HOME
ListMoto - First French Republic


--- Advertisement ---



In the history of France , the FIRST REPUBLIC, officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (French: République française), was founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution . The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon , although the form of the government changed several times. This period was characterized by the fall of the monarchy , the establishment of the National Convention and the Reign of Terror , the Thermidorian Reaction and the founding of the Directory , and, finally, the creation of the Consulate and Napoleon's rise to power.

CONTENTS

* 1 End of the monarchy in France * 2 The National Convention * 3 The Directory * 4 The Consulate * 5 See also * 6 References

END OF THE MONARCHY IN FRANCE

Under the Legislative Assembly , which was in power before the proclamation of the First Republic, France was engaged in war with Prussia and Austria . In July 1792, the Duke of Brunswick, commanding general of the Austro–Prussian Army, issued his Brunswick Manifesto , in which he threatened the destruction of Paris should any harm come to King Louis XVI . The foreign threat exacerbated France's political turmoil amid the French Revolution and deepened the passion and sense of urgency among the various factions. In the violence of 10 August 1792 , citizens stormed the Tuileries Palace , killing six hundred of the King's Swiss guards and insisting on the removal of the king. A renewed fear of anti-revolutionary action prompted further violence, and in the first week of September 1792, mobs of Parisians broke into the city's prisons, killing over half of the prisoners. This included nobles, clergymen, and political prisoners, but also numerous common criminals, such as prostitutes and petty thieves, many murdered in their cells—raped, stabbed, and slashed to death. This became known as the September Massacres .

PART OF A SERIES ON THE

HISTORY OF FRANCE

Prehistory

* Palaeolithic * Mesolithic * Neolithic * Copper Age * Bronze Age * Iron Age

Ancient

Greek colonies

Celtic Gaul until 50 BC

Roman Gaul 50 BC – 486 AD

Early Middle Ages

Franks

Merovingians 481–751

Carolingians 751–987

Middle Ages

Direct Capetians 987–1328

Valois 1328–1498

Early modern

* Ancien Régime

Valois-Orléans 1498–1515

Valois-Angoulême 1515–89

Bourbon 1589–1792

Long 19th century

French Revolution 1789–1799

Kingdom of France 1791–92

First Republic 1792–1804

First Empire 1804–14

Restoration 1814–30

July Monarchy 1830–1848

Second Republic 1848–52

Second Empire 1852–70

Third Republic 1870–1940

20th century

Third Republic 1870–1940

* Free France * Vichy France

1940–44

Provisional Republic 1944–46

Fourth Republic 1946–58

Fifth Republic 1958–present

TIMELINE

France portal

* v * t * e

THE NATIONAL CONVENTION

Main article: National Convention

As a result of the spike in public violence and the political instability of the constitutional monarchy, a party of six members of France's Legislative Assembly was assigned the task of overseeing elections. The resulting Convention was founded with the dual purpose of abolishing the monarchy and drafting a new constitution. The Convention's first act, on 10 August 1792, was to establish the French First Republic and officially strip the king of all political powers. The King, by then a private citizen bearing his family name of Capet , was subsequently put on trial for crimes of high treason starting in December 1792. On 16 January 1793 he was convicted, and on 21 January, he was executed by guillotine .

Throughout the winter of 1792 and spring of 1793, Paris was plagued by food riots and mass hunger. The new Convention did little to remedy the problem until late spring of 1793, occupied instead with matters of war. Finally, on 6 April 1793, the Convention created the Committee of Public Safety , and was given a monumental task: "To deal with the radical movements of the Enragés , food shortages and riots, the revolt in the Vendée and in Brittany , recent defeats of its armies, and the desertion of its commanding general." Most notably, the Committee of Public Safety instated a policy of terror, and the guillotine began to fall on perceived enemies of the republic at an ever-increasing rate, beginning the period known today as the Reign of Terror .

Despite growing discontent with the National Convention as a ruling body, in June the Convention drafted the Constitution of 1793 , which was ratified by popular vote in early August. However, the Committee of Public Safety was seen as an "emergency" government, and the rights guaranteed by the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and the new constitution were suspended under its control. The Committee's laws and policies took the revolution to unprecedented heights.

THE DIRECTORY

After the arrest and execution of Robespierre in July 1794, the Jacobin club was closed, and the surviving Girondins were reinstated. A year later, the National Convention adopted the Constitution of the Year III . They reestablished freedom of worship, began releasing large numbers of prisoners, and most importantly, initiated elections for a new legislative body. On 3 November 1795, the Directory was established. Under this system, France was led by a bicameral Parliament, consisting of an upper chamber called the Council of Elders (with 250 members) and a lower chamber called the Council of Five Hundred (with, accordingly, 500 members), and a collective Executive of five members called the Directory (from which the historical period gets its name). Due to internal instability, caused by hyperinflation of the paper monies called Assignats , and French military disasters in 1798 and 1799, the Directory lasted only four years, until overthrown in 1799.

