Freethought (or "free thought") is a philosophical viewpoint which
holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of
logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition,
revelation, or dogma. In particular, freethought is strongly tied with
rejection of traditional social or religious belief systems.
The cognitive application of freethought is known as "freethinking",
and practitioners of freethought are known as "freethinkers".
The term first came into use in the 17th century in order to indicate
people who inquired into the basis of traditional religious beliefs.
3.1 Pre-modern movement
3.2 Modern movements
3.2.7 United States
4 See also
5 Notes and references
6 Further reading
7 External links
Freethinkers hold that knowledge should be grounded in facts,
scientific inquiry, and logic. The skeptical application of science
implies freedom from the intellectually limiting effects of
confirmation bias, cognitive bias, conventional wisdom, popular
culture, prejudice, or sectarianism.
Atheist author Adam Lee defines freethought as thinking which is
independent of revelation, tradition, established belief, and
authority, and considers it as a "broader umbrella" than atheism
"that embraces a rainbow of unorthodoxy, religious dissent,
skepticism, and unconventional thinking."
The basic summarizing statement of the essay The
Ethics of Belief by
the 19th-century British mathematician and philosopher William Kingdon
Clifford is: "It is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to
believe anything upon insufficient evidence." The essay became a
rallying cry for freethinkers when published in the 1870s, and has
been described as a point when freethinkers grabbed the moral high
ground. Clifford was himself an organizer of freethought
gatherings, the driving force behind the Congress of Liberal Thinkers
held in 1878.
Regarding religion, freethinkers typically hold that there is
insufficient evidence to support the existence of supernatural
phenomena. According to the Freedom from
Religion Foundation, "No
one can be a freethinker who demands conformity to a bible, creed, or
messiah. To the freethinker, revelation and faith are invalid, and
orthodoxy is no guarantee of truth." and "Freethinkers are convinced
that religious claims have not withstood the tests of reason. Not only
is there nothing to be gained by believing an untruth, but there is
everything to lose when we sacrifice the indispensable tool of reason
on the altar of superstition. Most freethinkers consider religion to
be not only untrue, but harmful."
Bertrand Russell wrote the following in his 1944
essay "The Value of Free Thought:"
What makes a freethinker is not his beliefs but the way in which he
holds them. If he holds them because his elders told him they were
true when he was young, or if he holds them because if he did not he
would be unhappy, his thought is not free; but if he holds them
because, after careful thought he finds a balance of evidence in their
favour, then his thought is free, however odd his conclusions may
— Bertrand Russell, The Value of Free Thought. How to Become a
Truth-Seeker and Break the Chains of Mental Slavery, from the first
The whole first paragraph of the essay makes it clear that a
freethinker is not necessarily an atheist or an agnostic, as long as
he or she satisfies this definition:
The person who is free in any respect is free from something; what is
the free thinker free from? To be worthy of the name, he must be free
of two things: the force of tradition, and the tyranny of his own
passions. No one is completely free from either, but in the measure of
a man's emancipation he deserves to be called a free thinker.
— Bertrand Russell, The Value of Free Thought. How to Become a
Truth-Seeker and Break the Chains of Mental Slavery, from the first
Fred Edwords, former executive of the American Humanist Association,
suggests that by Russell's definition, liberal religionists who have
challenged established orthodoxies can be considered freethinkers.
On the other hand, according to Bertrand Russell, atheists and/or
agnostics are not necessarily freethinkers. As an example, he mentions
Stalin, whom he compares to a "pope":
what I am concerned with is the doctrine of the modern Communistic
Party, and of the Russian Government to which it owes allegiance.
According to this doctrine, the world develops on the lines of a Plan
called Dialectical Materialism, first discovered by Karl Marx,
embodied in the practice of a great state by Lenin, and now expounded
from day to day by a Church of which Stalin is the Pope. […] Free
discussion is to be prevented wherever the power to do so exists;
[…] If this doctrine and this organization prevail, free inquiry
will become as impossible as it was in the middle ages, and the world
will relapse into bigotry and obscurantism.
