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Florida
Florida
(/ˈflɒrɪdə/ ( listen); Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida
Florida
is the 22nd-most extensive (65,755 sq mi—170,304 km2), the 3rd-most populous (20,984,400 inhabitants),[11] and the 8th-most densely populated (384.3/sq mi—121.0/km2) of the U.S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. About two-thirds of Florida
Florida
occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Florida
Florida
has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States, approximately 1,350 miles (2,170 km), not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
and the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida
Florida
has the lowest high point of any U.S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south.[12] The American alligator, American crocodile, Florida
Florida
panther, and manatee can be found in Everglades
Everglades
National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida
Florida
is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, and is the only continental U.S. state
U.S. state
with a tropical climate. Since the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León – who named it Florida, informally La Florida
Florida
([la floˈɾiða] "land of flowers") upon landing there in the Easter season, Pascua Florida[13] – Florida
Florida
was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845. It was a principal location of the Seminole
Seminole
Wars against the Native Americans, and racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida
Florida
is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues. The state's economy relies mainly on tourism, agriculture, and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century. Florida
Florida
is also renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, and as a popular destination for retirees. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of Florida
Florida
culture and daily life. Florida
Florida
is a reflection of influences and multiple inheritance; African, European, indigenous, and Latino heritages can be found in the architecture and cuisine. Florida
Florida
has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee
Tennessee
Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, tennis, auto racing and water sports.

Contents

1 History

1.1 European arrival 1.2 Joining the United States; Indian removal 1.3 Slavery, war, and disenfranchisement 1.4 20th-century growth

2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Fauna 2.3 Flora 2.4 Environmental issues 2.5 Geology

3 Demographics

3.1 Population 3.2 Settlements 3.3 Ancestry 3.4 Languages 3.5 Religion

4 Governance

4.1 Elections history

4.1.1 Elections of 2000 to present

4.2 Statutes 4.3 Law enforcement

5 Economy

5.1 Personal income 5.2 Real estate 5.3 Tourism 5.4 Agriculture and fishing 5.5 Industry 5.6 Mining 5.7 Government

6 Health 7 Architecture 8 Media 9 Education

9.1 Primary and secondary education 9.2 Universities

10 Transportation

10.1 Highways 10.2 Airports 10.3 Intercity rail 10.4 Public transit

11 Sports 12 Sister states 13 See also 14 References 15 Bibliography 16 External links

History Main article: History of Florida By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee
Apalachee
of the Florida
Florida
Panhandle, the Timucua
Timucua
of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga
Tocobaga
of the Tampa Bay
Tampa Bay
area, the Calusa
Calusa
of southwest Florida
Florida
and the Tequesta
Tequesta
of the southeastern coast. European arrival Main article: Spanish Florida

Map of Florida, likely based on the expeditions of Hernando de Soto (1539–1543).

St. Augustine
St. Augustine
is one of the oldest settlements in the Americas, established in 1565. The Spanish-Floridan color scheme of red and white is repeated throughout downtown.

The Castillo de San Marcos. Originally white with red corners, its design reflects the colors and shapes of the Cross of Burgundy
Cross of Burgundy
and the subsequent Flag of Florida.

Florida
Florida
was the first region of the continental United States
United States
to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513. He named the region La Florida
Florida
("land of flowers").[14] The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth
Fountain of Youth
is mythical and only appeared long after his death.[15] In May 1539, Conquistador
Conquistador
Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet (21 m), with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult.[16] The Spanish introduced Christianity, cattle, horses, sheep, the Castilian language, and more to Florida.[17] Spain established several settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was mostly abandoned by 1561. In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine
St. Augustine
(San Agustín) was established under the leadership of admiral and governor Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, creating what would become one of the oldest, continuously-occupied European settlements in the continental U.S. and establishing the first generation of Floridanos and the Government of Florida.[18] Spain maintained strategic control over the region by converting the local tribes to Christianity. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine (Spanish Florida), is the first known and recorded Christian
Christian
marriage anywhere in the continental United States.[19] Some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, and their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos. The Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida
Florida
as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain
Charles II of Spain
issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida
Spanish Florida
and accepted conversion and baptism. Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves also reached Pensacola. St. Augustine
St. Augustine
had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683.[20] The geographical area of Florida
Florida
diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north and French claims to the west. The English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Spain built the Castillo de San Marcos
Castillo de San Marcos
in 1672 and Fort Matanzas
Fort Matanzas
in 1742 to defend Florida's capital city from attacks, and to maintain its strategic position in the defense of the Captaincy General of Cuba
Cuba
and the Spanish West Indies.

Grenadiers led by Bernardo de Gálvez
Bernardo de Gálvez
at the Siege of Pensacola. Painting by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, 2015.

Florida
Florida
attracted numerous Africans and African Americans from adjacent British colonies who sought freedom from slavery. In 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano
Manuel de Montiano
established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near St. Augustine, a fortified town for escaped slaves to whom Montiano granted citizenship and freedom in return for their service in the Florida
Florida
militia, and which became the first free black settlement legally sanctioned in North America.[21][22] In 1763, Spain traded Florida
Florida
to the Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
for control of Havana, Cuba, which had been captured by the British during the Seven Years' War. It was part of a large expansion of British territory following their victory in the Seven Years' War. A large portion of the Floridano population left, taking along most of the remaining indigenous population to Cuba.[23] The British soon constructed the King's Road connecting St. Augustine
St. Augustine
to Georgia. The road crossed the St. Johns River
St. Johns River
at a narrow point called Wacca Pilatka, or the British name "Cow Ford", ostensibly reflecting the fact that cattle were brought across the river there.[24][25][26] The British divided and consolidated the Florida
Florida
provinces (Las Floridas) into East Florida
East Florida
and West Florida, a division the Spanish government kept after the brief British period.[27] The British government gave land grants to officers and soldiers who had fought in the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
in order to encourage settlement. In order to induce settlers to move to Florida, reports of its natural wealth were published in England. A large number of British settlers who were described as being "energetic and of good character" moved to Florida, mostly coming from South Carolina, Georgia and England. There was also a group of settlers who came from the colony of Bermuda. This would be the first permanent English-speaking population in what is now Duval County, Baker County, St. Johns County and Nassau County. The British built good public roads and introduced the cultivation of sugar cane, indigo and fruits as well the export of lumber.[28][29] As a result of these initiatives northeastern Florida
Florida
prospered economically in a way it never did under Spanish administration. Furthermore, the British governors were directed to call general assemblies as soon as possible in order to make laws for the Floridas and in the meantime they were, with the advice of councils, to establish courts. This would be the first introduction of much of the English-derived legal system which Florida
Florida
still has today including trial by jury, habeas corpus and county-based government.[28][29] Neither East Florida
East Florida
nor West Florida
West Florida
would send any representatives to Philadelphia to draft the Declaration of Independence. Florida would remain a Loyalist stronghold for the duration of the American Revolution.[30] Spain regained both East and West Florida
West Florida
after Britain's defeat in the American Revolution and the subsequent Treaty of Versailles in 1783, and continued the provincial divisions until 1821. Joining the United States; Indian removal See also: Republic of East Florida, Florida
Florida
Territory, and Seminole Wars Defense of Florida's northern border with the United States
United States
was minor during the second Spanish period. The region became a haven for escaped slaves and a base for Indian attacks against U.S. territories, and the U.S. pressed Spain for reform. Americans of English descent and Americans of Scots-Irish descent began moving into northern Florida
Florida
from the backwoods of Georgia and South Carolina. Though technically not allowed by the Spanish authorities and the Floridan government, they were never able to effectively police the border region and the backwoods settlers from the United States
United States
would continue to immigrate into Florida
Florida
unchecked. These migrants, mixing with the already present British settlers who had remained in Florida
Florida
since the British period, would be the progenitors of the population known as Florida
Florida
Crackers.[31] These American settlers established a permanent foothold in the area and ignored Spanish authorities. The British settlers who had remained also resented Spanish rule, leading to a rebellion in 1810 and the establishment for ninety days of the so-called Free and Independent Republic of West Florida
West Florida
on September 23. After meetings beginning in June, rebels overcame the garrison at Baton Rouge (now in Louisiana), and unfurled the flag of the new republic: a single white star on a blue field. This flag would later become known as the "Bonnie Blue Flag". In 1810, parts of West Florida
West Florida
were annexed by proclamation of President James Madison, who claimed the region as part of the Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase. These parts were incorporated into the newly formed Territory
Territory
of Orleans. The U.S. annexed the Mobile District of West Florida
West Florida
to the Mississippi Territory
Mississippi Territory
in 1812. Spain continued to dispute the area, though the United States
United States
gradually increased the area it occupied. In 1812, a group of settlers from Georgia, with de facto support from the U.S. federal government, attempted to overthrow the Floridan government in the province of East Florida. The settlers hoped to convince Floridans to join their cause and proclaim independence from Spain, but the settlers lost their tenuous support from the federal government and abandoned their cause by 1813.[32] Seminoles based in East Florida
East Florida
began raiding Georgia settlements, and offering havens for runaway slaves. The United States Army
United States Army
led increasingly frequent incursions into Spanish territory, including the 1817–1818 campaign against the Seminole
Seminole
Indians by Andrew Jackson that became known as the First Seminole
Seminole
War. The United States
United States
now effectively controlled East Florida. Control was necessary according to Secretary of State John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
because Florida
Florida
had become "a derelict open to the occupancy of every enemy, civilized or savage, of the United States, and serving no other earthly purpose than as a post of annoyance to them."[33] Florida
Florida
had become a burden to Spain, which could not afford to send settlers or garrisons. Madrid therefore decided to cede the territory to the United States
United States
through the Adams–Onís Treaty, which took effect in 1821.[34] President James Monroe
James Monroe
was authorized on March 3, 1821 to take possession of East Florida
East Florida
and West Florida
West Florida
for the United States
United States
and provide for initial governance.[35] Andrew Jackson, on behalf of the U.S. federal government, served as a military commissioner with the powers of governor of the newly acquired territory for a brief period.[36] On March 30, 1822, the U.S. Congress merged East Florida
East Florida
and part of West Florida
West Florida
into the Florida Territory.[37]

A contemporaneous depiction of the New River Massacre in 1836

By the early 1800s, Indian removal
Indian removal
was a significant issue throughout the southeastern U.S. and also in Florida. In 1830, the U.S. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act
Indian Removal Act
and as settlement increased, pressure grew on the U.S. government to remove the Indians from Florida. Seminoles harbored runaway blacks, known as the Black Seminoles, and clashes between whites and Indians grew with the influx of new settlers. In 1832, the Treaty of Payne's Landing
Treaty of Payne's Landing
promised to the Seminoles lands west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
if they agreed to leave Florida. Many Seminole
Seminole
left at this time. Some Seminoles remained, and the U.S. Army arrived in Florida, leading to the Second Seminole
Seminole
War (1835–1842). Following the war, approximately 3,000 Seminole
Seminole
and 800 Black Seminole
Seminole
were removed to Indian Territory. A few hundred Seminole
Seminole
remained in Florida
Florida
in the Everglades.

A Cracker cowboy, 19th century

On March 3, 1845, Florida
Florida
became the 27th state to join the United States of America.[38] The state was admitted as a slave state and ceased to be a sanctuary for runaway slaves. Initially its population grew slowly. As European settlers continued to encroach on Seminole
Seminole
lands, and the United States
United States
intervened to move the remaining Seminoles to the West. The Third Seminole
Seminole
War (1855–58) resulted in the forced removal of most of the remaining Seminoles, although hundreds of Seminole
Seminole
Indians remained in the Everglades.[39] Slavery, war, and disenfranchisement Further information: Florida
Florida
in the American Civil War

The Battle of Olustee
Battle of Olustee
during the American Civil War, 1864.

