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Fram
Fram
("Forward") is a ship that was used in expeditions of the Arctic and Antarctic
Antarctic
regions by the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen
Roald Amundsen
between 1893 and 1912. It was designed and built by the Scottish-Norwegian shipwright Colin Archer for Fridtjof Nansen's 1893 Arctic
Arctic
expedition in which the plan was to freeze Fram
Fram
into the Arctic
Arctic
ice sheet and float with it over the North Pole. Fram
Fram
is said[by whom?] to have sailed farther north (85°57'N) and farther south (78°41'S) than any other wooden ship. Fram
Fram
is preserved at the Fram Museum
Fram Museum
in Oslo, Norway.

Contents

1 Construction 2 Expeditions

2.1 Nansen's 1893–1896 Arctic
Arctic
expedition 2.2 Sverdrup's 1898–1902 Canadian Arctic
Arctic
islands expedition 2.3 Amundsen's 1910–1912 South Pole
South Pole
expedition

3 Preservation of Fram 4 Named after Fram 5 Other ships named Fram 6 References

Construction[edit] Nansen's ambition was to explore the Arctic
Arctic
farther north than anyone else. To do that, he would have to deal with a problem that many sailing on the polar ocean had encountered before him: the freezing ice could crush a ship. Nansen's idea was to build a ship that could survive the pressure, not by pure strength, but because it would be of a shape designed to let the ice push the ship up, so it would "float" on top of the ice.

Engineering drawings

Fram
Fram
is a three-masted schooner with a total length of 39 meters and width of 11 meters. The ship is both unusually wide and unusually shallow in order to better withstand the forces of pressing ice. Nansen commissioned the shipwright Colin Archer
Colin Archer
from Larvik
Larvik
to construct a vessel with these characteristics. Fram
Fram
was built with an outer layer of greenheart wood to withstand the ice and with almost no keel to handle the shallow waters Nansen expected to encounter. The rudder and propeller were designed to be retracted. The ship was also carefully insulated to allow the crew to live on board for up to five years. The ship also included a windmill, which ran a generator to provide electric power for lighting by electric arc lamps.[2] Initially, Fram
Fram
was fitted with a steam engine. Prior to Amundsen's expedition to the South Pole
South Pole
in 1910, the engine was replaced with a diesel engine, a first for polar exploration vessels. Expeditions[edit] Fram
Fram
was used in several expeditions:

The prow of Fram
Fram
today[when?] as seen in the Fram
Fram
Museum.

Nansen's 1893–1896 Arctic
Arctic
expedition[edit] Main article: Nansen's Fram
Fram
expedition Wreckage found at Greenland
Greenland
from USS Jeannette, which was lost off Siberia, and driftwood found in the regions of Svalbard
Svalbard
and Greenland, suggested that an ocean current flowed beneath the Arctic ice sheet from east to west, bringing driftwood from the Siberian region to Svalbard
Svalbard
and further west. Nansen had Fram
Fram
built in order to explore this theory.

Fram
Fram
in port, circa 1900[3]

He undertook an expedition that came to last three years. When Nansen realised that Fram
Fram
would not reach the North Pole
North Pole
directly by the force of the current, he and Hjalmar Johansen
Hjalmar Johansen
set out to reach it on skis. After reaching 86° 14' north, he had to turn back to spend the winter at Franz Joseph Land. Nansen and Johansen survived on walrus and polar bear meat and blubber. Finally meeting British explorers, the Jackson-Harmsworth Expedition, they arrived back in Norway
Norway
only days before the Fram
Fram
also returned there. The ship had spent nearly three years trapped in the ice, reaching 85° 57' N.[4] Sverdrup's 1898–1902 Canadian Arctic
Arctic
islands expedition[edit] In 1898, Otto Sverdrup, who had brought Fram
Fram
back on the first Arctic voyage, led a scientific expedition to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Fram
Fram
was slightly modified for this journey, its freeboard being increased. Fram
Fram
left harbour on 24 June 1898, with 17 men on board. Their aim was to chart the lands of the Arctic
Arctic
Islands, and to sample the geology, flora and fauna. The expeditions lasted till 1902, leading to charts covering 260,000 km2, more than any other Arctic
Arctic
expedition.[5] Amundsen's 1910–1912 South Pole
South Pole
expedition[edit]

For Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition, Fram
Fram
was fitted with this diesel engine.