— Bertrand Russell, The Value of Free Thought. How to Become a
Truth-Seeker and Break the Chains of Mental Slavery
In the 18th and 19th century, many thinkers regarded as freethinkers
were deists, arguing that the nature of God can only be known from a
study of nature rather than from religious revelation. In the 18th
century, "deism" was as much of a 'dirty word' as "atheism", and
deists were often stigmatized as either atheists or at least as
freethinkers by their Christian opponents.
Deists today regard
themselves as freethinkers, but are now arguably less prominent in the
freethought movement than atheists.
The pansy, symbol of freethought
The pansy serves as the long-established and enduring symbol of
freethought; literature of the
American Secular Union inaugurated its
usage in the late 1800s. The reasoning behind the pansy as the symbol
of freethought lies both in the flower's name and in its appearance.
The pansy derives its name from the French word pensée, which means
"thought". It allegedly received this name because the flower is
perceived by some to bear resemblance to a human face, and in
mid-to-late summer it nods forward as if deep in thought.
Critical thought has flourished in the Hellenistic Mediterranean, in
the repositories of knowledge and wisdom in
Ireland and in the Iranian
civilizations (for example in the era of Khayyam (1048–1131) and his
unorthodox Sufi Rubaiyat poems), and in other civilizations, such as
the Chinese (note for example the seafaring renaissance of the
Song dynasty of 420–479), and on through heretical
thinkers on esoteric alchemy or astrology, to the
Renaissance and the
French physician and writer Rabelais celebrated "rabelaisian" freedom
as well as good feasting and drinking (an expression and a symbol of
freedom of the mind) in defiance of the hypocrisies of conformist
orthodoxy in his utopian Thelema Abbey (from θέλημα: free
"will"), the device of which was Do What Thou Wilt:
So had Gargantua established it. In all their rule and strictest tie
of their order there was but this one clause to be observed, Do What
Thou Wilt; because free people ... act virtuously and avoid vice. They
call this honor.
When Rabelais's hero Pantagruel journeys to the "Oracle of The
Div(in)e Bottle", he learns the lesson of life in one simple word:
"Trinch!", Drink! Enjoy the simple life, learn wisdom and knowledge,
as a free human. Beyond puns, irony, and satire, Gargantua's
prologue-metaphor instructs the reader to "break the bone and suck out
the substance-full marrow" ("la substantifique moëlle"), the core of
The year 1600 is considered a landmark in the era of modern
freethought. It was the year of the execution in Italy of Giordano
Bruno, a former Dominican Monk, by the Inquisition.
The term free-thinker emerged towards the end of the 17th century in
England to describe those who stood in opposition to the institution
of the Church, and the literal belief in the Bible. The beliefs of
these individuals were centered on the concept that people could
understand the world through consideration of nature. Such positions
were formally documented for the first time in 1697 by William
Molyneux in a widely publicized letter to John Locke, and more
extensively in 1713, when
Anthony Collins wrote his Discourse of
Free-thinking, which gained substantial popularity. This essay attacks
the clergy of all churches and it is a plea for deism.
The Freethinker magazine was first published in Britain in 1881.
In France, the concept first appeared in publication in 1765 when
Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, and
Voltaire included an
article on Liberté de penser in their Encyclopédie. The European
freethought concepts spread so widely that even places as remote as
the Jotunheimen, in Norway, had well-known freethinkers such as Jo
Gjende by the 19th century.
François-Jean Lefebvre de la Barre (1745–1766) was a young French
nobleman, famous for having been tortured and beheaded before his body
was burnt on a pyre along with Voltaire's Philosophical Dictionary. La
Barre is often said to have been executed for not saluting a Roman
Catholic religious procession, but the elements of the case were far
In France, Lefebvre de la Barre is widely regarded a symbol of the
victims of Christian religious intolerance; La Barre along with Jean
Calas and Pierre-Paul Sirven, was championed by Voltaire. A second
replacement statue to de la Barre stands nearby the Basilica of the
Sacred Heart of Jesus of
Paris at the summit of the butte Montmartre
(itself named from the Temple of Mars), the highest point in
an 18th arrondissement street nearby the Sacré-Cœur is also named
after Lefebvre de la Barre.
