Final Solution (German: Endlösung) or the
Final Solution to the
Jewish Question (German: die Endlösung der Judenfrage, pronounced
[diː ˈɛntˌløːzʊŋ deːɐ̯ ˈjuːdn̩ˌfʁaːɡə]) was a Nazi
plan for the extermination of the
Jews during World War II. The "Final
Solution of the Jewish Question" was the official code name for the
murder of all
Jews within reach, which was not limited to the European
continent. This policy of deliberate and systematic genocide
German-occupied Europe was formulated in procedural
and geo-political terms by Nazi leadership in January 1942 at the
Wannsee Conference near Berlin, and culminated in the Holocaust
which saw the killing of 90 percent of Jewish Poles, and two-thirds
of the Jewish population of Europe.
The nature and timing of the decisions that led to the Final Solution
is an intensely studied and debated aspect of the Holocaust. The
program evolved during the first 25 months of war leading to the
attempt at "murdering every last Jew in the German grasp." Most
historians agree, wrote Christopher Browning, that the Final Solution
cannot be attributed to a single decision made at one particular point
in time. "It is generally accepted the decision-making process was
prolonged and incremental." In 1940, following the Fall of France,
Eichmann devised the
Madagascar Plan to move Europe's Jewish
population to the French colony, but the plan was abandoned for
logistical reasons mainly due to a naval blockade. There were also
preliminary plans to deport
Jews to Palestine and Siberia. In 1941,
wrote Raul Hilberg, in the first phase of the mass murder of Jews, the
mobile killing units began to pursue their victims across occupied
eastern territories; in the second phase, stretching across all of
German-occupied Europe, the Jewish victims were sent on death trains
to centralized extermination camps built for the purpose of systematic
implementation of the Final Solution.
2 Phase one: killing squads of Operation Barbarossa
Bezirk Bialystok and Reichskommissariat Ostland
2.2 Reichskommissariat Ukraine
2.3 Distrikt Galizien
3 Phase two: deportations to killing centres
Auschwitz II Birkenau
4 Historiographic debate about the decision
5 See also
9 External links
The term "Final Solution" was a euphemism used by the Nazis to refer
to their plan for the annihilation of the Jewish people. Historians
have shown that the usual tendency of the German leadership was to be
extremely guarded when discussing the Final Solution. Euphemisms were,
in Mark Roseman's words, "their normal mode of communicating about
MS St. Louis
MS St. Louis with Jewish refugees from Germany denied
entry to Cuba, Canada, and the United States in mid 1939
From gaining power in January 1933 until the outbreak of war in
September 1939, the Nazi persecution of the
Jews in Germany was
focused on intimidation, expropriating their money and property, and
encouraging them to emigrate. According to the
Nazi Party policy
statement, the Jews, and Roma (although numerically fewer), were
the only "alien people in Europe". In 1936 the Bureau of Romani
Munich was taken over by the Interpol and renamed as the
Center for Combating the Gypsy Menace. Introduced at the end of
1937, the "final solution of the Gypsy Question" entailed
roundups, expulsions, and incarceration of Romani in concentration
camps built at Dachau, Buchenwald, Flossenbürg, Mauthausen,
Natzweiler, Ravensbruck, Taucha and
Westerbork until this point in
time. After the
Anschluss with Austria in 1938, special offices were
Berlin to "facilitate" Jewish emigration
without covert plans for their forthcoming annihilation.
The outbreak of war and the invasion of Poland brought a population of
3.5 million Polish
Jews under the control of the Nazi and Soviet
security forces, and marked the start of a far more savage
persecution, including mass killings. In the German-occupied zone
Jews were forced into hundreds of makeshift ghettos pending
other arrangements. Two years later, with the launch of Operation
Barbarossa against the USSR, in late June 1941 the German top echelon
began to pursue Hitler's new anti-Semitic plan to eradicate rather
than expel Jews. Hitler's earlier ideas about forcible removal of
Jews from the German-controlled territories in order to achieve
Lebensraum were abandoned after the failure of the air campaign
against Britain, initiating a naval blockade of Germany.
Heinrich Himmler became the chief architect of a new
plan, which came to be called "the
Final Solution to the Jewish
Question". On 31 July 1941,
Hermann Göring wrote
Reinhard Heydrich (Himmler's deputy and chief of the RSHA),
instructing Heydrich to submit concrete proposals for the
implementation of the projected new goal.
Broadly speaking, the extermination of
Jews was carried out in two
major operations. With the onset of
Operation Barbarossa launched from
occupied Poland in June 1941, mobile killing units of the SS and Orpo
were dispatched to Soviet controlled territories of eastern Poland and
further into the Soviet republics for the express purpose of killing
all Jews, both Polish and Soviet. During the massive chase after the
fleeing Red Army,
Himmler himself visited
Białystok in the beginning
of July 1941 and requested that, "as a matter of principle any Jew"
behind the German-Soviet frontier "was to be regarded as a partisan".
His new orders gave the SS and police leaders full authority for the
mass murder behind the front-lines. By August 1941, all Jewish men,
women, and children were shot. In the second phase of
annihilation, the Jewish inhabitants of central, western, and
south-eastern Europe were transported by
Holocaust trains to camps
with newly-built gassing facilities.
Raul Hilberg wrote: "In essence,
the killers of the occupied USSR moved to the victims, whereas outside
this arena, the victims were brought to the killers. The two
operations constitute an evolution not only chronologically but also
in complexity." Massacres of about one million
Jews occurred before
plans for the
Final Solution were fully implemented in 1942, but it
was only with the decision to annihilate the entire Jewish population
that extermination camps such as
Auschwitz II Birkenau and Treblinka
were fitted with permanent gas chambers to kill large numbers of Jews
in a relatively short period of time.
The villa at 56–58 Am Großen Wannsee, where the Wannsee Conference
was held, is now a memorial and museum.
The plans to exterminate all the
Jews of Europe was formalized at the
SS's guesthouse on the Wannsee near
Berlin on 20 January 1942. The
conference was chaired by Heydrich and attended by 15 senior officials
Nazi Party and the German government. Most of those attending
were representatives of the Interior Ministry, the Foreign Ministry,
and the Justice Ministry, including Ministers for the Eastern
Territories. At the conference, Heydrich indicated that
Jews in Europe would fall under the
provisions of the "Final Solution". This figure included not only Jews
residing in Axis-controlled Europe, but also the Jewish populations of
the United Kingdom, and of neutral nations (Switzerland, Ireland,
Sweden, Spain, Portugal, and European Turkey). Eichmann's
David Cesarani wrote that Heydrich's main purpose in
convening the conference was to assert his authority over the various
agencies dealing with Jewish issues. "The simplest, most decisive way
that Heydrich could ensure the smooth flow of deportations" to death
camps, according to Cesarani, "was by asserting his total control over
the fate of the
Jews in the Reich and the east" under the single
authority of the RSHA. A copy of the minutes of this meeting was
found by the Allies in March 1947; it was too late to serve as
evidence during the first Nuremberg Trial but was used by prosecutor
Telford Taylor in the subsequent Nuremberg Trials.