Main article: Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition Fram
Fram
was used by Roald Amundsen
Roald Amundsen
in his southern polar expedition from 1910 to 1912, the first to reach the South Pole, during which Fram reached 78° 41' S. Preservation of Fram[edit] The ship was left to decay in storage from 1912 until the late 1920s, when Lars Christensen, Otto Sverdrup
Otto Sverdrup
and Oscar Wisting
Oscar Wisting
initiated efforts to preserve her. In 1935, the ship was installed in the Fram Museum, where she now stands. Named after Fram[edit]

Scottish-Norwegian shipwright Colin Archer
Colin Archer
designed the ship.

Fram
Fram
model.

Fram
Fram
Island (Ostrov Frama), an island close to the Komsomolskaya Pravda Islands, Laptev Sea Framheim
Framheim
(literally "Home of the Fram"), Amundsen's Base at the Bay of Whales in Antarctica
Antarctica
during his quest for the South Pole Fram
Fram
Rupes, an escarpment on Mercury Fram
Fram
crater, a small crater on Mars, visited by the Mars
Mars
Exploration Rover Opportunity in 2004 Fram
Fram
Basin, the deepest point in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean Fram
Fram
Strait, a passage from the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the Greenland
Greenland
Sea and Norwegian Sea, between Greenland
Greenland
and Spitsbergen. Fram, a play by Tony Harrison, premièred at the National Theatre London, 2008 In Arthur Ransome's children's book, Winter Holiday, the children use the name Fram
Fram
for their Uncle Jim's houseboat, trapped in the ice on the lake which becomes the inspiration for some of their adventures. Fram, the polar bear (Romanian: Fram, ursul polar), a children's book written by the Romanian author Cezar Petrescu
Cezar Petrescu
which was also made into a TV series in Romania;

Other ships named Fram[edit]

A ship built in 1958 and named after Axel Enström was later renamed Fram.[6] Harald V, the King of Norway, has had a number of sailboats for regatta use named Fram. He became world champion in sailing with Fram X in 1987 and is currently[when?] racing in Fram
Fram
XVI (2006). A passenger vessel built in 2007 for Hurtigruten Group
Hurtigruten Group
was named MS Fram
Fram
after the original Fram.[7] It operates in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean and for cruises around Antarctica.

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fram.

Notes

^ Amundsen, Roald, The South Pole; an Account of the Norwegian Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition in the Fram, 1910–12, Volume 2, Appendix I, "The Fram" (1912). Translated by Sydpolen. ^ Nansen, Fridtjof (1897). "ch 2". Farthest North, Volumes I and II. London: Archibald Constable & Co.  ^ Wikisource:Popular Science Monthly/Volume 57/August 1900/The Evolution and Present Status of the Automobile ^ Apsley Cherry-Garrard, The Worst Journey in the World, Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1922, p. xxii ^ Gerard Kenney Ships of Wood and Men of Iron: A Norwegian-Canadian Saga of Exploration in the High Arctic, ISBN 0-88977-168-5, 1984 ^ poosu.net on the Finnish Fram ^ "MS Fram". 

Bibliography

Antarctic
Antarctic
exploration ship Fram The Fram Museum
Fram Museum
website (English version)

v t e

Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition

Comparison with Scott's expedition Fram Framheim Polheim

Roald Amundsen Olav Bjaaland Helmer Hanssen Sverre Hassel Oscar Wisting

v t e

Polar exploration

Arctic

Ocean History Expeditions Research stations

Farthest North North Pole

Barentsz Hudson Marmaduke Carolus Parry North Magnetic Pole

J. Ross J. C. Ross Abernethy Kane Hayes

Polaris

Polaris C. F. Hall

British Arctic
Arctic
Expedition

HMS Alert Nares HMS Discovery Stephenson Markham

Lady Franklin Bay Expedition

Greely Lockwood Brainard

1st Fram
Fram
expedition

Fram Nansen Johansen Sverdrup

Jason

Amedeo

F. Cook Peary Sedov Byrd Airship Norge

Amundsen Nobile Wisting Riiser-Larsen Ellsworth

Airship Italia Nautilus

Wilkins

ANT-25

Chkalov Baydukov Belyakov

"North Pole" manned drifting ice stations NP-1

Papanin Shirshov E. Fyodorov Krenkel

NP-36 NP-37 Sedov

Badygin Wiese

USS Nautilus USS Skate Plaisted Herbert NS Arktika Barneo Arktika 2007

Mir submersibles Sagalevich Chilingarov

Iceland Greenland

Pytheas Brendan Papar Vikings Naddodd Svavarsson Arnarson Norse colonization of the Americas Ulfsson Galti Erik the Red Christian IV's expeditions