In Germany, during the period 1815–1848 and before the March
Revolution, the resistance of citizens against the dogma of the church
increased. In 1844, under the influence of
Johannes Ronge and Robert
Blum, belief in the rights of man, tolerance among men, and humanism
grew, and by 1859 they had established the Bund Freireligiöser
Gemeinden Deutschlands (literally Union of Free Religious Communities
of Germany), an association of persons who consider themselves to be
religious without adhering to any established and institutionalized
church or sacerdotal cult. This union still exists today, and is
included as a member in the umbrella organization of free humanists.
In 1881 in Frankfurt am Main,
Ludwig Büchner established the
Deutscher Freidenkerbund (German Freethinkers League) as the first
German organization for atheists and agnostics. In 1892 the
Freidenker-Gesellschaft and in 1906 the Deutscher Monistenbund were
Freethought organizations developed the "Jugendweihe" (literally Youth
consecration), a secular "confirmation" ceremony, and atheist funeral
rites. The Union of Freethinkers for Cremation was founded in
1905, and the Central Union of German Proletariat Freethinker in 1908.
The two groups merged in 1927, becoming the German Freethinking
Association in 1930.
More "bourgeois" organizations declined after World War I, and
Freethought groups proliferated, becoming an
organization of socialist parties. European socialist
freethought groups formed the International of Proletarian
Freethinkers (IPF) in 1925. Activists agitated for Germans to
disaffiliate from their respective Church and for seculari-zation of
elementary schools; between 1919–21 and 1930–32 more than 2.5
million Germans, for the most part supporters of the Social Democratic
and Communist parties, gave up church membership. Conflict
developed between radical forces including the Soviet League of the
Militant Godless and Social Democratic forces in Western Europe led by
Theodor Hartwig and Max Sievers. In 1930 the Soviet and allied
delegations, following a walk-out, took over the IPF and excluded the
former leaders. Following Hitler's rise to power in 1933, most
freethought organizations were banned, though some right-wing groups
that worked with so-called Völkische Bünde (literally "ethnic"
associations with nationalist, xenophobic and very often racist
ideology) were tolerated by the Nazis until the mid-1930s.
Main article: Organized secularism
Université Libre de Bruxelles
Université Libre de Bruxelles and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel,
along with the two Circles of Free Inquiry (Dutch and French
speaking), defend the freedom of critical thought, lay philosophy and
ethics, while rejecting the argument of authority.
In the Netherlands, freethought has existed in organized form since
the establishment of De Dageraad (now known as De Vrije Gedachte) in
1856. Among its most notable subscribing 19th century individuals were
Johannes van Vloten, Multatuli, Adriaan Gerhard and Domela
In 2009, Frans van Dongen established the Atheist-Secular Party, which
takes a considerably restrictive view of religion and public religious
Since the 19th century,
Freethought in the Netherlands has become more
well known as a political phenomenon through at least three currents:
liberal freethinking, conservative freethinking, and classical
freethinking. In other words, parties which identify as freethinking
tend to favor non-doctrinal, rational approaches to their preferred
ideologies, and arose as secular alternatives to both clerically
aligned parties as well as labor-aligned parties. Common themes among
freethinking political parties are "freedom", "liberty", and
Main article: Freethinkers Association of Switzerland
The Free Thought
The Free Thought movement first organized itself in the United States
as the "Free Press Association" in 1827 in defense of George Houston,
publisher of The Correspondent, an early journal of Biblical criticism
in an era when blasphemy convictions were still possible. Houston had
helped found an
Owenite community at Haverstraw, New York in
1826–27. The short-lived Correspondent was superseded by the Free
Enquirer, the official organ of Robert Owen's New Harmony community in
Indiana, edited by
Robert Dale Owen
Robert Dale Owen and by
Fanny Wright between 1828
and 1832 in New York. During this time
Robert Dale Owen
Robert Dale Owen sought to
introduce the philosophic skepticism of the Free Thought movement into
the Workingmen's Party in New York City. The Free Enquirer's annual
civic celebrations of Paine's birthday after 1825 finally coalesced in
1836 in the first national Free Thinkers organization, the "United
States Moral and Philosophical Society for the General Diffusion of
Useful Knowledge". It was founded on August 1, 1836, at a national
convention at the Lyceum in Saratoga Springs with Isaac S. Smith of
Buffalo, New York, as president. Smith was also the 1836 Equal Rights
Party's candidate for Governor of New York and had also been the
Workingmen's Party candidate for Lt. Governor of New York in 1830. The
Moral and Philosophical Society published The Beacon, edited by
Robert G. Ingersoll
Driven by the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, the 19th
century saw an immigration of German freethinkers and
anti-clericalists to the United States (see Forty-Eighters). In the
United States, they hoped to be able to live by their principles,
without interference from government and church authorities.
