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The Florida
Florida
scrub jay ( Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
coerulescens[A]) is one of the species of scrub jay native to North America. It is the only species of bird endemic to the U.S. state of Florida
Florida
and one of only 15 species endemic to the continental United States.[3] Because of this, it is heavily sought by birders who travel from across the country to observe this unique species. It is known to have been present in Florida
Florida
as a distinct species for at least 2 million years,[4] and is possibly derived from the ancestors of Woodhouse's scrub jay.[5] It measures 23 to 28 cm (9.1 to 11.0 in) in length, and weighs from 66 to 92 g (2.3 to 3.2 oz), with an average 80.2 g (2.83 oz). The wingspan of the jay is 33–36 cm (13–14 in).[6][7] It has a strong black bill, blue head and nape without a crest, a whitish forehead and supercilium, blue bib, blue wings, grayish underparts, gray back, long blue tail, black legs and feet.

Contents

1 Ecology

1.1 Reproduction

2 Conservation

2.1 Dangers of human feeding

3 Gallery 4 Footnotes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Ecology[edit] The Florida
Florida
scrub jay is found only in Florida
Florida
scrub habitat, an ecosystem that exists only in central Florida
Florida
and is characterized by nutrient-poor soil, occasional drought, and frequent wildfires. Because of its somewhat harsh weather pattern, this habitat is host to a small assortment of very specific plants, including sand pine, sand live oak, myrtle oak, Chapman's oak, sandhill oak, Florida
Florida
rosemary[8] and various other hardy plants such as Eastern prickly pear.[9] Florida
Florida
scrub jays are omnivorous and eat a wide variety of acorns, seeds, peanuts, insects, tree frogs, turtles, snakes, lizards, and young mice. Florida
Florida
scrub jays have also been occasionally observed to eat other birds' eggs or nestlings, but this occurs rarely.[10] They routinely cache thousands of acorns a year, burying them just beneath the surface. The acorns are typically buried in the fall and consumed during the winter and spring. Acorns that are forgotten or missed may germinate, making the Florida
Florida
scrub jay an effective agent for the dispersal of a variety of oak trees. Scrub jays may also take silverware and other shiny objects in a manner similar to the American crow. Reproduction[edit] Florida
Florida
scrub jays are one of the few cooperative breeding birds in North America. Fledgling Florida
Florida
scrub jays remain in their parents' habitat for several years and help to rear young, watch for predators (such as short-tailed or Accipiter
Accipiter
hawks), and defend territory against neighboring Florida
Florida
scrub jay family groups. These families can range in size from 2 to 8.