J. Hall Cunningham Lindenov C. Richardson

Danish colonization

Egede

Scoresby Jason

Nansen Sverdrup

Peary Rasmussen

Northwest Passage Northern Canada

Cabot G. Corte-Real M. Corte-Real Frobisher Gilbert Davis Hudson Discovery

Bylot Baffin

Munk I. Fyodorov Gvozdev HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Discovery

Clerke

Mackenzie Kotzebue J. Ross HMS Griper

Parry

HMS Hecla

Lyon

HMS Fury

Hoppner

Crozier J. C. Ross Coppermine Expedition Franklin Back Dease Simpson HMS Blossom

Beechey

Franklin's lost expedition

HMS Erebus HMS Terror

Collinson Rae–Richardson Expedition

Rae J. Richardson

Austin McClure Expedition

HMS Investigator McClure HMS Resolute Kellett

Belcher Kennedy Bellot Isabel

Inglefield

2nd Grinnell Expedition

USS Advance Kane

Fox

McClintock

HMS Pandora

Young

Fram

Sverdrup

Gjøa

Amundsen

Rasmussen Karluk

Stefansson Bartlett

St. Roch

H. Larsen

Cowper

North East Passage Russian Arctic

Pomors Koch boats Willoughby Chancellor Barentsz Mangazeya Hudson Poole Siberian Cossacks Perfilyev Stadukhin Dezhnev Popov Ivanov Vagin Permyakov Great Northern Expedition

Bering Chirikov Malygin Ovtsyn Minin V. Pronchishchev M. Pronchishcheva Chelyuskin Kh. Laptev D. Laptev

Chichagov Lyakhov Billings Sannikov Gedenschtrom Wrangel Matyushkin Anjou Litke Lavrov Pakhtusov Tsivolko Middendorff Austro-Hungarian Expedition

Weyprecht Payer

Vega Expedition

A. E. Nordenskiöld Palander

USS Jeannette

De Long

Yermak

Makarov

Zarya

Toll Kolomeitsev Matisen Kolchak

Sedov Rusanov Kuchin Brusilov Expedition

Sv. Anna Brusilov Albanov Konrad

Wiese Nagórski Taymyr / Vaygach

Vilkitsky

Maud

Amundsen

AARI

Samoylovich

Begichev Urvantsev Sadko

Ushakov

Glavsevmorput

Schmidt

Aviaarktika

Shevelev

Sibiryakov

Voronin

Chelyuskin Krassin Gakkel Nuclear-powered icebreakers

NS Lenin Arktika class

Antarctic

Continent History Expeditions

Southern Ocean

Roché Bouvet Kerguelen HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Adventure

Furneaux

Smith San Telmo Vostok

Bellingshausen

Mirny

Lazarev

Bransfield Palmer Davis Weddell Morrell Astrolabe

Dumont d'Urville

United States Exploring Expedition

USS Vincennes Wilkes

USS Porpoise

Ringgold

Ross expedition

HMS Erebus (J. C. Ross Abernethy) HMS Terror (Crozier)

Cooper Challenger expedition

HMS Challenger Nares Murray

Jason

C. A. Larsen

"Heroic Age"

Belgian Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Belgica de Gerlache Lecointe Amundsen Cook Arctowski Racoviță Dobrowolski

Southern Cross

Southern Cross Borchgrevink

Discovery

Discovery Discovery Hut

Gauss

Gauss Drygalski

Swedish Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Antarctic O. Nordenskjöld C. A. Larsen

Scottish Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Bruce Scotia

Orcadas Base Nimrod Expedition

Nimrod

French Antarctic
Antarctic
Expeditions

Pourquoi-Pas Charcot

Japanese Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Shirase

Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition

Fram Amundsen Framheim Polheim

Terra Nova

Terra Nova Scott Wilson E. R. Evans Crean Lashly

Filchner Australasian Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

SY Aurora Mawson

Far Eastern Party Imperial Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Endurance Ernest Shackleton Wild