Many Freethinkers settled in German immigrant strongholds, including
St. Louis, Indianapolis, Wisconsin, and Texas, where they founded the
town of Comfort, Texas, as well as others.
These groups of German Freethinkers referred to their organizations as
Freie Gemeinden, or "free congregations". The first Freie Gemeinde
was established in
St. Louis in 1850. Others followed in
Pennsylvania, California, Washington, D.C., New York, Illinois,
Wisconsin, Texas, and other states.
Freethinkers tended to be liberal, espousing ideals such as racial,
social, and sexual equality, and the abolition of slavery.
The "Golden Age of Freethought" in the US came in the late 1800s. The
dominant organization was the National Liberal League which formed in
1876 in Philadelphia. This group re-formed itself in 1885 as the
American Secular Union under the leadership of the eminent agnostic
orator Robert G. Ingersoll. Following Ingersoll's death in 1899 the
organization declined, in part due to lack of effective
Freethought in the United States declined in the early twentieth
century. Its anti-religious views alienated would-be
sympathizers. The movement also lacked cohesive goals
or beliefs. By the early twentieth century, most Freethought
congregations had disbanded or joined other mainstream churches. The
longest continuously operating
Freethought congregation in America is
the Free Congregation of Sauk County, Wisconsin, which was founded in
1852 and is still active as of 2016[update]. It affiliated with the
American Unitarian Association (now the Unitarian Universalist
Association) in 1955.
D. M. Bennett
D. M. Bennett was the founder and publisher
Truth Seeker in 1873, a radical freethought and reform American
German Freethinker settlements were located in:
Burlington, Racine County, Wisconsin
Belleville, St. Clair County, Illinois
Castell, Llano County, Texas
Comfort, Kendall County, Texas
Davenport, Scott County, Iowa
Fond du Lac, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin
Frelsburg, Colorado County, Texas
Hermann, Gasconade County, Missouri
Jefferson, Jefferson County, Wisconsin
Latium, Washington County, Texas
Manitowoc, Manitowoc County, Wisconsin
Meyersville, DeWitt County, Texas
Millheim, Austin County, Texas
Oshkosh, Winnebago County, Wisconsin
Ratcliffe, DeWitt County, Texas
Sauk City, Sauk County, Wisconsin
Shelby, Austin County, Texas
Sisterdale, Kendall County, Texas
St. Louis, Missouri
Tusculum, Kendall County, Texas
Two Rivers, Manitowoc County, Wisconsin
Watertown, Dodge County, Wisconsin
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed. (May 2011) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message)
The earliest known secular organization in
English Canada is the
Freethought Association, founded in 1873 by a handful of
secularists. Reorganized in 1877 and again in 1881, when it was
renamed the Toronto Secular Society, the group formed the nucleus of
the Canadian Secular Union, established in 1884 to bring together
freethinkers from across the country.
A significant number of the early members appear to have been drawn
from the educated labour "aristocracy," including Alfred F. Jury, J.
Ick Evans and J. I. Livingstone, all of whom were leading labour
activists and secularists. The second president of the Toronto
association was T. Phillips Thompson, a central figure in the city's
labour and social reform movements during the 1880s and 1890s and
arguably Canada's foremost late nineteenth-century labour
intellectual. By the early 1880s, freethought organizations were
scattered throughout southern
Ontario and parts of Quebec, and
elicited both urban and rural support.
The principal organ of the freethought movement in Canada was Secular
Thought (Toronto, 1887–1911). Founded and edited by English
freethinker Charles Watts (1835–1906) during its first several
years, the editorship was assumed by Toronto printer and publisher
James Spencer Ellis in 1891 when Watts returned to England.