American settlers began to establish cotton plantations in north Florida, which required numerous laborers, which they supplied by buying slaves in the domestic market. By 1860, Florida
Florida
had only 140,424 people, of whom 44% were enslaved. There were fewer than 1,000 free African Americans before the American Civil War.[40] In January 10, 1861, nearly all delegates in the Florida
Florida
Legislature approved an ordinance of secession,[41] declaring Florida
Florida
to be "a sovereign and independent nation"—an apparent reassertion to the preamble in Florida's Constitution of 1838, in which Florida
Florida
agreed with Congress to be a "Free and Independent State." Although not directly related to the issue of slavery, the ordinance declared Florida's secession from the Union, allowing it to become one of the founding members of the Confederate States, a looser union of states. The confederal union received little help from Florida; the 15,000 men it offered were generally sent elsewhere. The largest engagements in the state were the Battle of Olustee, on February 20, 1864, and the Battle of Natural Bridge, on March 6, 1865. Both were Confederate victories.[42] The war ended in 1865. Following the American Civil War, Florida's congressional representation was restored on June 25, 1868, albeit forcefully after Radical Reconstruction and the installation of unelected government officials under the final authority of federal military commanders. After the Reconstruction period ended in 1876, white Democrats regained power in the state legislature. In 1885 they created a new constitution, followed by statutes through 1889 that disfranchised most blacks and many poor whites.[citation needed] Until the mid-20th century, Florida
Florida
was the least populous state in the southern United States. In 1900, its population was only 528,542, of whom nearly 44% were African American, the same proportion as before the Civil War.[43] The boll weevil devastated cotton crops. Forty thousand blacks, roughly one-fifth of their 1900 population, left the state in the Great Migration. They left due to lynchings and racial violence, and for better opportunities.[44] Disfranchisement for most African Americans in the state persisted until the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s gained federal legislation in 1965 to enforce protection of their constitutional suffrage. 20th-century growth Historically, Florida's economy has been based primarily upon agricultural products such as cattle, sugar cane, citrus fruits, tomatoes, and strawberries. Economic prosperity in the 1920s stimulated tourism to Florida
Florida
and related development of hotels and resort communities. Combined with its sudden elevation in profile was the Florida
Florida
land boom of the 1920s, which brought a brief period of intense land development. Devastating hurricanes in 1926 and 1928, followed by the Great Depression, brought that period to a halt. Florida's economy did not fully recover until the military buildup for World War II. In 1939, Florida
Florida
was described as "still very largely an empty State."[45] Subsequently, the growing availability of air conditioning, the climate, and a low cost of living made the state a haven. Migration from the Rust Belt
Rust Belt
and the Northeast sharply increased Florida's population after 1945. In recent decades, more migrants have come for the jobs in a developing economy. With a population of more than 18 million according to the 2010 census, Florida
Florida
is the most populous state in the southeastern United States and the third-most populous in the United States.

Key West Historic District

Laura Street
Laura Street
in Downtown Jacksonville

The Florida
Florida
House on Capitol Hill, or "embassy of Florida" in D.C.

Historic Ybor City
Ybor City
in Tampa

The Downtown Miami Historic District
Downtown Miami Historic District
has some of the oldest buildings in Miami

Geography Main article: Geography of Florida See also: List of counties in Florida
List of counties in Florida
and List of Florida
Florida
state parks

A topographic map of Florida

Florida
Florida
and its relation to Cuba
Cuba
and The Bahamas

Much of Florida
Florida
is on a peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and the Straits of Florida. Spanning two time zones, it extends to the northwest into a panhandle, extending along the northern Gulf of Mexico. It is bordered on the north by Georgia and Alabama, and on the west, at the end of the panhandle, by Alabama. It is the only state that borders the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and the Gulf of Mexico. Florida
Florida
is west of The Bahamas
The Bahamas
and 90 miles (140 km) north of Cuba. Florida
Florida
is one of the largest states east of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River, and only Alaska
Alaska
and Michigan
Michigan
are larger in water area. The water boundary is 3 nautical miles (3.5 mi; 5.6 km) offshore in the Atlantic Ocean[46] and 9 nautical miles (10 mi; 17 km) offshore in the Gulf of Mexico.[46] At 345 feet (105 m) above mean sea level, Britton Hill
Britton Hill
is the highest point in Florida
Florida
and the lowest highpoint of any U.S. state.[47] Much of the state south of Orlando
Orlando
lies at a lower elevation than northern Florida, and is fairly level. Much of the state is at or near sea level. However, some places such as Clearwater have promontories that rise 50 to 100 ft (15 to 30 m) above the water. Much of Central and North Florida, typically 25 mi (40 km) or more away from the coastline, have rolling hills with elevations ranging from 100 to 250 ft (30 to 76 m). The highest point in peninsular Florida
Florida
(east and south of the Suwannee River), Sugarloaf Mountain, is a 312-foot (95 m) peak in Lake County.[48] On average, Florida
Florida
is the flattest state in the United States.[49] Climate Main article: Climate of Florida See also: List of Florida hurricanes
List of Florida hurricanes
and U.S. state
U.S. state
temperature extremes

Köppen climate types of Florida

The climate of Florida
Florida
is tempered somewhat by the fact that no part of the state is distant from the ocean. North of Lake Okeechobee, the prevalent climate is humid subtropical (Köppen: Cfa), while areas south of the lake (including the Florida
Florida
Keys) have a true tropical climate (Köppen: Aw).[50] Mean high temperatures for late July are primarily in the low 90s Fahrenheit (32–34 °C). Mean low temperatures for early to mid January range from the low 40s Fahrenheit (4–7 °C) in north Florida
Florida
to above 60 °F (16 °C) from Miami
Miami
on southward. With an average daily temperature of 70.7 °F (21.5 °C), it is the warmest state in the U.S.[51] In the summer, high temperatures in the state seldom exceed 100 °F (38 °C). Several record cold maxima have been in the 30s °F (−1 to 4 °C) and record lows have been in the 10s (−12 to −7 °C). These temperatures normally extend at most a few days at a time in the northern and central parts of Florida. South Florida, however, rarely encounters freezing temperatures.[citation needed] The hottest temperature ever recorded in Florida
Florida
was 109 °F (43 °C), which was set on June 29, 1931 in Monticello. The coldest temperature was −2 °F (−19 °C), on February 13, 1899, just 25 miles (40 km) away, in Tallahassee.[52][53] Due to its subtropical and tropical climate, Florida
Florida
rarely receives measurable snowfall. However, on rare occasions, a combination of cold moisture and freezing temperatures can result in snowfall in the farthest northern regions. Frost, which is more common than snow, sometimes occurs in the panhandle.[citation needed] The USDA Plant hardiness zones for the state range from zone 8a (no colder than 10 °F or −12 °C) in the inland western panhandle to zone 11b (no colder than 45 °F or 7 °C) in the lower Florida Keys.[54]

Average high and low temperatures for various Florida
Florida
cities

°F Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Jacksonville[55] 65/42 68/45 74/50 79/55 86/63 90/70 92/73 91/73 87/69 80/61 74/51 67/44

Miami[56] 76/60 78/62 80/65 83/68 87/73 89/76 91/77 91/77 89/76 86/73 82/68 78/63

Orlando[57] 71/49 74/52 78/56 83/60 88/66 91/72 92/74 92/74 90/73 85/66 78/59 73/52

Pensacola[58] 61/43 64/46 70/51 76/58 84/66 89/72 90/74 90/74 87/70 80/60 70/50 63/45

Tallahassee[59] 64/39 68/42 74/47 80/52 87/62 91/70 92/72 92/72 89/68 82/57 73/48 66/41

Tampa[60] 70/51 73/54 77/58 81/62 88/69 90/74 90/75 91/76 89/74 85/67 78/60 72/54

°C Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Jacksonville 18/6 20/7 23/10 26/13 30/17 32/21 33/23 33/23 31/21 27/16 23/11 19/7

Miami 24/16 26/17 27/18 28/20 31/23 32/24 33/25 33/25 32/24 30/23 28/20 26/17

Orlando 22/9 23/11 26/13 28/16 31/19 33/22 33/23 33/23 32/23 29/19 26/15 23/11

Pensacola 16/6 18/8 21/11 24/14 29/19 32/22 32/23 32/23 31/21 27/16 21/10 17/7

Tallahassee 18/4 20/6 23/8 27/11 31/17 33/21 33/22 33/22 32/20 28/14 23/9 19/5

Tampa 21/11 23/12 25/14 27/17 31/21 32/23 32/24 33/24 32/23 29/19 26/16 22/12

Florida's nickname is the "Sunshine State", but severe weather is a common occurrence in the state. Central Florida
Central Florida
is known as the lightning capital of the United States, as it experiences more lightning strikes than anywhere else in the country.[61] Florida
Florida
has one of the highest average precipitation levels of any state,[62] in large part because afternoon thunderstorms are common in much of the state from late spring until early autumn. A narrow eastern part of the state including Orlando
Orlando
and Jacksonville receives between 2,400 and 2,800 hours of sunshine annually. The rest of the state, including Miami, receives between 2,800 and 3,200 hours annually.[63]

Hurricane Andrew
Hurricane Andrew
bearing down on Florida
Florida
on August 23, 1992.

Hurricane Irma
Hurricane Irma
right before landfall in Florida
Florida
on September 10, 2017. Hurricane Jose can be seen to the lower right.

Florida
Florida
leads the United States
United States
in tornadoes per area (when including waterspouts),[64] but they do not typically reach the intensity of those in the Midwest
Midwest
and Great Plains. Hail often accompanies the most severe thunderstorms.[citation needed] Hurricanes pose a severe threat each year during the June 1 to November 30 hurricane season, particularly from August to October. Florida
Florida
is the most hurricane-prone state, with subtropical or tropical water on a lengthy coastline. Of the category 4 or higher storms that have struck the United States, 83% have either hit Florida or Texas.[65] From 1851 to 2006, Florida
Florida
was struck by 114 hurricanes, 37 of them major—category 3 and above.[65] It is rare for a hurricane season to pass without any impact in the state by at least a tropical storm.[citation needed] In 1992, Florida
Florida
was the site of what was then the costliest weather disaster in U.S. history, Hurricane Andrew, which caused more than $25 billion in damages when it struck during August; it held that distinction until 2005, when Hurricane Katrina surpassed it, and it has since been surpassed by six other hurricanes. Andrew is currently the second costliest hurricane in Florida's history. Hurricane Wilma, the third-most expensive hurricane in Florida's history, made landfall just south of Marco Island in October 2005. Wilma was responsible for about $21 billion in damages in Florida.[66][67] Although many tropical storms would continue to affect the state after Wilma, it would be eleven years until the next hurricane, Hurricane Hermine struck the state, and twelve years until the next major hurricane, Hurricane Irma. After devastating multiple Caribbean islands as one of the most powerful Category 5 hurricanes ever recorded, Irma struck the Florida Keys
Florida Keys
as a Category 4 hurricane and made a second Florida
Florida
landfall in Marco Island as a Category 3 hurricane. While Irma's damage in Florida
Florida
was far less than what was originally feared, it was still incredibly destructive, causing at least $50 billion in damages to Florida
Florida
alone and around $66.8 billion in total, including damages to the many islands that were impacted. This made it the costliest hurricane in Florida's history and the fifth costliest hurricane ever.

Winter in Miami. Miami's tropical climate makes it a top tourist destination in the winter.

The Royal Poinciana
Royal Poinciana
grows in South Florida
South Florida
and blooms in the summer, an indication of South Florida's tropical climate

Summer afternoon showers from the Everglades
Everglades
traveling eastward over Downtown Miami

Fall foliage
Fall foliage
occurs annually in Tallahassee.