THE CONSULATE

Napoleon Bonaparte seizes power during the Coup of 18 Brumaire

The period known as the French Consulate began with the coup of 18 Brumaire in 1799. Members of the Directory itself planned the coup, indicating clearly the failing power of the Directory. Napoleon Bonaparte was a co-conspirator in the coup, and became head of the government as the First Consul. He would later proclaim himself Emperor of the French, ending the First French Republic and ushering in the French First Empire .

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to FRENCH FIRST REPUBLIC .

* French Republican Calendar

REFERENCES

* ^ Mould, Michael (2011). The Routledge Dictionary of Cultural References in Modern French. New York: Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-136-82573-6 . Retrieved 23 November 2011. * ^ Censer, Jack R. and Hunt, Lynn. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004. * ^ Doyle, William. The Oxford History of The French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. pp 191–92. * ^ Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. pp 196. * ^ The French Revolution : liberté, egalité, fraternité, a hitler Jr. is born in blood / produced written by Doug Shultz, Hilary Sio, Thomas Emil. : History Channel : Distributed in the U.S. by New Video, 2005. * ^ J.E. Sandrock: "Bank notes of the French Revolution" and First Republic * ^ "Paris: Capital of the 19th Century". library.brown.edu. Retrieved 2017-02-01.

* v * t * e

French Revolution

* CAUSES * TIMELINE * ANCIEN RéGIME * REVOLUTION * CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY * REPUBLIC * DIRECTORY * CONSULATE * GLOSSARY

SIGNIFICANT CIVIL AND POLITICAL EVENTS BY YEAR

1788

* Day of the Tiles (7 Jun 1788) * Assembly of Vizille (21 Jul 1788)

1789

* What Is the Third Estate? (Jan 1789) * Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) * Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) * National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) * Tennis Court Oath (20 Jun 1789) * National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) * Storming of the Bastille (14 Jul 1789) * Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) * Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) * Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (27 Aug 1789) * Women\'s March on Versailles (5 Oct 1789)

1790

* Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) * Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) * Civil Constitution of the Clergy (12 Jul 1790)

1791

* Flight to Varennes (20–21 Jun 1791) * Champ de Mars Massacre (17 Jul 1791) * Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) * The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) * Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

* France declares war (20 Apr 1792) * Brunswick Manifesto (25 Jul 1792) * Paris Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) * 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) * September Massacres (Sep 1792) * National Convention (20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) * First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

* Execution of Louis XVI (21 Jan 1793) * Revolutionary Tribunal (9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795)

* Reign of Terror (27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

* Committee of Public Safety * Committee of General Security

* Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) * Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) * Levée en masse (23 Aug 1793) * Law of Suspects (17 Sep 1793) * Marie Antoinette is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) * Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

* Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) * Law of 22 Prairial (10 Jun 1794) * Thermidorian Reaction (27 Jul 1794) * Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) * White Terror (Fall 1794) * Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

* Constitution of the Year III (22 Aug 1795) * Conspiracy of the Equals (Nov 1795)

* Directoire (1795–99)

* Council of Five Hundred * Council of Ancients

1797

* Coup of 18 Fructidor (4 Sep 1797) * Second Congress of Rastatt (Dec 1797)

1799

* Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) * Coup of 18 Brumaire (9 Nov 1799) * Constitution of the Year VIII (24 Dec 1799) * Consulate

REVOLUTIONARY CAMPAIGNS

1792

* Verdun * Thionville * Valmy

* Royalist Revolts

* Chouannerie * Vendée * Dauphiné

* Lille * Siege of Mainz * Jemappes * Namur (fr)

1793

* First Coalition * Siege of Toulon (18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) * War in the Vendée * Battle of Neerwinden) * Battle of Famars (23 May 1793) * Capture of San Pietro and Sant\'Antioco (25 May 1793) * Battle of Kaiserslautern * Siege of Mainz * Battle of Wattignies * Battle of Hondschoote * Siege of Bellegarde * Battle of Peyrestortes (Pyrenees) * First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) * Battle of Truillas (Pyrenees) * Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

* Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies (24 Apr 1794) * Battle of Boulou (Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) * Battle of Tournay (22 May 1794) * Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) * Chouannerie * Battle of Tourcoing (18 May 1794) * Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

