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Fowey
Fowey
(/ˈfɔɪ/ ( listen) FOY; Cornish: Fowydh, meaning 'Beech Trees'[1]) is a small town, civil parish and cargo port at the mouth of the River Fowey
River Fowey
in south Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The town has been in existence since before 1300; the estuary of the River Fowey
River Fowey
forms a natural harbour which enabled the town to become an important trading centre. Privateers also made use of the sheltered harbourage. The Lostwithiel and Fowey Railway
Lostwithiel and Fowey Railway
brought China clay
China clay
here for export.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 Later history

2 Governance 3 Geography 4 Religious sites

4.1 Fowey
Fowey
Parish Church

5 Economy 6 Transport 7 Education 8 Culture 9 Sports 10 Public services 11 Notable people 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

History[edit] Early history[edit] The Domesday Book
Domesday Book
survey at the end of the 11th century records manors at Penventinue and Trenant, and a priory was soon established nearby at Tywardreath. c. 1300 the prior granted a charter to people living in Fowey
Fowey
itself. This medieval town ran from a north gate near Boddinick Passage to a south gate at what is now Lostwithiel
Lostwithiel
Street; the town extended a little way up the hillside and was bounded on the other side by the river where merchants had their houses backing onto the waterfront. The natural harbour allowed trade to develop with Europe and local ship owners often hired their vessels to the king to support various wars, although the town also developed a reputation for piracy, as did many others at this time. A group of privateers known as the ' Fowey
Fowey
Gallants' were given licence to seize French vessels during the Hundred Years' War. In the 14th century the harbour was defended by 160 archers; after these were withdrawn, two blockhouses were built on either side of the harbour entrance. Despite these defences the town was attacked by French forces in 1457. Place House, by the church, was successfully defended against the French but subsequently strengthened. This building still exists, but much remodelled. A small castle was built on St Catherine’s Point, the western side of the harbour entrance, around 1540. The defences proved their worth when a Dutch attack was beaten off in 1667.[2] The people of Fowey
Fowey
generally sided with the Royalists during the English Civil War, but in 1644 the Earl of Essex
Earl of Essex
brought a Parliamentarian army to Lostwithiel
Lostwithiel
and occupied the peninsula around Fowey. In August, a Royalist army surrounded Essex’s troops and King Charles I himself viewed Fowey
Fowey
from Hall Walk above Polruan, where he came close to being killed by a musket shot. On 31 August, the Parliamentarian cavalry forced their way through the Royalist lines and retreated towards Saltash, leaving the foot soldiers to be evacuated by sea from Fowey. Essex and some officers did indeed escape, but the majority of the force surrendered a few days later near Golant
Golant
and were then marched to Poole, but most died before reaching there.[2] Later history[edit]

Fowey
Fowey
Harbour

Fowey
Fowey
view

The fortunes of the harbour became much reduced, with trade going to Plymouth
Plymouth
and elsewhere instead. Fishing became more important, but local merchants were often appointed as privateers and did some smuggling on the side. Tin, copper and iron mines, along with quarries and china clay pits became important industries in the area, which led to improvements at rival harbours. West Polmear beach was dug out to become Charlestown harbour circa 1800, as was Pentewan
Pentewan
in 1826.[3] Joseph Austen shipped copper from Caffa Mill Pill above Fowey
Fowey
for a while before starting work on the new Par harbour in 1829.[4] Fowey had to wait another forty years before it saw equivalent development, but its natural deep-water anchorage and a rail link soon gave it an advantage over the shallow artificial harbours nearer to the mines and china clay works. Meanwhile, a beacon tower was erected on the Gribben Head by Trinity House
Trinity House
to improve navigation into Fowey
Fowey
and around Par bay.[3]

Loading china clay circa 1904 (jetty number 1 in foreground)

