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French Revolutionary Wars

 •  Constitution adopted 18 May 1804

 •  Coronation of Napoleon
Napoleon
I 2 December 1804

 •  Treaty of Tilsit 7 July 1807

 •  Invasion of Russia 24 June 1812

 •  Treaty of Fontainebleau 11 April 1814

 •  Hundred Days 20 March – 7 July 1815

Area

 •  1812 [4] 860,000 km2 (330,000 sq mi)

Population

 •  1812 est. 44,000,000 

Currency French franc

Preceded by Succeeded by

French First Republic

Kingdom of Holland

Ligurian Republic

Andorra

First Restoration

Kingdom of France

Principality of the Netherlands

Moresnet

Luxembourg

Tuscany

Andorra

The First French Empire[1] (French: Empire
Empire
FrançaisNote 1) was the empire of Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte of France
France
and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France
France
had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire
Empire
because he was the first ruler of France
France
since the days of the Franks
Franks
to take an imperial title. On 18 May 1804, Napoleon
Napoleon
was granted the title Emperor
Emperor
of the French (L'Empereur des Français, pronounced [lɑ̃.pʁœʁ de fʁɑ̃.sɛ]) by the French Sénat and was crowned on 2 December 1804,[5] signifying the end of the French Consulate
French Consulate
and of the French First Republic. The French Empire
Empire
earned a few notable victories in the War of the Third Coalition
War of the Third Coalition
against Austria, Prussia, Russia, Portugal, and allied nations, notably at the Battle of Austerlitz
Battle of Austerlitz
in 1805.[6] Additionally, during the War of the Fourth Coalition, it won the Battle of Friedland
Battle of Friedland
in 1807.[7] A series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence to much of Western Europe and into Poland. At its height in 1812, the French Empire
Empire
had 130 departments, ruled over 70 million subjects, maintained an extensive military presence in Germany, Italy, Spain, and the Duchy of Warsaw, and counted Prussia and Austria as nominal allies.[8] Early French victories exported many ideological features of the French Revolution
French Revolution
throughout Europe: the introduction of the Napoleonic Code
Napoleonic Code
throughout the continent increased legal equality, established jury systems and legalised divorce, and seigneurial dues and seigneurial justice were abolished, as were aristocratic privileges in all places except Poland.[9]

Contents

1 Origin 2 Early victories 3 Height of the Empire 4 Intrigues and unrest 5 The Fall 6 Nature of Bonaparte's rule 7 Maps 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading

11.1 Surveys 11.2 Napoleon 11.3 Military

12 External links

Origin[edit] Main articles: 18 Brumaire
18 Brumaire
and French Consulate In 1799, Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte was confronted by Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès – one of five Directors constituting the executive branch of the French government—who sought his support for a coup d'état to overthrow the Constitution of the Year III. The plot included Bonaparte's brother Lucien, then serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, and Talleyrand. On 9 November 1799 ( 18 Brumaire
18 Brumaire
(VIII under the French Republican Calendar)) and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control.[clarification needed] They dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sieyès and Ducos as provisional Consuls to administer the government. Although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, the Consulate, he was outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul. He thus became the most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the Constitution of the Year X, which made him First Consul for life. The Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 June 1800) inaugurated the political idea that was to continue its development until Napoleon's Moscow campaign. Napoleon
Napoleon
planned only to keep the Duchy of Milan
Duchy of Milan
for France, setting aside Austria, and was thought[by whom?] to prepare a new campaign in the East. The Peace of Amiens, which cost him control of Egypt, was a temporary truce. He gradually extended his authority in Italy
Italy
by annexing the Piedmont and by acquiring Genoa, Parma, Tuscany and Naples, and added this Italian territory to his Cisalpine Republic. Then he laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of 1801 to control the material claims of the pope. When he recognised his error of raising the authority of the pope from that of a figurehead, Napoleon
Napoleon
produced the Articles Organiques (1802) with the goal of becoming the legal protector of the papacy, like Charlemagne. To conceal his plans before their actual execution, he aroused French colonial aspirations against Britain and the memory of the 1763 Treaty of Paris, exacerbating British envy of France, whose borders now extended to the Rhine
Rhine
and beyond, to Hanover, Hamburg and Cuxhaven. Napoleon
Napoleon
would have ruling elites from a fusion of the new bourgeoisie and the old aristocracy.[10] On 12 May 1802, the French Tribunat voted unanimously, with the exception of Carnot, in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader of France.[11][12] This action was confirmed by the Corps Législatif. A general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,653,600 votes aye and 8,272 votes nay.[13] On 2 August 1802 (14 Thermidor, An X), Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte was proclaimed Consul for life.

