The FINAL SOLUTION (German : _Endlösung_) or the FINAL SOLUTION TO
THE JEWISH QUESTION (German : _die Endlösung der Judenfrage_,
pronounced ) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews during
World War II
The nature and timing of the decisions that led to the Final Solution is an intensely studied and debated aspect of the Holocaust. The program evolved during the first 25 months of war leading to the attempt at "murdering every last Jew in the German grasp." Most historians agree, wrote Christopher Browning , that the Final Solution cannot be attributed to a single decision made at one particular point in time. "It is generally accepted the decision-making process was prolonged and incremental." In 1940, following the Fall of France , Adolf Eichmann devised the Madagascar Plan to move Europe's Jewish population to the French colony; but the plan was abandoned for logistical reasons mainly due to a naval blockade . There were also preliminary plans to deport Jews to Palestine and Siberia . In 1941, wrote Raul Hilberg , in the first phase of the mass murder of Jews, the mobile killing units began to pursue their victims across occupied eastern territories; in the second phase, stretching across all of German-occupied Europe, the Jewish victims were sent on death trains to centralized extermination camps built for the purpose of systematic implementation of the Final Solution.
* 1 Background
* 2 Phase one: killing squads of Operation Barbarossa
* 2.1 _Bezirk Bialystok_ and _Reichskommissariat Ostland_ * 2.2 _Reichskommissariat Ukraine_ * 2.3 _Distrikt Galizien_
* 3 Phase two: deportations to killing centres
* 3.1 Auschwitz II Birkenau
* 4 Historiographic debate about the decision * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Citations * 8 References * 9 External links
The term "Final Solution" was a euphemism used by the Nazis to refer to their plan for the annihilation of the Jewish people. Historians have shown that the usual tendency of the German leadership was to be extremely guarded when discussing the Final Solution. Euphemisms were, in Mark Roseman\'s words, "their normal mode of communicating about murder". German ship MS St. Louis with Jewish refugees from Germany denied entry to Cuba, Canada, and the United States in mid 1939
From gaining power in January 1933 until the outbreak of war in
September 1939, the Nazi persecution of the Jews in Germany was
focused on intimidation, expropriating their money and property, and
encouraging them to emigrate. According to
Nazi Party policy
statement , the Jews, and Roma (although numerically fewer), were the
only "alien people in Europe". In 1936 the Bureau of Romani Affairs
The outbreak of war and the invasion of Poland brought a population
of 3.5 million
Polish Jews under the control of the Nazi and Soviet
security forces , and marked the start of a far more savage
persecution , including mass killings. In the German-occupied zone of
Poland, Jews were forced into hundreds of makeshift ghettos pending
other arrangements. Two years later, with the launch of Operation
Barbarossa against the USSR, in late June 1941 the German top echelon
began to pursue Hitler\'s new anti-Semitic plan to eradicate rather
than expel Jews. Hitler's earlier ideas about forcible removal of
Jews from the German-controlled territories in order to achieve
Lebensraum _ were abandoned after the failure of the air campaign
against Britain , initiating a naval blockade of Germany.
Heinrich Himmler became the chief architect of a
new plan, which came to be called "the
Broadly speaking, the extermination of Jews was carried out in two
major operations. With the onset of
Operation Barbarossa launched from
occupied Poland in June 1941, mobile killing units of the SS and Orpo
were dispatched to Soviet controlled territories of eastern Poland and
further into the Soviet republics for the express purpose of killing
all Jews, both Polish and Soviet. During the massive chase after the
fleeing Red Army,
Himmler himself visited
The plans to exterminate all the Jews of Europe was formalised at the
SS\'s guesthouse on the Wannsee near
After the end of World War II, surviving archival documents provided
a clear record of the
PHASE ONE: KILLING SQUADS OF OPERATION BARBAROSSA
The Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union codenamed Operation Barbarossa
, which commenced on 22 June 1941, set in motion a "war of
destruction" which quickly opened the door to systematic mass murder
of European Jews. For Hitler,
Bolshevism was merely "the most recent
and most nefarious manifestation of the eternal Jewish threat". On 3
Wehrmacht Joint Operations Staff Chief Alfred Jodl
repeated Hitler's declaration that the "Jewish-Bolshevik
intelligentsia would have to be eliminated" and that the forthcoming
war would be a confrontation between two completely opposing cultures.