The Fowey
Fowey
Harbour Commissioners were established by an Act of Parliament in 1869, to develop and improve the harbour.[3] On 1 June in that year, the 7 ft (2,134 mm) broad gauge Lostwithiel and Fowey
Fowey
Railway was opened to new jetties situated above Carne Point, and in 1873, the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge Cornwall
Cornwall
Minerals Railway (CMR) opened a line from Newquay
Newquay
and Par to further jetties between Caffa Mill Pill and Carne Point. Both of these railways initially carried just goods, but on 20 June 1876, a passenger station was opened on the CMR on land reclaimed from Caffa Mill Pill. The Lostwithiel
Lostwithiel
line closed at the end of 1879 but was reopened by the CMR as a standard gauge line in 1895, and the short gap between the two lines at Carne Point was eliminated. Passenger trains from Par were withdrawn after 1934 and from Lostwithiel
Lostwithiel
in 1965. The Par line was subsequently converted to a dedicated roadway for lorries bringing china clay from Par after which all trains had to run via Lostwithiel.[5] The Royal National Lifeboat Institution
Royal National Lifeboat Institution
established Fowey
Fowey
Lifeboat Station near the Town
Town
Quay in 1922 to replace an earlier station at Polkerris. This was replaced in 1997, by a new facility in Passage Street.[6] Two lifeboats are stationed at Fowey: Maurice and Joyce Hardy, a Trent Class all weather boat that is kept afloat opposite the lifeboat station, and Olive Two, an IB1 inshore lifeboat kept inside the station and launched by davit.[7] Fowey
Fowey
was the main port for loading ammunition for the US 29th Division that landed on Omaha Beach
Omaha Beach
on D Day
D Day
during the Second World War.[8] There was a munitions siding at Woodgate Pill just north of Fowey, originally built for the Great War conflict.[9] Governance[edit]

Bodinnick
Bodinnick
ferry, Fowey, Cornwall
Cornwall
(1889).

The seal of the borough of Fowey
Fowey
was On a shield a ship of three masts on the sea her topsail furled with the legend "Sigillum oppidi de Fowy Anno Dom. 1702".[10] Fowey
Fowey
elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons until the Reform Act 1832
Reform Act 1832
stripped it of its representation as a rotten borough, it having lost its borough corporation a few years before.[11] It was restored as a municipal borough in 1913, and then was merged with the nearby and much larger St Austell
St Austell
in 1968 to form the borough of St Austell with Fowey. This was itself in 1974 replaced with the Restormel
Restormel
Borough, which was replaced by Cornwall
Cornwall
Council in 2009.[12] In local government terms, Fowey
Fowey
is now a civil parish with a town council and a mayor. Local government responsibilities are shared by the town council and Cornwall
Cornwall
Council. Besides the town of Fowey itself, the parish includes the coastal area between the mouth of the River Fowey
River Fowey
and St Austell
St Austell
Bay, including Gribben Head
Gribben Head
and the small settlements of Menabilly, Polkerris, Polmear and Readymoney.[12][13][14] The parish of Fowey
Fowey
lies within the St Austell
St Austell
and Newquay constituency of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Parliament, and the South West England
England
constituency of the European Parliament.[14] Geography[edit]

Fowey
Fowey
Harbour panorama

Fowey
Fowey
is a small town, civil parish and cargo port at the mouth of the River Fowey
River Fowey
in south Cornwall, England. It is at the entrance to a large flooded valley created after the last ice age by the melt waters that caused the sea level to rise dramatically, creating a large natural harbour which is navigable for its last seven miles.[15] [16] Fowey
Fowey
is in the South Coast (Eastern Section) of the Cornwall
Cornwall
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. It lies at the end of the Saints' Way
Saints' Way
and has ferries across the river to Polruan
Polruan
(foot) and Bodinnick (vehicle). There are many historic buildings in the town, including the ruins of St Catherine's Castle, while Readymoney Cove
Readymoney Cove
possesses a local beach. At the time of the 2001 census, Fowey
Fowey
had a population of 2,273. This had increased slightly at the 2011 census to 2,395[17] The Fowey electoral ward had a population of 4,690 in 2011.[18] Religious sites[edit]