In 1968 the
Humanist Association of Canada
Humanist Association of Canada was formed to serve as an
umbrella group for Humanists, atheists, freethinkers, and to champion
social justice issues and oppose religious influence on public
policy—most notably in the fight to make access to abortion free and
legal in Canada. HAC, also known as Humanist Canada, is an active
Humanism in Canada and supports the activities of groups who
wish to raise awareness about secular issues.
The Canadian Secular Alliance is an active community.
Part of the Politics series on
Schools of thought
Anarchist Black Cross
Permanent autonomous zone
Propaganda of the deed
Refusal of work
Temporary Autonomous Zone
Union of egoists
Alfredo M. Bonanno
David D. Friedman
Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia
Ricardo Flores Magón
Diego Abad de Santillán
Henry David Thoreau
Love and sex
International Conference of Rome
Trial of the Thirty
Anarchist Exclusion Act
Congress of Amsterdam
High Treason Incident
Manifesto of the Sixteen
Individualist anarchism in the United States
1919 United States bombings
Revolution of 1918–19
Bavarian Council Republic
Third Russian Revolution
Individualist anarchism in
Europe (in France)
Barcelona May Days
Red inverted triangle
Kate Sharpley Library
Australian Anarchist Centenary
Carnival Against Capital
1999 Seattle WTO protests
Independent Media Center
"Land and liberty"
"No gods, no masters"
"Property is theft!"
Red and Anarchist Skinheads
A las Barricadas
Cost the limit of price
Really Really Free Market
Love & sex
In the United States, "freethought was a basically anti-christian,
anti-clerical movement, whose purpose was to make the individual
politically and spiritually free to decide for himself on religious
matters. A number of contributors to Liberty were prominent figures in
both freethought and anarchism. The individualist anarchist George
MacDonald was a co-editor of
Freethought and, for a time, The Truth
Seeker. E.C. Walker was co-editor of the freethought/free love journal
Lucifer, the Light-Bearer." "Many of the anarchists were ardent
freethinkers; reprints from freethought papers such as Lucifer, the
Freethought and The
Truth Seeker appeared in
Liberty...The church was viewed as a common ally of the state and as a
repressive force in and of itself."
In Europe, a similar development occurred in French and Spanish
individualist anarchist circles. "Anticlericalism, just as in the rest
of the libertarian movement, in another of the frequent elements which
will gain relevance related to the measure in which the (French)
Republic begins to have conflicts with the church...Anti-clerical
discourse, frequently called for by the French individualist André
Lorulot, will have its impacts in Estudios (a Spanish individualist
anarchist publication). There will be an attack on institutionalized
religion for the responsibility that it had in the past on negative
developments, for its irrationality which makes it a counterpoint of
philosophical and scientific progress. There will be a criticism of
proselitism and ideological manipulation which happens on both
believers and agnostics". These tendencies will continue in French
individualist anarchism in the work and activism of Charles-Auguste
Bontemps and others. In the Spanish individualist anarchist magazines
Iniciales "there is a strong interest in publishing
scientific news, usually linked to a certain atheist and anti-theist
obsession, philosophy which will also work for pointing out the
incompatibility between science and religion, faith, and reason. In
this way there will be a lot of talk on Darwin´s theories or on the
negation of the existence of the soul".
In 1901, Catalan anarchist and freethinker Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia
established "modern" or progressive schools in
Barcelona in defiance
of an educational system controlled by the Catholic Church. The
schools' stated goal was to "educate the working class in a rational,
secular and non-coercive setting". Fiercely anti-clerical, Ferrer
believed in "freedom in education", education free from the authority
of church and state. Ferrer's ideas, generally, formed the
inspiration for a series of Modern Schools in the United States,
South America and London. The first of these was started in New
York City in 1911. It also inspired the Italian newspaper Università
popolare, founded in 1901.
Age of Enlightenment
Freedom of thought
Freethought Association of Canada
GAMPAC (Godless Americans PAC)
Golden Age of Freethought
Spiritual but not religious
The Freethinker (journal)
Notes and references
^ a b c "Freethinker – Definition of freethinker by
Merriam-Webster". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ "Free thought – Define Free thought at Dictionary.com".