Napoleon
Napoleon
I on his Imperial Throne by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, 1806

Pro-revolutionary sentiment swept through Germany
Germany
aided by the "Recess of 1803", which brought Bavaria, Württemberg
Württemberg
and Baden
Baden
to France's side. William Pitt the Younger, back in power over Britain, appealed once more for an Anglo-Austro-Russian coalition against Napoleon
Napoleon
to stop the ideals of revolutionary France
France
from spreading. On 18 May 1804, Napoleon
Napoleon
was given the title of " Emperor
Emperor
of the French" by the Senate; finally, on 2 December 1804, he was solemnly crowned, after receiving the Iron Crown of the Lombard kings, and was consecrated by Pope
Pope
Pius VII
Pius VII
in Notre-Dame de Paris.Note 3 In four campaigns, the Emperor
Emperor
transformed his "Carolingian" feudal republican and federal empire into one modelled on the Roman Empire. The memories of imperial Rome were for a third time, after Julius Caesar and Charlemagne, used to modify the historical evolution of France. Though the vague plan for an invasion of Great Britain was never executed, the Battle of Ulm
Battle of Ulm
and the Battle of Austerlitz overshadowed the defeat of Trafalgar, and the camp at Boulogne put at Napoleon's disposal the best military resources he had commanded, in the form of La Grande Armée. Early victories[edit] In the War of the Third Coalition, Napoleon
Napoleon
swept away the remnants of the old Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and created in southern Germany
Germany
the vassal states of Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hesse-Darmstadt and Saxony, which were reorganized into the Confederation of the Rhine. The Treaty of Pressburg, signed on 26 December 1805, extracted extensive territorial concessions from Austria, on top of a large financial indemnity. Napoleon's creation of the Kingdom of Italy, the occupation of Ancona, and his annexation of Venetia and its former Adriatic territories marked a new stage in his Empire's progress.

The Battle of Austerlitz

To create satellite states, Napoleon
Napoleon
installed his relatives as rulers of many European states. The Bonapartes began to marry into old European monarchies, gaining sovereignty over many nations. Joseph Bonaparte replaced the dispossessed Bourbons in Naples; Louis Bonaparte was installed on the throne of the Kingdom of Holland, formed from the Batavian Republic; Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
became Grand-Duke of Berg; Jérôme Bonaparte
Jérôme Bonaparte
was made son-in-law to the King of Württemberg; and Eugène de Beauharnais was appointed to be the King of Bavaria
Bavaria
while Stéphanie de Beauharnais
Stéphanie de Beauharnais
married the son of the Grand Duke of Baden. In addition to the vassal titles, Napoleon's closest relatives were also granted the title of French Prince and formed the Imperial House of France. Met with opposition, Napoleon
Napoleon
would not tolerate any neutral power. On 6 August 1806 the Habsburgs abdicated their title of Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
in order to prevent Napoleon
Napoleon
from becoming the next Emperor, ending a political power which had endured for over a thousand years. Prussia
Prussia
had been offered the territory of Hanover
Hanover
to stay out of the Third Coalition. With the diplomatic situation changing, Napoleon offered Great Britain the province as part of a peace proposal. This, combined with growing tensions in Germany
Germany
over French hegemony, Prussia
Prussia
responded by forming an alliance with Russia
Russia
and sending troops into Bavaria
Bavaria
on 1 October 1806. In this War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon
Napoleon
destroyed the armies of Frederick William at Jena-Auerstedt. Successive victories at Eylau and Friedland against the Russians finally ruined Frederick the Great's formerly mighty kingdom, obliging Russia
Russia
and Prussia
Prussia
to make peace with France
France
at Tilsit. Height of the Empire[edit]

The Arc de Triomphe, ordered by Napoleon
Napoleon
in honour of his Grande Armée, is one of the several landmarks whose construction was started in Paris
Paris
during the First French Empire.