In May 1941,
Himmler assembled a force of about 3,000 men from Security Police ,
After crossing the Soviet demarcation line in 1941, what had been
regarded as exceptional in
By the end of 1941, before the Wannsee Conference, between 600,000 and 800,000 Jewish people had been murdered and entire regions were reported "free of Jews ". By this time, awareness of the Final Solution policy in the east was spreading. Addressing his district governors in the General Government on 16 December 1941, Governor-General Hans Frank said, "But what will happen to the Jews? Do you believe they will be lodged in settlements in Ostland ? In Berlin, we were told: why all this trouble; we cannot use them in the Ostland or the Reichskommissariat either; liquidate them yourselves!" Two days later, Himmler recorded the outcome of his discussion with Hitler. The result was: "_als Partisanen auszurotten_" ("exterminate them as partisans"). Israeli historian Yehuda Bauer says that the remark is probably as close as historians will ever get to a definitive order from Hitler for the genocide carried out during the Holocaust. _ Original annotated map from Stahlecker 's Report, summarizing murders committed by Einsatzgruppen_ in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus and Russia until January 1942 _ Notably, the Stahlecker's map (top)_ had shown the Soviet Byelorussia according to bilateral terms of the Nazi- Soviet invasion of Poland , not the Byelorussian SSR (marked in pink), from before the Soviet annexation of Kresy . In this map, territory of prewar Poland inhabited by Polish Jews is marked in yellow.
_BEZIRK BIALYSTOK_ AND _REICHSKOMMISSARIAT OSTLAND_
See also: Reichskommissariat Ostland
Several scholars have suggested that the
An Israeli historian
Dina Porat claimed that the Final Solution,
i.e.: "the systematic overall physical extermination of Jewish
communities one after the other – began in Lithuania" during the
massive German chase after the Red Army across the
Baltic states in
_Reichskommissariat Ostland_. The subject of the Holocaust in
See also: Reichskommissariat Ukraine
Within one week from the start of Operation Barbarossa , Heydrich issued an order to his _Einsatzkommandos_ for the on-the-spot execution of all Bolsheviks, interpreted by the SS to mean all Jews. One of the first indiscriminate massacres of men, women, and children in _Reichskommissariat Ukraine_ took the lives of over 4,000 Polish Jews in occupied Łuck on 2–4 July 1941, murdered by _Einsatzkommando_ 4a assisted by the Ukrainian People\'s Militia . Formed officially on 20 August 1941, the _Reichskommissariat Ukraine_ – stretching from prewar east-central Poland to Crimea – had become operational theatre of the _Einsatzgruppe_ C. Within the Soviet Union proper, between 9 July 1941 and 19 September 1941 the city of Zhytomyr was made _ Judenfrei _ in three murder operations conducted by German and Ukrainian police in which 10,000 Jews perished. In the Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre of 26–28 August 1941 some 23,600 Jews were shot in front of open pits (including 14,000–18,000 people expelled from Hungary). After an incident in Bila Tserkva in which 90 small children left behind had to be shot separately, Blobel requested that Jewish mothers hold them in their arms during mass shootings. Long before the conference at Wannsee, 28,000 Jews were shot by SS and Ukrainian military in Vinnytsia on 22 September 1941, followed by the 29 September massacre of 33,771 Jews at Babi Yar . In Dnipropetrovsk , on 13 October 1941 some 10,000–15,000 Jews were shot. In Chernihiv , 10,000 Jews were put to death and only 260 Jews were spared. In mid-October, during the Krivoy-Rog massacre of 4,000–5,000 Soviet Jews the entire Ukrainian auxiliary police force actively participated. In the first days of January 1942 in Kharkiv , 12,000 Jews were murdered, but smaller massacres continued in this period on daily basis in countless other locations. In August 1942 in the presence of only a few German SS men over 5,000 Jews were massacred in Polish Zofjówka by the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police leading to town's complete sweep from existence.