* Peace of Basel

1796

* Battle of Lonato (3–4 Aug 1796) * Battle of Castiglione (5 Aug 1796) * Battle of Theiningen * Battle of Neresheim (11 Aug 1796) * Battle of Amberg (24 Aug 1796) * Battle of Würzburg (3 Sep 1796) * Battle of Rovereto (4 Sep 1796) * First Battle of Bassano (8 Sep 1796) * Battle of Emmendingen (19 Oct 1796) * Battle of Schliengen (26 Oct 1796) * Second Battle of Bassano (6 Nov 1796) * Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) * Battle of the Bridge of Arcole (15–17 Nov 1796) * The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

* Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) * Battle of Rivoli (14–15 Jan 1797) * Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) * Treaty of Leoben (17 Apr 1797) * Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) * Treaty of Campo Formio (17 Oct 1797)

1798

* French invasion of Switzerland (28 January – 17 May 1798) * French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) * Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) * Quasi-War (1798–1800) * Peasants\' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

* Second Coalition (1798–1802) * Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) * Battle of Ostrach (20–21 Mar 1799) * Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) * Battle of Magnano (5 Apr 1799) * Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) * First Battle of Zurich (4–7 Jun 1799) * Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) * Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) * Second Battle of Zurich (25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

* Battle of Marengo (14 Jun 1800) * Battle of Hohenlinden (3 Dec 1800) * League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

* Treaty of Lunéville (9 Feb 1801) * Treaty of Florence (18 Mar 1801) * Algeciras Campaign (8 Jul 1801)

1802

* Treaty of Amiens (25 Mar 1802)

MILITARY LEADERS

FRENCH ARMY

* Eustache Charles d\'Aoust * Pierre Augereau * Alexandre de Beauharnais * Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte * Louis-Alexandre Berthier * Jean-Baptiste Bessières * Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune * Jean François Carteaux * Jean Étienne Championnet * Chapuis de Tourville * Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine * Louis-Nicolas Davout * Louis Desaix * Jacques François Dugommier * Thomas-Alexandre Dumas * Charles François Dumouriez * Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino * Louis-Charles de Flers * Paul Grenier * Emmanuel de Grouchy * Jacques Maurice Hatry * Lazare Hoche * Jean-Baptiste Jourdan * François Christophe de Kellermann * Jean-Baptiste Kléber * Pierre Choderlos de Laclos * Jean Lannes * Charles Leclerc * Claude Lecourbe * François Joseph Lefebvre * Jacques MacDonald * Jean-Antoine Marbot * Jean Baptiste de Marbot * François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers * Auguste de Marmont * André Masséna * Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey * Jean Victor Marie Moreau * Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise * Joachim Murat * Michel Ney * Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) * Nicolas Oudinot * Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon * Jean-Charles Pichegru * Józef Poniatowski * Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr * Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer * Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier * Joseph Souham * Jean-de-Dieu Soult * Louis-Gabriel Suchet * Belgrand de Vaubois * Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

FRENCH NAVY

* Charles-Alexandre Linois

OPPOSITION

AUSTRIA

* József Alvinczi * Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen * Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) * Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg * Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze (Swiss) * Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth * Pál Kray (Hungarian) * Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc (French) * Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) * Karl Mack von Leiberich * Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) * Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld * Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich * Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen * Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló (Hungarian) * Karl Philipp Sebottendorf * Dagobert von Wurmser

BRITAIN

* Sir Ralph Abercromby * Admiral Sir James Saumarez * Admiral Sir Edward Pellew * Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

DUTCH REPUBLIC

* William V, Prince of Orange

PRUSSIA

* Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel * Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

RUSSIA

* Alexander Korsakov * Alexander Suvorov

SPAIN

* Luis Firmin de Carvajal * Antonio Ricardos

OTHER SIGNIFICANT FIGURES AND FACTIONS

SOCIETY OF 1789

* Jean Sylvain Bailly * Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette * François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt * Isaac René Guy le Chapelier * Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau * Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès * Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord * Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

* Madame de Lamballe * Madame du Barry * Louis de Breteuil * Loménie de Brienne * Charles Alexandre de Calonne * de Chateaubriand * Jean Chouan * Grace Elliott * Arnaud de La Porte * Jean-Sifrein Maury * Jacques Necker * François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy * Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas * Antoine Barnave * Lafayette * Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth * Charles Malo François Lameth * André Chénier * Jean-François Rewbell * Camille Jordan * Madame de Staël * Boissy d\'Anglas * Jean-Charles Pichegru * Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

GIRONDISTS

* Jacques Pierre Brissot * Roland de La Platière * Madame Roland * Father Henri Grégoire * Étienne Clavière * Marquis de Condorcet * Charlotte Corday * Marie Jean Hérault * Jean Baptiste Treilhard * Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud * Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac * Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve * Jean Debry * Jean-Jacques Duval d\'Eprémesnil * Olympe de Gouges * Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet * Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