Fowey
Fowey
Parish Church

Popular legend has it that Jesus
Jesus
visited Fowey
Fowey
as a child, along with Joseph of Arimathea
Joseph of Arimathea
who was a merchant visiting local tin mines in which he had a commercial interest.[citation needed] At the entrance to the River, on the eastern side below the cliffs to the south-west of St Saviour's Point, there is a cross to commemorate this supposed visit. This cross is marked on very early charts and was maintained by monks from Tywardreath. The cross is known locally as "Punches Cross", supposedly derived from the name of Pontius Pilate. One hundred yards west of the lighthouse on the west of the harbour entrance, about thirty feet below the top of the cliff edge and broadly concealed, is a small grass area known as "Johnny May's Chapel". This name is believed to be that of a Methodist preacher at the time when Nonconformism was persecuted. Fowey
Fowey
Parish Church[edit] The church is dedicated to Saint Finbarr
Saint Finbarr
and is listed Grade I. It was built in the early 14th century and rededicated in 1336, replacing a previous Norman church. The church was damaged by the French in 1457, and repaired in 1460 by the Earl of Warwick, when the clerestory and the north and south aisles were rebuilt. There is a nave and two aisles with a clerestory, and the aisles are unusually wide; the aisles and the clerestory may be additions of the 15th century. The tower, of the 16th century, is of four stages and has buttresses and bands of ornament. There is an exceptionally fine 15th-century carved wagon roof. The south porch has open arches to the west and east and an eight-ribbed vaulted roof. The font is Norman, of Catacleuze stone, and similar to those of Ladock, Feock and St Mewan. The hexagonal pulpit was made in 1601. The monuments include two brasses of the mid 15th century and those of John Rashleigh, 1582, and Alice Rashleigh, 1602. The most interesting are two later Rashleigh monuments: John Rashleigh, c. 1610, and another of 1683.[19] The church was used as a town hall for a period up to 1684. Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch
Arthur Quiller-Couch
is buried in the churchyard.[20] Economy[edit]

Loading china clay at Carne Point

Fowey
Fowey
has thrived as a port for hundreds of years, initially as a trading and naval town, then as the centre for china clay exports. Today Fowey
Fowey
is busy with trawlers and yachts. Tourism is also an important source of income, contributing £14m to the local economy and accounting for more than half of the jobs in the town.[21] Transport[edit] Although Fowey railway station
Fowey railway station
closed to passengers in 1965, the Lostwithiel
Lostwithiel
to Fowey
Fowey
branch line remains open for goods traffic, carrying bulk china clay to the jetties at Carne Point. The nearest passenger station is at Par, whence there are trains to Penzance, Newquay, Plymouth, Bristol and London Paddington. First South West operate regular bus services, numbered 25, 524 and 525, between Fowey, Par railway station
Par railway station
and St Austell. The combined frequency varies from one bus per hour on Sundays to four buses per hour on weekdays. From St Austell
St Austell
Bus Station connecting buses operate to other places in Cornwall. Town
Town
Bus is a frequent and regular service running from outside the church in the town centre to the main car park on Hanson Drive.[22] Both vehicle and foot ferry services cross the river to Bodinnick
Bodinnick
and Polruan. A ship to shore water taxi service operates from Easter until the end of October and a foot ferry to the fishing village of Mevagissey
Mevagissey
runs from 1 May to 1 October, weather permitting.[23] Education[edit] Fowey
Fowey
has two schools: Fowey
Fowey
Primary School and Fowey
Fowey
River Academy, both of which are in Windmill Road. Fowey
Fowey
Grammar School, for which its architect Silvanus Trevail
Silvanus Trevail
received a silver medal, was demolished in 1999.[24] Culture[edit] Fowey
Fowey
has been the inspiration for many authors, including Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch ('Q'), Daphne du Maurier, Leo Walmsley
Leo Walmsley
and Kenneth Grahame.[citation needed] Fowey
Fowey
was Quiller-Couch's main residence from 1892 onwards, and a number of his stories are set in 'Troy Town', a thinly disguised Fowey.[citation needed] The du Maurier Festival Society runs the Fowey Festival of Arts and Literature each May,[25] the month of her birth. Various visual artists have had close connection with Fowey
Fowey
and lived there, including painters Fred Yates[26] Andrew Litten[27] and Amanda Hoskin who primarily paints the local coastline.[28]. Fowey
Fowey
holds an annual Christmas craft market.[29] Sports[edit] The surrounding coastline of Fowey
Fowey
is popular with fishermen and spear-fishermen. Many sea creatures can be seen all around the Cornish shoreline, including mullet, bass, mackerel, lobsters and cuttlefish.[30] Many of the species can be seen in the Fowey
Fowey
Aquarium in the heart of the town, which includes a very rare Albino Bull Huss.[31] The Royal Fowey
Fowey
Yacht
Yacht
Club is based on the harbour front.[32] A Pilot Gig Rowing Club races in and around Cornwall, with an event at Fowey being held the same week as the Regatta. The club launches from Caffa Mill slip.[33] Fowey
Fowey
Golf Club was founded in 1894 and continued until the late 1940s.[34] Public services[edit] A doctors' surgery called the ' Fowey
Fowey
River Practice' is situated in Rawlings Lane, and is part of a group including two other surgeries in the Fowey
Fowey
River Practice group, which are situated at Par and Polruan.[35] Notable people[edit]