Historians find it difficult to determine precisely when the first
concerted effort at annihilation of all Jews began in the last weeks
of June 1941 during Operation Barbarossa. Dr. Samuel Drix (_Witness
to Annihilation_), Jochaim Schoenfeld (_Holocaust Memoirs_), and
several survivors of the
Janowska concentration camp , who were
interviewed in the film _Janovska Camp at Lvov_, among other
witnesses, have argued that the
The killings continued uninterrupted. On 12 October 1941 in Stanisławów , some 10,000–12,000 Jewish men, women, and children were shot at the Jewish cemetery by the German uniformed SS-men and Ukrainian Auxiliary Police during the so-called "Bloody Sunday" _(de)_. The shooters began firing at 12 noon and continued without stopping by taking turns. There were picnic tables set up on the side with bottles of vodka and sandwiches for those who needed to rest from the deafening noise of gunfire. It was the single largest massacre of Polish Jews in _Generalgouvernement _ prior to mass gassings of _Aktion Reinhard_, which commenced at Bełżec in March 1942. Notably, the extermination operations in Chełmno had begun on 8 December 1941, one-and-a-half month before Wannsee, but Chełmno – located in _ Reichsgau Wartheland _ – was not a part of Reinhard, and neither was Auschwitz-Birkenau functioning as an extermination center until November 1944 in Polish lands annexed by Hitler and added to Germany proper .
The conference at Wannsee gave impetus to the so-called _second
sweep_ of the Holocaust by the bullet in the east. Between April and
July 1942 in
Volhynia , 30,000 Jews were murdered in death pits with
the help of dozens of newly formed Ukrainian _
PHASE TWO: DEPORTATIONS TO KILLING CENTRES
_ Nazi extermination camps marked with black and white skulls. General Government territory: centre, Distrikt Galizien _: lower–right. Death camp at Auschwitz : lower–left (in _Provinz Oberschlesien _), Nazi-Soviet line in red See also: General Government and Extermination camp
When in 1941 the
Wehrmacht forces attacked the Soviet positions in
eastern Poland during the initially successful Operation Barbarossa,
the area of the
General Government was enlarged by the inclusion of
regions that had been occupied by the Red Army since 1939. The
killings of Jews from the
Łódź Ghetto in the _
Warthegau _ district
began in early December 1941 with the use of gas vans at the Kulmhof
extermination camp . The deceptive guise of "Resettlement in the East"
organised by SS Commissioners, was also tried and tested at Chełmno.
By the time the European-wide
Construction work on the first killing centre at Bełżec in occupied Poland began in October 1941, three months before the Wannsee Conference. The new facility was operational by March the following year. By mid-1942, two more death camps had been built on Polish lands: Sobibór operational by May 1942, and Treblinka operational in July. From July 1942, the mass murder of Polish and foreign Jews took place at Treblinka as part of Operation Reinhard , the deadliest phase of the Final Solution. More Jews were killed at Treblinka than at any other Nazi extermination camp apart from Auschwitz . By the time the mass killings of Operation Reinhard ended in 1943 roughly two million Jews in the German-occupied Poland have been murdered. The total number of people killed in 1942 in Lublin/Majdanek , Bełżec , Sobibór , and Treblinka was 1,274,166 by Germany\'s own estimation , not counting Auschwitz II Birkenau nor _Kulmhof _. Their bodies were buried in mass graves initially. Both Treblinka and Bełżec were equipped with powerful crawler excavators from Polish construction sites in the vicinity, capable of most digging tasks without disrupting surfaces. Although other methods of extermination, such as the cyanic poison Zyklon B , were already being used at other Nazi killing centres such as Auschwitz, the _ Aktion Reinhard _ camps used lethal exhaust gases from captured tank engines.
The _Holocaust by bullets_ (as opposed to the _Holocaust by gas_)
went on in the territory of occupied Poland in conjunction with the
ghetto uprisings , irrespective of death camps' quota. In two weeks of
July 1942 the Słonim Ghetto revolt crushed with the help of Latvian,
Lithuanian and Ukrainian _
About two-thirds of the overall number of victims of the Final Solution were killed before February 1943, which included the main phase of the extermination programme in the West launched by Eichmann on 11 June 1942 from Berlin. The Holocaust trains run by the _Deutsche Reichsbahn _ and several other national railway systems delivered condemned Jewish captives from as far as Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Moravia, Netherlands, Romania, Slovakia, and even Scandinavia. The cremation of exhumed corpses to destroy any evidence left behind began in early spring and continued throughout summer. The nearly completed clandestine programme of murdering all deportees was explicitly addressed by Heinrich Himmler in his Posen speeches made to the leadership of the Nazi Party on 4 October and during the Posen Conference of 6 October 1943 in occupied Poland. Himmler explained why the Nazi leadership found it necessary to kill Jewish women and children along with the Jewish men. The assembled functionaries were told that the Nazi state policy was "the extermination of the Jewish people" as such.