THE PLAIN

* Abbé Sieyès * de Cambacérès * Charles François Lebrun * Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot * Philippe Égalité * Louis Philippe I * Mirabeau * Antoine Christophe Merlin de Thionville * Jean Joseph Mounier * Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours * François de Neufchâteau

MONTAGNARDS

* Maximilien Robespierre * Georges Danton * Jean-Paul Marat * Camille Desmoulins * Louis Antoine de Saint-Just * Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras * Louis Philippe I * Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau * Jacques-Louis David * Marquis de Sade * Jacques-Louis David * Georges Couthon * Roger Ducos * Jean-Marie Collot d\'Herbois * Jean-Henri Voulland * Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai * Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville * Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas * Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier * Jean-Pierre-André Amar * Prieur de la Côte-d\'Or * Prieur de la Marne * Gilbert Romme * Jean Bon Saint-André * Jean-Lambert Tallien * Pierre Louis Prieur * Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac * Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

* Jacques Hébert * Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne * Pierre Gaspard Chaumette * Charles-Philippe Ronsin * Antoine-François Momoro * François-Nicolas Vincent * François Chabot * Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte * Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel * François Hanriot * Jacques Roux * Stanislas-Marie Maillard * Charles-Philippe Ronsin * Jean-François Varlet * Theophile Leclerc * Claire Lacombe * Pauline Léon * Gracchus Babeuf * Sylvain Maréchal

OTHERS

* Charles X * Louis XVI * Louis XVII * Louis XVIII * Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien * Louis Henri, Prince of Condé * Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé * Marie Antoinette * Napoléon Bonaparte * Lucien Bonaparte * Joseph Bonaparte * Joseph Fesch * Joséphine de Beauharnais * Joachim Murat * Jean Sylvain Bailly * Jacques-Donatien Le Ray * Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes * Talleyrand * Thérésa Tallien * Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target * Catherine Théot * List of people associated with the French Revolution

INFLUENTIAL THINKERS

* Les Lumières * Beaumarchais * Edmund Burke * Anacharsis Cloots * Charles-Augustin de Coulomb * Pierre Claude François Daunou * Diderot * Benjamin Franklin * Thomas Jefferson * Antoine Lavoisier * Montesquieu * Thomas Paine * Jean-Jacques Rousseau * Abbé Sieyès * Voltaire * Mary Wollstonecraft

CULTURAL IMPACT

* La Marseillaise * French Tricolour * Liberté, égalité, fraternité * Marianne * Bastille Day * Panthéon * French Republican Calendar * Cult of the Supreme Being

* Cult of Reason

* Temple of Reason

* Sans-culottes * Metric system * Phrygian cap * Women in the French Revolution * Symbolism in the French Revolution * Historiography of the French Revolution * Influence of the French Revolution

* v * t * e

France topics

HISTORY

PERIODS

* Timeline * Prehistory * Celtic Gaul * Roman Gaul * Kingdom of the Visigoths

* Francia

* West Francia

* Middle Ages * Early modern era

* Long nineteenth century

* Revolutionary era * Napoleonic era * Belle Époque

* Twentieth century

REGIMES

* Absolute monarchy

* Ancien Régime

* First Republic * First Empire

* Constitutional monarchy

* Bourbon Restoration * July Monarchy

* Second Republic * Second Empire * Third Republic

* France during the Second World War

* Free France * Vichy France * Provisional Republic

* Fourth Republic * Fifth Republic

GEOGRAPHY

* Administrative divisions * Cities * Climate * Extreme points * Islands * Lakes * Mountains * Rivers

POLITICS

* Constitution

* Elections

* presidential

* Foreign relations * Government

* Human rights

* Intersex * LGBT

* Judiciary

* Law

* enforcement

* Military * Parliament * Political parties

ECONOMY

* Agriculture

* Banking

* Central bank

* Economic history * Energy * Euro * Exports * Franc (former currency) * French subdivisions by GDP * Stock exchange * Taxation * Telecommunications * Tourism * Trade unions * Transport

SOCIETY

* Crime * Demographics * Education * Health care * People * Poverty * Religion * Social class * Welfare

CULTURE

* Architecture * Art * Cinema (comedy ) * Cuisine * Fashion * Gardens * Language * Literature * Media * Music * Philosophy * Public holidays * Sport * Symbols * Theatre

* Outline

* Book * Category * Portal * WikiProject

Coordinates : 48°52′00″N 2°19′59″E / 48.86667°N 2.33306°E /

.