After the end of World War II, surviving archival documents provided a
clear record of the
Final Solution policies and actions of Nazi
Germany. They included the
Wannsee Conference Protocol, which
documented the co-operation of various German state agencies in the
SS-led Holocaust, as well as some 3,000 tons of original German
records captured by Allied armies, including the
Einsatzgruppen reports, which documented the progress of the mobile
killing units assigned, among other tasks, to kill Jewish civilians
during the attack on the Soviet Union in 1941. The evidential proof
which documented the mechanism of the Holocaust were submitted at
Phase one: killing squads of Operation Barbarossa
Main articles: Einsatzgruppen, Einsatzkommando, and Einsatzgruppen
The Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union codenamed Operation Barbarossa,
which commenced on 22 June 1941, set in motion a "war of destruction"
which quickly opened the door to systematic mass murder of European
Jews. For Hitler,
Bolshevism was merely "the most recent and most
nefarious manifestation of the eternal Jewish threat". On 3 March
Wehrmacht Joint Operations Staff Chief
Alfred Jodl repeated
Hitler's declaration that the "Jewish-Bolshevik intelligentsia would
have to be eliminated" and that the forthcoming war would be a
confrontation between two completely opposing cultures. In May
Gestapo leader Heinrich Müller wrote a preamble to the new law
limiting the jurisdiction of military courts in prosecuting troops for
criminal actions because: "this time the troops will encounter an
especially dangerous element from the civilian population, therefore,
have the right and obligation to secure themselves."
Himmler note 18 December 1941: 'als Partisanen auszurotten'
Himmler assembled a force of about 3,000 men from Security Police,
Gestapo, Kripo, SD, and the Waffen-SS, as the so-called "special
commandos of the security forces" known as the Einsatzgruppen, to
eliminate both communists and
Jews in occupied territories. These
forces were supported by 21 battalions of Orpo Reserve Police under
Kurt Daluege, adding up to 11,000 men. The explicit orders given
to the Order Police varied between locations, but for Police Battalion
309 participating in the first mass murder of 5,500 Polish
Jews in the
Białystok (a Polish provincial capital), Major
Weiss explained to his officers that Barbarossa is a war of
annihilation against Bolshevism, and that his battalions would
proceed ruthlessly against all Jews, regardless of age or sex.
After crossing the Soviet demarcation line in 1941, what had been
regarded as exceptional in the
Greater Germanic Reich
Greater Germanic Reich became a normal
way of operating in the east. The crucial taboo against the killing of
women and children was breached not only in
Białystok but also in
Gargždai in late June. By July, significant numbers of women and
children were being killed behind all front lines not only by the
Germans but also by the local Ukrainian and Lithuanian auxiliary
forces. On 29 July 1941 at a meeting of SS officers in Vileyka
(Polish Wilejka, now Belarus), the
Einsatzgruppen had been given a
dressing-down for their low execution figures. Heydrich himself issued
an order to include the Jewish women and children in all subsequent
shooting operations. Accordingly, by the end of July the entire
Jewish population of Vileyka, men, women and children were
murdered. Around 12 August, no less than two-thirds of the Jews
Surazh were women and children of all ages. In late August
Einsatzgruppen murdered 23,600
Jews in the
Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre. A month later, the largest mass
shooting of Soviet
Jews took place on 29–30 September in the ravine
of Babi Yar, near Kiev, where more than 33,000 Jewish people of all
ages were systematically machine-gunned. In mid-October 1941,
HSSPF South, under the command of Friedrich Jeckeln, had reported the
indiscriminate killing of more than 100,000 people.
By the end of December 1941, before the Wannsee Conference, over
439,800 Jewish people had been murdered, and the
Final Solution policy
in the east became common knowledge within the SS. Entire regions
were reported "free of Jews" by the Einsatzgruppen. Addressing his
district governors in the
General Government on 16 December 1941,
Hans Frank said: "But what will happen to the Jews?
Do you believe they will be lodged in settlements in Ostland? In
Berlin, we were told: why all this trouble; we cannot use them in the
Ostland or the Reichskommissariat either; liquidate them
yourselves!" Two days later,
Himmler recorded the outcome of his
discussion with Hitler. The result was: "als Partisanen auszurotten"
("exterminate them as partisans"). Israeli historian Yehuda Bauer
wrote that the remark is probably as close as historians will ever get
to a definitive order from Hitler for the genocide carried out during
the Holocaust. Within two years, the total number of shooting
victims in the east had risen to between 618,000 and 800,000
Original annotated map from Stahlecker's Report, summarizing murders
Einsatzgruppen in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus and
Russia until January 1942
Notably, the Stahlecker's map (top) had shown the Soviet Byelorussia
according to bilateral terms of the Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland,
not the Byelorussian SSR (marked in pink), from before the Soviet
annexation of Kresy. In this map, territory of prewar Poland inhabited
Jews is marked in yellow.
Bezirk Bialystok and Reichskommissariat Ostland
See also: Reichskommissariat Ostland
Several scholars have suggested that the
Final Solution began in the
newly formed district of Bezirk Bialystok. The German army took
Białystok within days. On Friday, 27 June 1941, the Reserve
Police Battalion 309 arrived in the city and set the Great Synagogue
on fire with hundreds of Jewish men locked inside. The burning of
the synagogue was followed by a frenzy of killings both inside the
homes around the Jewish neighbourhood of Chanajki, and in the city
park, lasting until night time. The next day, some 30 wagons of
dead bodies were taken to mass graves. As noted by Browning, the
killings were led by a commander "who correctly intuited and
anticipated the wishes of his Führer" without direct orders. For
reasons unknown, the number of victims in the official report by Major
Weis was cut in half. The next mass shooting of Polish
the newly formed Reichskommissariat
Ostland took place in two days of
5–7 August in occupied Pińsk where over 12,000
Jews died at the
hands of Waffen SS, not the Einsatzgruppen. An additional
Jews perished there in a ghetto uprising crushed a year later
with the aid of Belarusian Auxiliary Police.
An Israeli historian
Dina Porat claimed that the Final Solution, i.e.:
"the systematic overall physical extermination of Jewish communities
one after the other – began in Lithuania" during the massive German
chase after the Red Army across the
Baltic states in
Reichskommissariat Ostland. The subject of the Holocaust in
Lithuania has been analysed by Konrad Kweit from
USHMM who wrote:
Jews were among the first victims of the Holocaust [beyond
the eastern borders of occupied Poland]. The Germans carried out the
mass executions [...] signaling the beginning of the 'Final
Solution'." About 80,000
Jews were killed in
Lithuania by October
(including in formerly Polish Wilno) and about 175,000 by the end of
1941 according to official reports.