Juvenile Florida
Florida
scrub jay

Juvenile Florida
Florida
scrub jay developing adult coloration

After about 2 to 3 years, fledglings leave the group to form mating pairs of their own. Mating season ranges from March to June. Clutches usually contain about 3 to 4 eggs which are incubated in about 17 days. Fledging occurs in about 16 to 19 days. Fledglings can be distinguished from the adult birds due to the coloration of the feathers on their head, which are brown instead of blue, The brown feathers on the juvenile's head are slowly replaced by blue feathers as the bird matures into adulthood. Conservation[edit] Scrub habitat has dwindled considerably in the past several decades as Florida
Florida
has continued to develop. Wildfire
Wildfire
suppression also leads to the natural succession of large oaks and trees which changes the habitat. In recent years, environmental groups within the state have made a strong effort at preserving Florida's remaining scrub through controlled burns and even clearing out areas of large trees to increase the size of a scrub habitat. Oscar Scherer State Park
Oscar Scherer State Park
near Sarasota has one of the larger habitats under state management. The Florida
Florida
scrub jay was officially listed as a threatened state species by Florida
Florida
Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission in 1975 and it was listed as a threatened federal species by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service in 1987. In 1993, there were estimated to be 4000 breeding pairs left in the wild. Despite the protections, the scrub jay is still thought to be on the decline. Studies done in Brevard County, once the most numerous Florida
Florida
county for scrub jays, noted declines of about 33% since the 1993 census alone. Another attempt to conserve the bird is an ongoing campaign to name the Florida
Florida
scrub jay the new state bird of Florida. The main argument for changing the state bird is that the current state bird (viz. the Northern mockingbird) is the state bird of several other states, while the scrub jay is exclusive to Florida. In recent years there has been some debate about whether or not the Florida
Florida
scrub jay should be officially listed as an Endangered Species because of the loss of homes. However, environmentalists hope that current conservation efforts should help the species population to at least stabilize. On the other hand, the IUCN
IUCN
classifies this species as vulnerable to extinction.[1] In 2004, the population was declining and no more than 10 subpopulations were known. Both the number of adult birds as well as amount and quality of habitat were in decline, and local subpopulations were in danger of disappearing altogether. About 8000 mature birds were believed to exist—with no more than 1000 in any one subpopulation—and population numbers had dropped by about 10% over the last decade or so. A long-term and ongoing study of the Florida
Florida
scrub jay has been taking place at the Archbold Biological Station
Archbold Biological Station
at Lake Placid. The Florida
Florida
scrub jay was featured in episode 11, season 3 of the Showtime television series Penn & Teller: Bullshit!. Dangers of human feeding[edit] An inquisitive and intelligent species, the most striking attribute of the Florida
Florida
scrub jay's behavior is its remarkable tameness.[11] As such, scrub jays willingly take food from human hands. Unfortunately, this tameness is dangerous to the well-being of the species.[12] Florida
Florida
scrub jays that are fed by humans will reproduce earlier in the year than those that are not. However, fledgling scrub jays feed primarily on caterpillars present in the late spring and summer; if they hatch too early in the year when the caterpillars are not available, this can lead to their malnutrition or starvation. Another potential danger of feeding Florida
Florida
scrub jays occurs when people feed them near a road, as one major cause of death for scrub jays in urban areas is collision with vehicles.[13] Gallery[edit]

Two adult Florida
Florida
scrub jays at Lyonia Preserve

Adult Florida
Florida
scrub jay

Brown-colored head of a juvenile Florida
Florida
scrub jay

Juvenile Florida
Florida
scrub jay beginning to develop blue coloration on its head

Juvenile Florida
Florida
scrub jay at Juniper Prairie in Ocala National Forest

Footnotes[edit]

A Etymology: Aphelocoma, from Latinized Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
apheles- (from ἀφελής-) "simple" + Latin
Latin
coma (from Greek kome κόμη) "hair", in reference to the lack of striped or banded feathers in this genus, compared to other jays. coerulescens, Latin
Latin
for "becoming blue", in reference to the species' color which is lighter than in most American jays.

References[edit]

^ a b BirdLife International. (2016). Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
coerulescens. The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Speciesdoi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22705629A94028132.en ^ Bartram, William (1791). Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee Country, etc. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.: James & Johnson. p. 290. ISBN 0-486-20013-2  ^ All-American Birds – National Wildlife Federation. Nwf.org. Retrieved on 2013-03-23. ^ Emslie, Steven D. (1996). "A fossil Scrub Jay
Jay
supports a recent systematic decision" (PDF). The Condor. 98 (4): 675–680. doi:10.2307/1369850. JSTOR 1369850.  ^ Rice, Nathan H.; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend (2003). "Ecological niche differentiation in the Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
jays: a phylogenetic perspective" (PDF). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 80 (3): 369–383. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8312.2003.00242.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-19.  ^ Florida
Florida
Scrub-Jay, Life History, All About Birds – Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Allaboutbirds.org. Retrieved on 2013-03-23. ^ CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses, John B. Dunning, Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (1992), ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5. ^ " Florida
Florida
sand pine scrub". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 2009-07-28.  ^ "Plants of the Florida
Florida
Scrub". The Florida
Florida
Scrub. Floridata. Archived from the original on 2009-04-02. Retrieved 2009-07-28.  ^ Taxonomy, Species
Species
Jay, Scrub, Florida. fwie.fw.vt.edu ^ Lowman, Meg (2006-06-04). "NATURE'S SECRETS: Elusive, colorful scrub-jays are remnants of the real Florida". Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2009-02-20. People should never feed scrub jays. It is detrimental to their health, and it is also illegal!  ^ Sauter, Annette (2005). "Shall We Feed Suburban Florida
Florida
Scrub-Jays Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
coerulescens?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-20. Access to human provided foods causes a mismatch between brood demand and resources available for broods  ^ Audubon WatchList – Florida
Florida
Scrub Jay. Audubon2.org. Retrieved on 2013-03-23.

