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Foshan, formerly romanized as Fatshan, is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong
Guangdong
Province in southeastern China. The entire prefecture covers 3,848.49 km2 (1,485.91 sq mi) and has an urban population around 7.2 million.[when?] It forms part of the western side of the Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
Economic Zone, which includes Guangzhou
Guangzhou
to the north and Shenzhen
Shenzhen
to the east. Foshan
Foshan
is regarded as the home of the Cantonese
Cantonese
forms of Chinese opera, kung fu, lion dancing.

Contents

1 Name 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Administration 5 Economy 6 Demographics 7 Transportation

7.1 FMetro 7.2 Rail

8 Education 9 Sports 10 Destinations 11 Sister cities 12 Notable people 13 References 14 External links

Name[edit]

"Faesan" (Foshan), from Nieuhof's 1665 Embassy of the Dutch East India Company to the Emperor of China

Fóshān is the pinyin romanization of the city's Chinese name 佛山, based on its Mandarin pronunciation. The Postal Map spelling "Fatshan" derives from the same name's local Cantonese
Cantonese
pronunciation. Other romanizations include Fat-shan[2] and Fat-shun.[3] Foshan
Foshan
means "Buddha Mountain" and, despite the more famous present-day statue of Guanyin or Kwanyin on Mount Xiqiao, who isn't a Buddha, it refers to a smaller hill near the centre of town where three bronze sculptures of Buddha
Buddha
were discovered in AD 628. The town grew up around a monastery founded nearby that was destroyed in 1391.[4] The town's nicknames include the "Hometown of Cantonese
Cantonese
Opera" (粵劇之鄉), "of Lingnan
Lingnan
Kung Fu" (嶺南武術), of " Lingnan
Lingnan
Lion Dancing" (嶺南舞獅), and of " Lingnan
Lingnan
Dragon Boat Racing" (嶺南龍舟).[citation needed] ("Lingnan"—"South of the Southern Mountains"—itself being a nickname of Guangdong
Guangdong
along with the surrounding provinces and northern Vietnam.) History[edit] Foshan
Foshan
remained a minor settlement on the Fen River
Fen River
for most of China's history. It developed around a Tang-era Buddhist monastery that was destroyed in 1391.[4] (Nanhai was separately established at Broken Bowls Point in 1271 by two brothers fleeing the Mongol invasion of the north.) The Foshan
Foshan
Ancestral Temple, a Taoist temple
Taoist temple
to the Northern God (Beidi) that was rebuilt in 1372, became the new focus of the community by the 15th century.[4] By the early Ming, Foshan
Foshan
had grown into one of the four great markets in China, primarily on the strength of its local ceramics but also on account of its metalwork.[5] Under the Qing, its harbor on the Fen River
Fen River
was limited to ships of a thousand tons' burden but it remained well connected with Guangdong's other ports.[5] By the 19th century, it was considered the "Birmingham of China", with its steel industry responsible for the consumption of the majority of the province's iron production.[3] It was connected to Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and Sanshui
Sanshui
by rail in the early 20th century.[5] The Ancestral Temple was converted into the Foshan Municipal Museum
Foshan Municipal Museum
upon the victory of the Communists in the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
in 1949. Foshan
Foshan
remained primarily focused on ceramic and steel production until the 1950s, when it became an urbanizing political center. On 26 June 1951 it left Nanhai County to become a separate county-level city and, in 1954, it was made the seat of the prefectural government.[5] Its economy stagnated through the Cultural Revolution—traditional ceramic ware was forbidden and its workshops were turned to producing Maoist and Revolutionary folderol — but it continued to grow, reaching 300,000 people by the 1970s, making it the province's second city after Guangzhou.[5] As early as 1973, however, its agriculture and consumer industries were permitted to become an export production base and a modern highway linked it to Guangzhou
Guangzhou
soon after; this permitted its party secretary Tong Mengqing and mayor Yu Fei to take full advantage when Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
introduced his Opening Up policies after the fall of the Gang of Four.[5] In 1983, Foshan
Foshan
was promoted to a prefecture-level city with its former core becoming the new Chancheng District, but lost the southwestern half of its former territory to Jiangmen.[5] On 8 December 2002, Shunde and Nanhai joined its urban core as a full district. Shunde has gone on to obtain an unusual autonomous status in 2009, placing its oversight in the hands of the provincial government rather than the prefectural one. Geography[edit] Foshan
Foshan
lies on the Fen River
Fen River
in the estuaries making up the west side of the Pearl River Delta. Guangzhou
Guangzhou
lies 25 kilometers (16 mi) to the northeast, Zhongshan
Zhongshan
to the southeast, Jiangmen
Jiangmen
to the south, Qingyuan
Qingyuan
to the west, and Zhaoqing
Zhaoqing
to the west.[6] Climate[edit] Foshan
Foshan
experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa).