Snow is uncommon in Florida, but has occurred in every major Florida city at least once.

Fauna Further information: List of mammals of Florida, Snakes of Florida, and List of invasive marine fish in Florida

An alligator in the Florida
Florida
Everglades

Florida
Florida
is host to many types of wildlife including:

Marine mammals: bottlenose dolphin, short-finned pilot whale, North Atlantic right whale, West Indian manatee Mammals: Florida
Florida
panther, northern river otter, mink, eastern cottontail rabbit, marsh rabbit, raccoon, striped skunk, squirrel, white-tailed deer, Key deer, bobcats, gray fox, coyote, wild boar, Florida
Florida
black bear, nine-banded armadillos, Virginia
Virginia
opossum Reptiles: eastern diamondback and pygmy rattlesnakes, gopher tortoise, green and leatherback sea turtles, and eastern indigo snake. In 2012, there were about one million American alligators and 1,500 crocodiles.[68] Birds: peregrine falcon,[69] bald eagle, northern caracara, snail kite, osprey, white and brown pelicans, sea gulls, whooping and sandhill cranes, roseate spoonbill, Florida scrub jay
Florida scrub jay
(state endemic), and others. One subspecies of wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, namely subspecies osceola, is found only in Florida.[70] The state is a wintering location for many species of eastern North American birds.

As a result of climate change, there have been small numbers of several new species normally native to cooler areas to the north: snowy owls, snow buntings, harlequin ducks, and razorbills. These have been seen in the northern part of the state.[71]

Invertebrates: carpenter ants, termites, American cockroach, Africanized bees, the Miami
Miami
blue butterfly, and the grizzled mantis.

The only known calving area for the northern right whale is off the coasts of Florida
Florida
and Georgia.[72] The native bear population has risen from a historic low of 300 in the 1970s, to 3,000 in 2011.[73] Since their accidental importation from South America into North America in the 1930s, the red imported fire ant population has increased its territorial range to include most of the southern United States, including Florida. They are more aggressive than most native ant species and have a painful sting.[74] A number of non-native snakes and lizards have been released in the wild. In 2010 the state created a hunting season for Burmese and Indian pythons, African rock pythons, green anacondas, and Nile monitor lizards.[75] Green iguanas have also established a firm population in the southern part of the state. There are about 500,000 feral pigs in Florida.[76]

Key deer
Key deer
in the lower Florida
Florida
Keys

The Florida scrub jay
Florida scrub jay
is found only in Florida.

West Indian manatee

Florida
Florida
panther, native of South Florida

Leatherback sea turtle

Whooping crane

Flora There are about 3,000 different types of wildflowers in Florida. This is the third-most diverse state in the union, behind California
California
and Texas, both larger states.[77] On the east coast of the state, mangroves have normally dominated the coast from Cocoa Beach southward; salt marshes from St. Augustine northward. From St. Augustine
St. Augustine
south to Cocoa Beach, the coast fluctuates between the two, depending on the annual weather conditions.[71]

The Sabal palmetto
Sabal palmetto
is one of twelve palm tree species that are native to Florida
Florida
and is the official state tree.

Everglades National Park
Everglades National Park
in South Florida

Bahia Honda in the Florida
Florida
Keys

Ocala National Forest
Ocala National Forest
in Central and Northern Florida.

Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve
Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve
in Northeast Florida

Environmental issues Main article: Environment of Florida

The beaches of Key Biscayne in Miami

Florida
Florida
is a low per capita energy user.[78] It is estimated that approximately 4% of energy in the state is generated through renewable resources.[79] Florida's energy production is 6% of the nation's total energy output, while total production of pollutants is lower, with figures of 6% for nitrogen oxide, 5% for carbon dioxide, and 4% for sulfur dioxide.[79] All potable water resources have been controlled by the state government through five regional water authorities since 1972.[80] Red tide
Red tide
has been an issue on the southwest coast of Florida, as well as other areas. While there has been a great deal of conjecture over the cause of the toxic algae bloom, there is no evidence that it is being caused by pollution or that there has been an increase in the duration or frequency of red tides.[81] The Florida panther
Florida panther
is close to extinction. A record 23 were killed in 2009 predominately by automobile collisions, leaving about 100 individuals in the wild. The Center for Biological Diversity
Center for Biological Diversity
and others have therefore called for a special protected area for the panther to be established.[82] Manatees
Manatees
are also dying at a rate higher than their reproduction. Much of Florida
Florida
has an elevation of less than 12 feet (3.7 m), including many populated areas. Therefore, it is susceptible to rising sea levels associated with global warming.[83] The Atlantic beaches that are vital to the state's economy are being washed out to sea due to rising sea levels caused by climate change. The Miami
Miami
beach area, close to the continental shelf, is running out of accessible offshore sand reserves.[84] Geology Main article: Geology of Florida The Florida
Florida
peninsula is a porous plateau of karst limestone sitting atop bedrock known as the Florida
Florida
Platform. The largest deposits of potash in the United States
United States
are found in Florida.[85] Extended systems of underwater caves, sinkholes and springs are found throughout the state and supply most of the water used by residents. The limestone is topped with sandy soils deposited as ancient beaches over millions of years as global sea levels rose and fell. During the last glacial period, lower sea levels and a drier climate revealed a much wider peninsula, largely savanna.[86] The Everglades, an enormously wide, slow-flowing river encompasses the southern tip of the peninsula. Sinkhole damage claims on property in the state exceeded a total of $2 billion from 2006 through 2010.[87] Florida
Florida
is tied for last place as having the fewest earthquakes of any U.S. state.[88][89] Earthquakes are rare because Florida
Florida
is not located near any tectonic plate boundaries. Demographics Main article: Demographics of Florida See also: Culture of Florida

Florida's population density

Population

Historical population

Census Pop.

1830 34,730

1840 54,477

56.9%

1850 87,445

60.5%

1860 140,424

60.6%

1870 187,748

33.7%

1880 269,493

43.5%

1890 391,422

45.2%

1900 528,542

35.0%

1910 752,619

42.4%

1920 968,470

28.7%

1930 1,468,211

51.6%

1940 1,897,414

29.2%

1950 2,771,305

46.1%

1960 4,951,560

78.7%

1970 6,789,443

37.1%

1980 9,746,324

43.6%

1990 12,937,926

32.7%

2000 15,982,378

23.5%

2010 18,801,310

17.6%

Est. 2017 20,984,400

11.6%

Sources: 1910–2010[90] 2016 Estimate[91]

The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
estimates that the population of Florida
Florida
was 20,271,272 on July 1, 2015, a 7.82% increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[91] The population of Florida
Florida
in the 2010 census was 18,801,310.[92] Florida
Florida
was the seventh fastest-growing state in the U.S. in the 12-month period ending July 1, 2012.[93] In 2010, the center of population of Florida
Florida
was located between Fort Meade and Frostproof. The center of population has moved less than 5 miles (8 km) to the east and approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) to the north between 1980 and 2010 and has been located in Polk County since the 1960 census.[94] The population exceeded 19.7 million by December 2014, surpassing the population of the state of New York for the first time.[95] Florida
Florida
contains the highest percentage of people over 65 (17%).[96] There were 186,102 military retirees living in the state in 2008.[97] About two-thirds of the population was born in another state, the second highest in the U.S.[98] In 2010, undocumented immigrants constituted an estimated 5.7% of the population. This was the sixth highest percentage of any U.S. state.[99][100] There were an estimated 675,000 illegal immigrants in the state in 2010.[101] A 2013 Gallup poll indicated that 47% of the residents agreed that Florida
Florida
was the best state to live in. Results in other states ranged from a low of 18% to a high of 77%.[102] Settlements See also: List of urbanized areas in Florida
Florida
(by population), Florida statistical areas, List of municipalities in Florida, and Florida locations by per capita income The legal name in Florida
Florida
for a city, town or village is "municipality". In Florida
Florida
there is no legal difference between towns, villages and cities.[103] In 2012, 75% of the population lived within 10 miles (16 km) of the coastline.[104]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Florida Source:[105]

Rank Name County Pop.

Jacksonville

Miami 1 Jacksonville Duval 880,619

Tampa

Orlando

2 Miami Miami-Dade 453,579

3 Tampa Hillsborough 377,165

4 Orlando Orange 277,173

5 St. Petersburg Pinellas 260,999

6 Hialeah Miami-Dade 236,387

7 Tallahassee Leon 190,894

8 Port St. Lucie St. Lucie 185,132

9 Cape Coral Lee 179,804

10 Fort Lauderdale Broward 178,752

Rank Metropolitan Area Population Counties

1 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach 6,066,387 Miami-Dade, Broward, Palm Beach

2 Tampa-St.Petersburg-Clearwater 3,032,171 Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, Hernando

3 Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford 2,441,257 Orange, Seminole, Osceola, Lake

4 Jacksonville 1,478,212 Duval, St. Johns, Clay, Nassau, Baker

5 North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton 788,457 Sarasota, Manatee

6 Cape Coral-Fort Myers 722,336 Lee

7 Lakeland-Winter Haven 666,149 Polk

8 Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach 637,674 Volusia, Flagler

9 Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville 579,130 Brevard

10 Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent 485,684 Escambia, Santa Rosa

Rank Combined Statistical Areas Population Counties

1 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie 6,723,472 Miami-Dade, Broward, Palm Beach, St. Lucie, Martin, Indian River, Okeechobee

2 Orlando-Deltona-Daytona Beach 3,202,927 Orange, Volusia, Seminole, Osceola, Lake, Sumter, Flagler

3 Jacksonville-St. Mary's-Palatka 1,603,497 Duval, St. Johns, Clay, Nassau, Putnam, Camden, Baker

4 Cape Coral-Fort Myers-Naples 1,087,472 Lee, Collier

5 North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton 1,002,722 Sarasota, Manatee, Charlotte, DeSoto

6 Tallahassee-Bainbridge 406,449 Leon, Gadsden, Wakulla, Decatur, Jefferson

7 Gainesville-Lake City 350,007 Alachua, Columbia, Gilchrist

A map of Florida
Florida
showing the 67 county names and boundaries.