James Caird Ross Sea party

Mackintosh

Shackleton–Rowett Expedition

Quest

IPY · IGY Modern research

Christensen Byrd BANZARE BGLE

Rymill

New Swabia

Ritscher

Operation Tabarin

Marr

Operation Highjump Captain Arturo Prat Base British Antarctic
Antarctic
Survey Operation Windmill

Ketchum

Ronne Expedition

F. Ronne E. Ronne Schlossbach

Operation Deep Freeze McMurdo Station Commonwealth Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Hillary V. Fuchs

Soviet Antarctic
Antarctic
Expeditions

1st

Somov Klenova Mirny

2nd

Tryoshnikov

3rd

Tolstikov

Antarctic
Antarctic
Treaty System Transglobe Expedition

Fiennes Burton

Lake Vostok Kapitsa

Farthest South South Pole

HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Adventure

Furneaux

Weddell HMS Erebus

J. C. Ross

HMS Terror

Crozier

Southern Cross

Borchgrevink

Discovery

Barne

Nimrod

Shackleton Wild Marshall Adams

South Magnetic Pole

Mawson David Mackay

Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition

Fram Amundsen Bjaaland Helmer Hassel Wisting Polheim

Terra Nova

Scott E. Evans Oates Wilson Bowers

Byrd Balchen McKinley Dufek Amundsen–Scott South Pole
South Pole
Station Hillary V. Fuchs Pole of Cold

Vostok Station

Pole of inaccessibility

Pole of Inaccessibility Station Tolstikov

Crary A. Fuchs Messner

v t e

Surviving ships launched before 1968

operational⛵ preserved⚓

Merchant ships

1800–1899

Charles W. Morgan⛵ (1841) Great Britain⚓ (1843) Edwin Fox⚓ (1863) Star of India⚓ (1863) City of Adelaide⚓ (1864) El Horria/El Mahrousa⛵ (1865) Cutty Sark⚓ (1869) Gjøa⚓ (1872) Meiji Maru⚓ (1873) James Craig⚓ (1874) Muñoz Gamero (1875) Elissa⛵ (1877) Falls of Clyde⚓ (1878) Lady Elizabeth (1879) Joseph Conrad⛵ (1882) Nelcebee⚓ (1883) Coronet⚓ (1885) Polly Woodside⚓ (1885) Wavertree⚓ (1885) Balclutha⚓ (1886) Sigyn⚓ (1887) af Chapman⚓ (1888) Anna Kristina⛵ (1889) Arthur Foss⚓ (1889) Robin⚓ (1890) Fram⚓ (1892) El Primero⛵ (1893) Lettie G. Howard⛵ (1893) Effie M. Morrissey⛵ (1894) Turbinia⚓ (1894) C.A. Thayer⚓ (1895) Gedser Rev⚓ (1895) Belem⛵ (1896) Edna G⚓ (1896) Glenlee⚓ (1896) Meteor⚓ (1896) Rickmer Rickmers⚓ (1896) Albatros⛵ (1899)

1900–1914

Helen McAllister⚓ (1900) Kathleen and May⛵ (1900) Howard L. Shaw (1900) Cangarda⛵ (1901) Discovery⚓ (1901) Duchesse Anne⚓ (1901) Gazela⚓ (1901) Pommern⚓ (1901) Reaper⛵ (1901) Solway Lass⛵ (1902) Suomen Joutsen⚓ (1902) Alma Doepel⛵ (1903) Medea⚓ (1904) Moshulu⚓ (1904) Ridgetown (1905) Alexander von Humboldt⛵ (1906) Hercules⚓ (1907) Irene⛵ (1907) Keewatin⚓ (1907) Tarmo⚓ (1907) Viking⚓ (1907) Yankee⚓ (1907) Fehmarnbelt⛵ (1908) Dar Pomorza⚓ (1909) Großherzogin Elisabeth⛵ (1909) Noorderlicht⛵ (1910) Suriname-Rivier⚓ (1910) Col. James M. Schoonmaker⚓ (1911) Europa⛵ (1911) Eye of the Wind⛵ (1911) Nomadic⚓ (1911) Passat⚓ (1911) Peking⚓ (1911) Tradewind⛵ (1911) Acadia⚓ (1912) Sundowner⛵ (1912) Adventuress⛵ (1913) Jolie Brise
Jolie Brise
(1913) Kyle⚓ (1913) Medina⚓ (1914) Suur Tõll⛵ (1914)