See also: Reichskommissariat Ukraine
Within one week from the start of Operation Barbarossa, Heydrich
issued an order to his Einsatzkommandos for the on-the-spot execution
of all Bolsheviks, interpreted by the SS to mean all Jews. One of the
first indiscriminate massacres of men, women, and children in
Reichskommissariat Ukraine took the lives of over 4,000 Polish
occupied Łuck on 2–4 July 1941, murdered by
assisted by the Ukrainian People's Militia. Formed officially on
20 August 1941, the
Reichskommissariat Ukraine – stretching from
prewar east-central Poland to Crimea – had become operational
theatre of the Einsatzgruppe C. Within the Soviet Union proper,
between 9 July 1941 and 19 September 1941 the city of
Judenfrei in three murder operations conducted by German and
Ukrainian police in which 10,000
Jews perished. In the
Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre of 26–28 August 1941 some 23,600 Jews
were shot in front of open pits (including 14,000–18,000 people
expelled from Hungary). After an incident in Bila Tserkva in
which 90 small children left behind had to be shot separately, Blobel
requested that Jewish mothers hold them in their arms during mass
shootings. Long before the conference at Wannsee, 28,000 Jews
were shot by SS and Ukrainian military in
Vinnytsia on 22 September
1941, followed by the 29 September massacre of 33,771
Jews at Babi
Yar. In Dnipropetrovsk, on 13 October 1941 some
Jews were shot. In Chernihiv, 10,000
Jews were put
to death and only 260
Jews were spared. In mid-October, during the
Krivoy-Rog massacre of 4,000–5,000 Soviet
Jews the entire Ukrainian
auxiliary police force actively participated. In the first days of
January 1942 in Kharkiv, 12,000
Jews were murdered, but smaller
massacres continued in this period on daily basis in countless other
locations. In August 1942 in the presence of only a few German SS
men over 5,000
Jews were massacred in Polish
Zofjówka by the
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police leading to the town's complete sweep from
Historians find it difficult to determine precisely when the first
concerted effort at annihilation of all
Jews began in the last weeks
of June 1941 during Operation Barbarossa. Dr. Samuel Drix (Witness
to Annihilation), Jochaim Schoenfeld (Holocaust Memoirs), and several
survivors of the Janowska concentration camp, who were interviewed in
the film Janovska Camp at Lvov, among other witnesses, have argued
Final Solution began in Lwów (Lemberg) in Distrikt Galizien
General Government during the German advance across the Soviet
occupied Poland. Statements and memoirs of survivors emphasize that,
when Ukrainian nationalists and ad hoc Ukrainian People's Militia
(soon reorganized as the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police) began to murder
women and children rather than only male Jews, the "Final Solution"
had begun. Witnesses have said that such murders happened both prior
to and during the pogroms reportedly triggered by the NKVD prisoner
massacre. The question of whether there was some coordination between
the Lithuanian and Ukrainian militias remains open (i.e. collaborating
for a joint assault in Kovno, Wilno, and Lwów).
The killings continued uninterrupted. On 12 October 1941 in
Stanisławów, some 10,000–12,000 Jewish men, women, and children
were shot at the Jewish cemetery by the German uniformed SS-men and
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police during the so-called "Bloody Sunday"
(de). The shooters began firing at 12 noon and continued without
stopping by taking turns. There were picnic tables set up on the side
with bottles of vodka and sandwiches for those who needed to rest from
the deafening noise of gunfire. It was the single largest massacre
Jews in Generalgouvernement prior to mass gassings of Aktion
Reinhard, which commenced at Bełżec in March 1942. Notably, the
extermination operations in
Chełmno had begun on 8 December 1941,
one-and-a-half month before Wannsee, but
Chełmno – located in
Reichsgau Wartheland – was not a part of Reinhard, and neither was
Auschwitz-Birkenau functioning as an extermination center until
November 1944 in Polish lands annexed by Hitler and added to Germany
The conference at Wannsee gave impetus to the so-called second sweep
of the Holocaust by the bullet in the east. Between April and July
1942 in Volhynia, 30,000
Jews were murdered in death pits with the
help of dozens of newly formed Ukrainian Schutzmannschaft. Owing
to good relations with the Ukrainian Hilfsverwaltung, these
auxiliary battalions were deployed by the SS also in Russia Center,
Russia South, and in Byelorussia; each with about 500 soldiers divided
into three companies. They participated in the extermination of
Jews alone, or 98 percent of the Jewish inhabitants
of the entire region. In July 1942 the Completion of the Final
Solution in the
General Government territory which included Distrikt
Galizien, was ordered personally by Himmler. He set the initial
deadline for 31 December 1942.
Phase two: deportations to killing centres
Nazi extermination camps marked with black and white skulls. General
Government territory: centre, Distrikt Galizien: lower–right. Death
camp at Auschwitz: lower–left (in Provinz Oberschlesien),
Nazi-Soviet line in red
General Government and Extermination camp
When in 1941 the
Wehrmacht forces attacked the Soviet positions in
eastern Poland during the initially successful Operation Barbarossa,
the area of the
General Government was enlarged by the inclusion of
regions that had been occupied by the Red Army since 1939. The
Jews from the
Łódź Ghetto in the
began in early December 1941 with the use of gas vans [approved by
Heydrich] at the Kulmhof extermination camp. The deceptive guise of
"Resettlement in the East" organised by SS Commissioners, was also
tried and tested at Chełmno. By the time the European-wide Final
Solution was formulated two months later, Heydrich's
RSHA had already
confirmed the effectiveness of industrial killing by exhaust fumes,
and the strength of deception.
Construction work on the first killing centre at Bełżec in occupied
Poland began in October 1941, three months before the Wannsee
Conference. The new facility was operational by March the following
year. By mid-1942, two more death camps had been built on Polish
Sobibór operational by May 1942, and
Treblinka operational in
July. From July 1942, the mass murder of Polish and foreign Jews
took place at
Treblinka as part of Operation Reinhard, the deadliest
phase of the Final Solution. More
Jews were killed at
at any other Nazi extermination camp apart from Auschwitz. By the
time the mass killings of
Operation Reinhard ended in 1943, roughly
Jews in German-occupied Poland had been murdered. The
total number of people killed in 1942 in Lublin/Majdanek, Bełżec,
Treblinka was 1,274,166 by Germany's own estimation, not
Auschwitz II Birkenau nor Kulmhof. Their bodies were
buried in mass graves initially. Both
Treblinka and Bełżec were
equipped with powerful crawler excavators from Polish construction
sites in the vicinity, capable of most digging tasks without
disrupting surfaces. Although other methods of extermination, such
as the cyanic poison Zyklon B, were already being used at other Nazi
killing centres such as Auschwitz, the
Aktion Reinhard camps used
lethal exhaust gases from captured tank engines.
The Holocaust by bullets (as opposed to the Holocaust by gas) went
on in the territory of occupied Poland in conjunction with the ghetto
uprisings, irrespective of death camps' quota. In two weeks of July
1942 the Słonim Ghetto revolt crushed with the help of Latvian,
Lithuanian and Ukrainian
Schutzmannschaft cost the lives of
8,000–13,000 Jews. The second largest mass shooting (to that
particular date) took place in late October 1942 when the insurgency
was suppressed in the Pińsk Ghetto; over 26,000 men, women and
children were shot with the aid of
Belarusian Auxiliary Police
Belarusian Auxiliary Police before
the ghetto's closure. During the suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising (the largest single revolt by
Jews during World War II),
Jews were killed in action before May 1943. Numerous other
uprisings were quelled without impacting the pre-planned Nazi
About two-thirds of the overall number of victims of the Final
Solution were killed before February 1943, which included the main
phase of the extermination programme in the West launched by Eichmann
on 11 June 1942 from Berlin.