Further reading[edit]

Alsop, Fred (2002): Smithsonian Handbooks: Birds of Florida. DK Pub., New York. ISBN 0-7894-8387-4 Brevard County Natural Resources Management Office (2005): An Ecological Overview of Scrub Habitat
Habitat
and Florida
Florida
Scrub-Jays in Brevard County. Retrieved Apr. 12, 2005. Florida
Florida
Natural Areas Inventory (2001): Florida
Florida
Scrub-jay. In: Field Guide to the Rare Plants and Animals of Florida. PDF fulltext Goodwin, Derek & Gillmor, Robert (1986): Crows of the World (2nd ed). British Museum of Natural History. ISBN 0-565-00979-6 Madge, Steve & Burn, Hilary (1994): Crows and jays: a guide to the crows, jays and magpies of the world. A&C Black, London. ISBN 0-7136-3999-7 Morse, R. (2000): Richard Archbold and the Archbold Biological Station. University Press of Florida: Gainesville. ISBN 0-8130-1761-0 Woolfenden, Glen E. & Fitzpatrick, John W. (1996): Florida Scrub- Jay
Jay
( Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
coerulescens). In: Poole, A. & Gill, F. (eds.): The Birds of North America
North America
228. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA & The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. Online version, retrieved 2006-OCT-11.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
coerulescens.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
coerulescens

Florida
Florida
Scrub Jay
Jay
on All About Birds by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology Florida
Florida
Scrub Jay
Jay
Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
coerulescens. USGS
USGS
Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter. Florida
Florida
Scrub Jay
Jay
WatchList Species
Species
Account from the American Bird Conservancy Florida
Florida
Scrub Jay
Jay
Campaign mentions the movement to adopt the Scrub Jay
Jay
as Florida's State Bird " Florida
Florida
Scrub Jay" photo gallery – VIREO Florida
Florida
Scrub Jay
Jay
Bird
Bird
Sound Florida
Florida
Scrub Jay
Jay
call from Cornell Lab of Ornithology
Cornell Lab of Ornithology
(RealMedia format).

v t e

Extant species of family Corvidae

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Subclass: Neornithes Superorder: Neognathae Order: Passeriformes

Family Corvidae

Choughs

Pyrrhocorax

Alpine chough
Alpine chough
(P. graculus) Red-billed chough
Red-billed chough
(P. pyrrhocorax)

Treepies

Crypsirina

Hooded treepie
Hooded treepie
(C. cucullata) Black racket-tailed treepie
Black racket-tailed treepie
(C. temia)

Dendrocitta

Andaman treepie
Andaman treepie
(D. bayleyi) Bornean treepie
Bornean treepie
(D. cinerascens) Grey treepie
Grey treepie
(D. formosae) Black-faced treepie
Black-faced treepie
(D. frontalis) White-bellied treepie
White-bellied treepie
(D. leucogastra) Sumatran treepie
Sumatran treepie
(D. occipitalis) Rufous treepie
Rufous treepie
(D. vagabunda)

Platysmurus

Black magpie
Black magpie
(P. leucopterus)

Bornean black magpie (P. l. aterrimus)

Temnurus

Ratchet-tailed treepie
Ratchet-tailed treepie
(T. temnurus)

Oriental magpies

Cissa

Common green magpie
Common green magpie
(C. chinensis) Indochinese green magpie
Indochinese green magpie
(C. hypoleuca) Bornean green magpie
Bornean green magpie
(C. jefferyi) Javan green magpie
Javan green magpie
(C. thalassina)