Dictionary.com. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-01-17. Retrieved
^ "Nontracts". Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved
12 June 2015. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ "What Is Freethought?". Daylight Atheism. Retrieved 12 June
^ Adam Lee. "9 Great Freethinkers and Religious Dissenters in
History". Big Think. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ William Kingdon Clifford, The
Ethics of Belief (1879 ).
^ Becker, Lawrence and Charlotte (2013). Encyclopedia of Ethics
(article on "agnosticism"). Routledge. p. 44.
^ Hastings, James. Encyclopedia of Religion.
^ "What is a Freethinker? - Freedom From
Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ "Saga Of
Freethought And Its Pioneers". American Humanist
Association. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 12
^ James E. Force, Introduction (1990) to An Account of the Growth of
Deism in England (1696) by William Stephens
^ Aveling, Francis, ed. (1908). "Deism". The Catholic Encyclopedia.
Retrieved 2012-10-10. The deists were what nowadays would be called
freethinkers, a name, indeed, by which they were not infrequently
known; and they can only be classed together wholly in the main
attitude that they adopted, viz. in agreeing to cast off the trammels
of authoritative religious teaching in favour of a free and purely
rationalistic speculation.... Deism, in its every manifestation was
opposed to the current and traditional teaching of revealed
Pansy For Your Thoughts, by Annie Laurie Gaylor, Freethought
Today, June/July 1997
^ Chinese History – Song Dynasty 宋 (www.chinaknowledge.de)
^ Gatti, Hilary (2002).
Giordano Bruno and
Renaissance Science: Broken
Lives and Organizational Power. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University
Press. pp. 18–19. Retrieved 21 March 2014. For Bruno was
claiming for the philosopher a principle of free thought and inquiry
which implied an entirely new concept of authority: that of the
individual intellect in its serious and continuing pursuit of an
autonomous inquiry… It is impossible to understand the issue
involved and to evaluate justly the stand made by Bruno with his life
without appreciating the question of free thought and liberty of
expression. His insistence on placing this issue at the center of both
his work and of his defense is why Bruno remains so much a figure of
the modern world. If there is, as many have argued, an intrinsic link
between science and liberty of inquiry, then Bruno was among those who
guaranteed the future of the newly emerging sciences, as well as
claiming in wider terms a general principle of free thought and
^ Montano, Aniello (24 November 2007). Antonio Gargano, ed. Le
deposizioni davanti al tribunale dell'Inquisizione. Napoli: La Città
del Sole. p. 71. In Rome, Bruno was imprisoned for seven years
and subjected to a difficult trial that analyzed, minutely, all his
philosophical ideas. Bruno, who in Venice had been willing to recant
some theses, become increasingly resolute and declared on 21 December
1599 that he 'did not wish to repent of having too little to repent,
and in fact did not know what to repent.' Declared an unrepentant
heretic and excommunicated, he was burned alive in the Campo dei Fiori
in Rome on 17 February 1600. On the stake, along with Bruno, burned
the hopes of many, including philosophers and scientists of good faith
like Galileo, who thought they could reconcile religious faith and
scientific research, while belonging to an ecclesiastical organization
declaring itself to be the custodian of absolute truth and maintaining
a cultural militancy requiring continual commitment and
^ Birx, James (11 November 1997). "Giordano Bruno". Mobile Alabama
Harbinger. Retrieved 28 April 2014. To me, Bruno is the supreme martyr
for both free thought and critical inquiry… Bruno's critical
writings, which pointed out the hypocrisy and bigotry within the
Church, along with his tempestuous personality and undisciplined
behavior, easily made him a victim of the religious and philosophical
intolerance of the 16th century. Bruno was excommunicated by the
Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinist Churches for his heretical beliefs.
The Catholic hierarchy found him guilty of infidelity and many errors,
as well as serious crimes of heresy… Bruno was burned to death at
the stake for his pantheistic stance and cosmic perspective.
Encyclopédie Search Results". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ "Gjendesheim". MEMIM. 2016. Archived from the original on 8 August
2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
^ Gregory, Mary Efrosini (2008). Evolutionism in Eighteenth-century
French Thought. Peter Lang. p. 192. ISBN 9781433103735.