The Treaties of Tilsit
Treaties of Tilsit
ended the war between Russia
Russia
and the French Empire
Empire
and began an alliance between the two empires that held power of much of the rest of Europe. The two empires secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes. France
France
pledged to aid Russia
Russia
against Ottoman Turkey, while Russia
Russia
agreed to join the Continental System
Continental System
against the British Empire. Napoleon
Napoleon
also forced Alexander to enter the Anglo-Russian War and to instigate the Finnish War
Finnish War
against Sweden in order to force Sweden to join the Continental System. More specifically, the Tsar agreed to evacuate Wallachia
Wallachia
and Moldavia, which had been occupied by Russian forces as part of the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–1812. The Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
and Cattaro, which had been captured by Russian admirals Ushakov and Senyavin, were to be handed over to the French. In recompense, Napoleon
Napoleon
guaranteed the sovereignty of the Duchy of Oldenburg
Duchy of Oldenburg
and several other small states ruled by the Tsar's German relatives. The treaty removed about half of Prussia's territory: Cottbus
Cottbus
passed to Saxony, the left bank of the Elbe
Elbe
was awarded to the newly created Kingdom of Westphalia, Białystok
Białystok
was given to Russia, and the rest of Polish lands in the Prussian possession were set up as the Duchy of Warsaw. Prussia
Prussia
was ordered to reduce their army to 40,000 and to pay an indemnity of 100,000,000 francs. Observers in Prussia
Prussia
viewed the treaty as unfair and as a national humiliation.

Napoleon
Napoleon
reviews the Imperial Guard before the Battle of Jena, 1806

Talleyrand
Talleyrand
had advised Napoleon
Napoleon
to pursue milder terms; the treaties marked an important stage in his estrangement from the emperor. After the Treaties of Tilsit, instead of trying to reconcile Europe, as Talleyrand
Talleyrand
had advised, Napoleon
Napoleon
wanted to defeat Britain and complete his Italian dominion. To the coalition of the northern powers, he added the league of the Baltic and Mediterranean ports, and to the bombardment of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
by a Royal Navy
Royal Navy
fleet he responded by a second decree of blockade, dated from Milan on 17 December 1807. The application of the Concordat and the taking of Naples
Naples
led to the first struggles with the Pope, centered around Pius VII
Pius VII
renewing the theocratic affirmations of Pope
Pope
Gregory VII. The Emperor's Roman ambition was made more visible by the occupation of the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
and of the Marches, and by the entry of Miollis into Rome; while Junot invaded Portugal, Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
took control of formerly Roman Spain, whither Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte
transferred afterwards. Napoleon
Napoleon
tried to succeed in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
as he had done in Italy, in the Netherlands, and in Hesse. However, the exile of the Royal Family to Bayonne, together with the enthroning of Joseph Bonaparte, turned the Spanish against Napoleon. After the Dos de Mayo riots and subsequent reprisals, the Spanish government began an effective guerrilla campaign, under the oversight of a local Juntas. The Peninsula became a war zone from the Pyrenees to the Straits of Gibraltar and saw Imperial Armies facing the remnants of the Spanish Army, as well as British and Portuguese Forces. Dupont capitulated at Bailén to General Castaños, and Junot at Sintra, Portugal to General Wellesley.