Urocissa

Taiwan blue magpie
Taiwan blue magpie
(U. caerulea) Red-billed blue magpie
Red-billed blue magpie
(U. erythrorhyncha) Yellow-billed blue magpie
Yellow-billed blue magpie
(U. flavirostris) Sri Lanka blue magpie
Sri Lanka blue magpie
(U. ornata) White-winged magpie
White-winged magpie
(U. whiteheadi)

Old World jays

Garrulus

Eurasian jay
Eurasian jay
(G. glandarius) Lanceolated jay
Lanceolated jay
(G. lanceolatus) Lidth's jay
Lidth's jay
(G. lidthi)

Podoces (Ground jays)

Biddulph's ground jay
Biddulph's ground jay
(P. biddulphi) Henderson's ground jay
Henderson's ground jay
(P. hendersoni) Pander's ground jay
Pander's ground jay
(P. panderi) Persian ground jay (P. pleskei)

Ptilostomus

Piapiac
Piapiac
(P. afer)

Stresemann's bushcrow

Zavattariornis

Stresemann's bushcrow
Stresemann's bushcrow
(Z. stresemanni)

Family Corvidae
Corvidae
(continued)

Nutcrackers

Nucifraga

Spotted nutcracker
Spotted nutcracker
(N. caryocatactes) Clark's nutcracker
Clark's nutcracker
(N. columbiana)

Holarctic magpies

Pica

Black-billed magpie
Black-billed magpie
(P. hudsonia) Yellow-billed magpie
Yellow-billed magpie
(P. nuttalli) Eurasian magpie
Eurasian magpie
(P. pica) Korean magpie
Korean magpie
(P. sericea)

True crows (crows, ravens, jackdaws and rooks)

Corvus

Australian and Melanesian species Little crow (C. bennetti) Australian raven
Australian raven
(C. coronoides) Bismarck crow
Bismarck crow
(C. insularis) Brown-headed crow
Brown-headed crow
(C. fuscicapillus) Bougainville crow
Bougainville crow
(C. meeki) Little raven
Little raven
(C. mellori) New Caledonian crow
New Caledonian crow
(C. moneduloides) Torresian crow
Torresian crow
(C. orru) Forest raven
Forest raven
(C. tasmanicus) Grey crow
Grey crow
(C. tristis) Long-billed crow
Long-billed crow
(C. validus) White-billed crow
White-billed crow
(C. woodfordi)

Pacific island species Hawaiian crow
Hawaiian crow
(C. hawaiiensis) Mariana crow
Mariana crow
(C. kubaryi)

Tropical Asian species Daurian jackdaw
Daurian jackdaw
(C. dauuricus) Slender-billed crow
Slender-billed crow
(C. enca) Flores crow
Flores crow
(C. florensis) Large-billed crow
Large-billed crow
(C. macrorhynchos) Eastern jungle crow
Eastern jungle crow
(C. levaillantii) Indian jungle crow
Indian jungle crow
(C. culminatus) House crow
House crow
(C. splendens) Collared crow
Collared crow
(C. torquatus) Piping crow
Piping crow
(C. typicus) Banggai crow
Banggai crow
(C. unicolor) Violet crow (C. violaceus)

Eurasian and North African species Mesopotamian crow
Mesopotamian crow
(C. capellanus) Hooded crow
Hooded crow
(C. cornix) Carrion crow
Carrion crow
(C. corone) Rook (C. frugilegus) Jackdaw (C. monedula ) Eastern carrion crow
Eastern carrion crow
(C. orientalis) Fan-tailed raven
Fan-tailed raven
(C. rhipidurus) Brown-necked raven
Brown-necked raven
(C. ruficollis)

Holarctic species Common raven
Common raven
(C. corax)

North and Central American species American crow
American crow
(C. brachyrhynchos) Northwestern crow
Northwestern crow
(C. caurinus) Chihuahuan raven
Chihuahuan raven
(C. cryptoleucus) Tamaulipas crow
Tamaulipas crow
(C. imparatus) Jamaican crow
Jamaican crow
(C. jamaicensis) White-necked crow
White-necked crow
(C. leucognaphalus) Cuban crow
Cuban crow
(C. nasicus) Fish crow
Fish crow
(C. ossifragus) Palm crow
Palm crow
(C. palmarum) Sinaloan crow (C. sinaloae)