Retrieved 1 September 2016.
^ a b c d Bock, Heike (2006). "Secularization of the modern conduct of
life? Reflections on the religiousness of early modern Europe". In
Hanne May. Religiosität in der säkularisierten Welt. VS Verlag fnr
Sozialw. p. 157. ISBN 3-8100-4039-8.
^ Reese, Dagmar (2006). Growing up female in Nazi Germany. Ann Arbor,
Mich: University of Michigan Press. p. 160.
^ Reinhalter, Helmut (1999). "Freethinkers". In Bromiley, Geoffrey
William; Fahlbusch, Erwin. The encyclopedia of Christianity. Grand
Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 90-04-11695-8. CS1 maint:
Uses editors parameter (link)
^ a b Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph (2003). Christel Gärtner, ed.
Atheismus und religiöse Indifferenz. Organisierter Atheismus. VS
Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8100-3639-1.
^ a b c Peris, Daniel (1998). Storming the heavens: the Soviet League
of the Militant Godless. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press.
pp. 110–11. ISBN 0-8014-3485-8.
^ Lamberti, Marjorie (2004). Politics Of Education: Teachers and
School Reform in Weimar Germany (Monographs in German History).
Providence: Berghahn Books. p. 185.
^ Hugins, Walter (1960). Jacksonian Democracy and the Working Class: A
Study of the New York Workingmen's Movement 1829–1837. Stanford:
Stanford University Press. pp. 36–48.
^ Brandt, Eric T., and Timothy Larsen (2011). "The Old Atheism
Robert G. Ingersoll
Robert G. Ingersoll and the Bible". Journal of the
Historical Society. 11 (2): 211–38.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Freethinkers in Wisconsin". Dictionary
Wisconsin History. 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-27.
^ a b Demerath, N. J. III and Victor Thiessen, "On Spitting Against
the Wind: Organizational Precariousness and American Irreligion," The
American Journal of Sociology, 71: 6 (May, 1966), 674–87.
^ "National Liberal League". The
freethought-trail.org. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
^ a b "History of the Free Congregation of Sauk County: The
"Freethinkers" Story". Free Congregation of Sauk County. April 2009.
Archived from the original on 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
^ William Roba; Fredrick I. Anderson (ed.) (1982). Joined by a River:
Quad Cities. Davenport: Lee Enterprises. p. 73. CS1 maint:
Extra text: authors list (link)
^ "The Turners, Forty-eighters and Freethinkers". Freedom from
Religion Foundation. July 2002. Archived from the original on
2012-07-12. Retrieved 2008-07-27.
^ a b "The Journal of Libertarian Studies" (PDF). Mises Institute.
Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ Xavier Diez. El anarquismo individualista en España (1923–1939)
Virus Editorial. 2007. p. 143[permanent dead link]
^ Xavier Diez. El anarquismo individualista en España (1923–1939)
Virus Editorial. 2007. p. 152[permanent dead link]
^ a b c Geoffrey C. Fidler (Spring–Summer 1985). "The Escuela
Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia"".
History of Education Quarterly. History of Education Society. 25
(1/2): 103–32. doi:10.2307/368893. JSTOR 368893.
^ "Francisco Ferrer's Modern School". Flag.blackened.net. Archived
from the original on 2010-08-07. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
Bury, John Bagnell. (1913). A History of Freedom of Thought. New York:
Henry Holt and Company.
Jacoby, Susan. (2004). Freethinkers: A History of American Secularism.
New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-7442-2
Putnam, Samuel Porter. (1894). Four Hundred Years of Freethought. New
Truth Seeker Company.
Royle, Edward. (1974). Victorian Infidels: The Origins of the British
Secularist Movement, 1791–1866. Manchester: Manchester University
Press. ISBN 0-7190-0557-4
Royle, Edward. (1980). Radicals, Secularists and Republicans: popular
freethought in Britain, 1866–1915. Manchester: Manchester University
Press. ISBN 0-7190-0783-6
Tribe, David. (1967). 100 Years of Freethought. London: Elek Books.
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
A Biographical Dictionary of Ancient, Medieval, and Modern
A History of Freethought
"Freethinker". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.