We were faced with the question: what about the women and children? – I have decided on a solution to this problem. I did not consider myself justified to exterminate the men only – in other words, to kill them or have them killed while allowing the avengers, in the form of their children, to grow up in the midst of our sons and grandsons. The difficult decision had to be made to have this people disappear from the earth. — Heinrich Himmler, 6 October 1943
On 19 October 1943, five days after the prisoner revolt in Sobibór , Operation Reinhard was terminated by Odilo Globocnik on behalf of Himmler. The camps responsible for the killing of nearly 2,700,000 Jews were soon closed. Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka were dismantled and ploughed over before spring. The operation was followed by the single largest German massacre of Jews in the entire war carried out on 3 November 1943; with approximately 43,000 prisoners shot one-by-one simultaneously in three nearby locations by the Reserve Police Battalion 101 hand-in-hand with the Trawniki men from Ukraine. Auschwitz alone had enough capacity to fulfill the Nazis' remaining extermination needs.
AUSCHWITZ II BIRKENAU
Unlike Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and
Lublin-Majdanek , which were
built in the occupied
General Government territory inhabited by the
largest concentrations of Jews, the killing centre at Auschwitz
subcamp of Birkenau operated in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany
directly. The new gas chambers at Bunker I were finished around March
1942 when the
The infamous 'Gate of Death' at
Auschwitz II for the incoming freight
trains was built of brick and cement mortar in 1943, and the
three-track rail spur was added. Until mid-August, 45,000
Thessaloniki Jews were murdered in mere six months, including over
30,000 Jews from Sosnowiec (Sosnowitz) and Bendzin Ghettos . The
spring of 1944 marked the beginning of the last phase of the Final
Solution at Birkenau. The new big ramps and sidings were constructed,
and two freight elevators were installed inside Crematoria II and III
for moving the bodies faster. The size of the _
Sonderkommando _ was
nearly quadrupled in preparation for the
HISTORIOGRAPHIC DEBATE ABOUT THE DECISION
See also: Responsibility for the Holocaust
Part of a series on
* _Major perpetrators _ * Adolf Hitler * Heinrich Himmler * Reinhard Heydrich * Adolf Eichmann * Odilo Globocnik * Theodor Eicke * Richard Glücks * Ernst Kaltenbrunner * Rudolf Höss * Christian Wirth * Joseph Goebbels
World War II
* Jews during
World War II
* Europe * Germany
* Romani people (Gypsies) * Poles * Soviet POWs * Slavs in Eastern Europe * Homosexuals * People with disabilities * Freemasons * Jehovah\'s Witnesses
------------------------- Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
* List of selected ghettos
_END OF WORLD WAR II _
* Wola massacre * Death marches
_NAZI EXTERMINATION CAMPS _
_NAZI CONCENTRATION CAMPS _
_TRANSIT AND COLLECTION CAMPS_
* Breendonk * Mechelen
* Gurs * Drancy
* Amersfoort * Westerbork
_GHETTO UPRISINGS _
Allied response Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations
Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany
* Holocaust survivors
Deportations of French Jews to death camps
The Destruction of the European Jews Functionalism versus intentionalism
* Days of remembrance * Memorials and museums
* v * t * e
Historians disagree as to when and how did the Nazi leadership decide
that the European Jews should be exterminated. The controversy is
commonly described as the functionalism versus intentionalism debate
which began in the 1960s, and subsided thirty years later. In the
1990s the attention of mainstream historians moved away from the
question of top executive orders triggering the Holocaust, and focused
on factors which were overlooked earlier such as personal initiative
and ingenuity of countless functionaries in charge of the killing
fields. No written evidence of Hitler ordering the
Hitler made numerous chilling predictions regarding the Holocaust of the Jews of Europe prior to the beginning of World War II. During a speech given on 30 January 1939, on the sixth anniversary of his accession to power, Hitler said:
Today I will once more be a prophet: If the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the Bolshevization of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe! — Adolf Hitler, 1939
Raul Hilberg , in his book _ The Destruction of the European Jews _, was the first historian to systematically document and analyse the Nazi project to kill every Jew in Europe. The book was initially published in 1961, and issued in an enlarged version in 1985.