Climate data for Foshan
Foshan
(1981−2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 26.7 (80.1) 27.1 (80.8) 30.7 (87.3) 32.7 (90.9) 35.6 (96.1) 37.1 (98.8) 38.5 (101.3) 38.5 (101.3) 37.8 (100) 34.2 (93.6) 30.6 (87.1) 28.8 (83.8) 38.5 (101.3)

Average high °C (°F) 17.9 (64.2) 17.5 (63.5) 20.8 (69.4) 25.1 (77.2) 29.2 (84.6) 31.5 (88.7) 32.9 (91.2) 33.2 (91.8) 31.5 (88.7) 28.6 (83.5) 24.0 (75.2) 19.8 (67.6) 26 (78.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 13.8 (56.8) 14.3 (57.7) 17.6 (63.7) 21.9 (71.4) 25.7 (78.3) 28.0 (82.4) 29.1 (84.4) 29.2 (84.6) 27.6 (81.7) 24.6 (76.3) 19.6 (67.3) 15.0 (59) 22.2 (71.97)

Average low °C (°F) 10.8 (51.4) 11.9 (53.4) 15.2 (59.4) 19.5 (67.1) 23.0 (73.4) 25.3 (77.5) 26.1 (79) 26.3 (79.3) 24.6 (76.3) 21.4 (70.5) 16.3 (61.3) 11.4 (52.5) 19.32 (66.76)

Record low °C (°F) 2.0 (35.6) 2.3 (36.1) 3.4 (38.1) 10.5 (50.9) 14.9 (58.8) 18.7 (65.7) 22.8 (73) 23.3 (73.9) 19.6 (67.3) 10.7 (51.3) 4.4 (39.9) 3.1 (37.6) 2 (35.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 45.7 (1.799) 65.2 (2.567) 92.4 (3.638) 166.4 (6.551) 245.1 (9.65) 273.7 (10.776) 228.4 (8.992) 229.9 (9.051) 196.7 (7.744) 68.1 (2.681) 37.7 (1.484) 28.0 (1.102) 1,677.3 (66.035)

Average relative humidity (%) 74 82 84 85 84 83 81 79 79 75 71 66 78.6

Source: China
China
Meteorological Data Service Center

Administration[edit] The prefecture-level city of Foshan
Foshan
administers five county-level divisions, all of which are districts. The five districts are Chancheng, Nanhai, Sanshui, Gaoming and Shunde.

Administrative divisions of Foshan

Chancheng Nanhai Shunde Sanshui Gaoming

Division code[7] English name Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[8] Population 2010[9] Seat Postal code Divisions[10]

Subdistricts Towns Residential communities Administrative villages

440600 Foshan
Foshan
City 佛山市 Fóshān Shì 3848.49 7197394 Chancheng District 528000 11 21 408 328

440604 Chancheng District 禅城区 Chánchéng Qū 154.15 1,101,077 Zumiao Subdistrict 528000 3 1 89 54

440605 Nanhai District 南海区 Nánhǎi Qū 1073.94 2,588,844 Guicheng Subdistrict 528200 1 6 183 67

440606 Shunde District 顺德区 Shùndé Qū 806.55 2,464,784 Daliang Subdistrict 528300 4 6 93 108

440607 Sanshui
Sanshui
District 三水区 Sānshuǐ Qū 874.22 622,645 Xinan Subdistrict 528100 2 5 22 48

440608 Gaoming District 高明区 Gāomíng Qū 939.64 420,044 Hecheng Subdistrict 528500 1 3 21 51

These are further divided into 64 township-level divisions, including 37 towns and 27 subdistricts. Foshan
Foshan
is close to Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and considers its link with Guangzhou very important. A Guangzhou- Foshan
Foshan
metropolitan region[clarification needed] is being formed.[citation needed] Economy[edit] Foshan
Foshan
has been well known for its ceramics since the Ming, although it was forced to shutter its production during the Cultural Revolution.[5] Foshan
Foshan
had a ¥8.01 trillion gross domestic product in 2015, raising its per capita GDP past ¥10,000.[11] Shunde District
Shunde District
in particular has a high standard of living, with its 3000+ electronical appliance factories responsible for more than half of the world's air conditioners and refrigerators.[12] Foshan
Foshan
now has more than 30 towns specialized in particular industries, including furniture, machinery, and beverages.[12] Foshan
Foshan
Hi-Tech Development Zone was founded in 1992. Its total planned area is 7.55 km2 (2.92 sq mi). The zone is very close to the national highway G325 as well as Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Baiyun International Airport. The major industries in the zone including automobile assembly, biotechnology and chemicals processing.[13] Demographics[edit] The local people speak the Foshan
Foshan
dialect of Cantonese, one of its Sanyi
Sanyi
forms. Transportation[edit]