The largest metropolitan area in the state as well as the entire southeastern United States
United States
is the Miami
Miami
metropolitan area, with about 6.06 million people. The Tampa Bay
Tampa Bay
Area, with over 3.02 million people, is the second largest; the Orlando
Orlando
metropolitan area, with over 2.44 million people, is the third; and the Jacksonville metropolitan area, with over 1.47 million people, is fourth. Florida
Florida
has 22 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget
United States Office of Management and Budget
(OMB). 43 of Florida's 67 counties are in a MSA. Ancestry

Predominant ancestry in Florida
Florida
in 2010

Florida
Florida
racial breakdown

Racial composition 1970[106] 1990[106] 2000[107] 2010[108] 2017[109]

Black or African American
African American
alone 15.3% 13.6% 14.6% 16.0% 16.8%

Asian alone 0.2% 1.2% 1.7% 2.4% 2.9%

Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino
Latino
(of any race) 6.6% 12.2% 16.8% 22.5% 24.9%

Native American alone 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.5%

Two or more races  –  – 2.3% 2.5% 2.1%

White alone, not Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino 77.9% 73.2% 65.4% 57.9% 54.9%

White alone 84.2% 83.1% 78.0% 75.0% 77.6%

Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latinos of any race made up 22.5% of the population in 2010.[110] As of 2011, 57% of Florida's population younger than age 1 were minorities (meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non- Hispanic
Hispanic
white).[111] In 2010, 6.9% of the population (1,269,765) considered themselves to be of only American ancestry (regardless of race or ethnicity).[112][113] Many of these were of English or Scotch-Irish descent; however, their families have lived in the state for so long, that they choose to identify as having "American" ancestry or do not know their ancestry.[114][115][116][117][118][119] In the 1980 United States census the largest ancestry group reported in Florida
Florida
was English with 2,232,514 Floridians claiming that they were of English or mostly English American
English American
ancestry.[120] Some of their ancestry went back to the original thirteen colonies. As of 2010, those of (non- Hispanic
Hispanic
white) European ancestry accounted for 57.9% of Florida's population. Out of the 57.9%, the largest groups were 12.0% German (2,212,391), 10.7% Irish (1,979,058), 8.8% English (1,629,832), 6.6% Italian (1,215,242), 2.8% Polish (511,229), and 2.7% French (504,641).[112][113] White Americans of all European backgrounds are present in all areas of the state. In 1970, non- Hispanic
Hispanic
whites were nearly 80% of Florida's population.[121] Those of English and Irish ancestry are present in large numbers in all the urban/suburban areas across the state. Some native white Floridians, especially those who have descended from long-time Florida families, may refer to themselves as " Florida
Florida
crackers"; others see the term as a derogatory one. Like whites in most other states of the southern U.S., they descend mainly from English and Scots-Irish settlers, as well as some other British American
British American
settlers.[122]

Cuban men playing dominoes in Miami's Little Havana. In 2010, Cubans made up 34.4% of Miami's population and 6.5% of Florida's.[123][124]

As of 2010, those of Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino
Latino
ancestry accounted for 22.5% (4,223,806) of Florida's population. Out of the 22.5%, the largest groups were 6.5% (1,213,438) Cuban, 4.5% (847,550) Puerto Rican, 3.3% (629,718) Mexican, and 1.6% (300,414) Colombian.[124] Florida's Hispanic
Hispanic
population includes large communities of Cuban Americans
Cuban Americans
in Miami
Miami
and Tampa, Puerto Ricans
Puerto Ricans
in Orlando
Orlando
and Tampa, and Mexican/Central American migrant workers. The Hispanic
Hispanic
community continues to grow more affluent and mobile. As of 2011, 57.0% of Florida's children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups.[125] Florida
Florida
has a large and diverse Hispanic
Hispanic
population, with Cubans
Cubans
and Puerto Ricans
Puerto Ricans
being the largest groups in the state. Nearly 80% of Cuban Americans
Cuban Americans
live in Florida, especially South Florida
South Florida
where there is a long-standing and affluent Cuban community.[126] Florida has the second largest Puerto Rican population after New York, as well as the fastest-growing in the nation.[127] Puerto Ricans
Puerto Ricans
are more widespread throughout the state, though the heaviest concentrations are in the Orlando
Orlando
area of Central Florida.[128] As of 2010, those of African ancestry accounted for 16.0% of Florida's population, which includes African Americans. Out of the 16.0%, 4.0% (741,879) were West Indian or Afro-Caribbean American.[112][113][124] During the early 1900s, black people made up nearly half of the state's population.[129] In response to segregation, disfranchisement and agricultural depression, many African Americans migrated from Florida
Florida
to northern cities in the Great Migration, in waves from 1910 to 1940, and again starting in the later 1940s. They moved for jobs, better education for their children and the chance to vote and participate in society. By 1960 the proportion of African Americans in the state had declined to 18%.[130] Conversely large numbers of northern whites moved to the state.[citation needed] Today, large concentrations of black residents can be found in northern and central Florida. Aside from blacks descended from African slaves brought to the southern U.S., there are also large numbers of blacks of West Indian, recent African, and Afro- Latino
Latino
immigrant origins, especially in the Miami/ South Florida
South Florida
area. In 2016, Florida
Florida
had the highest percentage of West Indians in the United States
United States
at 4.5%, with 2.3% (483,874) from Haitian ancestry, 1.5% (303,527) Jamaican, and 0.2% (31,966) Bahamian, with the other West Indian groups making up the rest.[131] As of 2010, those of Asian ancestry accounted for 2.4% of Florida's population.[112][113] Languages

20% of Floridians speak Spanish, the second-most widely-spoken language.

See also: Demographics of Florida
Demographics of Florida
§ Languages, and Miami
Miami
accent In 1988 English was affirmed as the state's official language in the Florida
Florida
Constitution. Spanish is also widely spoken, especially as immigration has continued from Latin America. Twenty percent of the population speak Spanish as their first language. Twenty-seven percent of Florida's population reports speaking a mother language other than English, and more than 200 first languages other than English are spoken at home in the state.[132][133] The most common languages spoken in Florida
Florida
as a first language in 2010 are:[132]

73% — English 20% — Spanish 2% — Haitian Creole Other languages comprise less than 1% spoken by the state's population

Religion

Cathedral of Saint Mary in Miami. Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
is the largest single religious denomination in the state.

Florida
Florida
is mostly Christian, although there is a large irreligious and relatively significant Jewish
Jewish
community. Protestants account for almost half of the population, but the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is the largest single denomination in the state mainly due to its large Hispanic population and other groups like Haitians. Protestants are very diverse, although Baptists, Methodists, Pentecostals
Pentecostals
and nondenominational Protestants are the largest groups. There is also a sizable Jewish
Jewish
community in South Florida. This is the largest Jewish population in the southern U.S. and the third-largest in the U.S. behind those of New York and California.[134] In 2010, the three largest denominations in Florida
Florida
were the Catholic Church, the Southern Baptist Convention, and the United Methodist Church.[135] The Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
survey in 2014 gave the following religious makeup of Florida:[136]

Religion in Florida
Florida
(2014)[137]

Religion

Percent

Protestant

46%

None

24%

Catholic

21%

Other Christian

3%

Jewish

3%

Other faith

3%

Governance Main article: Government of Florida See also: List of Governors of Florida, United States
United States
congressional delegations from Florida, and Florida
Florida
Cabinet

Old and New Florida
Florida
State Capitol, Tallahassee, East view

The basic structure, duties, function, and operations of the government of the state of Florida
Florida
are defined and established by the Florida
Florida
Constitution, which establishes the basic law of the state and guarantees various rights and freedoms of the people. The state government consists of three separate branches: judicial, executive, and legislative. The legislature enacts bills, which, if signed by the governor, become law. The Florida
Florida
Legislature
Legislature
comprises the Florida
Florida
Senate, which has 40 members, and the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives, which has 120 members. The current Governor of Florida
Governor of Florida
is Rick Scott. The Florida Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and six Justices. Florida
Florida
has 67 counties. Some reference materials may show only 66 because Duval County is consolidated with the City of Jacksonville. There are 379 cities in Florida
Florida
(out of 411) that report regularly to the Florida
Florida
Department of Revenue, but there are other incorporated municipalities that do not. The state government's primary source of revenue is sales tax. Florida
Florida
does not impose a personal income tax. The primary revenue source for cities and counties is property tax; unpaid taxes are subject to tax sales which are held (at the county level) in May and (due to the extensive use of online bidding sites) are highly popular. There were 800 federal corruption convictions from 1988 to 2007, more than any other state.[138] Elections history Further information: Politics of Florida, Elections in Florida, and Political party strength in Florida

Florida
Florida
registered voters as of December 31, 2016[139]

Party Number of Voters Percentage

Democratic 4,905,705 37.85%

Republican 4,575,277 35.31%

Minor Parties 347,288 2.68%

No Party Affiliation 3,130,915 24.16%

Total 12,959,185 100%

From 1952 to 1964, most voters were registered Democrats, but the state voted for the Republican presidential candidate in every election except for 1964. The following year, Congress passed and President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, providing for oversight of state practices and enforcement of constitutional voting rights for African Americans and other minorities in order to prevent the discrimination and disenfranchisement that had excluded most of them for decades from the political process. From the 1930s through much of the 1960s, Florida
Florida
was essentially a one-party state dominated by white conservative Democrats, who together with other Democrats of the "Solid South", exercised considerable control in Congress. They have gained slightly less federal money from national programs than they have paid in taxes.[140] Since the 1970s, conservative white voters in the state have largely shifted from the Democratic to the Republican Party. Though the majority of registered voters in Florida
Florida
are Democrats.[141] It has continued to support Republican presidential candidates through the 20th century, except in 1976 and 1996, when the Democratic nominee was from "the South". In the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections, Barack Obama
Barack Obama
carried the state as a northern Democrat, attracting high voter turnout especially among the young, Independents, and minority voters, of whom Hispanics comprise an increasingly large proportion. 2008 marked the first time since 1932, when Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
carried the state, that Florida was carried by a Northern Democrat for president. The first post- Reconstruction era
Reconstruction era
Republican elected to Congress from Florida
Florida
was William C. Cramer
William C. Cramer
in 1954 from Pinellas County on the Gulf Coast,[142] where demographic changes were underway. In this period, African Americans were still disenfranchised by the state's constitution and discriminatory practices; in the 19th century they had made up most of the Republican Party. Cramer built a different Republican Party in Florida, attracting local white conservatives and transplants from northern and midwestern states. In 1966 Claude R. Kirk, Jr. was elected as the first post-Reconstruction Republican governor, in an upset election.[143] In 1968 Edward J. Gurney, also a white conservative, was elected as the state's first post-reconstruction Republican US Senator.[144] In 1970 Democrats took the governorship and the open US Senate seat, and maintained dominance for years. Since the mid-20th century, Florida
Florida
has been considered a bellwether, voting for 13 successful presidential candidates since 1952. It voted for the loser only three times.[145]

Presidential elections results

Year Republican Democratic

2016 49.02% 4,615,910 47.81% 4,501,455

2012 49.13% 4,163,447 50.01% 4,237,756

2008 48.22% 4,045,624 51.03% 4,282,074

2004 52.10% 3,964,522 47.09% 3,583,544

2000 48.85% 2,912,790 48.84% 2,912,253

1996 42.32% 2,244,536 48.02% 2,546,870

1992 40.89% 2,173,310 39.00% 2,072,698

1988 60.87% 2,618,885 38.51% 1,656,701

1984 65.32% 2,730,350 34.66% 1,448,816

1980 55.52% 2,046,951 38.50% 1,419,475

1976 46.64% 1,469,531 51.93% 1,636,000

1972 71.91% 1,857,759 27.80% 718,117

1968 40.53% 886,804 30.93% 676,794

1964 48.85% 905,941 51.15% 948,540

1960 51.51% 795,476 48.49% 748,700

In 1998, Democratic voters dominated areas of the state with a high percentage of racial minorities and transplanted white liberals from the northeastern United States, known colloquially as "snowbirds".[146] South Florida
South Florida
and the Miami metropolitan area
Miami metropolitan area
are dominated by both racial minorities and white liberals. Because of this, the area has consistently voted as one of the most Democratic areas of the state. The Daytona Beach area is similar demographically and the city of Orlando
Orlando
has a large Hispanic
Hispanic
population, which has often favored Democrats. Republicans, made up mostly of white conservatives, have dominated throughout much of the rest of Florida, particularly in the more rural and suburban areas. This is characteristic of its voter base throughout the Deep South.[146] The fast-growing I-4 corridor
I-4 corridor
area, which runs through Central Florida and connects the cities of Daytona Beach, Orlando, and Tampa/St. Petersburg, has had a fairly even breakdown of Republican and Democratic voters. The area is often seen as a merging point of the conservative northern portion of the state and the liberal southern portion, making it the biggest swing area in the state. Since the late 20th century, the voting results in this area, containing 40% of Florida
Florida
voters, has often determined who will win the state of Florida in presidential elections.[147] The Democratic Party has maintained an edge in voter registration, both statewide and in 40 of the 67 counties, including Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties, the state's three most populous.[148] Elections of 2000 to present Main article: United States
United States
presidential election in Florida, 2000