Aftermath of the Battle of Eylau, 1807

Spain
Spain
used up the soldiers needed for Napoleon's other fields of battle, and they had to be replaced by conscripts. Spanish resistance affected Austria, and indicated the potential of national resistance. The provocations of Talleyrand
Talleyrand
and Britain strengthened the idea that Austrians could emulate the Spaniards. On April 10, 1809, Austria invaded France's ally, Bavaria. The campaign of 1809, however, would not be nearly as long and troublesome for France
France
as the Spanish one. After a short and decisive action in Bavaria, Napoleon
Napoleon
opened up the road to Vienna
Vienna
for a second time. At Aspern-Essling, Napoleon
Napoleon
suffered his first serious tactical defeat, along with the death of Jean Lannes, an able Marshall and dear friend of the Emperor. The victory at Wagram, however, forced Austria to sue for peace. The Treaty of Schönbrunn, 14 December 1809, annexed the Illyrian Provinces
Illyrian Provinces
and recognized past French conquests. The Pope
Pope
was forcibly deported to Savona, and his domains were incorporated into the Empire. The Senate's decision on 17 February 1810 created the title of King of Rome, and made Rome the capital of Italy. Between 1810 and 1812 Napoleon's divorce of Joséphine, and his marriage with Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria, followed by the birth of the king of Rome, shed light upon his future policy. He gradually withdrew power from his siblings and concentrated his affection and ambition on his son, the guarantee of the continuance of his dynasty. This was the high point of the empire. Intrigues and unrest[edit] Undermining forces, however, had already begun to impinge on the faults inherent in Napoleon’s achievements. Britain, protected by the English Channel and its navy, was persistently active, and rebellion of both the governing and of the governed broke out everywhere. Napoleon, though he underrated it, soon felt his failure in coping with the Spanish uprising. Men like Baron von Stein, August von Hardenberg and Johann von Scharnhorst had secretly started preparing Prussia's retaliation.

Napoleon
Napoleon
demanded that Alexander I of Russia
Russia
and Frederick William III of Prussia
Prussia
meet him at Tilsit in July 1807

The alliance arranged at Tilsit was seriously shaken by the Austrian marriage, the threat of Polish restoration to Russia, and the Continental System. The very persons whom he had placed in power were counteracting his plans. With many of his siblings and relations performing unsuccessfully or even betraying him, Napoleon
Napoleon
found himself obliged to revoke their power. Caroline Bonaparte
Caroline Bonaparte
conspired against her brother and against her husband Murat; the hypochondriac Louis, now Dutch in his sympathies, found the supervision of the blockade taken from him, and also the defense of the Scheldt, which he had refused to ensure. Jérôme Bonaparte
Jérôme Bonaparte
lost control of the blockade on North Sea
North Sea
shores. The very nature of things was against the new dynasties, as it had been against the old. After national insurrections and family recriminations came treachery from Napoleon's ministers. Talleyrand
Talleyrand
betrayed his designs to Metternich and suffered dismissal. Joseph Fouché, corresponding with Austria in 1809 and 1810, entered into an understanding with Louis and also with Britain, while Bourrienne
Bourrienne
was convicted of speculation. By consequence of the spirit of conquest Napoleon
Napoleon
had aroused, many of his marshals and officials, having tasted victory, dreamed of sovereign power: Bernadotte, who had helped him to the Consulate, played Napoleon
Napoleon
false to win the crown of Sweden. Soult, like Murat, coveted the Spanish throne after that of Portugal, thus anticipating the treason of 1812. The country itself, though flattered by conquests, was tired of self-sacrifice. The unpopularity of conscription policies gradually turned many of Napoleon’s subjects against him. Amidst profound silence from the press and the assemblies, a protest was raised against imperial power by the literary world, against the excommunicated sovereign by Catholicism, and against the author of the continental blockade by the discontented bourgeoisie, ruined by the crisis of 1811. Even as he lost his military principles, Napoleon maintained his gift for brilliance. His Six Days Campaign, which took place at the very end of the Sixth Coalition, is often regarded as his greatest display of leadership and military prowess. But by then it was the end (or "the finish"), and it was during the years before when the nations of Europe conspired against France. While the Emperor
Emperor
and his holdings idled and worsened, the rest of Europe agreed to avenge the revolutionary events of 1792. The Fall[edit] Main articles: Napoleon's Invasion of Russia, Sixth Coalition, and Hundred Days

Napoleon
Napoleon
and his staff during the War of the Sixth Coalition, 1812–14.