Charles Fitzgeoffrey an Elizabethan poet and clergyman was the son of the Rector of Fowey. Hugh Peters
Hugh Peters
(or Peter), a 17th-century preacher, was born at Fowey. Mary Bryant
Mary Bryant
(born 1765) was born in Fowey
Fowey
before being transported as a convict to the colony of New South Wales, where she became one of the first escapees.[36] Kenneth Grahame
Kenneth Grahame
(1859–1932) most famous for The Wind in the Willows (1908) lived for part of the year in Fowey
Fowey
during the 1890s and into the early part of the 20th century.[37] Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch
Arthur Quiller-Couch
(1863–1944) settled in Fowey
Fowey
in 1891 and remained there for the rest of his life.[38] Quiller-Couch was an author and professor of English literature primarily recalled for his influential literary criticism. Mabel Lucie Attwell
Mabel Lucie Attwell
(1879–1964) was a British illustrator. She was known for her cute, nostalgic drawings of children, based on her daughter, Peggy. Her drawings are featured on many postcards, advertisements, posters, books and figurines. She settled in Fowey, dying here in 1964. Leo Walmsley
Leo Walmsley
(1892 – 1966) was an English writer. He died in Fowey, Cornwall, on 8 June and his house 21 Passage Street was named Bramblewick after his popular book series. Clarence F. Leary a United States Navy
United States Navy
officer and Navy Cross winner was born here on 11 January 1894.[39] Daphne du Maurier
Daphne du Maurier
(1907–1989) English author and playwright; lived in Fowey. Her works include Rebecca, an adaptation of which won the best Picture Oscar in 1941, Jamaica Inn and numerous short stories including The Birds and Don't Look Now that were turned into films. Antony Hewish (born 1929), co-recipient of the 1974 Nobel Prize for Physics, was born here. Gordon Waller
Gordon Waller
(1945-2009), of the singing duo Peter and Gordon, resided in Cornwall
Cornwall
for eight years during his children's youth. His family maintains a lifelong association with the village.[40]

A number of wealthy entertainers have second homes around the town, which may have contributed to raising house prices above what many local people can afford.[41] These include married couples Richard Madeley and Judy Finnigan[41] and Dawn French
Dawn French
(who paid around £2 million in October 2006 for a mansion at Readymoney Cove),[41][42] Gloria Hunniford, and former Blue Peter
Blue Peter
presenter Janet Ellis.[41] References[edit]