World War I

Statsraad Lehmkuhl⛵ (1914) Sankt Erik⛵ (1915) Valley Camp⛵ (1917) Oosterschelde⛵ (1918)

1919–1938

Marilyn Anne⛵ (1919) Morgenster⛵ (1919) Bowdoin⛵ (1921) Delphine⛵ (1921) Excelsior⛵ (1921) L. A. Dunton⚓ (1921) Sedov⛵ (1921) Southern Swan⛵ (1922) Mandalay⛵ (1923) Medway Queen⚓ (1924) Westward⛵ (1924) Forceful⚓ (1925) Roseway⛵ (1925) William G. Mather⚓ (1925) Kruzenshtern⛵ (1926) Schulschiff Deutschland⚓ (1927) Sørlandet⛵ (1927) Picton Castle⛵ (1928) Hikawa Maru⚓ (1929) Orion⚓ (1929) Calshot⚓ (1930) Dr. Bernardo Houssay⛵ (1930) El Boughaz I⛵ (1930) Kaiwo Maru⚓ (1930) Kajama⛵ (1930) Luna⚓ (1930) Lydia Eva⚓ (1930) Nahlin⛵ (1930) Nippon Maru⚓ (1930) Te Vega⛵ (1930) Thea Foss⛵ (1930) Thor Heyerdahl⛵ (1930) Zaca⛵ (1930) Le Lydia⚓ (1931) Savarona⛵ (1931) Sea Cloud⛵ (1931) Danmark⛵ (1932) Mercator⚓ (1932) Ned Hanlan⚓ (1932) Sightseer XII⛵ (1932) Gorch Fock⚓ (1933) Stettin⛵ (1933) Amorina⛵ (1934) Circle Line XVII⛵ (1934) Georg Stage⛵ (1934) Krait⚓ (1934) Lehg II⚓ (1934) Queen Mary⚓ (1934) Wingfield Castle⚓ (1934) Bloodhound⛵ (1936) Christian Radich⛵ (1937) Santa Maria Manuela⛵ (1937) William A. Irvin⚓ (1937) Clipper Express⛵ (1938) Mary A. Whalen⚓ (1938) Sōya⚓ (1938)

World War II

Vityaz⚓ (1939) Calypso⚓ (1942) Empire Sandy⛵ (1942) John W. Brown⛵ (1942) Wild Goose⛵ (1942) Christina O⛵ (1943) Glenada⛵ (1943) Hellas Liberty⚓ (1943) Jeremiah O'Brien⛵ (1943) Sunnhordland⛵ (1943) Britannia U III⛵ (1944) Northern Victor⛵ (1944) Red Oak Victory⚓ (1944) American Victory⛵ (1945) Fearless⚓ (1945) Johanna Lucretia⛵ (1945) Lane Victory⚓ (1945) Pilgrim⛵ (1945) Sea Bird⛵ (1945) Star of Kodiak⚓ (1945)