Napoleon
Napoleon
had hardly succeeded in putting down the revolt in Germany when the Tsar of Russia
Russia
himself headed a European insurrection against Napoleon. To put a stop to this, to ensure his own access to the Mediterranean and exclude his chief rival, Napoleon
Napoleon
made an effort in 1812 against Russia. Despite his victorious advance, the taking of Smolensk, the victory on the Moskva, and the entry into Moscow, he was defeated by the country and the climate, and by Alexander's refusal to make terms. After this came the terrible retreat in the harsh Russian winter, while all Europe was concentrating against him. Pushed back, as he had been in Spain, from bastion to bastion, after the action on the Berezina, Napoleon
Napoleon
had to fall back upon the frontiers of 1809, and then—having refused the peace offered to him by Austria at the Congress of Prague (4 June–10 August 1813), from a dread of losing Italy, where each of his victories had marked a stage in the accomplishment of his dream—on those of 1805, despite Lützen and Bautzen, and on those of 1802 after his defeat at Leipzig, when Bernadotte – now Crown Prince of Sweden – turned upon him, General Moreau also joined the Allies, and longstanding allied nations, such as Saxony
Saxony
and Bavaria, forsook him as well. Following his retreat from Russia, Napoleon
Napoleon
continued to retreat, this time from Germany. After the loss of Spain, reconquered by an allied army led by Wellington, the rising in the Netherlands
Netherlands
preliminary to the invasion and the manifesto of Frankfort (1 December 1813)[14] which proclaimed it, he had to fall back upon the frontiers of 1795; and then later was driven yet farther back upon those of 1792—despite the brilliant campaign of 1814 against the invaders. Paris
Paris
capitulated on 30 March 1814, and the Delenda Carthago, pronounced against Britain, was spoken of Napoleon. The Empire
Empire
briefly fell with Napoleon's abdication at Fontainebleau on 11 April 1814. After a brief exile at the island of Elba, Napoleon
Napoleon
escaped, with a ship, a few men, and four cannons. The King sent Marshal Ney to arrest him. Upon meeting Ney's army, Napoleon
Napoleon
dismounted and walked into firing range, saying "If one of you wishes to kill his emperor, here I am!" But instead of firing, they went to join Napoleon's side shouting "Vive l'Empereur!" Napoleon
Napoleon
recaptured the throne temporarily in 1815, reviving the Empire
Empire
in what is known as the Hundred Days. However, he was defeated by the Seventh Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo. He surrendered himself to the Coalition and was exiled to Saint Helena, a remote island in the South Atlantic, where he remained until his death in 1821. After the Hundred Days
Hundred Days
(just less than a third of a year), the Bourbon monarchy was restored, with Louis XVIII regaining the throne of France, while the rest of Napoleon's conquests were disposed of in the Congress of Vienna. Nature of Bonaparte's rule[edit]

Organigramme of the Consulate and later the Empire

The Napoleonic Code.

Napoleon
Napoleon
gained support by appealing to some common concerns of French people. These included dislike of the emigrant nobility who had escaped persecution, fear by some of a restoration of the Ancien Régime, a dislike and suspicion of foreign countries that had tried to reverse the Revolution – and a wish by Jacobins to extend France's revolutionary ideals. Napoleon
Napoleon
attracted power and imperial status and gathered support for his changes of French institutions, such as the Concordat of 1801 which confirmed the Catholic Church as the majority church of France and restored some of its civil status. Napoleon
Napoleon
by this time however was not a democrat, nor a republican. He was, he liked to think, an enlightened despot, the sort of man Voltaire
Voltaire
might have found appealing. He preserved numerous social gains of the Revolution while suppressing political liberty. He admired efficiency and strength and hated feudalism, religious intolerance, and civil inequality. Enlightened despotism meant political stability. He knew his Roman history well, as after 500 years of republicanism, Rome became an empire under Augustus Caesar. Although a supporter of the radical Jacobins during the early days of the Revolution (more out of pragmatism than any real ideology), Napoleon
Napoleon
became increasingly autocratic as his political career progressed and once in power embraced certain aspects of both liberalism and authoritarianism – for example, public education, a generally liberal restructuring of the French legal system, and the emancipation of the Jews – while rejecting electoral democracy and freedom of the press.[citation needed]

Maps[edit]

French départements in 1801 during the Consulate

French départements in 1812.