The Holocaust trains run by the
Deutsche Reichsbahn and several other national railway systems
delivered condemned Jewish captives from as far as Belgium, Bulgaria,
France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Moravia, Netherlands, Romania,
Slovakia, and even Scandinavia. The cremation of exhumed
corpses to destroy any evidence left behind began in early spring and
continued throughout summer. The nearly completed clandestine
programme of murdering all deportees was explicitly addressed by
Heinrich Himmler in his
Posen speeches made to the leadership of the
Nazi Party on 4 October and during the
Posen Conference of 6 October
1943 in occupied Poland.
Himmler explained why the Nazi leadership
found it necessary to kill Jewish women and children along with the
Jewish men. The assembled functionaries were told that the Nazi state
policy was "the extermination of the Jewish people" as such.
We were faced with the question: what about the women and children?
– I have decided on a solution to this problem. I did not consider
myself justified to exterminate the men only – in other words, to
kill them or have them killed while allowing the avengers, in the form
of their children, to grow up in the midst of our sons and grandsons.
The difficult decision had to be made to have this people disappear
from the earth.
— Heinrich Himmler, 6 October 1943
On 19 October 1943, five days after the prisoner revolt in Sobibór,
Operation Reinhard was terminated by
Odilo Globocnik on behalf of
Himmler. The camps responsible for the killing of nearly 2,700,000
Jews were soon closed. Bełżec, Sobibór, and
dismantled and ploughed over before spring. The operation was
followed by the single largest German massacre of
Jews in the entire
war carried out on 3 November 1943; with approximately 43,000
prisoners shot one-by-one simultaneously in three nearby locations by
Reserve Police Battalion 101
Reserve Police Battalion 101 hand-in-hand with the Trawniki men
Auschwitz alone had enough capacity to fulfill the
Nazis' remaining extermination needs.
Auschwitz II Birkenau
Unlike Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and Lublin-Majdanek, which were
built in the occupied
General Government territory inhabited by the
largest concentrations of Jews, the killing centre at Auschwitz
subcamp of Birkenau operated in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany
directly. The new gas chambers at Bunker I were finished around March
1942 when the
Final Solution was officially launched at Belzec. Until
mid-June 20,000 Silesian
Jews were killed there using Zyklon B. In
July 1942 Bunker II became operational. In August, another
Jews from Silesia perished, along with 16,000
Jews declared 'stateless', and 7,700
The infamous 'Gate of Death' at
Auschwitz II for the incoming freight
trains was built of brick and cement mortar in 1943, and the
three-track rail spur was added. Until mid-August, 45,000
Jews were murdered in a mere six months, including
Jews from Sosnowiec (Sosnowitz) and Bendzin Ghettos.
The spring of 1944 marked the beginning of the last phase of the Final
Solution at Birkenau. The new big ramps and sidings were constructed,
and two freight elevators were installed inside Crematoria II and III
for moving the bodies faster. The size of the
nearly quadrupled in preparation for the
Special Operation Hungary
(Sonderaktion Ungarn). In May 1944
Auschwitz-Birkenau became the site
of one of the two largest mass murder operations in modern history,
after the Großaktion Warschau deportations of the Warsaw Ghetto
Treblinka in 1942. It is estimated that until July 1944
approximately 320,000 Hungarian
Jews were gassed at Birkenau in less
than eight weeks. The entire operation was photographed by the
SS. In total, between April and November 1944,
received over 585,000
Jews from over a dozen regions as far as Greece,
Italy, and France, including 426,000
Jews from Hungary, 67,000 from
Łódź, 25,000 from Theresienstadt, and the last 23,000
Jews from the
Auschwitz was liberated by the Red Army on 27
January 1945 when the gassing had already stopped.
Historiographic debate about the decision
See also: Responsibility for the Holocaust
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Jews on selection ramp at Auschwitz, May 1944
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to death camps
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List of books about Nazi Germany
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Days of remembrance
Memorials and museums
Historians disagree as to when and how the Nazi leadership decided
that the European
Jews should be exterminated. The controversy is
commonly described as the functionalism versus intentionalism debate
which began in the 1960s, and subsided thirty years later. In the
1990s the attention of mainstream historians moved away from the
question of top executive orders triggering the Holocaust, and focused
on factors which were overlooked earlier such as personal initiative
and ingenuity of countless functionaries in charge of the killing
fields. No written evidence of Hitler ordering the
Final Solution has
ever been found to serve as a "smoking gun" and therefore this one
particular question remains unanswered.
Hitler made numerous chilling predictions regarding the Holocaust of
Jews of Europe prior to the beginning of World War II. During a
speech given on 30 January 1939, on the sixth anniversary of his
accession to power, Hitler said:
Today I will once more be a prophet: If the international Jewish
financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the
nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the
Bolshevization of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the
annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!
— Adolf Hitler, 1939
Raul Hilberg, in his book The Destruction of the European Jews, was
the first historian to systematically document and analyse the Nazi
project to kill every Jew in Europe. The book was initially published
in 1961, and issued in an enlarged version in 1985.
Hilberg's analysis of the steps that led to the destruction of
Jews revealed that it was "an administrative process carried
out by bureaucrats in a network of offices spanning a continent".
Hilberg divides this bureaucracy into four components or hierarchies:
the Nazi Party, the civil service, industry, and the
forces – but their cooperation is viewed as "so complete that we may
truly speak of their fusion into a machinery of destruction". For
Hilberg, the key stages in the destruction process were: definition
and registration of the Jews; expropriation of property; concentration
into ghettoes and camps; and, finally, annihilation. Hilberg
gives an estimate of 5.1 million as the total number of
He breaks this figure down into three categories: Ghettoization and
general privation: over 800,000; open-air shootings: over 1,300,000;
extermination camps: up to 3,000,000.
With respect to the "functionalism versus intentionalism" debate about
a master plan for the Final Solution, or the lack thereof, Hilberg
posits what has been described as "a kind of structural
determinism". Hilberg argues that "a destruction process has an
inherent pattern" and the "sequence of steps in a destruction process
is thus determined". If a bureaucracy is motivated "to inflict maximum
damage upon a group of people", it is "inevitable that a
bureaucracy—no matter how decentralized its apparatus or how
unplanned its activities—should push its victims through these
stages", culminating in their annihilation.
In his monograph, The Origins Of The Final Solution: The Evolution of
Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 – March 1942, Christopher
Browning argues that Nazi policy toward the
Jews was radicalized
twice: in September 1939, when the invasion of Poland implied policies
of mass expulsion and massive loss of Jewish lives; and in spring
1941, when preparation for
Operation Barbarossa involved the planning
of mass execution, mass expulsion, and starvation – to dwarf what
had happened in Jewish Poland.