Hilberg's analysis of the steps that led to the destruction of European Jews revealed that it was "an administrative process carried out by bureaucrats in a network of offices spanning a continent". Hilberg divides this bureaucracy into four components or hierarchies: the Nazi Party , the civil service, industry, and the Wehrmacht armed forces – but their cooperation is viewed as "so complete that we may truly speak of their fusion into a machinery of destruction". For Hilberg, the key stages in the destruction process were: definition and registration of the Jews; expropriation of property; concentration into ghettoes and camps; and, finally, annihilation. Hilberg gives an estimate of 5.1 million as the total number of Jews killed. He breaks this figure down into three categories: Ghettoization and general privation: over 800,000; open-air shootings: over 1,300,000; extermination camps: up to 3,000,000.
With respect to the "functionalism versus intentionalism" debate about a master plan for the Final Solution, or the lack thereof, Hilberg posits what has been described as "a kind of structural determinism". Hilberg argues that "a destruction process has an inherent pattern" and the "sequence of steps in a destruction process is thus determined". If a bureaucracy is motivated "to inflict maximum damage upon a group of people", it is "inevitable that a bureaucracy—no matter how decentralized its apparatus or how unplanned its activities—should push its victims through these stages", culminating in their annihilation.
In his monograph, _The Origins Of The Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 – March 1942_, Christopher Browning argues that Nazi policy toward the Jews was radicalized twice: in September 1939, when the invasion of Poland implied policies of mass expulsion and massive loss of Jewish lives; and in spring 1941, when preparation for Operation Barbarossa involved the planning of mass execution, mass expulsion, and starvation – to dwarf what had happened in Jewish Poland.
Browning believes that the "
Browning describes the creation of the extermination camps, which were responsible for the largest number of deaths in the Final Solution, as bringing together three separate developments within the Third Reich : the concentration camps which had been established in Germany since 1933; an expansion of the gassing technology of the Nazi euthanasia programme to provide killing mechanism of greater efficiency and psychological detachment; and the creation of "factories of death" to be fed endless streams of victims by mass uprooting and deportation that utilized the experience and personnel from earlier population resettlement programmes—especially the HSSPF and Adolf Eichmann 's RSHA for "Jewish affairs and evacuations".
Peter Longerich argues that the search for a finite date on which the Nazis embarked upon the extermination of the Jews is futile, in his book _Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews_ (2011). Longerich writes: "We should abandon the notion that it is historically meaningful to try to filter the wealth of available historical material and pick out a single decision" that led to the Holocaust.
Timothy Snyder writes that Longerich "grants the significance of Greiser\'s murder of Jews by gas at Chełmno in December 1941", but also detects a significant moment of escalation in spring 1942, which includes "the construction of the large death factory at Treblinka for the destruction of the Warsaw Jews, and the addition of a gas chamber to the concentration camp at Auschwitz for the murder of the Jews of Silesia". Longerich suggests that it "was only in the summer of 1942, that mass killing was finally understood as the realization of the Final Solution, rather than as an extensively violent preliminary to some later program of slave labor and deportation to the lands of a conquered USSR". For Longerich, to see mass killing as the Final Solution was an acknowledgement by the Nazi leadership that there would not be a German military victory over the USSR in the near future.
David Cesarani emphasises the improvised, haphazard nature of Nazi policies in response to changing war time conditions in his overview, _Final Solution: The Fate Of The European Jews 1933-49_ (2016). "Cesarani provides telling examples", wrote Mark Roseman , "of a lack of coherence and planning for the future in Jewish policy, even when we would most expect it. The classic instance is the invasion of Poland in 1939, when not even the most elementary consideration had been given to what should happen to Poland’s Jews either in the shorter or longer term. Given that Poland was home to the largest Jewish population in the world, and that in a couple of years it would house the extermination camps, this is remarkable."
Whereas Christopher Browning places the Nazi plan to exterminate the Jews in the context of the Wehrmacht victories on the Eastern front, Cesarani argues that the German subsequent realisation that there would be no swift victory over the Soviet Union "scuppered the last territorial 'solution' still on the table: expulsion to Siberia." Germany's declaration of war on the United States on December 11, 1941, "meant that holding European Jews hostage to deter the US from entering the conflict was now pointless. As Joseph Goebbels put it when he summarised a secret speech Hitler made on 12 December 1941: 'The world war is here, the destruction of the Jews must be the inevitable consequence'." Cesarani concludes, the Holocaust "was rooted in antisemitism but it was shaped by war". The fact that the Nazis were, ultimately, so successful in killing between five and six million Jews was not due to the efficiency of the Third Reich or the clarity of their policies. "Rather, the catastrophic rate of killing was due to German persistence… and the duration of the murderous campaigns. This last factor was largely a consequence of allied military failure." Berlin, Reichstag session of 11 December 1941: Adolf Hitler declares war on the United States of America
The entry of the U.S. into the War is also crucial to the time-frame
Christian Gerlach who argued in his 1997 thesis, that the
With respect of the Jewish Question, the Führer has decided to make a clean sweep. He prophesied to the Jews that if they again brought about a world war, they would see their annihilation in it. That wasn't just a catch-word. The world war is here and the annihilation of the Jews must be the necessary consequence.