Map of the "First French Empire
Empire
in 1812, divided into 133 départements, with the kingdoms of Spain, Portugal, Italy
Italy
and Naples and the Confederation of the Rhine, Illyria and Dalmatia"

See also[edit]

Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
portal

French revolution History of France List of Napoleonic battles Military career of Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte Paris
Paris
under Napoleon

Notes[edit]

^ Domestically styled as French Republic until 1808: compare the French franc
French franc
minted in 1808 [15] and in 1809,[16] as well as Article 1 of the Constitution of the Year XII,[17] which reads in English The Government of the' Republic is vested in an Emperor, who takes the title of Emperor
Emperor
of the French. ^ According to his father's will only. Between 23 June and 7 July France
France
was held by a Commission of Government of five members, which never summoned Napoleon
Napoleon
II as emperor in any official act, and no regent was ever appointed while waiting the return of the king.[18] ^ Claims Napoleon
Napoleon
seized the crown out of the hands of Pope
Pope
Pius VII during the ceremony – to avoid subjecting himself to the authority of the pontiff – are apocryphal; the coronation procedure had been agreed in advance. See also: Napoleon
Napoleon
Tiara.

References[edit]

^ a b The official bulletin of laws of the French Empire ^ Le Chant du Départ, Fondation Napoléon, 2008, retrieved 16 May 2012  ^ Words and Music, Fondation Napoléon, 2008, retrieved 6 July 2014  ^ Rein Taagepera
Rein Taagepera
(September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 501. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. Retrieved 16 September 2016.  ^ Thierry, Lentz. "The Proclamation of Empire
Empire
by the Sénat Conservateur". napoleon.org. Fondation Napoléon. Retrieved 15 August 2014.  ^ "Battle of Austerlitz". Britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 August 2014.  ^ Hickman, Kennedy. "Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Friedland". militaryhistory.about.com. about.com. Retrieved 15 August 2014.  ^ Martyn Lyons, Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte and the Legacy of the French Revolution. p. 232 ^ Martyn Lyons p. 234–36 ^ Haine, Scott. The History of France
France
(1st ed.). Greenwood Press. p. 92. ISBN 0-313-30328-2.  ^ Fremont-Barnes, Gregory (2006). The encyclopedia of the French revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars: a political, social, and military history, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 211. ISBN 978-1851096466. Elected to the Tribunate in 1802, he [Carnot] showed himself increasingly alienated by Napoleon's personal ambition and voted against both the Consul for Life and the proclamation of the Empire. Unlike many former Revolutionaries, Carnot had little (...)  ^ Chandler, David G. (2000). Napoleon. Pen and Sword. p. 57. ISBN 978-1473816565.  ^ Bulletin des Lois ^ The Frankfort Declaration, 1 December 1813: http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/government/diplomatic/c_frankfort.html ^ http://www.lesfrancs.com/francais/1f1808rh.jpg ^ http://www.lesfrancs.com/francais/1f1809rh.jpg ^ http://www.conseil-constitutionnel.fr/conseil-constitutionnel/francais/la-constitution/les-constitutions-de-la-france/constitution-de-l-an-xii-empire-28-floreal-an-xii.5090.html ^ http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k486114j.pleinepage.f281.langFR

Further reading[edit] Surveys[edit]