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

In 2000, George W. Bush
George W. Bush
won the U.S. Presidential election by a margin of 271–266 in the Electoral College.[149] Of the 271 electoral votes for Bush, 25 were cast by electors from Florida.[150] The Florida results were contested and a recount was ordered by the court, with the results settled in a court decision. Reapportionment following the 2010 United States Census
2010 United States Census
gave the state two more seats in the House of Representatives.[151] The legislature's redistricting, announced in 2012, was quickly challenged in court, on the grounds that it had unfairly benefited Republican interests. In 2015, the Florida Supreme Court
Florida Supreme Court
ruled on appeal that the congressional districts had to be redrawn because of the legislature's violation of the Fair District Amendments to the state constitution passed in 2010; it accepted a new map in early December 2015. The political make-up of congressional and legislative districts has enabled Republicans to control the governorship and most statewide elective offices, and 17 of the state's 27 seats in the 2012 House of Representatives.[152] Florida
Florida
has been listed as a swing state in Presidential elections since 1950, voting for the losing candidate once in that period of time.[153] In the closely contested 2000 election, the state played a pivotal role.[149][150][154][155][156][157] Out of more than 5.8 million votes for the two main contenders Bush and Al Gore, around 500 votes separated the two candidates for the all-decisive Florida
Florida
electoral votes that landed Bush the election win. Florida's felony disenfranchisement law is more severe than most European nations or other American states. A 2002 study in the American Sociological Review concluded that "if the state's 827,000 disenfranchised felons had voted at the same rate as other Floridians, Democratic candidate Al Gore
Al Gore
would have won Florida—and the presidency—by more than 80,000 votes."[158] In 2008, delegates of both the Republican Florida
Florida
primary election and Democratic Florida
Florida
primary election were stripped of half of their votes when the conventions met in August due to violation of both parties' national rules. In the 2010 elections, Republicans solidified their dominance statewide, by winning the governor's mansion, and maintaining firm majorities in both houses of the state legislature. They won four previously Democratic-held seats to create a 19–6 Republican-majority delegation representing Florida
Florida
in the federal House of Representatives. In 2010, more than 63% of state voters approved the initiated Amendments 5 and 6 to the state constitution, to ensure more fairness in districting. These have become known as the Fair District Amendments. As a result of the 2010 United States
United States
Census, Florida gained two House of Representative seats in 2012.[151] The legislature issued revised congressional districts in 2012, which were immediately challenged in court by supporters of the above amendments. The court ruled in 2014, after lengthy testimony, that at least two districts had to be redrawn because of gerrymandering. After this was appealed, in July 2015 the Florida Supreme Court
Florida Supreme Court
ruled that lawmakers had followed an illegal and unconstitutional process overly influenced by party operatives, and ruled that at least eight districts had to be redrawn. On December 2, 2015, a 5–2 majority of the Court accepted a new map of congressional districts, some of which was drawn by challengers. Their ruling affirmed the map previously approved by Leon County Judge Terry Lewis, who had overseen the original trial. It particularly makes changes in South Florida. There are likely to be additional challenges to the map and districts.[159] According to The Sentencing Project, the effect of Florida's felony disenfranchisement law is such that in 2014, "[m]ore than one in ten Floridians – and nearly one in four African-American Floridians – are [were] shut out of the polls because of felony convictions", although they had completed sentences and parole/probation requirements.[160] Statutes See also: Law of Florida

Florida Supreme Court
Florida Supreme Court
Building

The state repealed mandatory auto inspection in 1981.[161] In 1972, the state made personal injury protection auto insurance mandatory for drivers, becoming the second in the nation to enact a no-fault insurance law. The ease of receiving payments under this law is seen as precipitating a major increase in insurance fraud.[162] Auto insurance fraud was the highest in the nation in 2011, estimated at close to $1 billion.[163] Fraud is particularly centered in the Miami-Dade metropolitan and Tampa areas.[164][165][166] Law enforcement Further information: List of law enforcement agencies in Florida
List of law enforcement agencies in Florida
and Crime in Florida Florida
Florida
was ranked the fifth-most dangerous state in 2009. Ranking was based on the record of serious felonies committed in 2008.[167] The state was the sixth highest scammed state in 2010. It ranked first in mortgage fraud in 2009.[168] In 2009, 44% of highway fatalities involved alcohol.[169] Florida
Florida
is one of seven states that prohibit the open carry of handguns. This law was passed in 1987.[170] According to the Federal Trade Commission, Florida
Florida
has the highest per capita rate of both reported fraud and other types of complaints including identity theft complaints.[171] Economy See also: List of U.S. states by GDP

Launch of Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Columbia from the Kennedy Space Center

Map of Florida
Florida
showing average income by county.

The Brickell Financial District
Brickell Financial District
in Miami
Miami
contains the largest concentration of international banks in the United States.[172][173]

In the twentieth century, tourism, industry, construction, international banking, biomedical and life sciences, healthcare research, simulation training, aerospace and defense, and commercial space travel have contributed to the state's economic development.[citation needed] The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Florida
Florida
in 2016 was $926 billion.[174] Its GDP is the fourth largest economy in the United States.[175] In 2010, it became the fourth largest exporter of trade goods.[176] The major contributors to the state's gross output in 2007 were general services, financial services, trade, transportation and public utilities, manufacturing and construction respectively. In 2010–11, the state budget was $70.5 billion, having reached a high of $73.8 billion in 2006–07.[177] Chief Executive Magazine named Florida
Florida
the third "Best State for Business" in 2011.[178] The economy is driven almost entirely by its nineteen metropolitan areas. In 2004, they had a combined total of 95.7% of the state's domestic product.[179] Personal income See also: Florida
Florida
locations by per capita income In 2011, Florida's per capita personal income was $39,563, ranking 27th in the nation.[180] In February 2011, the state's unemployment rate was 11.5%.[181] Florida
Florida
is one of seven states that do not impose a personal income tax. Florida's constitution establishes a state minimum wage that is adjusted for inflation annually. As of January 1, 2017, Florida's minimum wage was $5.08 for tipped positions, and $8.10 for non-tipped positions, which was higher than the federal rate of $7.25.[182] Florida
Florida
has 4 cities in the top 25 cities in the U.S. with the most credit card debt.[183] The state also had the second-highest credit card delinquency rate, with 1.45% of cardholders in the state more than 90 days delinquent on one or more credit cards.[184] There were 2.4 million Floridians living in poverty in 2008. 18.4% of children 18 and younger were living in poverty.[185] Miami
Miami
is the sixth poorest big city in the United States.[186] In 2010, over 2.5 million Floridians were on food stamps, up from 1.2 million in 2007. To qualify, Floridians must make less than 133% of the federal poverty level, which would be under $29,000 for a family of four.[187] Real estate In the early 20th century, land speculators discovered Florida, and businessmen such as Henry Plant
Henry Plant
and Henry Flagler
Henry Flagler
developed railroad systems, which led people to move in, drawn by the weather and local economies. From then on, tourism boomed, fueling a cycle of development that overwhelmed a great deal of farmland. Due to the huge payouts by the insurance industry as a result of the hurricane claims of 2004, homeowners insurance has risen 40% to 60% and deductibles have risen.[66] At the end of the third quarter in 2008, Florida
Florida
had the highest mortgage delinquency rate in the U.S., with 7.8% of mortgages delinquent at least 60 days.[184] A 2009 list of national housing markets that were hard hit in the real estate crash included a disproportionate number in Florida.[188] The early 21st-century building boom left Florida
Florida
with 300,000 vacant homes in 2009, according to state figures.[189] In 2009, the US Census Bureau estimated that Floridians spent an average 49.1% of personal income on housing-related costs, the third highest percentage in the U.S.[190] In the third quarter of 2009, there were 278,189 delinquent loans, 80,327 foreclosures.[191] Sales of existing homes for February 2010 was 11,890, up 21% from the same month in 2009. Only two metropolitan areas showed a decrease in homes sold: Panama City and Brevard County. The average sales price for an existing house was $131,000, 7% decrease from the prior year.[192][dubious – discuss] Tourism

The Port of Miami
Miami
is the world's largest cruise ship port.

Walt Disney World Resort
Walt Disney World Resort
in Orlando.

If you can't find something to do in Florida, you're just boring... — Guy Fieri, celebrity chef, 2017[193]

Tourism makes up one of the largest sectors of the state economy, with nearly 1.4 million people employed in the tourism industry in 2016 (a record for the state, surpassing the 1.2 million employment from 2015).[194][195] In 2015, Florida
Florida
broke the 100-million visitor mark for the first time in state history by hosting a record 105 million visitors[195][196] and broke that record in 2016 with 112.8 million tourists; Florida
Florida
has set tourism records for six consecutive years.[194] Many beach towns are popular tourist destinations, particularly during winter and spring break, although activist David Hogg has called for a statewide boycott in 2018 unless state legislators pass substantive gun reform.[197] Twenty-three million tourists visited Florida
Florida
beaches in 2000, spending $22 billion.[198] The public has a right to beach access under the public trust doctrine, but some areas have access effectively blocked by private owners for a long distance.[199] Amusement parks, especially in the Greater Orlando
Greater Orlando
area, make up a significant portion of tourism. The Walt Disney World Resort
Walt Disney World Resort
is the most visited vacation resort in the world with over 50 million annual visitors, consisting of four theme parks, 27 themed resort hotels, 9 non–Disney hotels, two water parks, four golf courses and other recreational venues.[200] Other major theme parks in the area include Universal Orlando
Orlando
Resort, SeaWorld Orlando
SeaWorld Orlando
and Busch Gardens Tampa. Agriculture and fishing

Florida
Florida
oranges

Agriculture is the second largest industry in the state. Citrus fruit, especially oranges, are a major part of the economy, and Florida produces the majority of citrus fruit grown in the United States. In 2006, 67% of all citrus, 74% of oranges, 58% of tangerines, and 54% of grapefruit were grown in Florida. About 95% of commercial orange production in the state is destined for processing (mostly as orange juice, the official state beverage).[201] Citrus canker
Citrus canker
continues to be an issue of concern. From 1997 to 2013, the growing of citrus trees has declined 25%, from 600,000 acres (240,000 ha) to 450,000 acres (180,000 ha). Citrus greening disease is incurable. A study states that it has caused the loss of $4.5 billion between 2006 and 2012. As of 2014, it was the major agricultural concern.[202] Other products include sugarcane, strawberries, tomatoes and celery.[203] The state is the largest producer of sweet corn and green beans for the U.S.[204] The Everglades
Everglades
Agricultural Area is a major center for agriculture. The environmental impact of agriculture, especially water pollution, is a major issue in Florida
Florida
today. In 2009, fishing was a $6 billion industry, employing 60,000 jobs for sports and commercial purposes.[205] Industry

The Miami
Miami
Civic Center has the second-largest concentration of medical and research facilities in the United States.[206]