Cesarani notes that by 1943, as the military position of the German forces deteriorated, the Nazi leadership became more openly explicit about the Final Solution. In March, Goebbels confided to his diary: "On the Jewish question especially, we are in it so deeply that there is no getting out any longer. And that is a good thing. Experience teaches that a movement and a people who have burned their bridges fight with much greater determination and fewer constraints than those that have a chance of retreat."
When Himmler addressed senior SS personnel and leading members of the regime in the Posen speeches on October 4, 1943, he used "the fate of the Jews as a sort of blood bond to tie the civil and military leadership to the Nazi cause."
Today I am going to refer quite frankly to a very grave chapter. We can mention it now among ourselves quite openly and yet we shall never talk about it in public. I'm referring to the evacuation of the Jews, the extermination of the Jewish people. Most of you will know what it's like to see 100 corpses side by side or 500 corpses or 1,000 of them. To have coped with this and—except for cases of human weakness—to have remained decent, that has made us tough. This is an unwritten—never to be written—and yet glorious page in our history.
Journalist Ron Rosenbaum , in his book _ Explaining Hitler : The Search for the Origins of His Evil_, found that the phrase "final solution" had been used much earlier. An investigative report by the _ Münchener Post _, a socialist newspaper that was an early opponent of Hitler, found as early as 1931 Nazi Party and SA documents using the phrase as part of a description of plans for what became the Nuremberg Laws and a suggestion that "for the final solution of the Jewish question it is proposed to use the Jews in Germany for slave labor or for cultivation of the German swamps administered by a special SS division".
Korherr Report written in 1943 on the progress of the Final
Höfle Telegram with arrivals for the camps of _Einsatz Reinhardt
* The role of railways in the
* ^ Commenting on Gerlach, Christopher Browning writes: "What he interprets as Hitler’s basic decision, I see as an official initiation of party leaders to a decision taken several months earlier."
* ^ Browning i, Christopher (2007). _The Origins of the Final
Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 –
March 1942_. U of Nebraska Press. “In a brief two years between the
autumn of 1939 and the autumn of 1941, Nazi Jewish policy escalated
rapidly from the pre-war policy of forced emigration to the Final
Solution as it is now understood—the systematic attempt to murder
every last Jew within the German grasp”.
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* ^ _A_ _B_ Browning (2004) , p. 213.
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* ^ Niewyk & Nicosia 2000 , p. 76.
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* ^ _A_ _B_
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Hitler exterminated the Jews of Europe. But he did not do so alone.
The task was so enormous, complex, time-consuming, and mentally and
economically demanding that it took the best efforts of millions of
* ^ Longerich (2012) , p. 555.
* ^ Roseman (2002) , pp. 65–7.
* ^ Cesarani (2005) , pp. 110–1.
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* ^ Hilberg (1985) , p. 281.
* ^ Browning (2004) , p. 219.
* ^ Browning (2004) , p. 217.
* ^ Browning (2004) , p. 229.
* ^ Browning (1998) , p. 11: On the eve of Operation Barbarossa
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* ^ Browning (2004) , p. 232.
* ^ Browning (2004) , p. 260.
* ^ Browning (2004) , p. 261.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_
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Retrieved 24 January 2016.
* ^ McVay, Kenneth (1984). "The Construction of the Treblinka
Extermination Camp". _
* Arad, Yitzhak (1987). _Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. The Operation Reinhard Death Camps_. Bloomington : Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21305-3 . * Baumslag, Naomi (2005). _Murderous Medicine: Nazi Doctors, Human Experimentation, and Typhus_. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-98312-9 .
* Breitman, Richard (1991). _The Architect of Genocide:
The Final Solution_. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-56841-9 .
* Browning, Christopher R. (1998) . _Ordinary Men: Reserve Police
Battalion 101 and the
* Website of the House of the Wannsee Conference
* The Development of the Final Solution—lecture from Dr. Havi