1946–1966

Abegweit (1946) Astoria (1946) Cervia (1946) Waverley (1946) Roann (1947) Kaskelot⛵ (1948) Pelican of London⛵ (1948) Sołdek (1948) Balmoral (1949) Søren Larsen⛵ (1949) Bob Barker (1950) John N. Cobb (1950) Sirius (1950) Southern Actor (1950) United States (1951) Arthur M. Anderson (1952) Roald Amundsen⛵ (1952) Spartan (1952) Voima (1952) Zawisza Czarny⛵ (1952) Birger Jarl (1953) Edmund Gardner (1953) Edgewater Fortune (1953) Lightship 2000
Lightship 2000
(1953) Governor (1954) Aurora (1955) Explorer (1955) Gil Eannes (1955) Pearls of South China Sea (1955) Shieldhall (1955) Achilles III (1956) Mayflower II⛵ (1956) Nordstjernen (1956) Frieden (1957) Lenin (1957) Rongdhonu⛵ (1957) Ross Tiger
Ross Tiger
(1957) Sedna IV⛵ (1957) Antarctic
Antarctic
Dream (1958) Mojo (1958) Point Valour (1958) Polar Prince (1958) Rotterdam (1958) Thekla (1958) Elbe (1959) OSS 2 (1959) Savannah (1959) Victoria (1959 & 1960) Arctic
Arctic
Corsair (1960) Bore (1960) Nicola (1960) Ross Revenge (1960) Sampo (1960) Funchal (1961) Keppel (1961) Vantuna (1961) Albatross IV (1962) Altea (1962) Ancerville (1962) Atlantis II (1962) Cape Don (1962) Cap San Diego
Cap San Diego
(1962) Discovery (1962) FLIP (1962) Growler (1962) Lake Explorer (1962) Peirce (1962) Point Glass (1962) Simcoe (1962) Tsotne Dadiani (1962) Bluenose II⛵ (1963) Hudson (1963) Lau Trader (1963) Malaspina (1963) Matanuska (1963) Queen of the Islands (1963) Taku (1963) Tustumena (1963) Aluminaut
Aluminaut
(1964) Arquipelago (1964) Auguste Piccard (1964) Discoverer (1964) Hebridean Princess (1964) J.R. Tolkien⛵ (1964) Lofoten (1964) Marco Polo (1964) Melinka (1964) Ocean Starr (1964) Queen of Nanaimo (1964) Queen of New Westminster (1964) Sahara (1964) Shenandoah⛵ (1964) Stubnitz (1964) Tenaka (1964) Alexander (1965) Clifford A. Barnes (1965) Entreprenant (1965) Lomaiviti Princess (1965) McArthur (1965) Porto (1965) Stephen B. Roman (1965) Tuxedo Royale (1965) Davidson (1966) Deerhound (1966) Ever Queen Emilia (1966) Miller Freeman (1966) Mt. Mitchell (1966) National Geographic Endeavour
National Geographic Endeavour
(1966) Ocean Majesty (1966) Rude (1966) Sir Winston Churchill (1966) Fairweather (1967) Fox (1967) Malcolm Miller
Malcolm Miller
(1967) Med Surveyor (1967) Nautilus (1967) Oregon II (1967) Orient Princess (1967) Queen Elizabeth 2
Queen Elizabeth 2
(1967) Rachel Corrie (1967) Rainier (1967) Titan (1967)

Military ships

Pre-1800

Mary Rose
Mary Rose
(1509) Vasa⚓ (1628) Victory⛵ (1765) Philadelphia⚓ (1776) Peggy (1789) Constitution⛵ (1797)

1800–1899

Trincomalee⚓ (1817) Unicorn⚓ (1824) Dom Fernando II e Glória⚓ (1843) Constellation⚓ (1854) Jylland⚓ (1860) Warrior⚓ (1860) Cairo (1861) Carrick (1864) Huáscar (1865) Buffel⚓ (1868) Schorpioen (1868) Leitha⚓ (1871) Rap (1873) Uruguay⚓ (1874) Sölve (1875) Bonaire (1877) Gannet⚓ (1878) Joseph Conrad⚓ (1882) Abdón Calderon⚓ (1884) Tyr (1887) af Chapman⛵ (1888) Peral (1888) Olympia (1892) Najaden⚓ (1897) Presidente Sarmiento⚓ (1899)

1900–1914

Mikasa (1900) Aurora (1900) Holland 1 (1901) Finngrundet (1903) Alose (1904) Barnegat (1904) Sava (1904) Swiftsure (1904) U-1 (1906) Ambrose (1907) Drazki (1907) Georgios Averoff (1910) Nusret (1911) Texas (1912) Zhongshan (1912) Graf von Goetzen (1913) Kommuna (1913) Suur Tõll (1914)

World War I

Caroline (1914) M33 (1915) Wilhelm Carpelan (1915) Krassin (1916) Portsmouth (1916) Ebe⚓ (1918) President (1918)