^ "List of Place-names agreed by the MAGA Signage Panel" (PDF). Cornish Language Partnership. May 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2015.  ^ a b Keast, John (1987) [1950]. The Story of Fowey. Redruth: Dyllansow Truran. ISBN 1-85022-035-2.  ^ a b c Ward-Jackson, C. H (1986). Ships and Shipbuilders of a Westcountry Seaport: Fowey
Fowey
1786–1939. Truro: Twelveheads Press. ISBN 0-906294-11-8.  ^ Keast, John (1982). The King of Mid-Cornwall. Redruth: Dyllansow Truran. ISBN 0-907566-29-4.  ^ Vaughan, John (1991). The Newquay
Newquay
Branch and its Branches. Sparkford: Haynes/Oxford Publishing Company. ISBN 0-86093-470-5.  ^ Leach, Nicholas (2002). Fowey
Fowey
Lifeboats, an Illustrated History. Stroud: Tempus Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-2378-9.  ^ Denton, Tony (2009). Handbook 2009. Shrewsbury: Lifeboat Enthusiasts Society.  ^ Kirsty Fergusson (2015). Cornwall
Cornwall
(Slow Travel). Bradt Travel Guides. p. 151. ISBN 978-1-84162-864-6.  ^ Bennett, Alan (1988). The Great Western Railway in Mid Cornwall. Kingfisher Railway Publications. ISBN 0-946184-53-4.  ^ Pascoe, W. H. (1979). A Cornish Armory. Padstow, Cornwall: Lodenek Press. p. 133. ISBN 0-902899-76-7.  ^ Fowey
Fowey
– LoveToKnow 1911 Archived 6 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b St Austell
St Austell
RD Cornwall
Cornwall
through time Administrative history of Local Government District: hierarchies, boundaries ^ " Fowey
Fowey
Town
Town
Council". Fowey
Fowey
Town
Town
Council. Retrieved 12 October 2010.  ^ a b "Election Maps". Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 12 November 2010.  ^ Eric C. F. Bird (2011). Coastal Geomorphology: An Introduction. John Wiley & Sons. p. 361. ISBN 978-1-119-96435-3.  ^ Landranger map sheet 200 Newquay
Newquay
& Bodmin. Ordnance Survey. ISBN 978-0-319-22938-5.  ^ " Fowey
Fowey
Parish population following 2011 census". Retrieved 5 February 2015.  ^ " Fowey
Fowey
electoral ward population following 2011 census". Retrieved 5 February 2015.  ^ Pevsner, N. (1970) Cornwall; 2nd ed. rev. Enid Radcliffe. Penguin; p. 70 ^ "Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch
Arthur Quiller-Couch
- Find a Grave". findagrave.com. Retrieved 29 November 2013.  ^ "South West Business Figures reveal Fowey
Fowey
tourists are worth £14m to the town". [permanent dead link] ^ "Bus routes in Cornwall". First Group. Retrieved 13 August 2016.  ^ "Boddinick Ferry". Retrieved 13 August 2016.  ^ "Silvanus Trevail". Dean Evans. 7 July 2008.  ^ Fowey
Fowey
Festival website ^ https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2008/jul/31/art ^ http://www.manifestgallery.org/inpa/inpa5/43.html ^ http://www.beside-the-wave.co.uk/artists/6979/biography/amanda-hoskin ^ http://www.foweymarket.co.uk/ ^ "Lanteglos". Retrieved 13 August 2016.  ^ " Fowey
Fowey
Aquarium". Retrieved 13 August 2016.  ^ Coombs, Joan (2000). A Fowey
Fowey
Jig-Saw: the History of the Royal Fowey Yacht
Yacht
Club. Fowey: RFYC Books. ISBN 0-9539622-0-2.  ^ " River Fowey
River Fowey
Gig Club". Retrieved 13 August 2016.  ^ " Fowey
Fowey
Golf Club", "Golf’s Missing Links". ^ Fowey
Fowey
River Practice Patient Leaflet ^ "Australian Dictionary of Biography (The: Online Edition)".  ^ "The Literature Network".  ^ Brittain, F. (1948) Arthur Quiller-Couch. Cambridge: University Press ^ http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/l5/leary-i.htm ^ Las Vegas tribute to sisters' pop star dad, Gordon Waller[permanent dead link]; cornwalllive.com, May 12, 2010. Retrieved 2015-05-25. ^ a b c d Kirby, Terry; Roberts, Geneviève (4 November 2006). "The two faces of Cornwall". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ Fowey
Fowey
Hotel (The). "The Fowey
Fowey
Hotel—Archive for January 2007". Archived from the original on 8 September 2008. 

Further reading[edit]

Henderson, Charles (1935) Fowey. In: Essays in Cornish History edited by A. L. Rowse
A. L. Rowse
and M. I. Henderson; pp. 26–43

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Fowey.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fowey.

Fowey
Fowey
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

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