Florida
Florida
is the leading state for sales of powerboats. Boats sales totaled $1.96 billion in 2013.[207] Mining Phosphate mining, concentrated in the Bone Valley, is the state's third-largest industry. The state produces about 75% of the phosphate required by farmers in the United States
United States
and 25% of the world supply, with about 95% used for agriculture (90% for fertilizer and 5% for livestock feed supplements) and 5% used for other products.[208] After the watershed events of Hurricane Andrew
Hurricane Andrew
in 1992, the state of Florida
Florida
began investing in economic development through the Office of Trade, Tourism, and Economic Development. Governor Jeb Bush
Jeb Bush
realized that watershed events such as Andrew negatively impacted Florida's backbone industry of tourism severely. The office was directed to target Medical/Bio-Sciences among others. Three years later, The Scripps Research Institute
Scripps Research Institute
(TSRI) announced it had chosen Florida
Florida
for its newest expansion. In 2003, TSRI announced plans to establish a major science center in Palm Beach, a 364,000 square feet (33,800 m2) facility on 100 acres (40 ha), which TSRI planned to occupy in 2006.[209] Government Since the development of the federal NASA
NASA
Merritt Island launch sites on Cape Canaveral (most notably Kennedy Space Center) in 1962, Florida has developed a sizable aerospace industry. Another major economic engine in Florida
Florida
is the United States military. There are 24 military bases in the state, housing three Unified Combatant Commands; United States Central Command
United States Central Command
in Tampa, United States Southern Command
United States Southern Command
in Doral, and United States
United States
Special Operations Command in Tampa. Some 109,390 U.S. military personnel stationed in Florida,[210] contributing, directly and indirectly, $52 billion a year to the state's economy.[211] In 2009, there were 89,706 federal workers employed within the state.[212] Tens of thousands more employees work for contractors who have federal contracts, including those with the military. In 2012, government of all levels was a top employer in all counties in the state, because this classification includes public school teachers and other school staff. School boards employ nearly 1 of every 30 workers in the state. The federal military was the top employer in three counties.[213] Health There were 2.7 million Medicaid
Medicaid
patients in Florida
Florida
in 2009. The governor has proposed adding $2.6 billion to care for the expected 300,000 additional patients in 2011.[214] The cost of caring for 2.3 million clients in 2010 was $18.8 billion.[215] This is nearly 30% of Florida's budget.[216] Medicaid
Medicaid
paid for 60% of all births in Florida in 2009.[67] The state has a program for those not covered by Medicaid. In 2013, Florida
Florida
refused to participate in providing coverage for the uninsured under the Affordable Care Act, popularly called Obamacare. The Florida
Florida
legislature also refused to accept additional Federal funding for Medicaid, although this would have helped its constituents at no cost to the state. As a result, Florida
Florida
is second only to Texas in the percentage of its citizens without health insurance.[217] Architecture See also: Architecture of Jacksonville
Architecture of Jacksonville
and Architecture of Miami

Miami
Miami
Art Deco
Art Deco
District, built during the 1920s–1930s.

Florida
Florida
has the largest collection of Art Deco
Art Deco
and Streamline Moderne buildings in both the United States
United States
and the entire world, most of which are located in the Miami
Miami
metropolitan area, especially Miami Beach's Art Deco
Art Deco
District, constructed as the city was becoming a resort destination.[218] A unique architectural design found only in Florida
Florida
is the post-World War II Miami
Miami
Modern, which can be seen in areas such as Miami's MiMo Historic District. Being of early importance as a regional center of banking and finance, the architecture of Jacksonville displays a wide variety of styles and design principles. Many of state's earliest skyscrapers were constructed in Jacksonville, dating as far back as 1902,[219] and last holding a state height record from 1974 to 1981.[220] The city is endowed with one of the largest collections of Prairie School buildings outside of the Midwest.[221] Jacksonville is also noteworthy for its collection of Mid-Century modern
Mid-Century modern
architecture.[222] Some sections of the state feature architectural styles including Spanish revival, Florida
Florida
vernacular, and Mediterranean Revival.[223][224] A notable collection of these styles can be found in St. Augustine, the oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement within the borders of the United States.[225] Media

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2017)

See also: Category: Florida
Florida
media Education Main article: Education in Florida Primary and secondary education Florida's primary and secondary school systems are administered by the Florida
Florida
Department of Education. School districts are organized within county boundaries. Each school district has an elected Board of Education that sets policy, budget, goals, and approves expenditures. Management is the responsibility of a Superintendent of schools. The Florida Department of Education
Florida Department of Education
is required by law to train educators in teaching English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL).[226] Universities The State University System of Florida
State University System of Florida
was founded in 1905, and is governed by the Florida
Florida
Board of Governors. During the 2010 academic year, 312,216 students attended one of these twelve universities. The Florida College System
Florida College System
comprises 28 public community and state colleges. In 2011–12, enrollment consisted of more than 875,000 students.[227] As of 2017 the University of Central Florida, with over 64,000 students, is the largest university by enrollment in the United States.[228] Florida's first private university, Stetson University, was founded in 1883. The Independent Colleges and Universities of Florida is an association of 28 private, educational institutions in the state.[229] This Association reported that their member institutions served over 121,000 students in the fall of 2006.[230] In 2016, Florida
Florida
charged the second lowest tuition in the nation for four years, $26,000 for in-state students, to $86,000 for out-of-state students. This compares with an average of 34,800 nationally for in-state students.[231]

Florida
Florida
State University Tallahassee

University of Florida Gainesville

Florida
Florida
Gulf Coast University Fort Myers

Flagler College Saint Augustine

University of Miami Coral
Coral
Gables

University of Central Florida Orlando

Transportation Main article: Transportation in Florida

Florida's Turnpike

Highways Further information: State Roads in Florida Florida's highway system contains 1,473 mi (2,371 km) of interstate highway, and 9,934 mi (15,987 km) of non-interstate highway, such as state highways and U.S. Highways. Florida's interstates, state highways, and U.S. Highways
U.S. Highways
are maintained by the Florida
Florida
Department of Transportation. In 2011, there were about 9,000 retail gas stations in the state. Floridians consume 21 million gallons of gasoline daily, ranking it third in national use.[232][233] Motorists have the 45th lowest rate of car insurance in the U.S. 24% are uninsured.[234] Drivers between 15 and 19 years of age averaged 364 car crashes a year per ten thousand licensed Florida
Florida
drivers in 2010. Drivers 70 and older averaged 95 per 10,000 during the same time frame. A spokesperson for the non-profit Insurance Institute said that "Older drivers are more of a threat to themselves."[235] Before the construction of routes under the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, Florida
Florida
began construction of a long cross-state toll road, Florida's Turnpike. The first section, from Fort Pierce south to the Golden Glades Interchange
Golden Glades Interchange
was completed in 1957. After a second section north through Orlando
Orlando
to Wildwood (near present-day The Villages), and a southward extension around Miami
Miami
to Homestead, it was finished in 1974. Florida's primary interstate routes include:

I‑4, which spans 133 miles, bisects the state, connecting Tampa, Lakeland, Orlando, and Daytona Beach, connecting with I-75 in Tampa and I-95 in Daytona Beach. I-10, which spans 362 miles in Florida, traverses the panhandle, connecting Pensacola, Tallahassee, Lake City, and Jacksonville, with interchanges with I-75 in Lake City and I-95 in Jacksonville. It is the southernmost interstate in the United States
United States
terminating in Santa Monica with a total length of 2460 miles. I-75, which spans 470 miles in Florida, enters the state near Lake City (45 miles (72 km) west of Jacksonville) and continues southward through Gainesville, Ocala, Tampa's eastern suburbs, Bradenton, Sarasota, Fort Myers and Naples, where it crosses the "Alligator Alley" as a toll road to Fort Lauderdale
Fort Lauderdale
before turning southward and terminating in Hialeah/ Miami
Miami
Lakes having interchanges with I-10 in Lake City and I-4 in Tampa. It is the second longest north south interstate with a total length of 1786 miles and terminates at the Canadian border at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. I-95, which spans 382 miles in Florida, enters the state near Jacksonville and continues along the Atlantic Coast through Daytona Beach, the Melbourne/Titusville, Palm Bay, Vero Beach, Fort Pierce, Port Saint Lucie, Stuart, West Palm Beach, and Fort Lauderdale, before terminating in Downtown Miami, with interchanges with I-10 in Jacksonville and I-4 in Daytona Beach. There are four auxiliary routes associated with the interstate. It is the longest north south interstate with a total length of 1924 miles and terminates at the Canadian border northeast of Houlton, Maine.

Airports See also: List of airports in Florida
List of airports in Florida
and Aviation in Florida

Miami
Miami
International Airport is the world's 10th-busiest cargo airport, and second busiest airport for international passengers in the U.S.

Florida
Florida
has 131 public airports.[236] Florida's seven large hub and medium hub airports, as classified by the FAA, are the following:

City served Code Airport name FAA Category Enplanements

Miami MIA Miami
Miami
International Airport Large Hub 17,017,654

Orlando MCO Orlando
Orlando
International Airport Large Hub 17,017,491

Fort Lauderdale FLL Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood Int'l Airport Large Hub 10,829,810

Tampa TPA Tampa International Airport Large Hub 8,137,222

Fort Myers RSW Southwest Florida
Southwest Florida
International Airport Medium Hub 3,714,157

West Palm Beach PBI Palm Beach International Airport Medium Hub 2,958,416

Jacksonville JAX Jacksonville International Airport Medium Hub 2,755,719

Intercity rail

Brightline
Brightline
train at Fort Lauderdale
Fort Lauderdale
station

Brightline
Brightline
is a diesel–electric higher-speed rail system in Florida, United States. It is being developed by All Aboard Florida, a wholly owned subsidiary of Florida East Coast Industries
Florida East Coast Industries
(FECI).[237] Currently service is only from Fort Lauderdale
Fort Lauderdale
to West Palm Beach. The first phase is planned to connect Miami
Miami
to West Palm Beach through express intercity service, with a stop at Fort Lauderdale. The complete project is intended to connect Miami
Miami
and South Florida
South Florida
to Orlando, which requires a new line westward from the coast. It partially opened for passenger service between Fort Lauderdale
Fort Lauderdale
and West Palm Beach on January 13, 2018, as the only privately owned and operated passenger railroad in the United States.[238] With a top speed of 125 mph (201 km/h), Brightline
Brightline
will eventually be tied with Amtrak's Northeast Regional
Northeast Regional
and the MARC's Penn Line commuter rail as the second fastest passenger train in North America, after Amtrak's Acela Express. Florida
Florida
is also served by Amtrak, operating numerous lines throughout, connecting the state's largest cities to points north in the United States and Canada. The busiest Amtrak
Amtrak
train stations in Florida
Florida
in 2011 were: Sanford (259,944), Orlando
Orlando
(179,142), Tampa Union Station (140,785), Miami
Miami
(94,556), and Jacksonville (74,733).[239] Sanford, in Greater Orlando, is the southern terminus of the Auto Train, which originates at Lorton, Virginia, south of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Until 2005, Orlando
Orlando
was also the eastern terminus of the Sunset Limited, which travels across the southern United States
United States
via New Orleans, Houston, and San Antonio
San Antonio
to its western terminus of Los Angeles. Florida
Florida
is served by two additional Amtrak
Amtrak
trains (the Silver Star and the Silver Meteor), which operate between New York City and Miami. Miami
Miami
Central Station, the city's rapid transit, commuter rail, intercity rail, and bus hub, is under construction.

Public transit

The Miami
Miami
Metrorail is the state's only rapid transit system. About 15% of Miamians use public transit daily.