1919–1938

Huron (1920) Micalvi (1925) Alert (1926) Deutschland (1927) Juan Sebastián Elcano⛵ (1927) Spurn (1927) Frying Pan (1929) Capitan Miranda (1930) Chesapeake (1930) Jadran⛵ (1930) Amerigo Vespucci⛵ (1931) Colo Colo (1931) Étoile⛵ (1932) Belle Poule⛵ (1932) Dannebrog (1932) Elfin (1933) Lilac (1933) North Carr (1933) Palinuro (1934) Potomac (1934) Vesikko (1934) Wellington (1934) Błyskawica (1935) Belfast (1936) Eagle (1936) Ingham (1936) Lembit (1936) Maeklong (1936) Nantucket (1936) Norge (1936) Taney (1936) Abraham Crijnssen (1937) Creoula (1937) MTB 102
MTB 102
(1937) Sagres (1937) Galeb (1938) HA. 19 (1938) Mircea (1938) Overfalls (1938)

World War II

K-21 (1939) S-56 (1939) Anshan (1940) Almirante Grau (1941) Castlemaine (1941) Drum (1941) Massachusetts (1941) North Carolina (1941) RML 497 (1941) Sackville (1941) Silversides (1941) Somerset (1941) U-505 (1941) Whyalla (1941) Akin (1942) Alabama (1942) Almirante Juan Alejandro Acosta (1942) American Victory (1942) Bowfin (1942) Courageous (1942) Francisco Zarco (1942) Gazal (1942) Haida (1942) Hope (1942) Ignacio L. Vallarta (1942) Iowa (1942) Juan de la Barrera (1942) Laurel (1942) Lee A. Tregurtha (1942) LST-325 (1942) LST-393 (1942) Mariano Escobedo (1942) Mariano Matamoros (1942) Mayu (1942) New Jersey (1942) Ologbo (1942) Otomi (1942) San Andrés (1942) Stewart (1942) Tariq (1942) U-534 (1942) Valentín Gómez Farías (1942) Velos (1942) Batfish (1943) Bramble (1943) Cassin Young (1943) Cavalla (1943) Cebu (1943) Cobia (1943) Cod (1943) Comandante Bauru (1943) Croaker (1943) Gordon Jensen (1943) Hitra (1943) Hornet (1943) Iloilo (1943) Intrepid (1943) Işın (1943) Jesús González Ortega (1943) Juan N. Álvarez (1943) Kidd (1943) King (1943) Laffey (1943) Laguna (1943) Lexington (1943) Ling (1943) Lionfish (1943) Ludington (1943) Manuel Doblado (1943) Mersea (1943) Nash (1943) Obula (1943) Pampanito (1943) Pangasinan (1943) Pin Klao (1943) Prasae (1943) Quezon (1943) Rajah Humabon (1943) Salvia (1943) Santos Degollado (1943) Seri (1943) Suboficial Castillo (1943) The Sullivans (1943) Sultan Kudarat (1943) Tachin (1943) Taedong (1943) U-995 (1943) Unanue (1943) Valvas (1943) Wisconsin (1943) Yorktown (1943) LST-510, Cape Henlopen (1943) Acacia (1944) Alferez Sobral (1944) Anzone (1944) Becuna (1944) Benguet (1944) Cavalier (1944) Columbia (1944) Comanche (1944) Comandante General Irigoyen (1944) Cordoba (1944) Diamantina (1944) El Fateh (1944) HA. 62-76 (1944) Hai Shih (1944) Hazard (1944) Iris (1944) Jeong Ju (1944) Kao Hsiung (1944) LCI(L)-1091 (1944) LCT 7074
LCT 7074
(1944) Little Rock (1944) Mackinaw (1944) Magat Salamat (1944) Mangyan (1944) Manuel Gutiérrez Zamora (1944) Manzanillo (1944) Miguel Malvar (1944) Missouri (1944) Nwamba (1944) Pueblo (1944) Razorback (1944) Rizal (1944) Sierra Madre (1944) Slater (1944) Sundew (1944) Suyeong (1944) Torsk (1944) Trần Khánh Dư (1944) Uluçalireis (1944) Wi Bong (1944) Yan Gyi Aung (1944) Alliance (1945) Clamagore (1945) Francisco de Gurruchaga (1945) Hai Pao (1945) Hualcopo (1945) Hwa San (1945) Jeong Buk (1945) Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. (1945) LCS(L)(3)-102 (1945) Midway (1945) Netzahualcóyotl (1945) Orleck (1945) PT 617 (1945) PT 658 (1945) PT 796 (1945) Requin (1945) Te Yang (1945) Wilhelm Bauer (1945)