Browning believes that the "
Final Solution as it is now
understood—the systematic attempt to murder every last Jew within
the German grasp" took shape during a five-week period, from 18
September to 25 October 1941. During this time: the sites of the first
extermination camps were selected, different methods of killing were
tested, Jewish emigration from the
Third Reich was forbidden, and 11
transports departed for
Łódź as a temporary holding station. During
this period, Browning writes, "The vision of the
Final Solution had
crystallised in the minds of the Nazi leadership and was being turned
into reality." This period was the peak of Nazi victories against
the Soviet Army on the Eastern Front, and, according to Browning, the
stunning series of German victories led to both an expectation that
the war would soon be won, and the planning of the final destruction
of the Jewish-Bolshevik enemy.
Browning describes the creation of the extermination camps, which were
responsible for the largest number of deaths in the Final Solution, as
bringing together three separate developments within the Third Reich:
the concentration camps which had been established in Germany since
1933; an expansion of the gassing technology of the Nazi euthanasia
programme to provide killing mechanism of greater efficiency and
psychological detachment; and the creation of "factories of death" to
be fed endless streams of victims by mass uprooting and deportation
that utilized the experience and personnel from earlier population
resettlement programmes—especially the
HSSPF and Adolf Eichmann's
RSHA for "Jewish affairs and evacuations".
Peter Longerich argues that the search for a finite date on which the
Nazis embarked upon the extermination of the
Jews is futile, in his
book Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the
Longerich writes: "We should abandon the notion that it is
historically meaningful to try to filter the wealth of available
historical material and pick out a single decision" that led to the
Timothy Snyder writes that Longerich "grants the significance of
Greiser's murder of
Jews by gas at
Chełmno in December 1941", but
also detects a significant moment of escalation in spring 1942, which
includes "the construction of the large death factory at
the destruction of the Warsaw Jews, and the addition of a gas chamber
to the concentration camp at
Auschwitz for the murder of the
Silesia". Longerich suggests that it "was only in the summer of
1942, that mass killing was finally understood as the realization of
the Final Solution, rather than as an extensively violent preliminary
to some later program of slave labor and deportation to the lands of a
conquered USSR". For Longerich, to see mass killing as the Final
Solution was an acknowledgement by the Nazi leadership that there
would not be a German military victory over the USSR in the near
David Cesarani emphasises the improvised, haphazard nature of Nazi
policies in response to changing war time conditions in his overview,
Final Solution: The Fate Of The European
Jews 1933-49 (2016).
"Cesarani provides telling examples", wrote Mark Roseman, "of a lack
of coherence and planning for the future in Jewish policy, even when
we would most expect it. The classic instance is the invasion of
Poland in 1939, when not even the most elementary consideration had
been given to what should happen to Poland’s
Jews either in the
shorter or longer term. Given that Poland was home to the largest
Jewish population in the world, and that in a couple of years it would
house the extermination camps, this is remarkable."
Christopher Browning places the Nazi plan to exterminate the
Jews in the context of the
Wehrmacht victories on the Eastern front,
Cesarani argues that the German subsequent realisation that there
would be no swift victory over the Soviet Union "scuppered the last
territorial 'solution' still on the table: expulsion to Siberia."
Germany's declaration of war on the United States on December 11,
1941, "meant that holding European
Jews hostage to deter the US from
entering the conflict was now pointless. As
Joseph Goebbels put it
when he summarised a secret speech Hitler made on 12 December 1941:
'The world war is here, the destruction of the
Jews must be the
inevitable consequence'." Cesarani concludes, the Holocaust
"was rooted in antisemitism but it was shaped by war". The fact
that the Nazis were, ultimately, so successful in killing between five
and six million
Jews was not due to the efficiency of the Third Reich
or the clarity of their policies. "Rather, the catastrophic rate of
killing was due to German persistence… and the duration of the
murderous campaigns. This last factor was largely a consequence of
allied military failure."
Berlin, Reichstag session of 11 December 1941:
Adolf Hitler declares
war on the United States of America
The entry of the U.S. into the War is also crucial to the time-frame
Christian Gerlach who argued in his 1997 thesis, that
Final Solution decision was announced on 12 December 1941, when
Hitler addressed a meeting of the
Nazi Party (the Reichsleiter) and of
regional party leaders (the Gauleiter).[a] The day after Hitler's
speech, on 13 December 1941
Joseph Goebbels wrote in his diary:
With respect of the Jewish Question, the
Führer has decided to make a
clean sweep. He prophesied to the
Jews that if they again brought
about a world war, they would see their annihilation in it. That
wasn't just a catch-word. The world war is here and the annihilation
Jews must be the necessary consequence.
Cesarani notes that by 1943, as the military position of the German
forces deteriorated, the Nazi leadership became more openly explicit
about the Final Solution. In March, Goebbels confided to his diary:
"On the Jewish question especially, we are in it so deeply that there
is no getting out any longer. And that is a good thing. Experience
teaches that a movement and a people who have burned their bridges
fight with much greater determination and fewer constraints than those
that have a chance of retreat."
Himmler addressed senior SS personnel and leading members of the
regime in the
Posen speeches on October 4, 1943, he used "the fate of
Jews as a sort of blood bond to tie the civil and military
leadership to the Nazi cause."
Today I am going to refer quite frankly to a very grave chapter. We
can mention it now among ourselves quite openly and yet we shall never
talk about it in public. I'm referring to the evacuation of the Jews,
the extermination of the Jewish people. Most of you will know what
it's like to see 100 corpses side by side or 500 corpses or 1,000 of
them. To have coped with this and—except for cases of human
weakness—to have remained decent, that has made us tough. This is an
unwritten—never to be written—and yet glorious page in our
Journalist Ron Rosenbaum, in his book Explaining Hitler: The Search
for the Origins of His Evil, found that the phrase "final solution"
had been used much earlier. An investigative report by the Münchener
Post, a socialist newspaper that was an early opponent of Hitler,
found as early as 1931
Nazi Party and SA documents using the phrase as
part of a description of plans for what became the
Nuremberg Laws and
a suggestion that "for the final solution of the Jewish question it is
proposed to use the
Jews in Germany for slave labor or for cultivation
of the German swamps administered by a special SS division".
Korherr Report written in 1943 on the progress of the Final Solution
Höfle Telegram with arrivals for the camps of Einsatz Reinhardt
The role of railways in the Final Solution
History of the
Jews during World War II
Madagascar Plan for Jewish relocation
Porajmos, Romani genocide during World War II
^ Commenting on Gerlach,
Christopher Browning writes: "What he
interprets as Hitler’s basic decision, I see as an official
initiation of party leaders to a decision taken several months
^ Browning i, Christopher (2007). The Origins of the Final Solution:
The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 – March 1942. U
of Nebraska Press. "In a brief two years between the autumn of 1939
and the autumn of 1941, Nazi Jewish policy escalated rapidly from the
pre-war policy of forced emigration to the
Final Solution as it is now
understood—the systematic attempt to murder every last Jew within
the German grasp.
^ a b "
Wannsee Conference and the Final Solution". United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
^ David S. Wyman; Charles H. Rosenzveig (1996). The World Reacts to
the Holocaust. JHU Press. p. 99. ISBN 0801849691.
^ a b Holocaust Encyclopedia. "'Final Solution': Overview". United
States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 2
March 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
^ a b c d Browning (2004), p. 424.
