. The university offers a diverse range of courses and has a number of institutes affiliated to it. 8 km (5.0 mi) from here is the headquarters of the Sikkim
Sikkim
Manipal University, which houses Sikkim
Sikkim
Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences and Sikkim
Sikkim
Manipal Institute of Technology.[11] The Indira Gandhi National Open University also has a regional center in the city. There are other institutions offering diplomas in Buddhist
Buddhist
literature, catering and other non-mainstream fields.[11] District Institute of Education and Training and State Institute of Education conduct teacher training programs.[62][63] Media[edit]

Gangtok
Gangtok
at night.

More than 50 newspapers are published in Sikkim.[64] Multiple local Nepali and English newspapers are published,[65] whereas regional and national Hindi
Hindi
and English newspapers, printed elsewhere in India, are also circulated. The English newspapers include The Statesman
The Statesman
and The Telegraph, which are printed in Siliguri; The Hindu
Hindu
and The Times of India, which are printed in Kolkata. Sikkim
Sikkim
Herald, the newsweekly of the Government of Sikkim
Sikkim
is published in thirteen languages of the state.[64] Gangtok
Gangtok
has two cinema halls featuring Nepali, Hindi
Hindi
and English-language films.[42] The town also has a public library.[42] There are Internet cafés in and around the city, but broadband connectivity is limited. Satellite dishes exist in most homes in the region and the channels available throughout India
India
are also available here, along with a few Nepali-language channels. The main service providers are Sikkim
Sikkim
Cable, Nayuma,[66] Dish TV
Dish TV
and Doordarshan. All India
India
Radio has a local station in Gangtok, which transmits various programs of mass interest. Along that, other three fm stations Nine fm, Radio Misty and Red fm are the four radio stations in the city. BSNL, Reliance and Airtel have the three largest cellular networks in the town. There is a Doordarshan
Doordarshan
TV station in Gangtok.[67] See also[edit]

India
India
portal

Tourism in North East India

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gangtok.

Gangtok
Gangtok
travel guide from Wikivoyage

v t e

Headquarters of the districts of Sikkim

Gangtok Geyzing Mangan Namchi

v t e

Northeast India

States

Arunachal Pradesh Assam Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Sikkim Tripura

Cities

Agartala Aizawl Dispur Dimapur Gangtok Guwahati Imphal Itanagar Kohima Shillong Silchar

Protected Areas

Kaziranga National Park Namdapha National Park Orang National Park Manas National Park Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Nameri National Park Balphakram National Park Nokrek National Park Mouling National Park Keibul Lamjao National Park Sirohi National Park Murlen National Park Ntangki National Park Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary Sipahijola Wildlife Sanctuary Gorumara National Park Singalila National Park Neora Valley National Park Jaldapara National Park

Mountains

Kangchenjunga Naga Hills Patkai Hills Khasi Hills Lushai Hills Assam
Assam
Himalaya Garo Hills Jongsong Peak Gimmigela Chuli Kabru Kirat Chuli Mount Pandim Paohanli Peak Pauhunri Siniolchu

Lakes

Khecheopalri Lake Gurudongmar Lake Lake Tsongmo Loktak Lake Chandubi Lake Dipor Bil Son Beel Rudrasagar Lake Bijoy sagar

Monasteries

Pemayangtse Monastery Tawang Monastery Zang Dhok Palri Phodang Rumtek Monastery Enchey Monastery Tashiding Monastery Dubdi Monastery Ralang Monastery

Others

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Portal:India

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State and Union Territory capitals of India

Agartala Aizawl Amaravati
Amaravati
(de facto) Bangalore Bhopal Bhubaneswar Chandigarh Chennai Daman Dehradun
Dehradun
(interim) New Delhi Dispur Gandhinagar Gangtok Hyderabad Imphal Itanagar Jaipur Jammu
Jammu
(in winter) Kavaratti Kohima Kolkata Lucknow Mumbai Panaji Patna Pondicherry Port Blair Raipur Ranchi Shillong Shimla Silvassa Srinagar
Srinagar
(in summer) Thiruvananthapuram

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 240067

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