Tropical African species White-necked raven
White-necked raven
(C. albicollis) Pied crow
Pied crow
(C. albus) Cape crow
Cape crow
(C. capensis) Thick-billed raven
Thick-billed raven
(C. crassirostris) Somali crow
Somali crow
(C. edithae)

Family Corvidae
Corvidae
(continued)

Azure-winged magpies

Cyanopica

Iberian magpie
Iberian magpie
(C. cooki) Azure-winged magpie
Azure-winged magpie
(C. cyanus)

Grey jays

Perisoreus

Grey jay
Grey jay
(P. canadensis) Siberian jay
Siberian jay
(P. infaustus) Sichuan jay
Sichuan jay
(P. internigrans)

New World jays

Aphelocoma (Scrub jays)

California scrub jay
California scrub jay
(A. californica) Island scrub jay
Island scrub jay
(A. insularis) Woodhouse's scrub jay
Woodhouse's scrub jay
(A. woodhouseii) Florida
Florida
scrub jay (A. coerulescens) Transvolcanic jay
Transvolcanic jay
(A. ultramarina) Unicolored jay
Unicolored jay
(A. unicolor) Mexican jay
Mexican jay
(A. wollweberi)

Calocitta (Magpie-Jays)

Black-throated magpie-jay
Black-throated magpie-jay
(C. colliei) White-throated Magpie-jay (C. formosa)

Cyanocitta

Blue jay
Blue jay
(C. cristata) Steller's jay
Steller's jay
(C. stelleri)

Cyanocorax

Black-chested jay
Black-chested jay
(C. affinis) Purplish-backed jay
Purplish-backed jay
(C. beecheii) Azure jay
Azure jay
(C. caeruleus) Cayenne jay
Cayenne jay
(C. cayanus) Plush-crested jay
Plush-crested jay
(C. chrysops) Curl-crested jay
Curl-crested jay
(C. cristatellus) Purplish jay
Purplish jay
(C. cyanomelas) White-naped jay
White-naped jay
(C. cyanopogon) Tufted jay
Tufted jay
(C. dickeyi) Azure-naped jay
Azure-naped jay
(C. heilprini) Bushy-crested jay
Bushy-crested jay
(C. melanocyaneus) Brown jay
Brown jay
(C. morio) White-tailed jay
White-tailed jay
(C. mystacalis) San Blas jay
San Blas jay
(C. sanblasianus) Violaceous jay
Violaceous jay
(C. violaceus) Green jay
Green jay
(C. ynca) Yucatan jay
Yucatan jay
(C. yucatanicus)

Cyanolyca

Silvery-throated jay
Silvery-throated jay
(C. argentigula) Black-collared jay
Black-collared jay
(C. armillata) Azure-hooded jay
Azure-hooded jay
(C. cucullata) White-throated jay
White-throated jay
(C. mirabilis) Dwarf jay
Dwarf jay
(C. nana) Beautiful jay
Beautiful jay
(C. pulchra) Black-throated jay
Black-throated jay
(C. pumilo) Turquoise jay
Turquoise jay
(C. turcosa) White-collared jay
White-collared jay
(C. viridicyana)

Gymnorhinus

Pinyon jay
Pinyon jay
(G. cyanocephalus)

v t e

Birds (class: Aves)

Anatomy

Bird
Bird
anatomy Flight Eggs Feathers Plumage Beak Vision Dactyly Preen gland

Behaviour

Singing Intelligence Migration Sexual selection Lek mating Seabird
Seabird
breeding Incubation Brood parasites Nesting Hybrids

Evolution

Origin of birds Origin of flight Evolution
Evolution
of birds Darwin's finches Seabirds