^ a b Browning (2004), p. 213.
^ a b Browning, Christopher R. (1995). The Path to Genocide: Essays on
Launching the Final Solution. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 18–19, 127–128. ISBN 978-0-521-55878-5 – via
^ Niewyk & Nicosia 2000, p. 76.
^ a b Hilberg (1985), p. 273.
^ Roseman (2002), p. 87.
^ a b Roseman (2002), pp. 11–2.
^ a b Browning (2004), (2007 ed.: pp. 179, 181–2). "The Gypsy
^ a b
Ian Hancock (2010). Jonathan C. Friedman, ed. The Routledge
History of the Holocaust. Taylor & Francis. p. 378.
ISBN 1136870601. Also in: David M. Crowe; John Kolsti; Ian
Hancock (2016). The Gypsies of Eastern Europe. Routledge. p. 16.
^ Lukas, Richard (1989). Out of the Inferno: Poles Remember the
Holocaust. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 5, 13, 111,
201. ; also in Lukas, Richard (2012) . The Forgotten
Holocaust: Poles Under Nazi Occupation 1939-1944. New York: University
of Kentucky Press/Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-7818-0901-0.
^ Holocaust Encyclopedia. "German Invasion of Poland: Jewish Refugees,
1939". Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
^ Grenke, Arthur (2005). God, Greed, and Genocide: The Holocaust
Through the Centuries. New Academia Publishing. p. 92.
^ Browning (2004), pp. 35–6.
^ Roseman (2002), pp. 14–15.
^ Hilberg (1985), p. 278.
^ Göring, Hermann (31 July 1941). "Authorization letter of Hermann
Göring to Heydrich, 31 July 1941" (PDF). House of the Wannsee
Conference. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
^ Longerich (2012), pp. 525–33.
^ Browning (2004), pp.352-355, 356.
^ a b Feig, Konnilyn G. (1981). Hitler's death camps: the sanity of
madness. Holmes & Meier. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0841906769.
Hitler exterminated the
Jews of Europe. But he did not do so alone.
The task was so enormous, complex, time-consuming, and mentally and
economically demanding that it took the best efforts of millions of
^ Longerich (2012), p. 555.
^ Roseman (2002), pp. 65–7.
^ Cesarani (2005), pp. 110–1.
^ "Protocol of Conference on the final solution (Endlösung) of the
Jewish question" (PDF). House of the Wannsee Conference. Retrieved 3
^ Roseman (2002), pp. 1–2.
^ a b "Combating Holocaust Denial: Evidence Of
The Holocaust Presented
At Nuremberg". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 8
^ Browning (2004), p. 216.
^ Browning (2004), p. 224.
^ Hilberg (1985), p. 281.
^ Browning (2004), p. 219.
^ Browning (2004), p. 217.
^ Browning (2004), p. 229.
^ Browning (1998), p. 11: On the eve of Operation Barbarossa
Major Weiss disclosed to his men the directives of Hitler's
^ Browning (2004), p. 232.
^ Browning (2004), p. 260.
^ Browning (2004), p. 261.
^ a b c Kay, Alex J. (2016). The Making of an SS Killer. Cambridge
University Press. pp. 57–62, 72. ISBN 1107146348. The
Vileyka massacres by Einsatzgruppe B at the end of July marked the
transition to genocide.[p.60] Entire Jewish population of town, at
least 450 Jewish men, women and children were killed.[p.72]
^ a b c d e
Yad Vashem (2016). "Goering orders Heydrich to prepare the
plan for the
Final Solution of the Jewish Problem". The Holocaust
The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance
^ Laqueur & Baumel (2001), p. 51.
^ Browning (2004), pp. 291–2.
^ a b Yahil, Leni (1991). The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry,
1932-1945. Oxford University Press. p. 270.
^ Browning (2004), pp. 408-9.
^ a b Bauer, Yehuda (2000). Rethinking the Holocaust. Yale University
Press. p. 5. ISBN 0300093004.
^ Browning (2004), p. 244.
^ Markiewicz, Marcin. "Bezirk
Białystok (in) Represje hitlerowskie
wobec wsi białostockiej" [Bezirk
Białystok (in) Nazi repressions
Białystok countryside]. Komentarze Historyczne. Biuletyn
Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej. Biuro Edukacji Publicznej IPN. Nr 35-36
(12/2003-1/2004). 68/96 in PDF. ISSN 1641-9561. Archived from the
original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2016 – via direct
download 873 KB from the Internet Archive. Also in: Roseman,
Mark (2002). The Villa, the Lake, the Meeting: Wannsee and the Final
Solution. Penguin Press. p. 111. ISBN 071399570X. During the
Wannsee meeting, the number of
Białystok (i.e. in Bezirk
Bialystok) – subject to
Final Solution – was estimated by Heydrich
at 400,000. In Lithuania: 34,000. In Latvia: 3,500. In White Russia
(excluding Bialystok) 446,484, and in USSR: 5,000,000. Estonia was
listed in the minutes as being already
Judenfrei (see Wannsee
^ a b Browning (1998), p. 12.
^ a b "
Białystok – History".
Virtual Shtetl Museum of the History
of Polish Jews. p. 6, paragraph #3. According to records, about
Jews died at that time.[7.2] See: Browning (1998), p. 12
– Weis and his officers subsequently submitted a false report of the
events to [General] Pfugbeil ... 2,000 to 2,200
Jews had been
killed. – via Internet Archive.
^ Boneh, Nachum. "
The Holocaust and the Destruction of the
Pinsk (4 July 1941 - 23 December 1942)". The Book of Pinsk. Chapter 3:
The Oppressors in Action. The Jewish Community of Pinsk.
^ "Pińsk". Elektroniczna Encyklopedia Żydowska. Virtual Shtetl.
Translation: המאמר לא זמין בשפה זו, נכון
לעכשיו. English version.
^ a b Porat, Dina (2002). "
The Holocaust in Lithuania: Some Unique
Aspects". In Cesarani, David. The Final Solution: Origins and
Implementation. Routledge. p. 161. ISBN 0-415-15232-1 –
via Google Books.
^ Kwiet, Konrad (1998). "Rehearsing for Murder: The Beginning of the
Final Solution in
Lithuania in June 1941". Holocaust and Genocide
Studies. 12 (1): 3–26. doi:10.1093/hgs/12.1.3 – via
Oxfordjournals.org. and Kwiet, Konrad (4 December 1995). The
Onset of the Holocaust: The Massacres of
Lithuania in June
1941. J. B. and Maurice Shapiro Senior Scholar-in-Residence at the
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (Annual lecture).
Published under the same title but expanded in Bonnell, Andrew, ed.
(1996). Power, Conscience and Opposition: Essays in German History in
Honour of John A Moses. New York: Peter Lang. pp. 107–21.
^ Zimmerman, Joshua D. (2015). The Polish Underground and the Jews,
1939–1945. Cambridge University Press. p. 193 – via Google
^ Braham, Randolph L. (2000). The Politics of Genocide. Wayne State
University Press. p. 34. ISBN 0814326919.