Bruun, Geoffrey. Europe and the French Imperium, 1799-1814 (1938) online. Bryant, Arthur. Years of Endurance 1793–1802 (1942); and Years of Victory, 1802–1812 (1944) well-written surveys of the British story Colton, Joel and Palmer, R.R. A History of the Modern World. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. ISBN 0-07-040826-2 Esdaile, Charles. Napoleon's Wars: An International History, 1803–1815 (2008); 645pp excerpt and text search a standard scholarly history Fisher, Todd & Fremont-Barnes, Gregory. The Napoleonic Wars: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2004. ISBN 1-84176-831-6 Godechot, Jacques; et al. (1971). The Napoleonic era
Napoleonic era
in Europe. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.  Grab, Alexander. Napoleon
Napoleon
and the Transformation of Europe (Macmillan, 2003), country by country analysis Hazen, Charles Downer. The French Revolution
French Revolution
and Napoleon
Napoleon
(1917) online free Lefebvre, Georges (1969). Napoleon
Napoleon
from 18 Brumaire
18 Brumaire
to Tilsit, 1799-1807. Columbia University Press.  influential wide-ranging history

Lefebvre, Georges (1969). Napoleon; from Tilsit to Waterloo, 1807-1815. Columbia University Press. 

Lyons, Martyn. Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte and the Legacy of the French Revolution. (St. Martin's Press, 1994) Muir, Rory. Britain and the Defeat of Napoleon: 1807–1815 (1996) Lieven, Dominic (2009). Russia
Russia
Against Napoleon: The Battle for Europe, 1807 to 1814. Allen Lane/The Penguin Press. p. 617. [1] Schroeder, Paul W. (1996). The Transformation of European Politics 1763-1848. Oxford U.P. pp. 177–560. ISBN 9780198206545.  advanced diplomatic history of Napoleon and his era Pope, Stephen (1999). The Cassel Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars. Cassel. ISBN 0-304-35229-2.  Rapport, Mike. The Napoleonic Wars: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford UP, 2013) Ross, Steven T. European Diplomatic History, 1789–1815: France Against Europe (1969) Rothenberg, Gunther E. (1988). "The Origins, Causes, and Extension of the Wars of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and Napoleon". Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 18 (4): 771–793. JSTOR 204824.  Schroeder, Paul W. The Transformation of European Politics 1763–1848 (1994) 920pp; online; advanced analysis of diplomacy

Napoleon[edit]

Dwyer, Philip. Napoleon: The Path to Power (2008) excerpt vol 1; Citizen Emperor: Napoleon
Napoleon
in Power (2013) excerpt and text search v 2; most recent scholarly biography Englund, Steven (2010). Napoleon: A Political Life. Scribner. ISBN 0674018036.  McLynn, Frank. Napoleon: A Biography. New York: Arcade Publishing Inc., 1997. ISBN 1-55970-631-7 Johnson, Paul (2002). Napoleon: A life. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-03078-3. ; 200pp; quite hostile Markham, Felix (1963). Napoleon. Mentor. ; 303pp; short biography by an Oxford scholar McLynn, Frank (1998). Napoleon. Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6247-2. ASIN 0712662472. ; well-written popular history Mowat, R. B. (1924) The Diplomacy of Napoleon
Napoleon
(1924) 350pp online Roberts, Andrew. Napoleon: A Life (2014) Thompson, J.M. (1951). Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte: His Rise and Fall. Oxford U.P. , 412pp; by an Oxford scholar

Military[edit]

Bell, David A. The First Total War: Napoleon's Europe and the Birth of Warfare as We Know It (2008) excerpt and text search Broers, Michael, et al. eds. The Napoleonic Empire
Empire
and the New European Political Culture (2012) excerpt and text search Chandler, David G. The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. ISBN 0-02-523660-1 Elting, John R. Swords Around a Throne: Napoleon's Grande Armée. New York: Da Capo Press Inc., 1988. ISBN 0-306-80757-2 Gates, David. The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
1803-1815 (NY: Random House, 2011) Haythornthwaite, Philip J. Napoleon's Military Machine (1995) excerpt and text search Uffindell, Andrew. Great Generals of the Napoleonic Wars. Kent: Spellmount, 2003. ISBN 1-86227-177-1 Rothenberg, E. Gunther. The Art of Warfare in the Age of Napoleon (1977) Smith, Digby George. The Greenhill Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
Data Book: Actions and Losses in Personnel, Colours, Standards and Artillery (1998)

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