Fossil birds

Archaeopteryx Omnivoropterygiformes Confuciusornithiformes Enantiornithes Chaoyangiiformes Patagopterygiformes Ambiortiformes Songlingornithiformes Apsaraviformes Gansuiformes Ichthyornithiformes Hesperornithes Lithornithiformes Dinornithiformes Aepyornithiformes Gastornithiformes

Human interaction

Ringing Ornithology Bird
Bird
collections Birdwatching Bird
Bird
feeding Conservation Aviculture Waterfowl hunting Cockfighting Pigeon racing Falconry Pheasantry Egg
Egg
collecting Ornithomancy

Lists

Families and orders Genera Glossary of bird terms List by population Lists by region Recently extinct birds Late Quaternary prehistoric birds Notable birds

Individuals Fictional

Neornithes

Palaeognathae

Struthioniformes (ostriches) Rheiformes (rheas) Tinamiformes (tinamous) Apterygiformes (kiwis) Casuariiformes
Casuariiformes
(emus and cassowaries)

Neognathae

Galloanserae (fowls)

Anseriformes (waterfowls)

Anatidae (ducks)

Anatinae Anserinae

swans true geese

Aythyinae Dendrocygninae Merginae Oxyurinae Plectropterinae Stictonettinae Tadorninae Thalassorninae

Anhimidae

Anhima Chauna

Anseranatidae

Anatalavis Anseranas

Galliformes (landfowls- gamebirds)

Cracidae

Cracinae Oreophasinae Penelopinae

Megapodidae

Aepypodius Alectura Eulipoa Leipoa Macrocephalon Megapodius Talegalla

Numididae

Acryllium Agelastes Guttera Numida

Odontophoridae

Callipepla Colinus Cyrtonyx Dactylortyx Dendrortyx Odontophorus Oreortyx Philortyx Rhynchortyx

Phasianidae

Meleagridinae Perdicinae Phasianinae
Phasianinae
(pheasants and relatives) Tetraoninae

Neoaves

Columbea

Columbimorphae

Columbiformes
Columbiformes
(doves and pigeons) Mesitornithiformes (mesites) Pteroclidiformes (sandgrouses)

Mirandornithes

Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos) Podicipediformes (grebes)

Passerea

Otidimorphae

Cuculiformes (cuckoos) Musophagiformes (turacos) Otidiformes (bustards)

Strisores

Caprimulgiformes
Caprimulgiformes
(nightjars and relatives) Steatornithiformes Podargiformes Apodiformes
Apodiformes
(swifts and hummingbirds)

Opisthocomiformes

Opisthocomiformes
Opisthocomiformes
(hoatzin)

Cursorimorphae

Charadriiformes
Charadriiformes
(gulls and relatives) Gruiformes
Gruiformes
(cranes and relatives)

Phaethontimorphae

Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds) Eurypygiformes
Eurypygiformes
(kagu and sunbittern)

Aequornithes

Gaviiformes (loons or divers) Sphenisciformes (penguins) Procellariiformes
Procellariiformes
(albatrosses and petrels) Ciconiiformes
Ciconiiformes
(storks) Suliformes
Suliformes
(cormorants and relatives) Pelecaniformes
Pelecaniformes
(pelicans and relatives)

Australaves

Cariamiformes
Cariamiformes
(seriemas and relatives) Falconiformes (falcons and relatives) Psittaciformes (parrots) Passeriformes
Passeriformes
(perching birds)

Afroaves

Cathartiformes
Cathartiformes
(New World vultures and condors) Accipitriformes
Accipitriformes
(eagles and hawks) Strigiformes (owls) Coliiformes (mousebirds) Trogoniformes (trogons and quetzals) Leptosomatiformes (cuckoo roller) Bucerotiformes
Bucerotiformes
(hornbills and hoopoes) Coraciiformes
Coraciiformes
(kingfishers and rollers) Piciformes
Piciformes
(woodpeckers and relatives)

Category Portal Outline

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Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q530842 ADW: Aphelocoma_coerulescens ARKive: aphelocoma-coerulescens eBird: flsjay EoL: 855943 Fossilworks: 289509 GBIF: 2482400 iNaturalist: 7829 ITIS: 179693 IUCN: 22

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