^ Lower, Wendy (2006). Nazi Empire-Building and the Holocaust in
Ukraine. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 253.
^ Sterling, Eric (2005). Life In The Ghettos During The Holocaust.
Syracuse University Press. p. 127. ISBN 0815608039 – via
^ Desbois, Patrick (2009). "Places of Massacres by German Task Forces
between 1941 - 1943" (PDF). Germany: TOS Gemeinde Tübingen.
^ a b c Adolf Eichmann; Bet ha-mishpaṭ ha-meḥozi; Miśrad
ha-mishpaṭim (1992). The trial of Adolf Eichmann: record of
proceedings in the District Court of Jerusalem. Trust for the
Publication of the Proceedings of the
Eichmann Trial, in co-operation
with the Israel State Archives, and Yad Vashem. pp. 522, 93.
ISBN 0317058401. Volume 1. Also in: Timothy Snyder; Ray
Brandon (2014). Stalin and Europe: Imitation and Domination,
1928-1953. Oxford University Press. p. 194. ISBN 0199945578.
Quoted 15,000 dead at
Dnipropetrovsk and 12,000
Jews murdered in
^ Berenbaum, Michael (2002).
The Holocaust and History: The Known, the
Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined. Indiana University Press.
p. 257. ISBN 0253215293. Also in: Shmuel Spector;
Geoffrey Wigoder (2001). The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and
During the Holocaust: K-Se. NYU Press. p. 679.
^ Beit Tal (2010). "Zofiówka". POLIN Museum of the History of Polish
Jews. Also in: Beit Tal (2014). "Truchenbrod – Lozisht". The
Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora. Archived from the
original on 10 August 2014.
^ a b Weiss, Jakob (2011). "Introduction". The Lemberg Mosaic. New
York: Alderbrook Press. p. 397 – via
^ Löw, Andrea (10 June 2013). "Stanislawów (now Ivano-Frankivsk)".
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on
20 May 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2016. From The
USHMM Encyclopedia of
Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945.
^ a b Pohl, Dieter.
Hans Krueger and the Murder of the
Jews in the
Stanislawow Region (Galicia) (PDF). pp. 12–13, 17–18, 21 –
via Yad Vashem.org. It is impossible to determine what Krueger's exact
responsibility was in connection with 'Bloody Sunday' [massacre of 12
October 1941]. It is clear that a massacre of such proportions under
German civil administration was virtually unprecedented.
^ a b "
Operation Reinhard (Einsatz Reinhard)". United States Holocaust
Memorial Museum. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
^ Pohl, Dieter (2008). Ray Brandon; Wendy Lower, eds. The Shoah in
Ukraine: History, Testimony, Memorialization. Indiana University
Press. p. 97. ISBN 0253001595.
^ Eikel, Markus (2013). "The local administration under German
occupation in central and eastern Ukraine, 1941–1944". The Holocaust
in Ukraine: New Sources and Perspectives (PDF). Center for Advanced
Holocaust Studies, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Pages
110–122 in PDF. Ukraine differs from other parts of the
Nazi-occupied Soviet Union, whereas the local administrators have
formed the Hilfsverwaltung in support of extermination policies in
1941 and 1942, and in providing assistance for the deportations to
camps in Germany mainly in 1942 and 1943.
^ Wendel, Marcus (9 June 2013). "
Schutzmannschaft Bataillone". Axis
History Books. Internet Archive, 6 January 1914 capture. Archived from
the original on 6 January 2014.
^ Statiev, Alexander (2010). The Soviet Counterinsurgency in the
Western Borderlands. Cambridge University Press. p. 69.
^ Lower, Wendy (2011). The Diary of Samuel Golfard and the Holocaust
in Galicia. Rowman Altamira. pp. 17, 154.
^ Piotr Eberhardt; Jan Owsinski (2003). Ethnic Groups and Population
Changes in Twentieth-century Central-Eastern Europe: History, Data,
Analysis. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 216–. ISBN 9780765606655.
^ Gutman, Israel. Resistance: The
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Houghton
Mifflin. p. 119. ISBN 0395901308.
^ Beer, Mathias (2015). "The Development of the Gas-Van in the
Murdering of the Jews". The Final Solution. Jewish Virtual Library.
"Die Entwicklung der Gaswagen beim Mord an den Juden," Miszelle.
Vierteljahrshefte fuer Zeitgeschichte, 37 (3), pp. 403-417. Translated
from the German. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
^ National Bełżec Museum. "Historia Niemieckiego Obozu Zagłady w
Bełżcu" [History of the Belzec extermination camp] (in Polish).
Muzeum-Miejsce Pamięci w Bełżcu. Archived from the original on 29
October 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
^ McVay, Kenneth (1984). "The Construction of the Treblinka
Yad Vashem Studies, XVI. Jewish Virtual
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^ Berenbaum, Michael (2016). "Treblinka". Encyclopædia Britannica.
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^ Walter Laqueur; Judith Tydor Baumel (2001). The Holocaust
Encyclopedia. Yale University Press. p. 178.
^ a b Arad (1987), p. 640.
The Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust
Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012.
Retrieved 24 January 2016.
^ Carol Rittner, Roth, K. (2004). Pope Pius XII and the Holocaust.
Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 2.
National Geographic Channel
National Geographic Channel (2013).
The Holocaust by bullets.
Excerpt from episode "Apocalypse: The Second World War". NGC Europe
^ Longerich (2010), pp. 198, 238, 347. See also Lawrence Bush (28
June 2010). "June 29: The Slonim Massacres". Jewish Currents.
Retrieved 1 May 2017.
^ Berkhoff, Karel C. Ray Brandon; Wendy Lower, eds. The Shoah in
Ukraine: History, Testimony, Memorialization. Indiana University
Press. p. 290. Also in: Barbara N. Łopieńska; Ryszard
Kapuściński (2003-07-13). "Człowiek z bagna" [A man from the
Przekrój nr 28/3029. Reprint: Ryszard
Kapuściński.info. Further info: Virtual Shtetl. "Glossary of
2,077 Jewish towns in Poland". POLIN Museum of the History of Polish
Jews. Archived from the original on 8 February 2016. Gedeon.
"Getta Żydowskie". Michael Peters. "Ghetto List".
Gruppenführer Jürgen Stroop (May 1943). "Stroop Report". Jewish
The Holocaust Encyclopedia (2013). "Resistance in Ghettos". Jewish
Uprisings in Ghettos and Camps, 1941–1944. United States Holocaust
Memorial Museum. Notable examples include the
Łuck Ghetto uprising
quelled on 12 December 1942 with the help of the Ukrainian Auxiliary
Police, see: Yad Vashem, Łuck, December 1942 on YouTube; testimony of
Shmuel Shilo. "The forgotten December". Archived from the original on
22 July 2015. The Łachwa
Ghetto uprising was suppressed on 3
September 1942, the Częstochowa
Ghetto uprising on 30 June 1943,
Ghetto uprising on 3 August 1943, and the
Ghetto uprising on 17 August 1943.
^ Paula Lerner (2007). "Statistical Report on the "Final Solution,"
known as the
Korherr Report of 23 March 1943" (PDF). Die Endlösung by
Gerald Reitlinger. German History in Documents and Images, GHDI. 7.