1946–1966

Gayret (1946) Freshspring (1946) Salem (1947) Columbia (1950) Nantucket (1950) Relief (1950) Pirireis (1951) Gay Archer (1952) Hızırreis (1952) Nantucket II (1952) Småland (1952) Washtenaw County (1952) Albacore (1953) Britannia (1953) Curlew (1953) Dewaruci (1953) Esmeralda (1953) Lucid (1953) Maillé-Brézé (1953) Marlin (1953) Trieste (1953) Viraat (1953) Abtao (1954) Nautilus (1954) Mikhail Kutuzov (1954) S-189 (1954) Barry (1955) Teal (1955) X-1 (1955) Boyaca (1956) Ceará (1956) Libertad (1956) Vampire (1956) K-3 Leninsky Komsomol (1957) Keihässalmi (1957) Sūduvis (1957) Sulev (1957) Ang Pangulo (1958) Argonaute (1958) Edson (1958) Espadon (1958) Growler (1958) Gorch Fock (1958) Kuršis (1958) Rio Negro (1958) Blueback (1959) Charles F. Adams (1959) Independence (1959) Óðinn (1959) Turner Joy (1959) Wambola (1959) Corsaro II (1960) Dreadnought (1960) Espadon (1960) Kitty Hawk (1960) São Paulo (1960) Simon Fraser (1960) Wilhelmus Zakarias Yohannes (1960) Altair (1961) Cape Jacob (1961) Diamond State (1961) Empire State VI (1961) Jeanne d'Arc (1961) Multatuli (1961) Hermenegildo Galeana (1962) High Point (1962) Nicolás Bravo (1962) Ocelot (1962) Otus (1962) Río Tuxpan (1962) Almirante Camara (1963) Daniel Webster (1963) Moawin (1963) Mount Washington (1963) Petersburg (1963) Sam Rayburn (1963) Valiant (1963) Çeșme (1964) Chesapeake (1964) Ciudad de Rosario (1964) Cormorán (1964) Diligence (1964) Green Mountain State (1964) Ojibwa (1964) Pará (1964) Pernambuco (1964) Potomac (1964) Punta Alta (1964) Reliance (1964) Simon Lake (1964) Trieste II (1964) Vigilant (1964) Active (1965) Bergen (1965) Çandarli (1965) Cormorant (1965) Danbjørn (1965) Denver (1965) Dewa Kembar (1965) Fala (1965) Fresia (1965) Gem State (1965) Godetia (1965) Grand Canyon State (1965) Gregorio del Pilar (1965) Keystone State (1965) Meteor (1965) Narvik (1965) Onondaga (1965) Pacific Tracker (1965) Peder Skram (1965) Petrel (1965) Sælen (1965) Suffren (1965) Tonijn (1965) Tripoli (1965) Utstein (1965) Warspite (1965) Abou El Barakat Al Barbari (1966) Almirante Saboia (1966) B-49 (1966) Cleveland (1966) Confidence (1966) Dubuque (1966) Duquesne (1966) Hang Tuah (1966) Juneau (1966) Kalev (1966) Louis S. St-Laurent (1966) Olev (1966) Otway (1966) Resolute (1966) Seaway Endeavour (1966) Shreveport (1966) Sir Tristram (1966) Sirius (1966) Sokół (1966) Spica (1966) U-9 (1966) Vaindlo (1966) 5 de Noviembre (1967) Admiral W. M. Callaghan (1967) Advance (1967) Alberto Navarette (1967) Andrés Bonifacio (1967) B-39 (1967) Bielik (1967) Canon (1967) Dauntless (1967) Enrico Toti (1967) John F. Kennedy (1967) Kennedy (1967) Mellon (1967) Mölders (1967) Nashville (1967) Ovens (1967) Rahmat (1967) Redoutable (1967) Samudura (1967) Sherman (1967) Smetlivy (1967) Thunder (1967) Valiant (1967) Valle del Cauca (1967) Vector (1967) Vittorio Veneto (1967)

Coordinates: 59°54′12″N 10°41′58″E / 59.90333°N 10.69944°E / 59.90333; 10.69944

Authority control

GND: 415514

.