Foshan
Foshan
railway station

In 2013 to 2014, Foshan
Foshan
planned to improve public transportation by putting forward six measures:[14] FMetro[edit] Main article: FMetro The first line of FMetro
FMetro
opened in 2010, and another two lines are under construction and due to be completed in 2015 and 2020. The existing line of FMetro
FMetro
network:

Line 1 (Guangfo Line): From Xinchengdong Station to Yangang Station

Rail[edit] Foshan
Foshan
is a main interchange for railway routes linking Guangzhou, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and western Guangdong
Guangdong
Province. It is connected with Hong Kong via the KCRC Guangdong
Guangdong
Through Train service from Foshan
Foshan
Railway Station, an inter-city train service that was extended from Guangzhou to Foshan
Foshan
in the 1990s.[citation needed] Education[edit]

Foshan
Foshan
University's front gate

Foshan
Foshan
University

Sports[edit] Foshan
Foshan
will be one of the host cities for the 2019 FIBA
FIBA
Basketball World Cup.[15] In October 2014 the city hosted The Foshan Open golf event on the European Challenge Tour.[16] Destinations[edit]

Foshan
Foshan
Ancestral Temple

Foshan
Foshan
Ancestral Temple Nanfeng Kiln Liang's Garden

Sister cities[edit]

Itami, Hyōgo, Japan La Possession, Réunion, France
France
(since 1989)[17] Port Louis, Mauritius Oakland, California, United States Markham, Ontario, Canada (Friendly co-operative) Townsville, Queensland, Australia Medway, United Kingdom Starogard Gdański, Poland St. George's, Grenada Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany (since 2013)[18][19]

Notable people[edit]

Wong Fei Hung
Wong Fei Hung
(1847–1924), Hung Ga
Hung Ga
master and doctor, honored at a memorial hall in Chancheng. Ip Man
Ip Man
(1893–1972), Wing Chun
Wing Chun
master and instructor of Bruce Lee. Wang Yue, (2009-2011), toddler killed in one of the most notorious examples of the bystander effect.

References[edit]

^ http://www.citypopulation.de/php/china-guangdong-admin.php ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. (1911), Vol. XV, "Kwang-tung". ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. (1878), Vol. V, "China". ^ a b c McDermott, Joseph P., State and Court Ritual in China, p. 281 . ^ a b c d e f g h Vogel, Ezra F., One Step Ahead in China: Guangdong under Reform, p. 182 . ^ Farrell, Samuel. "Foshan". Bing Maps. Retrieved May 28, 2016.  ^ "中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码". 中华人民共和国民政部.  ^ 佛山市国土资源局. 《佛山市土地利用总体规划(2006-2020年)》.  ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China
China
by township / compiled by Population census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing
Beijing
Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.  ^ 中华人民共和国民政部 (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.  ^ BAIDU http://baike.baidu.com/link?url=Il1FenzvJtewoPsrhZhJcmynMxGUbDfsDWXeKSQjGgKIor_K1Kmye6e9sZ315-Eogrv-pmnEtj2DjGokNfQhLNBDwdBCoHEnTWUf1t_ZtBS.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ a b "Foshan: From Buddhist Hill to World Manufacturing Centre", MacauHub, 11 September 2015 . ^ RightSite.asia Foshan
Foshan
Hi-Tech Development Zone ^ Foshan
Foshan
City Transportation Bureau home page Foshan
Foshan
City Transportation Bureau. Retrieved February 1, 2014 ^ " FIBA
FIBA
Basketball World Cup 2019 high-ranking LOC officials confirmed, FIBA
FIBA
to open three offices in China". FIBA. 14 June 2016. Retrieved 7 September 2016.  ^ "The Foshan
Foshan
Tour". European Challenge Tour. PGA European Tour. Retrieved 20 November 2014.  ^ Ville de la Possession - Jumelages ^ http://www2.ingolstadt.de/index.phtml?object=tx%7C1842.55.1&NavID=1842.86&Aktuell_ID=13449 ^ http://www.augsburger-allgemeine.de/neuburg/Ingolstadt-und-Foshan-id27503787.html

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Foshan.

Foshan
Foshan
travel guide from Wikivoyage Map of Foshan[permanent dead link] (in Chinese)

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Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

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