Nazi Germany, 1933-1945.
Leni Yahil (1991). The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry,
1932-1945. Oxford University Press. p. 389.
^ Ronald J. Berger (2002). Fathoming the Holocaust: A Social Problems
Approach. Transaction Publishers. p. 57–8.
ISBN 0202366111. Bureaucrats in the Reichsbahn performed
important functions that facilitated the movement of trains. They
constructed and published timetables, collected fares, and allocated
cars and locomotives. In sending
Jews to their death, they did not
deviate much from the routine procedures they used to process ordinary
^ Ben Hecht; Julian Messner (31 December 1969). "Holocaust: The
Trains". Aish.com Holocaust Studies. Archived from the original on 22
^ Arad (1987), pp. 300-1.
^ Letter written by
Albert Speer who attended Posen
Conference.Connolly, Kate (13 March 2007). "Letter proves Speer knew
of Holocaust plan". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
^ Bradley F. Smith & Agnes Peterson (1974), Heinrich Himmler.
Speeches Frankfurt/M., p. 169 f. OCLC 1241890; "Himmler's Speech
in Posen on 6 October 1944". Holocaust Controversies Reference
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February 2015. ; also (with differing translation) in "Heinrich
Himmler". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the
original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
^ Feig, Konnilyn G. (1981). Hitler's death camps: the sanity of
madness. Holmes & Meier Publishers. p. 30.
ISBN 0841906750 – via Remember.org book excerpt in full screen.
On November 4, 1943, Globocnik wrote to
Himmler from Trieste: "I have
on Oct. 19, 1943 completed Action Reinhard and closed all the camps."
He asked for special medals for his men in recognition of their
"specially difficult task".
Himmler responded warmly to 'Globos' on
November 30, 1943, thanking him for carrying out Operation
Reinhard. Also in: Holocaust Encyclopedia. ""Final Solution":
Overview". Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
Archived from the original on 2 March 2013.
^ Browning (1998), pp. 135-42.
^ Peter Witte; Stephen Tyas (2001). "A New Document on the Deportation
and Murder of
Jews during "Einsatz Reinhardt" 1942" (PDF). Holocaust
Genocide Studies. 15 (3): 468–86. See also: Oxford
Journals (2002). "Abstract of article". Oxford University Press.
Archived from the original on 12 February 2002.
^ Alfred Katz (1970). The Establishment of Ghettos in [occupied]
Poland. Poland's Ghettos at War. Twayne Publishers, New York: Ardent
Media. p. 35. OCLC 141597.
^ a b Browning (2004), (2007 ed.: p. 544).
^ a b Longerich (2010), pp. 344, 360, 380, 391.
^ a b Andrew Rawson (2015). Auschwitz: The Nazi Solution. Pen and
Sword. pp. 69, 87, 123. ISBN 1473855411. While the numbers
considerably reduced through June and July , nearly 440,000
Jews were transported to
Auschwitz in less than eight weeks;
320,000 were murdered. — Rawson, 144. Also in: S.J.; Carmelo
Lisciotto (2007). "The Destruction of the
Jews of Hungary". H.E.A.R.T.
Of the 381,600
Jews who left Hungary between 15 May 1944 and 30 June
1944 it is probable that 200,000 – 240,000 were gassed or shot on 46
^ Longerich (2010), p. 380: Extermination..
^ Hellman, Peter; Meier, Lili; Klarsfeld, Serge (1981). The Auschwitz
Album. New York; Toronto: Random House. ISBN 0-394-51932-9.
^ Gutman, Israel; Berenbaum, Michael; United States Holocaust Memorial
Museum (1998). Anatomy of the
Auschwitz Death Camp. Indiana University
Press. p. 89. ISBN 025320884X.
^ Yahil (1991), p. 637.
^ Bankier, David; Mikhman, Dan (2008). Holocaust Historiography in
Context: Emergence, Challenges, Polemics and Achievements. Berghahn
Books. p. 330. ISBN 9653083260.
^ Hitler, Adolf (30 January 1939). "Extract from the Speech by Hitler,
30 January 1939". YadVashem.org. [Also in:] "
Adolf Hitler on the
Jewish Question". 30 January 1939. Archived from the original on 14
March 2008. [And:] "Hitler Speaks before the Reichstag (German
Parliament)". United States Holocaust Museum.
^ a b Browning, Christopher (10 May 1987). "The Revised Hilberg".
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^ Hilberg (1985), p. ix.
^ Hilberg (1985), p. 56.
^ Hilberg (1985), p. 354.
^ Hilberg (1985), p. 1219.
^ Hilberg (1985), pp. 998–9.
^ Browning (2004), (2007 ed.: p. 213)..
^ Browning (2004), pp. 426–7.
^ Browning (2004), p. 354.
^ Longerich (2010), p. 6.
^ a b c Snyder, Timothy (23 June 2011). "A New Approach to the
Holocaust". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 30 March
^ Roseman, Mark (August 10, 2016). "The last word". The Times Literary
Supplement. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
^ a b c Wachsmann, Nikolaus (June 16, 2016). "
Final Solution by David
Cesarani review—the Holocaust on the hoof". The Guardian. Retrieved
February 13, 2017.
^ Adolf Hitler's Declaration of War against the United States in
^ Cesarani (2016), pp. 796.
^ Gerlach, Christian (1999) . Kalkulierte Morde: die deutsche
Wirtschafts- und Vernichtungspolitik in Weissrussland 1941 bis 1944.
Hamburg: Hamburger Edition. pp. 1018–36.
OCLC 764039257. Originally presented as the author's
doctoral thesis at TU Berlin.
^ Aly, Götz. "December 12, 1941". Translated by McFee, Gord.
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^ Browning (2004), p. 540f.
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^ Gord McFee. "When did Hitler decide on the Final Solution?".
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Research in this area is hampered by the fact that no written
Hitler-Order launching the
Final Solution has ever been found, and
that if there ever was one, it most likely was destroyed.
^ a b c Cesarani (2016), p. 665.
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Himmler and The
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——— (2004). The Origins of the Final Solution : The
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——— (2016). Final Solution: The Fate of the
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deportations ... were the work of a much larger apparatus that had to
deal with a host of constraints and requirements. The effort, as we
shall see, was deemed necessary to accomplish the
Final Solution on a
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Final Solution. Stroud: Tempus Publishing.
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Jews. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192804367.
——— (2012). Heinrich Himmler. Translation by Jeremy Noakes and
Lesley Sharpe. Oxford University Press.
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Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press.
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the Final Solution. Allen Lane. ISBN 0-713-99570-X.
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Gestapo Wuerzburg ueber die Judendeportationen 1941–1943
(German-English ed.). Bad Neustadt a. d. Saale.
Website of the House of the Wannsee Conference
The Development of the Final Solution—lecture from Dr. Havi
Dreifuss, Yad Vashem
Elimination of the Jewish National Home in Palestine: The
Einsatzkommando of the Panzer army Africa, 1942 by Klaus-Michael
Mallmann and Martin Cüppers
Death Decree: Göring directive officially launches the Final Solution
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