Further information: Transportation in South Florida

Miami: Miami's public transportation is served by Miami-Dade Transit that runs Metrorail, a heavy rail rapid transit system, Metromover, a people mover train system in Downtown Miami, and Metrobus, Miami's bus system. Metrorail runs throughout Miami-Dade County
Miami-Dade County
and has two lines and 23 stations connecting to Downtown Miami's Metromover
Metromover
and Tri-Rail. Metromover
Metromover
has three lines and 21 stations throughout Downtown Miami. Outside of Miami-Dade County, public transit in the Miami metropolitan area
Miami metropolitan area
is served by Broward County Transit
Broward County Transit
and Palm Tran; intercounty commuter rail service is provided by Tri-Rail, with 18 stations including the region's three international airports. Orlando: Orlando
Orlando
is served by the SunRail
SunRail
commuter train, which runs on a 32 miles (51 km) (61 miles (98 km) when complete) line including four stops in downtown. Lynx bus serves the greater Orlando area in Orange, Seminole, and Osceola counties. Tampa: Tampa and its surrounding area use the Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority system ("HART"). In addition, downtown Tampa has continuous trolley services in the form of a heritage trolley powered by Tampa Electric Company. Pinellas County and St. Petersburg provide similar services through the Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority or "PSTA". The beaches of Pinellas County also have a continuous trolley bus. Downtown St. Petersburg has a trolley system. Jacksonville: Jacksonville is served by the Jacksonville Skyway, an automated people mover monorail connecting the Florida
Florida
State College downtown campus, the Northbank central business district, Convention Center, and Southbank locations. The system includes 8 stops connected by two lines. JTA bus has 180 vehicles with 56 lines.

Largest public transit systems in Florida
Florida
(2012)

Rank City Weekday passenger ridership Population served % of population on transit Modes of transit

1 Miami 367,000[240] 2,554,776 14.4% Tri-Rail, Metrorail, Metromover
Metromover
& Metrobus

2 Fort Lauderdale 147,718[241] 1,748,066 8.5% Tri-Rail
Tri-Rail
(commuter rail) & BCT bus

3 Orlando 97,000[242] 2,134,411 4.4% Lynx bus & Sunrail

4 Gainesville 50,500[242] 125,326 40.3% RTS bus

5 Tampa 50,400[242] 1,229,226 4.1% HART bus & TECO Line Streetcar

6 West Palm Beach 45,100[243] 1,320,134 3.4% Tri-Rail
Tri-Rail
(commuter rail) & Palm Tran
Palm Tran
(bus)

7 St. Petersburg 42,500[244] 916,542 4.6% PSTA bus

8 Jacksonville 41,500[242] 821,784 5.0% JTA bus & Skyway (people mover)

9 Tallahassee 22,400[242] 181,376 12.4% StarMetro
StarMetro
bus

Sports Main article: Sports in Florida

Daytona International Speedway
Daytona International Speedway
is home to various auto racing events

Florida
Florida
has three NFL teams, two MLB
MLB
teams, two NBA teams, two NHL teams, and one MLS
MLS
team. Florida
Florida
gained its first permanent major-league professional sports team in 1966 when the American Football League added the Miami
Miami
Dolphins. The state of Florida
Florida
has given professional sports franchises some subsidies in the form of tax breaks since 1991.[245] About half of all Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
teams conduct spring training in the state, with teams informally organized into the "Grapefruit League". Throughout MLB
MLB
history, other teams have held spring training in Florida. NASCAR
NASCAR
(headquartered in Daytona Beach) begins all three of its major auto racing series in Florida
Florida
at Daytona International Speedway
Daytona International Speedway
in February, featuring the Daytona 500, and ends all three Series in November at Homestead- Miami
Miami
Speedway. Daytona also has the Coke Zero 400 NASCAR
NASCAR
race weekend around Independence Day in July. The 24 Hours of Daytona is one of the world's most prestigious endurance auto races. The Grand Prix of St. Petersburg
Grand Prix of St. Petersburg
and Grand Prix of Miami
Miami
have held IndyCar
IndyCar
races as well. Florida
Florida
is a major golf hub. The PGA of America is headquartered in Palm Beach Gardens, the PGA Tour
PGA Tour
is headquartered in Ponte Vedra Beach, and the LPGA
LPGA
is headquartered in Daytona Beach. The Players Championship, WGC-Cadillac Championship, Arnold Palmer Invitational, Honda Classic
Honda Classic
and Valspar Championship
Valspar Championship
are PGA Tour
PGA Tour
rounds. The Miami
Miami
Masters is an ATP World Tour Masters 1000
ATP World Tour Masters 1000
and WTA Premier tennis event, whereas the Delray Beach International Tennis Championships is an ATP World Tour 250 event. Minor league baseball, football, basketball, ice hockey, soccer and indoor football teams are based in Florida. Three of the Arena Football League's teams are in Florida. Florida's universities have a number of collegiate sport programs, especially the Florida State Seminoles
Florida State Seminoles
and Miami
Miami
Hurricanes of the Atlantic Coast Conference, and the Florida Gators
Florida Gators
of the Southeastern Conference.

Florida
Florida
major league professional sports teams

Team League Venue Location Championships

Miami
Miami
Dolphins National Football League Sun Life Stadium Miami
Miami
Gardens 2 (1972, 1973)

Miami
Miami
Heat National Basketball Association American Airlines Arena Miami 3 (2006, 2012, 2013)

Miami
Miami
Marlins Major League Baseball Marlins Park Miami 2 (1997, 2003)

Florida
Florida
Panthers National Hockey League BB&T Center Sunrise 0

Tampa Bay
Tampa Bay
Buccaneers National Football League Raymond James Stadium Tampa 1 (2003)

Tampa Bay
Tampa Bay
Rays Major League Baseball Tropicana Field St. Petersburg 0

Tampa Bay
Tampa Bay
Lightning National Hockey League Amalie Arena Tampa 1 (2004)

Orlando
Orlando
Magic National Basketball Association Amway Center Orlando 0

Orlando
Orlando
City SC Major League Soccer Orlando
Orlando
City Stadium Orlando 0

Jacksonville Jaguars National Football League EverBank Field Jacksonville 0

Sister states

Sister jurisdiction Country Year[246]

Languedoc-Roussillon France 1989

Taiwan
Taiwan
Province Taiwan, R.O.C. 1992

Wakayama Prefecture Japan 1995

Western Cape South Africa 1995

Nueva Esparta Venezuela 1999

Kyonggi South Korea 2000

See also

Florida
Florida
portal

Outline of Florida

References

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United States
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Florida
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Florida
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Coral
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Viviana Díaz Balsera and Rachel A. May (eds.), La Florida: Five Hundred Years of Hispanic
Hispanic
Presence. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2014. Michael Gannon (ed.), The History of Florida. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2013.

External links

Find more aboutFloridaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

State website Florida
Florida
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Florida
Florida
State Guide, from the Library of Congress Florida
Florida
Memory Project Over 300,000 photographs and documents from the State Library & Archives of Florida Online collection of the Spanish Land Grants. USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Florida Florida
Florida
Rivers and Watersheds – Florida
Florida
DEP U.S. Census Bureau Economic and farm demographics fact sheet from the USDA Energy & Environmental Data For Florida Heliconius charitonia, zebra longwing Florida
Florida
state butterfly, on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site TerraFly Property Value and Aerial Imagery Spatio-temporal animation Real Estate Trends in Florida List of searchable databases produced by Florida
Florida
state agencies hosted by the American Library Association Government Documents Roundtable

Preceded by Michigan List of U.S. states by date of statehood Admitted on March 3, 1845 (27th) Succeeded by Texas

Places adjacent to Florida

 Alabama  Georgia

Gulf of Mexico

 Florida: Outline • Index

Atlantic Ocean

Straits of Florida Pinar del Río, Artemisa, Havana, Mayabeque and Matanzas  Cuba Bimini, Grand Cay
Grand Cay
and West Grand Bahama,  The Bahamas

Topics related to Florida The Sunshine State

v t e

 State of Florida

Tallahassee
Tallahassee
(capital)

Topics

Climate Congressional districts Delegations Environment Geology Government Law Media

Newspapers Radio TV

Symbols

Flag Seal

Tourist attractions Transportation

Seal of Florida

History

Timeline Spanish Florida British Rule

East Florida West Florida

Florida
Florida
Territory Seminole
Seminole
Wars Slavery Civil War

Geography

Everglades Lake Okeechobee State forests State parks

Society

Floridians Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Indigenous peoples Politics Sports

Regions

Big Bend Central Florida Emerald Coast First Coast Florida
Florida
Heartland Florida
Florida
Keys Florida
Florida
Panhandle Forgotten Coast Glades Gold Coast Halifax area Nature Coast North Central Florida North Florida South Florida Southwest Florida Space Coast Suncoast Tampa Bay
Tampa Bay
Area Treasure Coast

Metro areas

Cape Coral–Fort Myers Deltona–Daytona Beach–Ormond Beach Fort Walton Beach–Crestview–Destin Gainesville Jacksonville Lakeland–Winter Haven Miami–Fort Lauderdale–Pompano Beach Naples–Marco Island North Port–Bradenton–Sarasota Ocala Orlando–Kissimmee–Sanford Palm Bay–Melbourne–Titusville West Palm Beach-Boca Raton Panama City–Lynn Haven–Panama City Beach Pensacola–Ferry Pass–Brent Port St. Lucie Punta Gorda Sebastian–Vero Beach Tallahassee Tampa-St. Petersburg–Clearwater

Largest cities

Jacksonville Miami Tampa Orlando St. Petersburg Hialeah Tallahassee Port St. Lucie Fort Lauderdale West Palm Beach Cape Coral Pembroke Pines Hollywood

Counties

Alachua Baker Bay Bradford Brevard Broward Calhoun Charlotte Citrus Clay Collier Columbia DeSoto Dixie Duval Escambia Flagler Franklin Gadsden Gilchrist Glades Gulf Hamilton Hardee Hendry Hernando Highlands Hillsborough Holmes Indian River Jackson Jefferson Lafayette Lake Lee Leon Levy Liberty Madison Manatee Marion Martin Miami‑Dade Monroe Nassau Okaloosa Okeechobee Orange Osceola Palm Beach Pasco Pinellas Polk Putnam Santa Rosa Sarasota Seminole St. Johns St. Lucie Sumter Suwannee Taylor Union Volusia Wakulla Walton Washington

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Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Florida

Lenny Curry
Lenny Curry
(R) (Jacksonville) Tomás Regalado (R) (Miami) Bob Buckhorn
Bob Buckhorn
(D) (Tampa) Buddy Dyer
Buddy Dyer
(D) (Orlando) Rick Kriseman (D) (St. Petersburg) Carlos Hernández (R) (Hialeah) Andrew Gillum (D) (Tallahassee) Jack Seiler
Jack Seiler
(D) (Fort Lauderdale) Gregory J. Oravec (D) (Port St. Lucie) Marni Sawicki (D) (Cape Coral) Frank C. Ortis (D) (Pembroke Pines) Peter Bober (D) (Hollywood) Wayne M. Messam (D) (Miramar) Lauren Poe (D) (Gainesville) Vincent Boccard (R) ( Coral
Coral
Springs) Oliver Gilbert III (D) ( Miami
Miami
Gardens) George Cretekos (R) (Clearwater) Guillermo "William" Capote (D) (Palm Bay) Lamar Fisher (D) (Pompano Beach) Jeri Muoio (D) (West Palm Beach) Howard Wiggs (R) (Lakeland)

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Protected areas of Florida

Federal

National Parks

Biscayne Dry Tortugas Everglades

National Memorials

De Soto Fort Caroline

National Monuments

Castillo de San Marcos Fort Matanzas

National Seashores

Canaveral Gulf Islands

National Forests

Apalachicola Choctawhatchee Ocala Osceola

National Wildlife Refuges

Archie Carr Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee Caloosahatchee Cedar Keys Chassahowitzka Crocodile Lake Crystal River Egmont Key Florida
Florida
Panther Great White Heron Hobe Sound Island Bay J.N. 'Ding' Darling Key West Lake Wales Ridge Lake Woodruff Lower Suwannee Matlacha Pass Merritt Island National Key Deer Okefenokee Passage Key Pelican Island Pine Island Pinellas St. Johns St. Marks St. Vincent Ten Thousand Islands

Other National Protected Areas

Big Cypress National Preserve Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve

National Estuarine Research Reserves and National Marine Sanctuaries

Apalachicola NERR Florida Keys
Florida Keys
NMS Guana Tolomato Matanzas NERR Rookery Bay NERR

State

Parks

Amelia Island Anastasia Avalon Bahia Honda Bald Point Big Lagoon Big Shoals Big Talbot Island Bill Baggs Cape Florida Bulow Creek Caladesi Island Camp Helen Cayo Costa Collier-Seminole Colt Creek Curry Hammock Delnor-Wiggins Pass Devil's Millhopper Don Pedro Island Eden Gardens Egmont Key Falling Waters Faver-Dykes Florida
Florida
Caverns Fort Clinch Fort Cooper Fort George Island Fort Pierce Inlet Fred Gannon Rocky Bayou Gasparilla Island George Crady Bridge Fishing Pier Grayton Beach Henderson Beach Highlands Hammock Honeymoon Island Hontoon Island Hugh Taylor Birch John D. MacArthur Beach John Pennekamp Coral
Coral
Reef John U. Lloyd Beach Jonathan Dickinson Little Talbot Island Long Key Lovers Key Mike Roess Gold Head Branch North Peninsula O'Leno Oscar Scherer Perdido Key Sebastian Inlet Skyway Fishing Pier St. Andrews St. George Island St. Joseph Peninsula Stephen Foster Folk Culture Center Stump Pass Beach Tomoka Torreya Windley Key Fossil Reef

Botanical Garden Parks

Alfred B. Maclay Gardens Dagny Johnson Key Largo Hammock Lignumvitae Key Ravine Gardens Washington Oaks

Lakes, Rivers and Springs Parks

Deer Lake Lake Griffin Lake June in Winter Scrub Lake Kissimmee Lake Louisa Lake Manatee Lake Talquin

Alafia River Blackwater River Dunns Creek Econfina River Hillsborough River Little Manatee
Manatee
River Myakka River Ochlockonee River Oleta River Suwannee River

Blue Spring De Leon Springs Edward Ball Wakulla Springs Fanning Springs Homosassa Springs Wildlife Ichetucknee Springs Lafayette Blue Springs Madison Blue Spring Manatee
Manatee
Springs Ponce de Leon Springs Rainbow Springs Silver Springs Three Rivers Troy Springs Weeki Wachee Springs Wekiwa Springs Werner-Boyce Salt Springs Wes Skiles Peacock Springs

Recreation
Recreation
Areas

Dead Lakes Gamble Rogers Memorial

Museums, Historic sites, and Archaeological sites

Cedar Key Museum Constitution Convention Museum Forest Capital Museum John Gorrie Museum Ybor City
Ybor City
Museum

The Barnacle Bulow Plantation Ruins Dade Battlefield DeSoto Site Dudley Farm Fort Foster Fort Mose Fort Zachary Taylor Gamble Plantation Indian Key Koreshan Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
Homestead Natural Bridge Battlefield Olustee Battlefield Orman House Paynes Creek San Marcos de Apalache Yellow Bluff Fort Yulee Sugar Mill Ruins

Crystal River Lake Jackson Mounds Letchworth-Love Mounds Madira Bickel Mound Mound Key San Pedro Underwater

Preserves and Reserves

Allen David Broussard Catfish Creek Anclote Key Cedar Key Scrub Charlotte Harbor Crystal River Estero Bay Fakahatchee Strand Hal Scott Kissimmee Prairie Lower Wekiva River Paynes Prairie Pumpkin Hill Creek River Rise Rock Springs Run San Felasco Hammock Savannas Seabranch St. Lucie Inlet St. Sebastian River Tarkiln Bayou Topsail Hill Tosohatchee Waccasassa Bay Yellow River Marsh

State Trails

Blackwater Heritage Florida Keys
Florida Keys
Overseas Heritage Gainesville-Hawthorne General James A. Van Fleet Marjorie Harris Carr Cross Florida
Florida
Greenway Nature Coast Palatka-Lake Butler Palatka-to-St. Augustine Tallahassee-St. Marks Historic Railroad Withlacoochee

State Forests

Belmore Big Shoals Blackwater River Carl Duval Moore Cary Charles H. Bronson Cottage Hill Deep Creek Etoniah Creek Four Creeks Goethe Holopaw Indian Lake Jennings John M. Bethea Lake George Lake Talquin Lake Wales Ridge Little Big Econ Matanzas Myakka Okaloacoochee Slough Picayune Strand Pine Log Point Washington Ralph E. Simmons Memorial Ross Prairie Seminole Tate's Hell Tiger Bay Twin Rivers Wakulla Watson Island Welaka Withlacoochee

Other

Nature centers

List of nature centers in Florida

Florida
Florida
Department of Environmental Protection

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Southern United States

Topics

Culture Cuisine Geography Economy Government and Politics History Sports

States

Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia

Major cities

Atlanta Birmingham Charleston Charlotte Columbia Dallas Fort Worth Greensboro Houston Jacksonville Little Rock Memphis Miami Nashville New Orleans Norfolk Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Orlando Raleigh Richmond Tampa Tulsa

State capitals

Atlanta Austin Baton Rouge Charleston Columbia Jackson Little Rock Montgomery Nashville Raleigh Richmond Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Tallahassee

v t e

New Spain
New Spain
(1521–1821)

Conflicts

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy in the Caribbean
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
→ Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War

Conflicts with indigenous peoples during colonial rule

Mixtón War
Mixtón War
Yaqui Wars
Yaqui Wars
Chichimeca War
Chichimeca War
Philippine revolts against Spain
Philippine revolts against Spain
Acaxee Rebellion
Acaxee Rebellion
Spanish–Moro conflict
Spanish–Moro conflict
Acoma Massacre
Acoma Massacre
Tepehuán Revolt
Tepehuán Revolt
→ Tzeltal Rebellion → Pueblo Revolt
Pueblo Revolt
Pima Revolt
Pima Revolt
→ Spanish American wars of independence

Government and administration

Central government

Habsburg Spain

Charles I Joanna of Castile Philip II Philp III Philip IV Charles II

Bourbon Spain

Philip V (also reigned after Louis I) Louis I Ferdinand VI Charles III Charles IV Ferdinand VII of Spain
Ferdinand VII of Spain
(also reigned after Joseph I)

Viceroys of New Spain

List of viceroys of New Spain

Audiencias

Guadalajara Captaincy General of Guatemala Manila Mexico Santo Domingo

Captancies General

Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Yucatán Provincias Internas

Intendancy

Havana New Orleans State of Mexico Chiapas Comayagua Nicaragua Camagüey Santiago de Cuba Guanajuato Valladolid Guadalajara Zacatecas San Luis Potosí Veracruz Puebla Oaxaca Durango Sonora Mérida, Yucatán

Politics

Viceroy Gobernaciones Adelantado Captain general Corregidor (position) Cabildo Encomienda

Treaties

Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Zaragoza Peace of Westphalia Treaty of Ryswick Treaty of Utrecht Congress of Breda Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) Treaty of Paris (1783) Treaty of Córdoba Adams–Onís Treaty

Notable cities, provinces, & territories

Cities

Mexico City Veracruz Xalapa Puebla Toluca Cuernavaca Oaxaca Morelia Acapulco Campeche Mérida Guadalajara Durango Monterrey León Guanajuato Zacatecas Pachuca Querétaro Saltillo San Luis Potosí Los Ángeles Yerba Buena (San Francisco) San José San Diego Santa Fe Albuquerque El Paso Los Adaes San Antonio Tucson Pensacola St. Augustine Havana Santo Domingo San Juan Antigua Guatemala Cebu Manila

Provinces & territories

La Florida Las Californias Santa Fe de Nuevo México Alta California Baja California Tejas Nueva Galicia Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Extremadura New Kingdom of León Cebu Bulacan Pampanga

Other areas

Spanish Formosa

Explorers, adventurers & conquistadors

Pre-New Spain explorers

Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Vasco Núñez de Balboa Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar

Explorers & conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Juan Ponce de León Nuño de Guzmán Bernal Díaz del Castillo Pedro de Alvarado Pánfilo de Narváez Hernando de Soto Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Miguel López de Legazpi Ángel de Villafañe Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Luis de Carabajal y Cueva Juan de Oñate Juan José Pérez Hernández Gaspar de Portolà Manuel Quimper Cristóbal de Oñate Andrés de Urdaneta Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador) Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua) Gil González Dávila Francisco de Ulloa Juan José Pérez Hernández Dionisio Alcalá Galiano Bruno de Heceta Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra Alonso de León Ignacio de Arteaga y Bazán José de Bustamante y Guerra José María Narváez Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Antonio Gil Y'Barbo Alexander von Humboldt Thomas Gage

Catholic Church in New Spain

Spanish missions in the Americas

Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish missions in Baja California Spanish missions in California Spanish missions in the Carolinas Spanish missions in Florida Spanish missions in Georgia Spanish missions in Louisiana Spanish missions in Mexico Spanish missions in New Mexico Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Spanish missions in Texas Spanish missions in Virginia Spanish missions in Trinidad

Friars, fathers, priests, & bishops

Pedro de Gante Gerónimo de Aguilar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia Bernardino de Sahagún Juan de Zumárraga Alonso de Montúfar Vasco de Quiroga Bartolomé de las Casas Alonso de Molina Diego Durán Diego de Landa Gerónimo de Mendieta Juan de Torquemada Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora Eusebio Kino Francisco Javier Clavijero Junípero Serra Francisco Palóu Fermín Lasuén Esteban Tápis José Francisco de Paula Señan Mariano Payeras Sebastián Montero Marcos de Niza Francisco de Ayeta Antonio Margil Francisco Marroquín Manuel Abad y Queipo Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla José María Morelos

Other events

Suppression of the Jesuits California
California
mission clash of cultures Cargo system Indian Reductions

Society and culture

Indigenous peoples

Mesoamerican

Aztec Maya Huastec Mixtec P'urhépecha Totonac Pipil Kowoj K'iche' Kaqchikel Zapotec Poqomam Mam

Caribbean

Arawak Ciboney Guanajatabey

California

Mission Indians Cahuilla Chumash Cupeño Juaneño Kumeyaay Luiseño Miwok Mohave Ohlone Serrano Tongva

Southwestern

Apache Coahuiltecan Cocopa Comanche Hopi Hualapai La Junta Navajo Pima Puebloan Quechan Solano Yaqui Zuni

North-Northwest Mexico

Acaxee Chichimeca Cochimi Kiliwa Ópata Tepehuán

Florida
Florida
& other Southeastern tribes

Indigenous people during De Soto's travels Apalachee Calusa Creek Jororo Pensacola Seminole Timucua Yustaga

Filipino people

Negrito Igorot Mangyan Peoples of Palawan Ati Panay Lumad Bajau Tagalog Cebuano

Others

Taiwanese aborigines Chamorro people

Architecture

Spanish Colonial style by country Colonial Baroque style Forts Missions

Trade & economy

Real Columbian Exchange Manila galleon Triangular trade

People & classes

Casta

Peninsulars

Criollo Indios Mestizo Castizo Coyotes Pardos Zambo Negros

People

Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Francis Drake Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Eusebio Kino La Malinche Fermín Lasuén Limahong Moctezuma II Junípero Serra Hasekura Tsunenaga

New Spain
New Spain
Portal

v t e

Political divisions of the Confederate States (1861–65)

States

Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia

West Virginia1

States in exile

Kentucky Missouri

Territory

Arizona2

1 Admitted to the Union June 20, 1863. 2 Organized January 18, 1862.

v t e

Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 28°06′N 81°36′W / 28.1°N 81.6°W / 28.1; -81.6

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 135974315 LCCN: n79053995 GND: 4017585-6 SELIBR: 14

.